JOURNAL OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT- NEW TECHNOLOGIES

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					                                                     (JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
                                                                                             Vol. 1, No.1, 2013.




                                  JOURNAL OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT –
                                         NEW TECHNOLOGIES



        Company for consulting and engineering MAPRO from Vranje, Serbia, publishes
PROCESS MANAGEMENT - NEW TECHNOLOGIES and offers membership and cooperation
for writing scientific papers that, after review and proofreading published under instruction that is
attached.
        Company was established in 1990. as a marketing project aimed at public opinion polls and
market trends in the area of southern Serbia. Cooperation with young people especially students and
young entrepreneurs in the pioneer period, the appearance of entrepreneurship in our country, for
the introduction and development of marketing management, and application of new knowledge in
economic practice and the creation of conditions for sustainable development, environmental
awareness and health education. Statistical monitoring trends and developments investments and
measure the effects of changes investment. Special whether additional review is to discover and use
new resources in an optimal manner with the use of new technologies.
        The aim of publishing this magazine is to engage researchers and scientists, from all parts of
the world, to his knowledge, both theoretical as well as practical in writing concentrated more on
one site in the form of publications, which will contribute to their greater recognition and the
development of economy and society. Management process of new technology permeates all
aspects of social life which is a huge area of coverage through this magazine.

                                                                                             Sincerely,
                                                                            Prof. PhD Predrag Trajković

        Kompanija za konsalting i inženjering MAPRO iz Vranja izdaje časopis MENADŽMENT
PROCES – NOVE TEHNOLOGIJE pa Vam nudi saradnju za članstvo i pisanje naučnih i stručnih
radova koje, posle recenzije i lekture objavljuje shodno uputstvu koje je u prilogu .
        Komapanija je osnovana 1990. godine kao marketing projekt sa ciljem istraživanja javnog
mnjenja i tržišnih kretanja na prostoru Južne Srbije. Saradnja sa mladim osobama posebno
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osvrt je na otkrivanje i korisćenje novih resursa na optimalan način uz primenu novih tehnologija.
        Cilj izdavanja ovog časopisa je animiranje istraživača i naučnih radnika, sa svih prostora
sveta, da svoja saznanja, kako teoretska, tako i praktična u pisanoj formi koncentrišu na jednom
mestu u vidu publikacije, što će doprineti njihovoj većoj afirmaciji i razvoju privrede i društva.
Menadžment proces novih tehnologija prožima sve pore društvenog života što čini ogroman prostor
obuhvatnosti rada kroz ovaj časopis.
                                                                                      S poštovanjem,
                                                                           Prof. dr Predrag Trajković
Address of the editorial Board: Filipa Filipovica 28, 17501 Vranje, Serbia
Phone/Fax: +381 17 413 586, +381 17 432 278
Web: www.japmnt.com
E-mail: japmnt@yahoo.com

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                         ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Editor PhD Predrag Trajković
Execute editor PhD Svetlana Trajković
Secretary Snežana Manasijević Milkić, Masters of Laws
Technical editor PhD Lazar Stošić
Lector Maja Kostić M.A. in English Language and Literature
Lector Ana Stanković M.A. in English Language and Literature



             REVIEWER BOARD MEMBERS

Academic Angel Džambazovski, Macedonia
Academic Radenko S. Krulj, Serbia
PhD Alla Belusova, Russia
PhD Aneta Barakoska, Macedonia
PhD Biljana Petrevska, Macedonia
PhD Dušan Jarić Serbia
PhD Emanuel Soare, Romania
PhD Gabriela Paula Petruta, Romania
PhD Hemanta К. Baruah, India
PhD Jelena Maksimović, Serbia
PhD Jurka Lipičnik Vodopivec, Slovenia
PhD Ka Lok Man, China
PhD Vitus Lam, Hong Kong
PhD Mitrička Stardelova, Macedonia
PhD Miroslav Pavlović, Serbia
PhD Nada Živanović, Serbia
PhD Oksana Baruskova, Russia
PhD Radovan Ilić, Serbia
PhD Ranjan Upadhyaya, India
PhD T. C. Manjunath, India
PhD Vera Naumovska, Macedonia
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                                  CONTENTS

PAGE 1 – 6
Paper 1: Construction of normal fuzzy numbers: a case study with earthquake waveform data
Authors: Dhruba Das, Anamika Dutta, Supahi Mahanta, Hemanta K. Baruah

PAGE 7-13
Paper 2: The exact definition of fuzzy randomness: An application of the mathematics of partial
presence
Authors: Supahi Mahanta, Rituparna Chutia, Hemanta K. Baruah

PAGE 14-19
Paper 3: Computer security and security technologies
Authors: Lazar Stošić, Dragan Veličković

PAGE 19-26
Paper 4: Economic research and analysis of national economy
Authors: Stanka Đurić, Ljiljana Mihajlović Stošić

PAGE 27-33
Paper 5: Small business – alternative to unemployment reduction in economy under recession
Authors: Trajković Svetlana, Trajković Predrag, Milan Ivanković

PAGE 34-43
Paper 6: Consumer’s emotional influence & visual merchandising effects: shopping malls
recession
Authors: Ranjan Upadhyaya, Govind Nath Srivastava

PAGE 44-48
Paper 7: Employer brand and analysis of individual potential
Authors: Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović,

PAGE 49-56
Paper 8: Tourist profile of young-adults in Macedonia and their perception of e-tools
Authors: Biljana Petrevska

PAGE 57-64
Paper 9: Brands and branding - example: Coca-Cola
Authors: Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

PAGE 65-72
Paper 10: Managing environmental policy for tourism development
Authors: Margarita Matlievska, Biljana Petrevska

PAGE 73-77
Paper 11: Mobility skills condition in Macedonia among youth in high school
Authors: Angel Dzhambazovski, Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova, Nevenka Panovska, Selim Alili,
Kjamilj Elmazi

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PAGE 77-81
Paper 12: Kinesiology in function of the skeletal-muscle deformation prevention at school age
Authors: Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova, Dimitrinka K. Conkova, V. Krstevska, Nevenka Panovska,
Selim Alili, Angel Dzhambazovski

PAGE 82-86
Paper 13: Toxic effects of chloropicrin and impact of sorbed water steam on protection
Authors: Milena Nikolić, Mladen Nikolić, Dragan Nikolić

PAGE 87-92
Paper 14: Effects of atropine sulfate after poisoning with organophosphorus compounds
Authors: Milena Nikolić, Mladen Nikolić

PAGE 93-96
Paper 15: Harmful effects and monitoring of noise
Authors: Mladen D. Nikolić, Dragan M. Nikolić, Fortuna Dragutin

PAGE 97-104
Paper 16: Methods for ecological design of technical processes and systems
Authors: Slobodan Stefanović, Nadezda Šubara, Radoje Cvejić, Jasmina Stojiljković

PAGE 105-110
Paper 17: Analysis of monitoring of connection between reengineering economic parameters in
small and medium enterprises using the method of creating optimal questionnaire
Authors: Slobodan Stefanović, Dragoslav Ilić, Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković, Radica Pavlović

PAGE 111-116
Paper 18: Detection of radiation contamination obtained by the depleted uranium ammunition in
field conditions
Authors: Mladen D. Nikolić, Fortuna Dragutin , Dragan M. Nikolić




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 CONSTRUCTION OF NORMAL FUZZY NUMBERS: A CASE STUDY
          WITH EARTHQUAKE WAVEFORM DATA

                                                      Dhruba Das
                     Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
                                                Dhrubadas16@gmail.com

                                                    Anamika Dutta
                     Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
                                              anamika.dut268@gmail.com

