the development of decision support system - Universiti Teknologi by yaosaigeng

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                    TABLE OF CONTENTS




CHAPTER                          TITLE                           PAGE

          DECLARATION                                             ii
          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                         iii
          ABSTRACT                                                iv
          ABSTRAK                                                 v
          TABLE OF CONTENTS                                       vi
          LIST OF TABLES                                          ix
          LIST OF FIGURES                                         xii
          LIST OF SYMBOLS                                         xvi
          LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                  xviii
          LIST OF APPENDICES                                      xx


   1      INTRODUCTION                                            1


          1.1   Statement of the Problem                          1
          1.2   Background of the Study                           2
          1.3   Objectives of the Study                           4
          1.4   Scope of the Study                                5
          1.5   Research Contribution                             5
          1.6   The Organization of the Thesis                    6


   2      LITERATURE REVIEW                                       7
          2.1   Overview on Process Selection                     7
          2.2   Classification of Wastewater Treatment Methods    10
          2.3   Process Selection in Malaysia                     15
                                                           vii

    2.4   Design Procedure                                17
    2.5   Decision support system (DSS)                   36
    2.6   Recent scenario of decision support systems     44
    (DSSs) in Malaysia
    2.7   Conclusion                                      45


3   METHODOLOGY                                           46


    3.1   Introduction                                    46
    3.2   Development of WASDA                            48
          3.2.1 Stakeholders Perspective                  51
          3.2.2   Task Analysis                           51
          3.2.3   Knowledge Acquisition                   52
          3.2.4 Planning / Structuring Model              52
          3.2.5   Prototyping Phase                       55
          3.2.6 Verification and Validation               56
    3.3   Additional Features                             58
    3.4   Design Procedures                               58
          3.4.1   Design Procedures for MBR Design        58
                  Calculation Worksheet
                  3.4.1.1 Interface Designing             58
                  3.4.1.2 Adding source codes             63
                  3.4.1.3 Development of database         71
                  3.4.1.4 Running the system with full    75
                         compilation
                  3.4.1.5 Debugging                       75
          3.4.2 Design       Procedures     for     MBR   75
                  Information Base
                  3.4.2.1 Interface Designing             75
                  3.4.2.2 Adding source codes             77
                  3.4.2.3 Creation of Rich Text Files     78
                  3.4.2.4 Running the system with full    79
                         compilation
                                                               viii

                     3.4.2.5 Debugging                        79
        3.5   Compilation of an Executable File               80


4       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                81


        4.1   Introduction                                    81
        4.2   Cost Estimation                                 97
        4.3   Run Time Interfaces for MBR Module              99
              4.3.1 Run Time Interfaces for MBR Design        99
                     Calculation Worksheet
        4.4   Design Procedures for Applying CAS              103
        4.5   Selection of Options Using WASDA                114
        4.6   Verification of output                          119
              4.6.1 What-If Analysis                          120
              4.6.2 Descriptive Statistic Analysis            121
        4.7   Validation of WASDA                             122
              4.7.1 Analysis of User Acceptance Testing       122
        4.8   Conclusion                                      129


5       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                         130


        5.1   Conclusion of This Study                        130
        5.2   Recommendations for Further Research            134

REFERENCES                                                    135
Appendix A    User Acceptance Questionnaire                   146
Appendix B                                                    147
        B1    Sample of Source Codes for MBR Design
              Calculation Module
        B2    Sample    of    Source     Codes    for   MBR
              Information Base Module
        B3    Interfaces for all modules in WASDA
Appendix C    List of Publication                             185
                                                                       ix




                            LIST OF TABLES




TABLE NO.                          TITLE                        PAGE

2.1         Typical organic, inorganic, nutrients, metals and     8
            micro-organisms in wastewater
2.2         Concentrations of some parameters for industrial      9
            wastewater (in mg/l)
2.3         Types of wastewater treatment technologies            10
            commonly used in Malaysia
2.4         Classification of wastewater treatment processes      11
2.5         Land Area Requirement for Class 1 and Class 2         22
2.6         Land Area Requirements for Mechanized Class 3         23
            to 6 Plants
2.7         Required Land Area for Stabilization Pond and         24
            Aerated Lagoons
2.8         Activities involved in the planning and design of   32 - 33
            municipal wastewater treatment system in
            Malaysia
2.9         Activities involved in the planning and design of   34 - 35
            industrial wastewater treatment system in
            Malaysia
2.10        DSS versus EDP                                        38
2.11        Comparison of various MSS technologies and ES       41 - 42
3.1         Example of the set of rules for equalization tank     52
            design
3.2         List of WASDA users                                   57
                                                                x

