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Slavery Sectionalism and Civil War Outline

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					“Sectionalism and the Road to War” Outline

I.     The Roots of the Conflict: A Historical Flashback (1776-1845)
         a. Why did the Constitution legalize slavery in the U.S.? (2)


                  i. Did the Articles of Confederation deal with the issue of slavery? (2)


                 ii. How was the 3/5s fraction used in the Articles of Confederation? (2)


                         1. How was the 3/5s ratio used in the Constitution? (2)


                iii. Why did some white Northerners oppose the slave trade at the Constitutional
                     Convention? (3)


                         1. What compromise did the North and South reach over the slave trade? (3)


                 iv. What was the Fugitive Slave provision of the Constitution? (3)


                         1. What were the “personal liberty” laws of states like Pennsylvania? (3)


                 v. How did slaveholders initially defend the practice of slavery in the first half of the 1800s?
                    (3-4)


                         1. What did abolitionists attack because of this? (4)


          b. How did the Bill of Rights protect opponents of slavery? (4)


                  i. Who petitioned Congress to end both the slave trade and slavery in 1790? (4)


                 ii. Who petitioned Congress to end slavery in 1800? (5)


                         1. Why was this petition ignored? (5)


          c. What was the American Colonization Society? (6)


          d. Why did Northerners oppose bringing Missouri into the Union as a slave state? (6)
       i. What did Northern politicians try to do because of this? (6)


       ii. Who ultimately worked out the Missouri Compromise? (6)


              1. What did the Missouri Compromise state? (6-7)



                     a. What was not included in this compromise? (7)


e. Why did South Carolina and some Southern states oppose the 1828 tariff? (7)


       i. What was their nullification argument based on? (7)



       ii. How was the crisis resolved? (7)


f. What was the gag rule? (8)


       i. Why did Southerners propose this? (8)


              1. What did abolitionists argue because of this? (8-9)


g. What issue did the Supreme Court address in the 1842 Prigg v. Pennsylvania case? (9)


       i. What did some Northern states do because of this? (9)


h. Why was James K Polk chosen to be the Democratic presidential nominee in 1844? (9)


       i. Why did Polk win the election? (9)


              1. What did Polk accomplish? (10)



              2. What was he unable to accomplish? (10)
II. Renewing the Sectional Struggle (1848-1856)
      a. What was the key issue Congress had to deal with after the Mexican-American War? (11)


              i. What did Pennsylvania congressperson David Wilmot propose after the war? (11)


                      1. What happened to the Wilmot Proviso? (11)


             ii.    What three political parties fought for power in the election of 1848 and who did each
                   party nominate for president? (12)



                      1. Who ultimately won? (12)


             iii. How did this election reflect the breakdown of the second party system? (12-13)



             iv. Why was the Free Soil party created in 1848? (13)


                      1. What kind of people joined it? (13)


                              a. Why were most of its white members against slavery? (13)


             v. What were the four main problems Zachary Taylor faced as president? (14)




                      1. What happened to Taylor in 1850?


                              a. Who took his place?


             vi. Why was the U.S. facing a new sectional crisis in 1850? (14)



                      1. Who first tried to resolve this conflict? (14)


                      2. Who tried to resolve this conflict when the first compromise failed? (14)
                     a. What were the five provisions of the Compromise of 1850? (15)




     vii. What were the two main consequences of the Compromise of 1850 in the North? (15)



     viii. What events outraged the South because of the Compromise of 1850? (16)


              1. How did the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin affect popular opinion in the
                 North?


      ix. What had happened to the Great Triumvirate by the end of 1852? (16)


              1. What is the significance of this? (16)


b. Why did many people begin to turn away from the Whigs and the Democrats in the 1850s? (17)


       i. Who were the main candidates in the 1852 election? (17-18)




              1. Why were these candidates chosen? (17-18)


      ii. What did Democratic primary candidate Stephen Douglas learn because of this? (18)


      iii. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854? (18)




              1. How did it violate the Compromise of 1820? (18)


      iv. Why did Douglas propose this? (18)