                                                   Supahi Mahanta
                     Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
                                            supahi_mahanta@rediffmail.com

                                                  Hemanta K. Baruah
                     Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
                                                hemanta_bh@yahoo.com

     Abstract: This article demonstrates that a normal         relationship     between     probability    and
fuzzy number can be constructed from earthquake                fuzziness have come up, and no concrete
waveform data. According to the Randomness-
Fuzziness Consistency Principle, two independent laws
                                                               conclusion could be arrived at. Partial
of randomness in [α, β] and [β, γ] are necessary and           presence of an element in a set is expressed in
sufficient to define a normal fuzzy number [α, β, γ]. In       terms of the fuzzy membership function. But
this article, we have shown how to construct normal            how exactly to construct the membership
fuzzy numbers using data from earthquake waveform              function of a fuzzy number mathematically
and have studied the pattern of the membership curve
of the waveform.
                                                               remained a problem. Baruah (2010, 2011a,
     Keywords: Superimposition of Sets, Distribution           2011b, 2011c, 2012) has shown that two laws
Function, Membership function.                                 of randomness are necessary as well as
                                                               sufficient to define a normal law of fuzziness.
                1.       Introduction                          In other words, trying to frame one single law
                                                               of probability from a given law of fuzziness,
    A fuzzy real number [α, β, γ] is an interval               as had been tried upon while formulating the
around the real number β with the elements in                  existing probability-possibility consistency
the interval being partially present. Partial                  principles,     was     not     mathematically
presence of an element in a fuzzy set is                       meaningful an exercise, because we need two
defined by the name membership function.                       laws of randomness, probabilistic or
Based on the Randomness- Fuzziness                             otherwise, and not one single law of
Consistency Principle (Baruah, 2010, 2011a,                    probability, to define a law of fuzziness. This
2011b, 2011c, 2012), in this article we shall                  has led to a proper measure theoretic
show how to construct normal fuzzy numbers                     explanation of partial presence, and
using the data of minimum and maximum                          construction of fuzzy numbers can therefore
amplitudes of every individual oscillation of                  be based on that.
the waveform of an earthquake that had                             We need to understand that if a variable X
occurred in the city of Guwahati on May 25,                    can assume values in an interval [L, U] where
1998.                                                          L follows a law of randomness in the interval
    The basic problem in constructing normal                   [α, β] while U follows another law of
fuzzy numbers was the lack of understanding                    randomness in the interval [β, γ], then we are
as to how exactly to define partial presence of                in a situation defining fuzzy uncertainty, with
an element in an interval. Indeed, various                     randomness defined in the measure theoretic
explanations     regarding     the     possible                sense. In such a case, Baruah’s principle of
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consistency between randomness and                      our interest is to study the second case. The
fuzziness states that the distribution function         first case can also be studied in the same way.
of L , which is known as the left reference                  We have collected 39 observations from
function also with reference to fuzziness, in           the highest amplitude to zero amplitude of the
the interval [α, β] together with the                   waveform. We thus have collected the values
complementary distribution function of U                taken by L and U on those 39 observations.
which is known as the right reference                   These values are, say
function also in the interval [β, γ], would give                             (a1, a2, a3,….…, a39)
us the membership function of a normal fuzzy             and
number [α, β, γ ]. The two concerned laws of                                 (b1, b2, b3,……, b39)
randomness may or may not be geared to laws              respectively.
of probability because measure theoretically                  Now, using the operation of set
speaking the notion of probability need not             superimposition defined by Baruah (2010,
actually appear in the definition of                    2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2012) we may proceed
randomness in the sense that a probabilistic            to construct normal fuzzy numbers as
variable is necessarily random while a                  discussed in (Das et al, 2013), which would
random variable need not be probabilistic. It           define the uncertainty associated with
should be noted that the notion of probability          waveform variations.
does not enter into the definition of a random               Baruah defined the operation of
variable (Rohatgi and Saleh, 2001, pages 41 –           superimposition of two real intervals [a1, b1]
43). When a variable is probabilistic, it has to        and [a2, b2] as
be random by definition, although when a                                  [a1, b1] (S) [a2, b2]
variable is random, it need not be                              = [a1, a2] ∪ [a2, b1] (2) ∪ [b1, b2],
probabilistic. Accordingly, all results of the                            if a1 < a2 < b1 < b2,
classical    theory     of    probability    are                = [a1, a2] ∪ [a2, b2] (2) ∪ [b2, b1],
automatically applicable to a random variable                             if a1 < a2 < b2 < b1,
defined in the measure theoretic sense.                         = [a2, a1] ∪ [a1, b1] (2) ∪ [b1, b2],
      In what follows, we are going to explain                            if a2 < a1 < b1 < b2,
how exactly a fuzzy number originates. We                       = [a2, a1] ∪ [a1, b2] (2) ∪ [b2, b1],
are going to show how exactly to construct a                              if a2 < a1 < b2 < b1,
fuzzy number. We shall not assume anything              where for example [a2, b1] (2) represents the
heuristic in principle. The data collected from         elements of [a2, b1] with every element being
the aforesaid earthquake waveform, we now               present twice. A closer look would reveal that
proceed to construct a normal fuzzy number.                               [a1, b1] (S) [a2, b2]
                                                           = [a (1), a (2)] U [a (2), b (1)] (2) U [b (1), b (2)]
             2.     Methodology                         where
                                                                          a (1) = min (a1, a2),
    We collected data of the waveform of an                               a (2) = max (a1, a2),
earthquake in the city of Guwahati, India. The                            b (1) = min (b1, b2), and
earthquake occurred on May 25, 1998. To                                   b (2) = max (b1, b2).
represent the waveform in the form of a                 Here it was assumed without loss of any
normal fuzzy number, we have considered the             generality that [a1, b1] ∩ [a2, b2] is not void,
part of the waveform that had appeared while            or in other words that max (ai) ≤ min (bi), i =
the earthquake was at its maximum amplitude             1, 2.
to zero amplitude. In fact, the waveform of an                The reader may observe the entry of
earthquake is indeed a combination of two               ordered values in this expression. This would
independent normal fuzzy numbers, one                   now lead us to the exact definition of partial
represented by the waveform from amplitude              presence of an element in a set, better known
zero to the maximum amplitude and the other             as fuzziness. Unless one looks into the
represented by the waveform from the                    matters through this lens, the way to construct
maximum amplitude to zero amplitude. Here               a fuzzy number would not be clear. Double
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representation as such may not be quite                            two functions will ultimately lead to the
important. However, if the elements in the                         membership function of our normal fuzzy
intervals [a1, b1] and [a2, b2] are presumed to                    number representing one half of the
be partially present with level of presence of                     waveform. We shall now proceed to construct
all elements in the two intervals being equal                      the membership function from the data
to ½, then the identity would be                                   collected from an actual earthquake.
             [a1, b1](1/2) (S) [a2, b2](1/2)
   = [a (1), a (2)](1/2) U [a (2), b (1)] (1) U [b (1), b          1.       Construction of the membership curve
                                 (1/2)
                            (2)]                                             for the earthquake waveform
                (1/2)
Here [a1, b1]         represents the interval [a1, b1]
where every element of the interval is                                 The original picture of the waveform of
partially present with level of presence of                        the earthquake has been shown in fig. 1,
every element being equal to ½.                                    which has been obtained from an earthquake
     Now suppose                                                   measuring device at Gauhati University and
                      a (1), a (2), …, a (39)                      the date of that particular waveform under
are values of a1, a2, …, a39 arranged in                           study was 25-05-1998.
increasing order of magnitude, and
                  b (1), b (2), …, b (39)
are values of b1, b2, …, b39 arranged in
increasing order of magnitude. We shall now
superimpose the 39 intervals thus found, and
shall normalize the frequency of occurrences
by dividing by the total frequency.
     Superimposing the intervals
           [a1, b1], [a2, b2], …, [a39, b39]
and thereafter normalizing in the aforesaid
manner is equivalent to superimposing the
intervals
  [a1, b1] (1/39), [a2, b2] (1/39), …, [a39, b39] (1/39)
with constant level of partial presence 1/39                               Fig. 1: Waveform of the earthquake of
for every interval. We shall thus get, subject                                  May 25, 1998, in Guwahati.
to the condition that [a1, b1] ∩ [a2, b2] ∩ [a3,
b3] ∩……… ∩ [a39, b39] is not void,                                     From the waveform, we determined data
                                                                   regarding the minimum and the maximum
      [a1, b1] (1/39) (S) [a2, b2] (1/39) (S) [a3, b3]             amplitudes for 39 observations. The minimum
       (1/39)
              (S)……….. (S) [a39, b39] (1/39)                       amplitudes in increasing order of magnitude
         = [a (1), a (2)] (1/39) ∪[a (2), a (3)] (2/39) ∪          (in cm.) were
      [a (3), a (4)] (3/39) ∪.......∪[a (39), b (1)] (1) ∪
         [b (1), b (2)] (38 /39) ∪ [b (2), b (3)] (37 /39)         -1.15, -1.14, -1.1, -1.05, -0.81, -0.8, -0.7, -0.6,
           ∪………∪ [b (38), b (39)] (1/39),                          -0.51, -0.5, -0.49, -0.48, -0.47, -0.46, -0.45,
                                                                   -0.44, -0.43, -0.42, -0.41, -0.37, -0.3, -0.29,
where for example, [b (1), b (2)] (38 /39)                         -0.28, -0.27, -0.26, -0.25, -0.24, -0.23, -0.22,
represents the interval [b (1), b (2)] with level                  -0.21, -0.2, -0.19, -0.15, -0.14, -0.13, -0.12,
of partial presence of every element being 38/                     -0.11, -0.1, 0
39 for every element in the interval.
     The actual diagram would thus be a                            and similarly the maximum amplitudes in
simple function in the measure theoretic sense                     increasing order of magnitude (in cm.) were
from a (1) to a (39), and another simple function                  0, 0.1, 0.11, 0.12, 0.13, 0.14, 0.15, 0.16, 0.17,
from b (1) to b (39). The first of these two                       0.18, 0.19, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23, 0.24, 0.25, 0.26,
simple functions is non-decreasing while the                       0.27, 0.28, 0.29, 0.3, 0.31, 0.33, 0.35, 0.41,
second is non-increasing. Smoothing of these
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0.43, 0.44, 0.46, 0.47, 0.49, 0.5, 0.52, 0.55,          distribution function of another random
0.57, 0.6, 0.9, 1.05, 1.3, 1.35, 1.45.                  variable in the interval [0, 1.45]. Now,
                                                        according to Baruah’s randomness-fuzziness
We then superimposed the intervals making               consistency     principle,   the   theoretical
them equally fuzzy with constant level of               distribution function of the minimum
partial presence equal to 1/39 in every case.           amplitudes in [-1.15, 0] and the theoretical
      At this point, we would like to define            complementary distribution function of the
what is known as an empirical distribution              maximum amplitudes in [0, 1.45] together
function in the statistical literature (Gibbons         define a normal fuzzy number [-1.15, 0, 1.45],
and Chakraborti, 1992, page- 25). An                    which is clear from the diagram given below:
empirical distribution function may be
considered as an estimate of the cumulative
distribution function defining the randomness
concerned. For a sample of size n, this
function Sn (x), is defined as the proportion of
values that do not exceed x. Accordingly, if X
(1), X (2), … , X (n) denote the order statistics
of a random sample, its empirical distribution
function would be given by
        Sn (x) = 0, if x < X (1),
               = k / n, if X (k) ≤ x < X (k+1),
                   k = 1, 2, …, (n – 1),
                 = 1, if x ≥ X (n).
 X here being random, so would be Sn (X).
Writing
                Δi (t) = 0, if Xi > t,
                        =1, otherwise,                       Fig.2 Membership values of one half of
we see that                                                      the waveform of the earthquake
               Sn (x) = ∑ Δi (x) / n.
Therefore nSn (x) will have the law followed                    Thus, the fuzzy membership function in
by the sum of n independent Bernoulli                   this    example can be approximated as
                                                                   0         if   x   1.15
random variables Δi(x). Indeed in such a case,                     F x 
                                                                            if     1.15  x  0
we would have                                            X x   
               Prob [Sn (x) = k / n]                               G x    if    0  x  1.45
                                                                   