3.3    List of common parameters in MBR design            66
       module (input form)
3.4    List of common parameters in MBR design            66
       module (output form)
4.1    A list of modules in WASDA for a different         82
       version
4.2    Descriptive statistic analysis of WASDA            121
       calculation vs Manual calculation
4.3    Analysis of Question 1 (It was simple to use       123
       WASDA)
4.4    Analysis of Question 2 (I can effectively          123
       complete my work using WASDA)
4.5    Analysis of Question 3 (I am able to complete my   123
       work quickly using WASDA)
4.6    Analysis of Question 4 (I feel comfortable using   124
       WASDA)
4.7    Analysis of Question 5 (It was easy to learn to    124
       use WASDA)
4.8    Analysis of Question 6 (I believe I became         124
       productive quickly using WASDA)
4.9    Analysis of Question 7 (WASDA gives error          125
       messages that clearly tell me how to fix
       problems)
4.10   Analysis of Question 8 (The information /          125
       knowledge base provided by WASDA is clear)
4.11   Analysis of Question 9 (It is easy to get the      125
       information I needed)
4.12   Analysis of Question 10 (The information           126
       provided by WASDA is easy to understand)
4.13   Analysis of Question 11 (The organization of       126
       information on WASDA screens is clear)
4.14   Analysis of Question 12 (The interface of          126
       WASDA is pleasant)
                                                                   xi

4.15   Analysis of Question 13 (WASDA helps me to            127
       understand more about the technical part of
       wastewater treatment processes)
4.16   Analysis of Question 14 (WASDA provides               127
       various design options and able to produce
       conceptual design of WWTP in a short time
       compared with manual procedures )
4.17   Analysis of Question 15 (WASDA is successfully        128
       achieved its objective)
4.18   Analysis of Question 16 (WASDA is significant         128
       in assisting the regulators, policy makers, process
       and design engineers, university professors and
       students)
4.19   Analysis of Question 17 (Overall, I am satisfied      128
       with how easy it is to use WASDA)
4.20   Analysis of Question 18 (Any suggestion you           129
       would like to make)
                                                                        xii




                             LIST OF FIGURES




FIGURE NO.                        TITLE                           PAGE


2.1          Typical treatment process flowchart                   14
2.2          The overall initial planning and design procedures    20
             of a WWTP
2.3          STP land area requirements for planning layout        21
             approval for new development
2.3          Typical process flow diagram of a Sewage              31
             Treatment Plant
3.1          Architecture for WASDA development                    49
3.2          The process of WASDA development                      50
3.3          WASDA design flowchart                                54
3.4          Block diagram for the calculation steps in SBR        55
3.5          Form layout for MBR input (Part 1)                    59
3.6          Form layout for MBR input (Part 2)                    60
3.7          Form layout for MBR output (Part 1)                   61
3.8          Form layout for MBR output (Part 2)                   62
3.9          Example of source codes in MBR module (input          65
             form)
3.10         Example of source codes in MBR module (output         65
             form)
3.11         Example of database table for MBR module              71
             (design view)
3.12         Example of database table for MBR module              72
             (datasheet view)
                                                                  xiii

3.13   Example for creation of link from VB to Access        73
       tables
3.14   Example of creation of link for combo boxes from      74
       VB to Access tables using Data Field
3.15   Example of layout screen for MBR Information          76
       Base
3.16   Example of source codes in MBR Information            77
       Base module
3.17   Example of Rich Text file for MBR Information         78
       Base module
3.18   The interface of MBR Information Base module          79
       during running stage
3.19   Example of compilation process for WASDA              80
       Executable File using Make Project control
4.1    Modules / applications in WASDA                       84
4.2    Screen to login WASDA                                 85
4.3    Main frame of WASDA                                   86
4.4    Example of CAS Information Base module                87
4.5    The process description screen                        88
4.6    Example of CAS design calculation worksheet           89
4.7    A screen for calculation of wastewater flowrate in    90
       l/d and m3/d units based on Population Equivalent
4.8    A screen for conversion of units (US to SI or SI to   91
       US)
4.9    Support information screen                            92
4.10   Example of equations screen for CAS design            93
       module
4.11   Example of design requirements for Extended           94
       Aeration module
4.12   Design calculation results in a summary form          95
4.13   Graph plot screen for the effect of flow              96
       equalization on the BOD mass loading
4.14   Estimated Construction Cost of STP based on PE        97
                                                                  xiv

4.15   Run time interface for MBR Design Calculation        99
       worksheet (Part 1)
4.16   Run time interface for MBR Design Calculation        100
       worksheet (Part 2)
4.17   Run time interface for MBR Design Calculation        101
       worksheet (Part 3)
4.18   Run time interface for MBR Design Calculation        102
       worksheet (Part 4)
4.19   A first screen for CAS Design module                 104
4.20   A second screen for CAS Design module                104
4.21   CAS Design module screen for raw sewage pump         105
       sump
4.22   CAS Design module screen for secondary screen        106
       channel
4.23   CAS Design module screen for grit and grease         107
       chamber
4.24   CAS Design module screen for equalization tank       107
4.25   CAS Design module screen for aeration tank (Part     108
       1)
4.26   CAS Design module screen for aeration tank (Part     109
       2)
4.27   CAS Design module screen for sedimentation tank      110
4.28   CAS Design module screen for sludge storage tank     110
4.29   CAS Design module screen for return activated        111
       sludge pump
4.30   CAS Design module screen for sludge drying bed       111
4.31   CAS Design module screen for sludge thickener        112
       (Part 1)
4.32   CAS Design module screen for sludge                  112
       thickener(Part 2)
4.33   Flowchart of applying WASDA for CAS process          113
4.34   First screen for conducting a selection of options   115
4.35   A screen for Option 1 showing design of CAS          115
                                                               xv

