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					                 Processing
                     Sia Parsa
                parsa@EECS.Berkeley.EDU
                     (510) 809-8620




Oct 15th 2012                             1
         Motivation and emphasis of this presentation

          – In order to share the facility and the equipment, each researcher must safely
            perform work without damaging the tools and/or impacting others’ work
          – This requires clear understanding of material compatibility rules
          – Understanding machine operation theory and processes that need to get
            implemented
          – Members need to also be cognizant of what goes into the fabrication of structures
            and devices other than the ones he/she is working on, so as to not inadvertently
            jeopardize another’s research work as a result of a lack of understanding or
            knowledge (cross contamination issues are of the greatest concern!)




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                   2
                                          Outline
                         Marvell NanoLab Operation

         – Clean Room Gowning Procedure – Carried out in a specific order
         – Equipment Qualification Procedure – Some tools require written test
         – Process Equipment - Available tools and processes in the NanoLab
         – Process & Material Compatibility – A dedicated manual chapter details the rules
           supported by relevant equipment manual chapters
         – Equipment Groups
                 - Integrated Circuits and electronic devices (MOS)
                 - Micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS)
                 - Optoelectronics, Compound III-V and Metal contaminated
         – Various sinks support above equipment groups and related processes, where gold,
           copper and or other highly diffusive metals ARE NOT ALLOWED in some sinks
         – Cross Contamination - Avoid impacting other researchers' work


Oct 15th 2012                                                                                3
                                    Working in the NanoLab
  Follow the Rules – starts at the entrance of the Lab

   DO NOT enter the NanoLab if:

          -     You have not passed the SAFETY QUIZ (annual renewal is required)
          -     Announcement at the entrance prohibits entrance (problem reported)
          -     The blue HazMat (hazardous material) warning light is flashing inside (Look through windows)
          -     No one else is working in the lab (computer warns you!)

   Gowning area

          -     Do not enter the gowning area without shoe covers on your street shoes
          -     Do not store chemicals in the storage boxes and/or in the gowning room
          -     Do not bring food or soft drinks or water in the Gowning Room
          -     Name tags are required on your coveralls
          -     Use proper size coverall and shoe cover
          -     Change damaged or stained coveralls or dirty shoe covers
          -     Must log onto the computer in the Gowning Room, before entering the lab

Oct 15th 2012                                                                                              4
                                     Working in the NanoLab
       Proper Gowning procedure!

        Gowning up – top down
                - Carried out in this order: wear shoe cover before entering the change room, once there put
                  on Hood, Coverall (bunny suit), Shoe covers/boots, clean room gloves, and safety glasses.




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                  5
       Beard covers are also available if you have an especially particle sensitive process
       e.g. wafer bonding

       • Ungowning – Bottom up




       • Completing this orientation and passing the safety test only allows you to enter the
         lab and use the computers
       • Working on equipment requires qualification on each particular piece of equipment
       • Equipment qualification procedure requires hands-on training and passing the oral
         test, as well as written tests for select equipment in the lab


Oct 15th 2012                                                                                   6
                                         Equipment Qualification
                  Each piece of equipment has:
                             An Engineer in charge
    Always ask               one or more Superusers,                       Understand machine
                                                                            operation theory, process,
   when in doubt             and a number of Qualified users.
                                                                            and safety
          To become qualified to operate equipment:
           –    Read operation manual for the specific piece of equipment
           –    Make an appointment with another qualified user to train you on the tool
           –    Train with the qualified user understand all aspects of the tool operation
           –    Practice while a qualified user is with you, and until you are comfortable using the tool on
                your own. Some tools require additional staff training; e.g. crestec e-beam writer, leo SEM
           –    Take the equipment written test, when it applies (office and on line list)
           –    Obtain the qualification form from the front desk for your oral test
           –    Make an appointment with SUPERUSER to get you checked out on the tool
           –    Prepare/clean necessary parts for the oral test given by the superuser
           –    Have the form signed by the superuser, then bring it back to front desk for admin staff to
                get you added to the qualified user list for that particular equipment


Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                  7
                On-Line Tests




Oct 15th 2012                   8
                         Plan Your Work !
                    Time spent in the lab costs money
                Have a plan of action ready when you come in
                Check if the equipment you need is available
                   Check status of the tool on Mercury
                      Reserve equipment on Mercury




Oct 15th 2012                                                  9
                                   Process Equipment
         – Available processes and equipment are defined in the lab manuals
         – Lab manuals are organized by equipment groups and are available online
                  - Chapter 1- General Information & Processing
                  - Chapter 2 - Cleaning Procedures
                  - Chapter 3 - Mask Making




Oct 15th 2012                                                                       10
                     Thin Film/Diffusion Equipment


       Deposition Type    Equipment                      Materials                     Chapter


       LPCVD, Thermal    Tystar Furnaces SiO2, Si3N4, poly-Si, SiC, SiGe, PSG, LTO 5.1- 5.20
       PECVD             Oxford2                      SiO2, Si3N4                     6.29
                         Nanox Furnace             III-V Compounds                    5.35


       Sputter           CPA                             Al, Ti, W                        6.04
                         Randex              Most metals, and some dielectrics            6.03
                         Edwards        Al, Cr, Cu, ITO, Ni, SiO2, Ti, W, Ag, Pd, Co      6.07


       Evaporation       NRC                        GeAu, Zn, Cr, Au, Ni, Ti              6.11
                         CHA     Au, Al, Ti, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ag, Sn, Cr Ni (with permission) 6.12
                         Edwards-eb3        Al, Ti, Au, Ni, Ge, Cu, Pd, Pt, and Cr       6.14



Oct 15th 2012                                                                                    11
                                                      Etch Equipment
        Etcher Type                     Equipment Name                          Etched Materials                                   Chapter
         Non Plasma gas phase
                                        xetch (xenon Difloride)                      silicon etch                                         7.5
         Plasma
                                        Matrix                                   PR removal                                              4.32
                                        Technics-c                          PR ash & Descum & Si3N4                                       7.2
                                        Lam6                                     SiO2, Si3N4                                             7.11
         Ion Mill
                                        ionmill (RIBE)                   Various material including sapphire                              7.1
         Reactive Ion
                                        Ptherm (versatile)            Various materials and substrates allowed                            7.3
                                        Lam7 (TCP)                          Metal (aluminum, TI, W) 7.12
                                        Lam8 (TCP)                    Poly-Si, single crystal Si, SiC, SiGe and Ge                       7.13
                                        Centura MxP+                                SiO2, Si3N4                                          7.32
                                        Centura -met                       Metal (aluminum, Ti, and W)                                   7.33
         Deep Reactive Ion
                                        Centura 3-5                              Compound material etching                               7.31
                                        STS1                                     Deep Si trench etching                                  7.21
                                        STS2                                     Deep Si trench etching                                  7.22
                                        STS-oxide                                Deep Si trench etching                                  7.23
         Notes:   RIE = Reactive Ion Etching, RIBE= Reactive Ion Beam Etching, TCP =Transformer Coupled Metal RIE, MxP – Magnetically Enhanced RIE,
                  DPS - Decoupled Plasma Source RIE

Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                                                   12
                                                      Wet Etching

                ─ Wet etching is also available in the NanoLab.
                ─ Wet etch is always isotropic: the etch is not preferential to any specific direction. This
                  type of etch will etch in the lateral (sideways) direction, as well as vertical direction
                ─ Two types of Si etch, TMAH and KOH are available in the baths at Msink 4


                Resist                                         Resist
                SiO2                                           SiO2

                 Si                              Undercut       Si
                               Silicon, n-type                               Silicon, n-type



                  SiO
                SiO2 2                                           SiO
                                                               SiO2 2

                         Wet (isotropic) Etch                         Dry (anisotropic) Etch



Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                  13
                     Material and Process Compatibility
 −     Chapter 1.7 - Defines furnace pre-clean, metal substrate, pyrex/borofloat glass restrictions
 −     Equipment manuals also define material compatibility and cleaning requirement.