                                                                   0              x  1.45
          = n Ck [FX (x)]k [1 – Fx (x)]n - k                                 if
for k = 0, 1, …, n. Hence the mathematical
expectation of Sn (x) would be given by                       Here F(x) and G(x) are the Dubois –
               E [Sn (x)] = FX (x).                     Prade left and right reference functions. F(x)
Therefore, Sn (x) converges uniformly to FX             is a non-decreasing continuous function from
(x) almost surely. This leads to the Glivenko –         0 to 1, and G(x) is non-increasing from 1 to 0
Cantelli theorem that states that the limiting          for -1.15 ≤ x ≤ 0 and 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.45
value of the supremum of the difference                 respectively.
between Sn (x) and FX (x), as n becomes                         From the diagram it is clear that the
infinitely large, converges to zero almost              membership curve for the right reference
surely.                                                 function decreases nearly exponentially with
        After plotting the values (Fig. 2), we          the increase in the amplitudes of the
have seen that the minimum amplitudes of the            waveform and that the left reference function
waveform is an empirical distribution                   increases nearly exponentially with the
function of a random variable in the interval           increase in the amplitudes of the waveform.
[-1.15, 0], while the maximum amplitudes of
the waveform is a complementary empirical
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   3.      Fitting of the reference functions

        Taking the different values of
amplitudes as an independent variable X and
the membership values as the dependent
variable Y, we can fit the reference functions.
As for the right reference function, let
        Y= a. ebX where b < 0, X > 0,
such that the maximum of Y will be unity for
X = 0.
        Using the method of least squares the
estimates of a and b were computed. We have
found that the estimated values of Y is                          Figure 4: The left reference function
1.098383 for the dependent variable X=0. We
therefore had to do a little bit of scaling in the               After combining the estimated left and
sense that the estimated value of the                    right reference functions, we can construct the
parameter a had to be divided by 1.098383.               estimated membership curve (fig. 5), where
The equation thus found was                              the right reference function decreases nearly
           Y= 1.84118745.e-0.59969X.                     exponentially and the left reference function
The curve concerned has been depicted in                 increases nearly exponentially.
Fig. 3 below.




    Figure 3: The right reference function

     The equation of the left reference
    function
would similarly be                                         Fig.5: Estimated membership curve for the
        Y= a. ebX where b > 0, X < 0,                              waveform of the earthquake
on condition that the maximum of Y would be
unity when X= 0. Once again, using the                                   4.       Conclusions
method of least squares we computed the
estimates of a and b, and did a bit of scaling.                  Two laws of randomness can define a
The equation was found to be                                 normal law of fuzziness. From one half of
        Y= 1.51248645.e0.70178X                              the waveform of an earthquake, starting
The curve has been shown in Fig. 4 below.                    from the maximum amplitude to zero
                                                             amplitude, we have been able to show that
                                                             the waveform is indeed a normal fuzzy
                                                             number. This is how a normal fuzzy
                                                             number has to be constructed.