4.36   A screen for Option 2 showing input values for    116
       design of EA (Part 1)
4.37   A screen for Option 2 showing output values for   116
       design of EA (Part 2)
4.38   A screen for Option 3 showing design of SBR       117
4.39   A screen for Option 4 showing design of SSFCW     117
4.40   A screen for Option 5 showing output values for   118
       design of MBR (Part 1)
4.41   A screen for Option 5 showing output values for   118
       design of MBR (Part 2)
4.42   A final screen for a selection result             119
4.43   ASD screen showing an example of What-If          120
       analysis
                                                                                        xvi




                                     LIST OF SYMBOLS




As                     -   arsenic (mg/l)
b                      -   endogenous respiration rate
Ba                     -   barium (mg/l)
Cd                     -   cadmium (mg/l)
CN                     -   carbon nitrogen
Cr(VI)                 -   chromium (mg/l)
f                      -   frequency
Fe2+                   -   iron (mg/l)
kd                     -   endogenous decay coefficient (d-1)
NH4+                   -   ammonium (mg/l)
Nnitrified             -   nitrogen to be nitrified
O2                     -   oxygen (mg/l)
O2total                -   total oxygen required for respiration and nitrification
O2 energy              -   oxygen used for provide energy for growth
O2 nitrification       -   oxygen used for nitrification
O2 respiration         -   oxygen used for endogenous respiration
O2 utilization         -   oxygen utilization
                           Oxygen concentration in air at 20oC
                  o
O2 in air at 20    C   -

Px                     -   sludge production rate (kg/d)
Pxn                    -   volume occupied by the settled sludge at the end of n days
                           (m3)
Q                      -   flowrate (m3/d)
Qave                   -   average flowrate (m3/d)
Qair                   -   air flowrate
S                      -   effluent BOD5 (mg/l)
                                                                           xvii

S2-           -   sulphur (mg/l)
Se,           -   selenium (mg/l)
SSin          -   influent suspended solids (SS)
So            -   influent BOD5 (mg/l)
VSSTn         -   mass of SS in the reactor at the end of operating days
VSSn          -   total mass of SS in the reactor
VT            -   volume of tank (m3)
VT membrane   -   volume of membrane tank
VT aeration   -   volume of aeration tank
Xn            -   mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in day n
Xo            -   mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in day 1
Y             -   biomass yield
Zn            -   zinc (mg/l)
                                                               xviii




             LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS




AD      -   anaerobic digestion
ANN     -   artificial neural network
BASIC   -   Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BOD5    -   biological oxygen demand in 5 days (mg/l)
COD     -   chemical oxygen demand (mg/l)
DAF     -   dissolved air flotation
DGSS    -   Director General of Sewerage Services Department
DOE     -   Department of Environment
DSS     -   decision support system
EA      -   extended aeration
EDMS    -   Equipment Data and Material Sheet
EIA     -   environmental impact assessment
ES      -   expert system
ET      -   equalization tank
F/M     -   food-to-microorganism ratio
GUI     -   graphical user interface
HAZOP   -   hazard and operability
HRT     -   hydraulic retention time
MSS     -   management support system
MBR     -   membrane bioreactor
MLSS    -   mixed liquor suspended solids
MLVSS   -   mixed liquor volatile suspended solids
NPS     -   network pumping station
NH4     -   ammonium
NO2     -   nitrite nitrogen
                                                                      xix

NO3     -   nitrate nitrogen
OD      -   oxidation ditch
Org-N   -   Organic Nitrogen
O&G     -   oil and grease
PE      -   population equivalent
RAD     -   rapid application development
RBC     -   rotating biological contactor
RO      -   reverse osmosis
SBR     -   sequencing batch reactor
SIRIM   -   Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia
SRT     -   sludge retention time
SSC     -   Sewerage Services Concessionaire
SSD     -   Sewerage Services Department
SSFCW   -   subsurface flow constructed wetlands
STP     -   sewage treatment plant
T-N     -   total nitrogen
T-P     -   total phosphorus
TSS     -   total suspended solids
TKN     -   kjeldahl nitrogen
USEPA   -   United States Environmental Protection Agency
VB      -   Visual basic
WASDA   -   wastewater treatment plant design advisor
WWTP    -   wastewater treatment plant
                                                              xx




                      LIST OF APPENDICES




APPENDIX                                                PAGE
                              TITLE
A          User Acceptance Questionnaire                146
B1         Sample of Source Codes for MBR Design        148
           Calculation Module
B2         Sample of Source Codes for MBR Information   173
           Base Module
B3         Interfaces for all modules in WASDA          176
C          List of Publication                          185

								
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