 −     Manual chapters let members know:
        – Every piece of equipment has specific material restrictions
        – Several pieces of equipment may have similar restrictions
           – No gold or highly diffusive material in lam etchers and Tystar furnaces.
           – No acid, acid etchant or plating solution at metal sinks (Msink1, Msink2 and Msink3)
        – Specific tools and applicable processes require specific cleaning
           – Wafers processed in Tystar1, Tystar2, Tystar9 , Tystar10, and other MOS furnaces will only
              require Msink6 cleaning (non-meteal wafers)
           – Wafers processed in Tystar3, Tystar4 , Tystar12 and other non-MOS furnaces require
              additional Msink8 cleaning to Msink6 cleaning (non-metal wafers)
           – Metal coated wafers can not follow standard Msink8 and/or Msink6 cleaning, will require
              Msink1 metal clean instead (Piranha attacks metal!)




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                         14
                                                                                 New
                                                 New Si,
                                                              PR Coated Si,      Non-
                                                  SOI,
                          Description                         SOI, Quartz        Quartz
                                                 Quartz
                                                                Wafers           Glass
                                                 Wafers
                Equip.                                                           Wafers

                                                           Restricted
                Tystar1   Atmos. Furnace (MOS)   Msink6                            NA
                                                           See Tystar1 manual

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar2   Atmos. Furnace (MOS)   Msink6    +                       NA
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                          Atmos. Furnace (Non-
                Tystar3                          Msink6    +                       NA
                          MOS)
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                          Atmos. Furnace (Non-
                Tystar4                          Msink6    +                     Msink8
                          MOS)
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar9   LPCVD Furnace (MOS)    Msink6    +                       NA
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar1
                          LPCVD Furnace (MOS)    Msink6    +                       NA
                   0
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar1
                          LPCVD Furnace (MOS)    Msink6    +                       NA
                   1
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar1   LPCVD Furnace (Non-
                                                 Msink6    +                     Msink8
                   2      MOS)
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar1   LPCVD Furnace (Non-
                                                 Msink6    +                     Msink8
                   6      MOS)
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6

                                                           Wet Strip or Matrix
                Tystar1   LPCVD Furnace (Non-
                                                 Msink6    +                       NA
                   7      MOS)
                                                           Msink8 + Msink6




Oct 15th 2012                                                                             15
                               Sink Information / Restrictions
                                                                             Marvell
           Sink Name
                                                                                 Lab
              (Maximum                Processes Available                                               Important Comments
                                                                                Locat
           Wafer Size)
                                                                                 ion
                                 PR strip, tank develop, pre-furnace
           msink1 (8")                                                         382        Note 2
                                             metal clean

                                       PR strip, tank develop
           msink2 (6")                                                         382        Metal contaminated sink - Note 1
                                        all metals allowed


           msink3 (8")               Manual Resist Processing                  382


                                                                                          Staff Review required before wafers processed at
           msink4 (6")                   TMAH & KOH etch                       382
                                                                                                 this sink returning to msink6, msink7, msink8.
                                           HF, BHF etch
                                                                                          Metal contaminated sink, PR coated wafers allowed-
           msink5 (8")                   special project etch                  382
                                                                                                see Note 1
                                       (check labels at tanks)
                                                                                          No metals allowed
           msink6 (8")             Final Piranha - MOS clean sink              386
                                                                                          - MOS clean sink
                                          Hot phosphoric,
           msink7 (6")                                                         386        No metals, PR coated wafers allowed
                                          HF, silicon etch

                                          Piranha clean,                                  No metals except aluminum in the aluminum etch
           msink8 (8")                                                         386
                                        BHF, aluminum etch                                     tank, no PR coated wafers

          msink16 (N/A)       General clean - beaker process/part clean       582A        Metal contaminated sink - Note 1


          msink18 (N/A)       General clean - beaker process/part clean       582A        Metal contaminated sink - Note 1

       Note 1 -   Wafers processed at this sink are metal contaminated, ARE NOT ALLOWED to return to msink6, msink7, msink8.
       Note 2 -   Gold, copper and or other highly diffusive metals ARE NOT ALLOWED at this sink.