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                     References


      1. Baruah, H. K. (2010), The Randomness –
Fuzziness Consistency Principle, International Journal
of Energy, Information and Communications, Vol. 1,
Issue 1, 2010, 37 – 48.
      2. Baruah, H. K. (2011a), In Search of the Root
of Fuzziness: The Measure Theoretic Meaning of
Partial Presence, Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and
Informatics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 57 – 68.
      3. Baruah, H. K. (2011b), Construction of the
Membership Function of a Fuzzy Number, ICIC
Express Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 545-549.
      4. Baruah, H. K. (2011c), The Theory of Fuzzy
Sets: Beliefs and Realities, International Journal of
Energy Information and Communications, Vol. 2, Issue
2, 2011, 1 – 22.
      5. Baruah, H. K. (2012), Construction of Normal
Fuzzy Numbers Using the Mathematics of Partial
Presence, Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier,
Vol. 1, No. 1, 9 – 15.
      6. Das, D., Mahanta S., Chutia, R. and Baruah,
H. K. (2013), Construction of normal fuzzy numbers:
case studies with Indian stock exchange data, Annals of
Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics (in press).
      7. Gibbons J. D. and Chakraborti S., (1992);
Nonparametric Statistical Inference, Third Edition,
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1992.
      8. Rohatgi V. K. and Saleh. A. K. E.,(2001), An
Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Second
Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John
Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore.




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      THE EXACT DEFINITION OF FUZZY RANDOMNESS: AN
   APPLICATION OF THE MATHEMATICS OF PARTIAL PRESENCE

                 Supahi Mahanta, Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
                                        supahi_mahanta@rediffmail.com

               Rituparna Chutia, Department of Mathematics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
                                         Rituparnachutia7@rediffmail.com

               Hemanta K. Baruah, Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
                                                 hemanta_bh@yahoo.com


          Abstract: Fuzzy randomness leads to fuzzy                      However, based on a set operation
conclusions. Such fuzzy conclusions can indeed be                called superimposition (Baruah, 1999a), it has
made in terms of probability. In this article, the concept
of fuzzy randomness has been discussed using the
                                                                 meanwhile been established by Baruah
mathematics of partial presence. Two important points            (2010a, 2010b, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2012)
have been suggested in this article. First, fuzzy                that every law of fuzziness can actually be
randomness should be explained with reference to the             expressed in terms of two laws of
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency Principle, and                randomness, with randomness defined in the
only then the mathematical explanations of fuzzy
randomness would actually be complete. Secondly, in
                                                                 measure theoretic sense, and accordingly
every case of fuzzy statistical hypothesis testing, the          fuzzy randomness should be explained with
alternative hypotheses must necessarily be properly              reference to two laws of randomness defined
defined. The authors in this article have described              for every fuzzy observation. In this article, we
fuzzy randomness with reference to a numerical                   are going to put forward the exact
example of using the Student’s t-test statistic.
          Keywords: Complement of a fuzzy set, the
                                                                 mathematical analysis of fuzzy randomness.
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency Principle,                            The     Zadehian      definition      of
Student’s t-statistic.                                           complement of a fuzzy set is defective
                                                                 (Baruah, 1999b, 2011a). In the Zadehian
                  1.     Introduction                            definition of complementation, fuzzy
                                                                 membership function and fuzzy membership
       Fuzzy randomness arises when the                          value have been taken to be the same, and that
random variables cannot be observed with                         is where the defect lies. Indeed fuzzy
exactness. Fuzzy randomness in terms of                          membership function and fuzzy membership
uncertain probabilities has been studied by                      value are two different things for the
Buckley and Eslami (2003, 2004) and                              complement of a normal fuzzy set (Baruah,
Buckley (2003), among others. With                               2011c). The membership function of the
reference to testing of statistical hypotheses,                  complement of a normal fuzzy number is 1
Goswami et al (1997) and Talukdar and                            over the entire real line, with the condition
Baruah (2007, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c, 2011)                         that it is measured from the membership
have studied randomness with fuzzy                               function of the normal fuzzy number
observations. Goswami and Baruah (2008a)                         concerned. In studying fuzzy randomness,
studied the effect of fuzziness on the binomial                  while testing statistical hypotheses, the
probability law. Fuzzy time series analysis                      alternative hypotheses of fuzzy null
was studied by Goswami and Baruah (2007,                         hypotheses have always been wrongly
2008b). In all these cases, the parameters                       defined. In this article, we would discuss
concerned were taken to be fuzzy numbers,                        regarding how an alternative hypothesis has
and the statistical analytical matters were                      to be stated.
dealt with accordingly.

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         It should be noted that the notion of                 functions. Defining the operation called
probability does not enter into the measure                    Superimposition of Sets and using the
theoretic definition of a random variable                      Glivenko-Cantelli Theorem (Loeve, 1977) on
(Rohatgi and Saleh, 2001, pages 41 – 43).                      Order Statistic, Baruah (2010a, 2010b, 2011b,
When a variable is probabilistic, it has to be                 2011c, 2011d, 2012) has established the
random by definition although when a                           following result which we shall state as a
variable is random, it need not be                             theorem that uncovers the missing link
probabilistic. Accordingly, all results of the                 between fuzziness and randomness, which
classical     theory   of    probability    are                was being searched for by the workers in
automatically applicable to a random variable                  fuzziness since 1965.
defined in the measure theoretic sense. In the                        Theorem 1: For a normal fuzzy
term ‘fuzzy randomness’, as available in the                   number
literature, the word ‘randomness’ has been                                          N = [α, β, γ]
taken as equivalent to the word                                       with membership function
‘probabilistic’.                                                                             1 x ,   x  
                                                                                            
