Impact of behavior on your health - Subjective norms: What a person believes others think that the person should do (normative beliefs) and the motivation to comply with those expectations of signiﬁcant others. - Perceived behavioral control: an individual needs to feel that he or she is capable of performing the contemplated action and that the action will have the intended effect. Transtheoretical model of behavior change: Changing a bad health habit does not take place all at once, it is a process. People go through stages while they are trying to change their negative health behaviours. Prochaska (1994) have developed a model that analyzes the stages and processes people go through in attempting to bring a change in behaviour and suggested treatment goals for each stage.These stages are as follows: Pre-contemplation - During this stage, the person has no intention to change his or her behaviour. Contemplation: is a stage in which the person is aware that their current behaviour is problematic but have not yet made a commitment to change. During this stage individuals are still weighing the beneﬁts and losses of changing their behaviour and are currently enjoying the behaviour. This stage is marked by ambivalence. It is important to note that individuals can remain in this stage for several years. Preparation: During this stage individuals intend to change their behaviour but may not yet have begun to do so. In some cases it is because they have been unsuccessful in the past, or they may be delaying action until they get through a certain event or stressful period of time. Action: During this stage individuals modify their behaviour to overcome the problem. Action includes stopping the behaviour and changing one's lifestyle and environment so as to get rid of any cues leading to the behaviour. Maintenance: During this stage individuals work hard to prevent relapse and to consolidate the gains they have made. Typically, if a person managed to be free from problematic behaviour for six months, he or she is assumed to be in the maintenance stage.