Learn More – Teach More Content Module The Internment of the Japanese in World War II and its Aftermath CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #1 Japanese Internment – Supreme Court Cases
Objectives Content Students will be able to identify major arguments in the court cases, Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) and Korematsu v. United States (1944) Students will know the major military events of World War II involving the United States and Japan between the years 1941 and 1944. Skill Students will analyze primary source documents. Students will summarize information in a written format. Materials Brief synopsis of Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/164/ Brief synopsis of Korematsu v. United States (1944) http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/203/ United States and Japanese World War II timeline from 1941 to 1944 (Attached) Korematsu v. United States (1944) Dissenting Opinion (Attached) Activities After a discussion of the beginnings of World War II and the attack at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, ask the students the following questions: How might an American citizen feel about people of Japanese ancestry after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941? What measures, if any, could the United States take to protect its citizens of Japanese descent? What actually happened to people of Japanese descent in the United States after Pearl Harbor? Provide each student with a copy of the synopsis of Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) located at http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/164/]. Assign the students to read the synopsis and ask them write the answers to the following questions: What was the United States argument for having relocation camps? According to the United States military, what was the difference between Japanese and Japanese-Americans? What was the Supreme Court‘s ruling in the case? Hold a brief whole class lecture/discussion of Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) in which students are informed that the Supreme Court handed down this unanimous decision in early 1943. The discussion should focus on student responses to the three questions.
Provide each student with a copy of the United States and Japanese World War II timelines from 1941 to 1944 (Attached). Assign the students to read through the timeline of the military events from 1941 to 1943. After a assign the students to write down their response to the following question: Describe three major events from 1941 to 1943 occurring between the United States and Japan that may have influenced this unanimous decision of the Court. Provide each student with a copy of the synopsis of Korematsu v. United States (1944) located at http://www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/case/203/]. Assign the students to read the synopsis and ask them to write the answers to the following questions: When is the case being decided by the Supreme Court? What did Korematsu do (or not do) that put him in trouble with the U. S. government? What was the Supreme Court‘s ruling in the case? Hold a brief whole class lecture/discussion of Korematsu v. United States (1944) in which students are informed that the Supreme Court split, 6-3, in this decision late in 1944. The discussion should focus on student responses to the three questions. Read some or all of the dissenting opinion written by Justice Murphy (Attached). Assign students to read through the timeline of the military events from 1943 to 1944, just prior to the Koramatsu decision in 1944. Assign the students to write down their response to the following question: Describe three major events in 1943 and 1944 that may have influenced the 6-3 decision of the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Assessment Using the written responses to previous questions, assign students to write a paragraph in which they defend their opinions on when, how, and why civil rights and liberties should be curtailed during times of war. √+ Paragraph contains a well-developed thesis statement and provides at least three pieces of supporting evidence. The paragraph also takes into account the changes in Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) and Korematsu v. United States (1944) and major events of World War II. Paragraph either contains a thesis statement and provides at least two pieces of supporting evidence or does not contain a thesis statement but provides three or more pieces of supporting evidence. Paragraph also makes mention of, but does not fully address, the changes in Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) and Korematsu v. United States (1944) and major events of World War II. Paragraph does not contain a thesis statement and fails to provide more than two pieces of evidence.
United States World War II Major Military Events and Actions 1941 to 1944
January 6, 1941 President Roosevelt delivers his annual message to Congress calling for a world founded on freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear March 11, 1941 Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, which allows the Allies to borrow weapons from the United States without cost. April 6, 1941 German forces invade Greece and Yugoslavia. April 9, 1941 United States signs agreement with Denmark to protect Greenland from invasion in exchange for the right to establish a base there. June 22, 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Philippines, and Guam; U. S. Pacific fleet crippled. December 8, 1941 President Roosevelt addresses the Congress, asking for a declaration of war against Japan. US Congress declares war on Japan. December 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on the U. S. U. S. declares war on Germany. February 15, 1942 British surrender Singapore to Japanese. February 19, 1942 President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066 forcing many Japanese and Japanese Americans in western U. S. to be exiled to ―relocation centers.‖ March 21, 1942 Congress passes legislation supporting Roosevelt‘s Japanese Relocation Order. April 9, 1942 U. S. forces on Bataan peninsula in Philippines surrender. (Bataan Death March) April 18, 1942 American airplanes bomb Tokyo, Yokohama, and Kobe. June 4-6, 1942 Battle of Midway ends Japanese expansion east. August 7, 1942 United States Marines land on Guadalcanal. November 19, 1942 Soviets counterattack Germany at Stalingrad. September 8, 1943 Italy Surrenders June 6, 1944 Allied troops cross the English Channel and land on beaches in Normandy, France (D-Day). August 25, 1944 Paris liberated. October 29, 1944 Americans invade Philippines. January 1945 Army releases all loyal Japanese-Americans from internment camps.