         In what, follows, we shall discuss in                                    N x    2 x ,   x  
short Baruah’s Randomness – Fuzziness                                                       0,
                                                                                                      otherwise
Consistency Principle, and we shall state the
                                                                        such that
axiom defining the complement of a fuzzy
                                                                                  Ψ1 (α) = Ψ2 (γ) = 0,
set. Thereafter we shall discuss how exactly
                                                                                  Ψ1 (β) = Ψ2 (β) = 1,
to define fuzzy randomness. Finally, we shall
                                                                       Ψ1(x) is the distribution function of a
discuss the matters with reference to testing a
                                                               random variable defined in the interval [α, β],
fuzzy hypothesis in the case of the Student’s
                                                               and Ψ2(x) is the complementary distribution
t-test.
                                                               function of another random variable defined
                                                               in the interval [β, γ].
    1.      The Randomness – Fuzziness
                                                                       It needs to be mentioned at this point
            Consistency Principle
                                                               that the Glivenko – Cantelli theorem on
                                                               convergence       of    empirical     probability
        A normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ] is
                                                               distributions can actually be seen as the
an interval around the real number β with the
                                                               backbone of mathematical statistics. This
elements in the interval being partially
                                                               theorem is about probability distribution
present. Partial presence of an element in a
                                                               functions, and therefore it will be applicable
fuzzy set is defined by the membership
                                                               for distribution functions of random variables
function. A normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ]
                                                               with randomness defined in the measure
is associated with a membership function μN
                                                               theoretic sense as well (Baruah, 2011b, 2012).
(x), where
                                                               As we have mentioned earlier, in the measure
                            1 x ,   x  
                                                              theoretic sense, if a variable is probabilistic, it
                 N x    2 x ,   x  
                           0,                                 has to be necessarily random, although when
                                     otherwise
                                                               a variable is random, it does not have to be
         Here Ψ1(x) is continuous and non-                     probabilistic.
decreasing in the interval [α, β], and Ψ2(x) is                        It is known that a distribution function
continuous and non-increasing in the interval                  of a random variable is non-decreasing, and
[β, γ], where                                                  that a complementary distribution function of
                 Ψ1 (α) = Ψ2 (γ) = 0,                          a random variable is non-increasing. The
                 Ψ1 (β) = Ψ2 (β) = 1.                          functions are continuous and differentiable.
         In the Dubois-Prade nomenclature,                     Differentiation of Ψ1(x) and (1 – Ψ2(x)) would
Ψ1(x) is called the Left Reference Function,                   give two density functions. This means, one
and Ψ2(x) is called the Right Reference                        needs two laws of randomness, one in the
Function of the normal fuzzy number.                           interval [α, β] and the other in [β, γ], to
Construction of a normal fuzzy number would                    construct a normal fuzzy number [α, β, γ].
depend on construction of these two reference
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        For a triangular fuzzy number,                        the complement NC will have the
differentiation of Ψ1(x) and (1 – Ψ2(x)) would        membership function μNC (x), where
give two uniform density functions. It is well                        μNC (x) = 1, - ∞ < x < ∞,
known that the uniform law of randomness is                   with the condition that μNC (x) is to be
the simplest of all probability laws. Thus two        counted from Ψ1(x), if α ≤ x ≤ β, from Ψ2(x),
uniform laws of randomness lead to the                if β ≤ x ≤ γ, and from 0, otherwise, so that we
simplest fuzzy number. When we say that a             keep a difference between the fuzzy
normal fuzzy number is of the triangular type,        membership function and the fuzzy
it actually means that we have assumed that           membership value. Baruah (1999b, 2011c)
the left reference function is a uniform              has forwarded this definition of the
distribution function and the right reference         complement of a fuzzy set which is based on
function is a uniform complementary                   the following axiom:
distribution function. We have actually found                 Axiom 1: The fuzzy membership
that the triangular fuzzy number appears very         function of the complement of a normal fuzzy
naturally in defining fuzziness (Das, 2013).          number N is equal to 1 for the entire real line,
        Theorem - 1 can actually be called the        with the membership value counted from the
Randomness - Fuzziness Consistency                    membership function of N.
Principle (Baruah, 2010a, 2010b, 2011c).
Thus according to this principle, the Dubois-              3.       The Exact Definition of Fuzzy
Prade left reference function is actually a                             Randomness
distribution function by definition and
similarly the right reference function is                     In studying fuzzy randomness, the
nothing but a complementary distribution              workers used the definition of complement of
function.     In other words, two laws of             a fuzzy set to frame the alternative hypotheses
randomness, probabilistic or otherwise, are           with reference to the fuzzy null hypotheses.
not only necessary but also sufficient to             Whenever a fuzzy null hypothesis was found
define a law of fuzziness.                            rejectable, this wrong definition came into
                                                      picture.
   2.     The Complement of a Fuzzy Set                       While      making      the    statistical
                                                      conclusions with reference to fuzzy random
        In the Zadehian definition of the             data, there was another lack. If the two laws
complement of a fuzzy set, fuzzy membership           of randomness defining fuzziness are indeed
function and fuzzy membership value are               laws of probability, two possibilities can
taken to be the same, which led to the                actually be there. When a non-rejectable
conclusion that the fuzzy sets do not follow          hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a
the set theoretic axioms of exclusion and             probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would
contradiction. For the complement of a                actually be found rejectable, the probability of
normal fuzzy set, fuzzy membership function           rejection decided by the right reference
and fuzzy membership value are two different          function. In the same way, if a rejectable
things, and the complement of a normal fuzzy          hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a
set has to be defined accordingly.                    probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would be
        If a normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ]        found non-rejectable, the probability of non-
is defined with a membership function μN (x),         rejection being decided by the left reference
where                                                 function this time (Baruah, 2011c).
               μN(x) = Ψ1(x), if α ≤ x ≤ β,                   Assume that X is a random variable
                        = Ψ2(x), if β ≤ x ≤ γ,        following the normal probability law with
and                                                   mean μ and variance unity. Now if the
                        = 0, otherwise,               parameter μ is fuzzy, with membership
        where                                         defined in [μ - δ, μ, μ + δ], we would actually
                  Ψ1 (α) = Ψ2 (γ) = 0,                define an infinite number of normal
                  Ψ1 (β) = Ψ2 (β) = 1,                probability density functions with location
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parameter ranging from (μ – δ) to (μ + δ )                                  is in fact defined by two laws of
with maximum membership assigned at the                               randomness with distribution functions
value μ. This is where the current definition                                              x  xi  
                                                                               F1 x                , if xi    x  xi
of fuzzy randomness ends.                                                                      
        Assume now that we have a normally                                  and
distributed population with mean μ and                                                       x   x
variance σ2. From this population, a sample of                                F2 x   1  i           , if xi  x  xi   ,
                                                                                                 
n observations x1, x2, ... , xn has been drawn,                             so that their densities
and we can then proceed to infer about the
                                                                                        F1 x   , if xi    x  xi ,
                                                                                     d           1
population, based on the sample data. Assume                                         dx          
further that we have fuzzy data and we need                                    and
to proceed for statistical analysis with
                                                                                        F2 x   , if xi  x  xi  
                                                                                     d           1
reference to fuzzy randomness.
                                                                                     dx          
        The data are in terms of fuzzy                                        are uniform.
numbers around xi, i=1,2,…,n defined as, say,                                 Accordingly,       fuzzy    randomness
              Xi = [xi - δ, xi, xi + δ], δ ≥ 0.                       should be defined as follows. First, there
        The analysis can now proceed                                  should be a variable following some law of
accordingly. Without loss of generality, and                          probability.     Secondly,      around    every
for computational simplicity, such fuzzy                              realization of the probabilistic variable, there
numbers are usually taken as triangular.                              should be fuzziness. This fuzziness in turn
        It can be seen that the equivalence of                        will be explained by two laws of randomness,
the definitions of the Dubois-Prade left                              with randomness defined in the measure
reference function Ψ1(x), α ≤ x ≤ β, and a                            theoretic sense. If it is presumed that the two
distribution function gives us                                        laws of randomness are in fact two laws of
                       1 x   1 x  , say
                    d
                                                                      probability, then the conclusions can be made
                      dx
                                                                      probabilistically.
         where
                            

                              x dx 1 .
                            
                                1
                                                                        4.       Student’s – t Test with Fuzzy Data

       In the same way, the equivalence of                                      Assume that a random sample of five
the definitions of the Dubois-Prade right                             students has been collected from a normal
reference function Ψ2(x), β ≤ x≤ γ, and a                             population and their heights are measured.
complementary distribution function, gives us                         The heights of the five students are 63, 67, 70,
              d
                 1  2 x   2 x  , say,                       71 and 73 inches. Let us assume that mean
              dx                                                      height of the population is 66 inches.
       where                                                                    Now, we want to test whether the data
                                                                     are consistent with the assumption of a mean
                             x dx 1.
                           