              1. What was he assuming? (18-19)
              v.   What were the consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? (19)




             vi. What major foreign policy incidents further divided the nation in 1854 and 1855? (19-20)


                     1. What was the 1854 Ostend Manifesto? (19-20)


                     2. What was the 1855 William Walker incident? (20)


                             a. How did Northern Democrats see these events? (20)


            vii. What new parties arose out of the failure of the Second American Party System? (20)


                     1. Why was the American Party (Know Nothing Party) formed? (20)


                             a. What kind of people supported this party? (20)


                     2. Why was the Republican Party formed? (20)


                             a. What kind of people joined this party? (20)


                                     i.   What major event unified these people? (20-21)


            viii. Who ran for president in the election of 1856? (21)



                     1. Who ultimately won and why did he win? (21)


                             a. What happened to the American Party after this election? (21)


                                     i. What was the significance of this? (21)


III. Drifting Toward Disunion (1856-1860)
        a. How did Northerners see themselves by 1856? (23)
              i. How did they see Southerners? (23)


                  1. Why did they see them this way?
BY THEN, MANY HAD READ UNCLE TOM’S CABIN, WHICH HAD PERSUADED THEM THAT
SLAVERY WAS AN IMMORAL, OPPRESSIVE INSTITUTION. ALSO, MANY HAD READ HINTON R.
HELPER’S THE IMPENDING CRISIS OF THE SOUTH, WHICH CONVINCED THEM NORTHERNERS
THAT SOUTHERNERS WERE ECONOMICALLY BACKWARD AND THAT SLAVERY HURT POOR
WHITES AS WELL.

       b. How did Southerners see themselves by 1856? (23)


              i. How did they see Northerners? (23)


       c. How did Kansas become “Bleeding Kansas? (24)


              i. What did each side set up? (24)


              ii. Why did abolitionist John Brown “massacre” 5 pro-slavery whites at Pottawotomie Creek
                  in 1856? (24)



             iii. What was the Brooks-Sumner caning incident? (24)



                     1. What did federal politicians start to do because of this? (24)


       d. What five major events led directly to the Civil War? (24-25)



              i. What was the main issue in the Dred Scott case of 1857? (25)


                     1. How did Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney rule in this case? (25)



                             a. How did Northerners view this ruling and President Buchanan’s
                                endorsement of it? (25)


              ii. What two governments were set up in Kansas by 1857? (26)
       1. What did the Lecompton government do in 1857? (26)



              a. How did President Buchanan respond to this? (26)


              b. How did Stephen Douglas respond to this? (26)


              c. What did this split cause? (26)


iii. Why were the 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates important? (26)


       1. What did Lincoln say about the divided state of the nation? (26)



              a. What did Lincoln say about the Dred Scott case? (26)


              b. What did Lincoln say he would do about slavery? (26)



              c. What did Lincoln say about free blacks? (26-27)



       2. What did Douglas say about slavery? (27)


              a. What did Douglas say about the Dred Scott decision? (27)


       3. Why did Douglas win the election for senate? (27)


iv. How was John Brown different from Abraham Lincoln? (27)



       1. How did he attempt to provoke a slave uprising? (27)


              a. Was he successful? (27)


       2. Why did John Brown become a martyr in the North? (27)
                     a. How did Southerners see John Brown’s raid? (28)


       v. What happened to the Democratic Party in the 1860 election? (28)


              1. What new party was created in this election? (28)


              2. Why did the Republican Party pick Abraham Lincoln to be its candidate? (28)



                     a. What was his platform on slavery? (28)



                             i. What was the party’s economic platform? (28)




                                    1. What were they able to accomplish while in power? (28-
                                       29)


                     b. What was the Republican Party’s strategy to win the election? (29)



      vi. What did South Carolina and 6 other Southern states do immediately after Lincoln won
          the 1860 election? (29)


              1. What happened to the eight southern slave states that bordered the North before
                 Lincoln became president? (29)


                     a. What happened to these states when Lincoln became president? (29)


e. Why did 11 southern states secede from the union? (30)


       i. What became the North’s main purpose in fighting a war with the South? (30)

				
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