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                                                     16
                                        Working at the Sinks
            Reiterating what was said in the previous section of the orientation class:
               Personal protective gear must be worn at all times when working at the sinks!
                  – Chemically resistant gloves
                  – Face shield
                  – Chemically resistant apron




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                   17
                                       Working at the Sinks
               When mixing acids with water, remember to ADD ACID TO WATER and NOT WATER TO
                ACID! Exception is piranha.


               Working at general purpose sinks (MSink16/18)
                  – Describe your processes to each other when multiple members are at the sink
                  – Do not leave work that is not tagged
                      at the station
                  – Do not heat up a container with solvent
                      in it directly on the heater chuck.
                      Solvent can only be heated up in a
                      water jacket. Aluminum trays are
                      available at the sinks for this purpose.

                  Report violations to staff, which will be kept confidential.
                  Anonymous suggestion box can also be used to report violations.



Oct 15th 2012                                                                                     18
                                 Available Chemicals for Msink16/18
                                             ROOM 582A


                Base and Special Etch Cabinet in 582A
                Top shelf
                Gold etchant
                SU-8 Developer
                Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)
                Center shelf
                Ammonium hydroxide
                Ammonium fluoride (40%)



                Bottom shelf

                            kept Empty at this time


Oct 15th 2012                                                         19
                        Available Chemicals for Msink16/18, continued
                                             ROOM 582A

                General Acid Cabinet
                Top shelf
                Buffered oxide etch 5:1
                Buffered oxide etch 10:1
                Hydrofluoric acid (49%)
                Center shelf
                Sulphuric acid
                CR-7 Chromium etchant
                Nickel etchant
                Aluminum etchant with surfactant
                Bottom shelf
                Nitric acid
                Hydrochloric acid
                Phosphoric acid
                Acetic acid
                Silicon Etchant


Oct 15th 2012                                                           20
                            Chemical Waste Management

     Chapter 1.01 - Marvell NanoLab Chemical Hygiene chapter defines the rules for chemical waste
        and expired chemical disposal

     −     Organic Waste Disposal - Organic waste is collected at Msink1, Msink3, Msink16 and
           Msink18 in designated bottles
     −     Members are responsible for replacing Full Organic Waste Bottles at these sinks. Pre-labeled
           empty hydrogen peroxide bottles are available in the Yellow Empty Waste Bottles Cabinet in
           the service chases 591 and 391 (one for each floor). These can be used as replacement!
     −     All organic chemical disposed at these sinks need to get logged in by members working at
           these sinks (one log sheet for each Organic Waste Disposal bottle)
     −     PRS-3000 in the heated bath at Msink1 and Msink2 are drained and collected by staff
     −     Checmical Waste from Special Project Tank at Msink5 is also managed by staff upon
           notification from member/s using the tank



Oct 15th 2012                                                                                             21
Oct 15th 2012   22
                    Thank You
                for your attention!




Oct 15th 2012                         23
Oct 15th 2012   24
                • There is a lot more to learn about processing. You can
                  check out the CMOS baseline process at our web site:
                  http://microlab.berkeley.edu/baseline/index.html

                  We regularly fabricate
                  CMOS transistors/IC
                  circuits to monitor the
                  lab.




Oct 15th 2012                                                              25
                            Additional Information!
                    (Not A Part of The Orientation Talk)
                A Josephson Junction is a voltage-to-frequency converter usefully sensitive to
                voltage, current and magnetic fields that is made of a superconducting wire
                interrupted by an insulating weak-link. A π Josephson junction is a specific example
                of a Josephson junction which has a Josephson phase φ of π in the ground state
                when no external current or magnetic field is applied.

                In superconductivity, the Josephson phase is the difference of the phases of the
                quantum mechanical wave function in two superconducting electrodes forming a
                Josephson junction.