                                2                                     height of 66 inches in the population, i.e., H0:
                                                                      μ=66, against the alternative hypothesis, H1:
       Now,      according             to       Baruah’s              μ≠66.
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency                                              Under H0, the test statistic is given by
Principle, a triangular fuzzy number of the
                                                                                                  x  0
type                                                                                        t 2            ,
                  X i  xi   , xi , xi                                                    s / n 1
       with membership function                                                 which follows the Student’s – t
                                                                      probability distribution with (n-1) degrees of
                          x  xi  
                                     , if xi    x  xi ,          freedom, where x is the sample mean and
                               
                                                                      s 2 is the sample variance.
                         x   x
             X i x    i          , if xi  x  xi   ,                    Here, the calculated value of t is
                              
                         0, otherwise                                1.4364 which is less than the tabulated value
                                                                     of t i.e. 2.78 at 5% probability level of
                         
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                                                                           (JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
                                                                                                                   Vol. 1, No.1, 2013.

significance for 4 degrees of freedom.
                                                                              1 x  
                                                                                          12.8  20.2 x  2 2
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                  64 2.56  35.4 x 2  12.8  20.2 x 2
                                                                                                                                                        ,
                                                                                                                                                                
Therefore, we may conclude that there is no                                                                              32
reason to reject the null hypothesis that the                                                                                         0.2689  x  1.4364,

sample has come from a population with                                       and
mean height 66 inches.                                                        (1   2 x )  1 
                                                                                                     76.8  11.2 x   76.8  11.2 x 
                                                                                                                    2                     2 2
                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                 64 92.16  4 x 2   ,
                                                                                                                                    32
        In a fuzzy situation, let us start with
                                                                                                                                                 1.4364  x  4.8
data of the type [xi – 1, xi, xi + 1] with an                                       This means, the fuzzy value of
assumption that the data are triangular. The                                               t = [0.2689, 1.4364, 4.8]
random variable X of which x is a realization                                       with left and right reference functions
in the sample was assumed to be normally                                     ψ1(x) and ψ2(x) defined in 0.2689 ≤ x ≤
distributed. In other words, we would start                                  1.4364 and 1.4364 ≤ x ≤4.8 respectively,
with an assumption that the two laws of                                      would be defined by the two densities d  1 x 
randomness, one on [xi – 1, xi] and the other                                                                                                              dx
on [xi, xi + 1], are uniform, for a normally                                 and      d
                                                                                         1  2 x      in the respective ranges.
distributed realization x with mean μ and error                                       dx
variance σ2, say. We would presume further                                            We now proceed to look into the
that these two laws of randomness are indeed                                 matters of making a fuzzy conclusion
two laws of probability so that we can infer                                 statistically. The tabulated non-fuzzy value of
probabilistically.                                                           t at 5% level of significance for 4 degrees of
        Thus, we have the heights of the                                     freedom is 2.78, which lies between 1.4364 to
students     with     triangular     membership                              4.8.
functions as [62, 63, 64], [66, 67, 68], [69, 70,
71], [70, 71, 72], [72, 73, 74]. The null
hypothesis would be
             H0: the data of interval type are
consistent with the assumption of a fuzzy
mean height of [65, 66, 67] inches in the
population, i.e.,
                  H0 : μ = [65, 66, 67].
        The alternative hypothesis is,
                  H1: μ = [65, 66, 67]C ,                                                            Figure: The Membership Curve
        where the complement should be
defined as discussed earlier.                                                        To the right of the tabulated value of t,
        Under H0, we have obtained the fuzzy                                 i.e., 2.78, the area under the probability
value of Student’s - t with the following fuzzy                              density function of Student’s t is 0.025. 2.78
membership function                                                          is on that part of the interval on which the
                                                                             right reference function is defined. Now, in
                                              
           12.8  20.2 x 2 2  64 2.56  35.4 x 2  12.8  20.2 x 2        our perspective the probability density
                                                                    ,
                                      32                                    function concerned with the right reference
                                                  0.2689  x  1.4364
                                                                            function is given by
                                                           
           76.8  11.2 x 2  76.8  11.2 x 2 2  64 92.16  4 x 2
          
t x                                                           ,
                                                                              d
                                                                                 1   2 x    22.4 x                     
                                                                                                                22.4 x 76.8  11.2 x 2  256 x     
                                                                                                                                                   ,
          
          
                                      32
                                                   1.4364  x  4.8
                                                                              dx                     32                       2
                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                             32 76.8  11.2 x 2  64 92.16  4 x 2                  
                                                                                                                                         1.4364  x  4.8
          0,               otherwise
                                                                                     Therefore, the probability that t ≥ 2.78
          
          
                                                                             would be the area under this probability
       Now, this fuzzy number gives the                                      density function for t ≥ 2.78, which is the area
following    two     distribution functions                                  of the right tail beyond 2.78. The area of the
according to the Randomness-Fuzziness                                        left tail from 1.4364 to 2.78 is (1- ψ2(2.78)).
Consistency Principle:                                                       Thus the area of the right tail is ψ2(2.78)
                                                                             again, which is nothing but the membership
                                                                             value of t at 2.78. ψ2(2.78) = 0.3960 is

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                                                          (JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
                                                                                                  Vol. 1, No.1, 2013.

therefore the probability that the fuzzy null                     3. Baruah, H. K. (2010a), The randomness –
hypothesis that the sample has come from a                  fuzziness consistency principle, International Journal
                                                            of Energy, Information and Communications, Vol. 1,
population with fuzzy mean height 66 inches                 Issue 1, 37 – 48.
would have to be rejected at 5% probability                       4. Baruah, H. K. (2010b), The Randomness-
level of significance. In other words, when a               Fuzziness Consistency Principle, Invited Article,
non-rejectable hypothesis is fuzzified, there               International Congress of Mathematics, Proceedings of
will still be a probability that the fuzzy                  the Satellite International Conference on Probability
                                                            and Statistics, Sambalpur University, India.
hypothesis would actually be found                                5. Baruah, H. K. (2011a), Towards Forming a
rejectable. In the same way, if a rejectable                Field of Fuzzy Sets, International Journal of Energy,
hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a             Information and Communications, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 16 –
probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would be              20.
found non-rejectable, the probability of non-                     6. Baruah, H. K. (2011b), Construction of the
                                                            membership function of a fuzzy number, ICIC Express
rejection being decided by the left reference               Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 545-549.
function this time.                                               7. Baruah, H. K. (2011c), The theory of fuzzy
                                                            sets: beliefs and realities, International Journal of
               5.      Conclusions                          Energy Information and Communications, Vol. 2, No.
                                                            2, 1-22.
                                                                  8. Baruah, H. K. (2011d), In search of the root of
         Partial presence of an element in a                fuzziness: the measure theoretic meaning of partial
normal fuzzy number can be expressed in                     presence, Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and
terms of two laws of randomness. The                        Informatics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 57-68.
membership function of a normal fuzzy                             9. Baruah, H. K. (2012), Construction of normal
number [α, β, γ] is actually a distribution                 fuzzy numbers using the mathematics of partial
                                                            presence, Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier,
function in [α, β] and a complementary                      Vol. 1, No. 1, 9-15.
distribution function in [β, γ]. Based on this                    10. Buckley, J. J. (2003), Uncertain probabilities
principle, the exact definition of fuzzy                    III: the continuous case, Soft Computing – A Fusion of
randomness has been forwarded in this article.              Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, Vol. 8,
Further, the complement of a fuzzy set should               No. 3, 200 – 206.
                                                                  11. Buckley, J. J. and Eslami, E. (2003),
be redefined. In testing of fuzzy hypothesis,               Uncertain probabilities I: the discrete case, Soft
we deal with the alternative hypothesis which               Computing – A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies
is the complement of the fuzzy null                         and Applications, Vo. 7, No. 8, 500 – 505.
hypothesis. One should note that for the                          12. Buckley, J. J. and Eslami, E. (2004),
complement of a normal fuzzy set, fuzzy                     Uncertain probabilities II: the continuous case, Soft
                                                            Computing – A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies
membership function and fuzzy membership                    and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 3, 193 – 199.
value are two different things. We have                           13. Das, D., Mahanta S., Chutia, R. and Baruah,
shown that when a non-rejectable hypothesis                 H. K. (2013), Construction of normal fuzzy numbers:
is fuzzified, there would still be a probability            case studies with Indian stock exchange data, Annals of
that the fuzzy hypothesis would actually be                 Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics (in press).
                                                                  14. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K. (2008a),
found rejectable. In the same way, if a                     Fuzzy Discrete Distributions: the Binomial Case,
rejectable hypothesis is fuzzified, there would             Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 671 –
still be a probability that the fuzzy hypothesis            676.
would be found non-rejectable.                                    15. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K. (2008b), The
                                                            Fuzzy ARIMA (1, 1) Process, Vol. 16, No. 3, 721 –
                                                            729.
                    Reference                                     16. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K., (2007),
                                                            Fuzzy Time Series Analysis, Journal of Fuzzy
    1. Baruah, H. K. (1999a), Set Superimposition           Mathematics, Vol. 15, No. 3, 513 -523.
and Its Application to the Theory of Fuzzy Sets,                  17. Goswami, P., Dutta, P. and Baruah, H. K.
Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 40, Nos. 1       (1997), The Latin Square Design Using Fuzzy Data,
& 2, 25 – 31.                                               Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 5, No. 4, 767 -779.
    2. Baruah, H. K. (1999b), Fuzzy Membership                    18. Loeve, M. (1977), Probability Theory,
with respect to a Reference Function, Journal of the        Springer Verlag, New York.
Assam Science Society, Vol. 40, No. 3, 65 – 73.                   19. Rohatgi V. K. and Saleh A. K. E. (2001), An
                                                            Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Second