Japanese World War II Major Military Events and Actions 1941-1944
December 7, 1941 Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway. December 10, 1941 Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam. December 18, 1941 Japanese invade Hong Kong. December 23, 1941 General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island. December 27, 1941 Japanese bomb Manila. January 2, 1942 Manila and U. S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese January 18, 1942 German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin. January 27, 1942 First Japanese warship sunk by a U. S. submarine. February 19, 1942 Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia; Japanese invade Bali. February 22, 1942 President FDR orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines. February 23, 1942 First U. S. Carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers. March 18, 1942 War Relocation Authority established in the U. S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wire relocation centers. April 3, 1942 Japanese attack U. S. and Filipino troops at Bataan. April 9, 1942 U. S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. April 10, 1942 Bataan Death March May 6, 1942 Japanese take Corregidor as General Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U. S. and Filipino forces in the Philippines. May 7-8, 1942 Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of Coral Sea off New Guinea. May 20, 1942 Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India. June 4-5, 1942 Decisive victory for the U. S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway. August 8-9, 1942 A major U. S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U. S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U. S. destroyer, all in less than an hour.
August 29, 1942 The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U. S. POWs. September 9/10, 1942 A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U. S. forests in the state of Oregon—the only bombing of the continental U. S. during the war. October 11/12 U. S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal. January 22, 1943 Allies defeat Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea. May 10, 1943 U. S. Troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands. June 1, 1943 U. S. begins submarine warfare against Japanese shipping. August 25, 1943 Allies complete the occupation of New Georgia. December 15, 1943 U. S. troops land on the Arawe Peninsula of New Britain in the Soloman Islands. February 17/18, 1944 U. S. Carrier-based planes destroy the Japanese naval base at Truk in the Caroline Islands. April 17, 1944 Japanese begin their last offensive in China, attacking U. S. air bases in eastern China. June 5, 1944 The first mission by B-29 Superfortress bombers occurs as 77 planes bomb Japanese railway facilities at Bangkok, Thailand. June 19, 1944 The ―Marianas Turkey Shoot‖ occurs as U. S. Carrier-based fighters shoot down 220 Japanese planes, while only 20 American planes are lost. July 19, 1944 U. S. Marines invade Guam in the Marianas. October 11, 1944 U. S. air raids against Okinawa. October 23-26, 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf results in a decisive U. S. naval victory. October 25, 1944 The first suicide air (Kamikaze) attacks occur against U. S. warships in Leyte Gulf. By the end of the war, Japan will have sent an estimated 2,257 Kamikaze aircraft against the U. S. forces November 11, 1944 Iwo Jima bombarded by the U. S. Navy December 17, 1944 The U. S. Army Air Force begins preparation for dropping the Atomic Bomb by establishing the 509th Composite Group to operate the B-29s that will deliver the bomb.
Korematsu v. United States (1944) Dissenting Opinion
Justice Murphy, dissenting. This exclusion of "all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien," from the Pacific Coast area on a plea of military necessity in the absence of martial law ought not to be approved. Such exclusion goes over "the very brink of constitutional power" and falls into the ugly abyss of racism. In dealing with matters relating to the prosecution and progress of a war, we must accord great respect and consideration to the judgments of the military authorities who are on the scene and who have full knowledge of the military facts. The scope of their discretion must, as a matter of necessity and common sense, be wide. And their judgments ought not to be overruled lightly by those whose training and duties ill-equip them to deal intelligently with matters so vital to the physical security of the nation. At the same time, however, it is essential that there be definite limits to military discretion, especially where martial law has not been declared. Individuals must not be left impoverished of their constitutional rights on plea of military necessity that has neither substance nor support.... That this forced exclusion was the result in good measure of this erroneous assumption of racial guilt rather than bona fide military necessity is evidenced by the Commanding General's Final Report on the evacuation from the Pacific Coast area. In it he refers to all individuals of Japanese descent as "subversive," as belonging to "an enemy race" whose "racial strains are undiluted," and as constituting "over 112,000 potential enemies ...at large today" along the Pacific Coast. In support of this blanket condemnation of all persons of Japanese descent, however, no reliable evidence is cited to show that such individuals were generally disloyal, or had generally so conducted themselves in this area as to constitute a special menace to defense installations or war industries, or had otherwise by their behavior furnished reasonable ground for their exclusion as a group. Justification for the exclusion is sought, instead, mainly upon questionable racial and sociological grounds not ordinarily within the realm of expert military judgment, supplemented by certain semimilitary conclusions drawn from an unwarranted use of circumstantial evidence.... No one denies, of course, that there were some disloyal persons of Japanese descent on the Pacific Coast who did all in their power to aid their ancestral land. Similar disloyal activities have been engaged in by many persons of German, Italian and even more pioneer stock in our country. But to infer that examples of individual disloyalty prove group disloyalty and justify discriminatory action against the entire group is to deny that under our system of law individual guilt is the sole basis for deprivation of rights.... To give constitutional sanction to that inference in this case, however well-intentioned may have been the military command on the Pacific Coast, is to adopt one of the cruelest of the rationales used by our enemies to destroy the dignity of the individual and to encourage and open the door to discriminatory actions against other minority groups in the passions of tomorrow.... I dissent, therefore, from this legalization of racism. Racial discrimination in any form and in any degree has no justifiable part whatever in our democratic way of life. It is unattractive in any setting but it is utterly revolting among a free people who have embraced the principles set forth in the Constitution of the United States. All residents of this nation are kin in some way by blood or culture to a foreign land. Yet they are primarily and necessarily a part of the new and distinct civilization of the United States. They must accordingly be treated at all times as the heirs of the American experiment and as entitled to all the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution. Source: 323 U.S. 214 (1944).