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                          26
   Equipment Qualification
   Each piece of equipment has one or more Superusers, an equipment engineer in charge of maintenance, and Qualified Users.
   To become qualified for equipment, you must go through the following procedures:
   1. Read the operation manual for the specific piece of equipment. Be sure you have a fairly good understanding of the operation of the
        machine before contacting a qualified labmember for training. This will save both of you, time and trouble. The lab manual is available on-
        line, on the web pages, and in hard-copy form, in four binders located on a shelf above the workstations, in the lab lobby.
   2. E-mail a qualified lab member and make an appointment to learn the operation of the machine. DO NOT ask staff members to train you on
        equipment. You can obtain a listing of qualified labmembers for any given piece of equipment on the computer. You may check the
        reservation program to identify members that plan to use a piece of equipment within the next 7 days.
   3. Prepare and clean any necessary materials and accessories. Ask the qualified lab member about this when you make your appointment.
   4. While being trained on equipment, the trainer should use the "recharge" option under the Equipment category on the Wand. This way, the
        member-in-training incurs the charges for the equipment usage.
   5. As part of your training, practice on the equipment under the supervision of a qualified labmember to become familiar with
        it. A qualified labmember MUST BE WITH YOU at the machine at all times while you are learning to operate it. You are not permitted to use
        any equipment alone before being officially qualified.
   6. When you feel you can operate the machine independently, you may start the qualification procedure. Review the manual, paying attention
        to the study guide at the end. Not all manual chapters have a study guide at the end, only those that require a written test.
   7. If a written test is required for the piece of equipment you wish to qualify on, take the test in the main office and wait for an e-mail
        notification that your test has been graded. Come to the office to review your test. If you pass, you will receive the oral test form specific to
        that equipment. Then make an appointment with a superuser to take the oral qualification test. If you failed the written test, study some
        more and take the written test again.
   8. If a written test is not required, proceed to make an appointment with a superuser for oral qualification. You will notice that there are a few
        exceptions for qualifications. For especially sensitive equipment, such as the scanning electron microscopes, the pattern generator and
        furnaces, staff must qualify you. In these cases, the script (Superuser) will appear only next to staff names.
   9. Have your samples and materials ready for the qualification process and bring your qualification form. During the oral test the Superuser
        will watch you use the system while you explain your actions. If you are well prepared, the Superuser will sign your qualification form.
   10. Turn the form in at the office reception. Your name will be added to the computer database of qualified labmembers, permitting you to
        enable the machine the following day. Also, your trainer’s name will be added to the database.
   Training: Labmembers are requested to train, at least, one other member per year. Check your qualification list to see if “training” is on it,
   to fulfill this requirement.


Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                                                               27
         Mode of Operation

         •The Marvell lab are open for work 24 hours/day, 365 days/year (accessible with a key card). For safety reasons, you may
         not work alone in the NanoLab at any time. There must be at least two people inside when working off-hours (other than
         7:00 AM - 5:00 PM). We ask that new members for the first few weeks work only Monday-Friday, between 7:00 AM-5:00 PM,
         when staff is available, unless there is a senior member from their own research group with them.
         •Members learn from each other and, in turn, teach others. Motto: "Each one teach one.“
         •For questions/advice/help, e-mail machine name.
         •Information available at http://nanolab.berkeley.edu/.
         •Marvell NanoLab status updates: by e-mail reports. Please, read your Marvell e-mails regularly.
         •Everyone must qualify separately for each piece of equipment. This lab course qualifies you only to enter the lab and use
         the computer.
         •Marvell lab require from each member a donation of one day of help lab cleaning during the Clean Fest held each
         October. This helps to raise consciousness and maintain awareness of your responsibilities to the facility and to other
         members.
         •Visitors: Only by permission from Bill Flounders, or Bob Hamilton. Email requests to visitor at silicon. All visitors are allowed
         during staff working hours; they must be escorted; photographs are allowed.
         •Credits: In publications and talks, identify devices as fabricated in the UC Berkeley Marvell Nanolab.




Oct 15th 2012                                                                                                                                 28

				
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