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Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John           22. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2010b), A
Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore.                        Sequential Variance Ratio Test with Fuzzy
     20. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2007),                 Observations, Advances in Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 5,
Sequential Probability Ratio Test with Fuzzy                    No. 3, 301-309.
Observations, Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 15,                23. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2010c), A
No. 3, 627 – 643.                                               Two Sample Sequential t-Test with Fuzzy
     21. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2010a), A              Observations, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 4,
Fuzzy Sequential Decision Procedure Applied to                  No. 68, 3361 – 3374.
Completely Randomized Design of Experiments,                        24. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2011), A
International Journal of Contemporary Mathematical              Sequential Multi-Decision Procedure with Fuzzy
Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 26, 1283 – 1302.                          Observations, Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 19,
                                                                No. 1, 125 – 140.




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          COMPUTER SECURITY AND SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES
                       PhD Lazar Stošić, College for professional studies educators, Aleksinac, Serbia

                                                Dragan Veličković, Master of Laws


           Abstract: With the increasing development of               procedures and rules. However, the very
computer and communications technology growth and
increasing needs and development of information systems               products and services, procedures and rules
security. The problem of security must be approached with             are not sufficient in themselves. Need a
greater caution. With the development of computer and                 proper and timely training of authorized
communication technologies have developed numerous tools
to protect files and other information. A set of tools,               persons in charge of the protection system.
procedures, policies and solutions to defend against attacks          All that investment in staff training,
are collectively referred to as computer network security. It is      procurement of goods and services,
necessary above all to define and learn about the concepts of
attack, risk, threat, vulnerability and asset value.                  procedures and rules are far more profitable
           During the design and implementation of                    than paying damages. On the possibility of
information systems should primarily take into account a set          losing important data to say nothing. Must
of measures to increase security and maintenance at an
acceptable level of risk. In any case, there is a need to know        find a balance between investments in safety
the risks in the information system. Sources of potential             and immediate effects in order to reduce risk.
security problems are challenges and attacks, while the risk                   Security is based on four basic steps
relates to the probable outcome and its associated costs due to
occurrence of certain events. There are numerous techniques           as follows:
help protect your computer: cryptography, authentication,                      Evaluation (assess the possible risks
checked the software, licenses and certificates, valid                and predictions for their removal),
authorization...
           This paper explains some of the procedures and                       protection (prevent potential attacks
potential threats to break into the network and computers as          in order to reduce the possibility of
well as potential programs that are used. Guidance and                compromising the system),
explanation of these programs is not to cause a break-in at
someone else's computer, but to highlight the vulnerability of                  discovery (the process of identifying
the computer's capabilities.                                          the attack) and
        Key words - computer security, security                                 Answer (a recovery with the
technologies, threats, security, protection of computer.
                                                                      possibility of further work or restoration of
                                                                      the system itself).
                       SECURITY                                                Three basic principles of information
                                                                      security make up the trinity of ''great'':
        One of the accepted definitions of                               Confidentiality - an attempt to prevent
security is that security is the maintenance of                              the intentional, unauthorized disclosure,
the level of acceptable risk. The risk is the                            Integrity - data is a system and as such
result of accumulation of threats and                                        must remain and must not be changed,
weaknesses of the consequences. Since it is a                            Availability - only certain staff can
process means that it must be planned and                                    access the data.
systematically monitor the system status and
possible threats that can come from outside.
We can not say with certainty that a system is
fully protected. There is no absolute security.
Everything is relative. When the protection
system is necessary to accept some level of
risk and the possibility that a certain loss i.e.
reasonable level of risk. Since security is a
process it can not pay for the purchase of a
product. Each process is in a dynamic state,
so the safety can be implemented using                                Three basic principles of information security
several different products and services,
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        I'm term safety, security, refers to the        destruction of resources, theft of resources,
preservation and protection of data in                  theft of services, refusal of service, corruption
computer systems of an enterprise. Security is          of data and applications.
usually divided into safety resources, network                  During normal flow of information
security, security location where the data              data is moving from one place to another.
(server, etc.) and security services.