Learn More – Teach More Content Module The Internment of the Japanese in World War II and its Aftermath CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #2 Propaganda, Photographs and Images
Objectives Content Students will analyze the fears and the assumptions that drove the United States government to mandate Japanese internment, and they will compare the images of Japanese Americans in both the propaganda and the photojournalism of the time. Skill Students will analyze visual primary sources. Materials Script by John E. Semonche ‗Timeline for the War in the Pacific‖ located at the American Experience website created by PBS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/timeline/index.html Special Features: ―The Fight in the Philippines: Bataan, POWs and the Guerrilla War‖ located at the American Experience website, created by PBS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/sfeature/bataan.html Posters from World War II collected at the Japanese American Internment Curriculum website created by San Francisco State University http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/posters.html ―Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II – Photographs from Tule Lake‖ from the Special Collections Department of the J. Willard Marriot Library, University of Utah and Private Collections http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/tule.htm Activities Hold a brief lecture/discussion for the class to provide an overview of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and describe the events of the first three months of the war in the Pacific. Be certain to provide some background on the following issues: Military events in the Philippines; Concerns about Japanese-Americans; and The decision to create the internment camps. Provide the class with an introduction to the role of the Office of War Information during World War II. Distribute to the class copies of the attached Poster Analysis Chart. Assign the students to complete the chart with appropriate information for each of the following four posters as you display them for the class: ―Avenge December 7‖ located at: http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/posteravenge.html ―Stop him and the Job is Done‖ located at: http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/posterstophim.html
―Stay on the Job Until Every Murdering Jap . . .‖ located at: http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/postermurder.html ―Keep this Horror from your Home‖ located at: http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/posterhorror.html Distribute to the class copies of the attached Tule Lake Photograph Analysis Chart. Assign the students to complete the chart with appropriate information for one photograph of their choice in each of the four categories, Land, Labor, Education, and Buildings, at the following website of Photographs from Tule Lake. http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/tule.htm Hold a whole class discussion focused on responses of student volunteers who will share their thoughts on particular photographs. Assign each student to write two paragraphs each one addressing one the following questions: What factors might account for the discrepancies between the images of the Japanese in the war posters and those of the photographs? How might the fears generated by the events of the war influence Americans‘ perceptions of Japanese-Americans? Hold a whole class lecture/discussion on the above two questions. Assessment √+ Charts contain thorough and accurate information for at least three posters and three photographs. The paragraphs address the related questions in a thoughtful manner. √ Charts contain thorough and accurate information for at least two posters and two photographs. The paragraphs address the related questions with some detail and appropriate information. √Charts contain thorough and accurate information for less than two posters and two photographs. The paragraphs fail to address the related questions.
Poster Analysis Chart
Poster Title ―Avenge December 7‖ ―Stop him and the Job is Done‖ ―Stay on the Job Until Every Murdering Jap . . .‖ ―Keep this Horror from your Home‖
Portrayal of Japanese
Objective(s) of the artist
Evidence of Support for Internment
Tule Lake Photograph Analysis Chart
Photograph Category Photograph Title Subject LIVING LABOR EDUCATION BUILDINGS
Impression of the Japanese Created by the Photograph
Photographer‘s Bias or Perspective Regarding the Japanese
Differences between photo and the poster art in terms of portrayal of Japanese