         Possible attacks and threats

         Since we defined that the security                     Normal flow of information flow
process, the protection system can select
various security products, policies, procedures                 There are several types of attacks but,
and practices. When we speak of the                     generally, all attacks can be classified into
protection system must be protected from                four categories:
attacks that threaten the information systems.
To protect against possible attacks have the                        1.         Cutting or breaking
ability to predict and know the attacks and the
types of attacks. If you understand the types                   This kind of attack interrupts the flow
of attacks and ways in which they come, we              of information in the system. This is a direct
can more easily monitor and control the risk            or active attack.
of data loss.
         Ensuring safety should and must
become the responsibility of each system
administrator. Should always pay attention                Cutting or interruption of information flow
and ask: ''What is the probability that
someone will break into a wired or wireless                              2.       Interception
network, the company where you work and
listen to network traffic? If this happens the                  This kind of attack is difficult to see,
measures taken? ''If you do not take certain            and unlike the previous, active attacks, are a
steps there is a likelihood that an attack              passive attack. This kind of attack the person
occurs or wired wireless network.                       trying to collect information or to perform
         When trying to improve security of             monitoring of current performance. After
information systems are mostly used six                 gathering sufficient data can be exported
categories of security measures including:              active attack or some other kind of attack.
general security policies and procedures,
software, virus protection, digital signatures,
encryption, firewalls and proxy servers.[5]
Security breaches and attacks on information
systems most often arise from the following
sources: employees of firms, hackers,
terrorists, and computer viruses.
         The most common steps in the attack                       Interception of information
are as follows:
               testing and Assessment,
               exploitation and penetration,                             3.        Changed
               increased privileges,
               maintenance of access,                          This kind of attack falls into the
               refusal of services.                    category of active attacks, because the attack
                                                        on the integrity. There may be a changing of
      During the attack may lead to different           the data or the whole system.
consequences and the most common are: the
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                                                       K. The WEP protocol is designed to provide
                                                       privacy to packet based wireless networks
                                                       based on the 802.11b standard [7]. The WEP
                                                       encrypts by taking a secret key and a per-
                                                       packet 3 byte IV, and using the IV followed
                                                       by the secret key as the RC4 key. The attacker
        Changes of information flow                    is able to retrieve the first byte of the RC4
            4.      Fabrication                        output from each packet.[6]
                                                               The potential risks with the advent of
        This kind of attack is also an active          wireless networks with manifold increase.
attack and an attack on authenticity. This kind        Wireless is greatly vulnerable for the simple
of attack is faking data, traffic etc.                 reason - incompetence that's been properly
                                                       adjusted. We said that there is no absolute
                                                       security. The same is true of networks. By
                                                       placing an increasing number of ''hot spots''
                                                       (the location where the greatest number of
                                                       people - cafes, parks for the rest ...) opens up
                                                       the possibility that data theft and intrusion in
                                                       the user's computer. Wireless networks are
           Fabricating information                     defined in IEEE 802.11, which brought the
                                                       IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
         Attackers could use the software              Engineers). Initial version of the IEEE 802.11
vulnerabilities in operating systems that allow        standard with the 2.4 GHz frequency and two
remote programs and entities to be entered             data rates (from 1 and 2 Mb/s), which was
into the computer the victim and take control          formed in mid-1997. year. Formed by
over it. As such, the computer becomes a kind          standard formed working groups - group A,
of' ''zombie'' PCs that can continue to attack         B, D, E, F and G. On the IEEE 802.11
other computers, to burden the network and             specification is based and Wi-Fi networks. In
the like. No less dangerous or worms that can          the beginning it was designed for mobile
do damage, duplicated and converted into               computing devices (laptop computers,
zombie computers.                                      Internet access, VoIP, games ...).
                                                               Looking at an organization as a
        Security of wireless networks                  system, we can say that the wireless network
                                                       vulnerable part of the system. Standards often
        Today, PC cards are most frequently            fail to meet the three basic security
used in home and business networks. All                requirements: reliable user authentication,
computers have a security protocol called              authorization and user privacy. The first
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). A device               security mechanism (WEP-Wired Equivalent
using an 802.11 card is configured with a key,         Privacy) has shown that it has significant
that in practice usually consists of a password        security vulnerabilities. Relying on this
or a key derived from a password.                      mechanism without taking additional
                                                       measures did not show good results. He later
        Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a            followed WEP2, EAP, WPA ... Individual
protocol for encrypting wirelessly transmitted         explanation of these mechanisms would take
packets on IEEE 802.11 networks. In a WEP              away too much time and space so we can
protected network, all packets are encrypted           keep things in general.
using the stream cipher RC4 under a common                     The attacker broke into someone's
key, the root key1 Rk. Rk is the WEP or root           system, the wireless network; he must first
key and IV is the initialization vector for a          catch a signal that now is not so difficult. By
packet. K = Rk║IV is the session or per                capturing the signal can be performed on
packet key. X is a key stream generated using          active or passive attacks. In the beginning, are
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generally conducted passive attacks, i.e.               service set identifier SSID - Service Set
listening for a signal and traffic between              Identifier, the access point rejects the
access points and users. The attached is clear          connection. However, since all control frames
that the attacker must know the physical layer          are not sent in encrypted form, an attacker can
is defined in the 802.11 standard. For an               capture the control frames sent by the access
active attack, the attacker must have the               point to communicate with other network
proper equipment that can send data to the              users, find out the SSID and join the network.
network. If the attacker does not have the              What will still work, we assume.

      Probability of interception at different locations:[1]
   Location            Full description                                 Probability of interception
                       In his house, which is quite distant from
   Rural / remote                                                       Extremely small
                       other houses
                       Connection via remote, point-to-point
   Remote                                                               Small, the targeted nature of
                       connection with a wireless Internet
   connection                                                           point-to-point connection
                       provider, or neighboring network
                                                                        Generally high, especially if
   Densely              In his home, located in a densely
                                                                        you have neighbors who use
   populated urban      populated area with few houses in the
                                                                        high technology, but actual
   place or suburb      near abroad
                                                                        attacks are unlikely.
                                                                        Generally high, because the
                        The neighborhood, which is a mixture of         business systems attractive
   Mixed
                        commercial and residential buildings            targets, and most probably
                                                                        use the wireless network
                                                                        Great, because public
                        The neighborhood, near public parks, or
   Public places in                                                     networks use different layers
                        in places where parking is allowed on
   the neighborhood                                                     of the population and
                        the street.
                                                                        anonymous users.
                        The buildings used by a number of
                                                                        Very high, because of the
   Commercial           companies, or companies, or near the
                                                                        proximity and attractiveness
   buildings            parking lot with the optical visibility of
                                                                        of the target.
                        the building.
                                                                        Generally high, for easy
                                                                        tracking, but with relatively
                        While on the road, in airports, hotels,
   Roaming                                                              low risk because no one
                        cafes and other locations
                                                                        knows just tapping your
                                                                        network traffic.


           Tools to attack wireless networks            probability and the possibility of attacks that
                                                        allow these programs and the ability to protect
        In order to best protect the information        against them. Due to abuse of the program
system, i.e. wireless networks need to, in              and the names of potential attacks is not
addition to the administrator knows these               mentioned in this paper. Hereby only draw
things and others familiar with the tools to            attention to how the administrator can better
attack wireless networks. The purpose of                train and what can and should be ready when
these schemes is the creation of the attacker           it comes to wireless networks. There are tools
(punishable by law), but shows the possible             to carry out an attack on the WEP key, tools
intrusion and abuse of wireless networks.               to crack WEP encryption and the like.
Network administrator is desirable to test                      Closing a wireless network (SSID
these programs in order to know the                     hiding) is not a secure solution that the
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network will not be visible. With a little            terms "computer" and "cyber" crime is used
trouble and patience can be detected network          as synonyms.
name. The network can detect many programs                    The term "computer" and "cyber"
that the commercial to those who are open             crime can involve all forms of computer use
source and completely free. Furthermore,              in crime. Often this form of high-tech crime,
allowing access only to specific network              rather than the word "cyber" uses the term
adapters (MAC addresses) is not safe because          "cyberspace." The prefix "cyber" is a word
it is not difficult to change MAC address             that comes from the ancient Greek word
wireless network adapter. Since the MAC               derived from "cyber", hence the name of
addresses transmitted over the air,                   scientific disciplines, "Cybernetics".
unencrypted, it is not difficult to catch such                With cyber crime, we can distinguish
address and assign it your network adapter.           two types of crimes that can be done by
                                                      computer.
    Preventing and limiting public access                     In one group, the new criminal
             computer network                         offenses like the spread of computer viruses,
                                                      destruction of files or software etc., or crimes
        ''The public computer network in              where the computer is a means of attack and
terms of criminal law is considered a set of          care for the facility required separate
interconnected computers that communicate             legislation.
by exchanging data. A public computer                         In the second group are the classic
network is the computer network that it is            crimes such as fraud, child pornography,
subject to certain conditions, available to           gambling, copyright infringement and the
everyone and it can be global in character as         like, where the computer is used as a means
the internet, regional or local character.            of execution, and that caused it in a new form
        Preventing and limiting public access         of cyber space.
computer network protecting the rights of                     The rapid growth of computer crime
citizens, that is, communication and                  has led to numerous problems, which can be
information through computers, and access to          classified as:
a public computer network sanctioned by                       • Technical problems are caused by
criminal legislation.                                 rapid changes in technology and the inability
        By preventing access to the public            of law enforcement to continually keep up to
computer network involves completely                  date, as well as technical deficiencies that
disabling the second to use the computer              make it difficult to find and prosecute
network.                                              perpetrators.
        By restricting access to public                       • Legal problems are caused by the
computer network involves the creation of             inability of the legal framework to monitor
access difficulties and efforts to prevent it.        technological developments.
        Prevention or obstruction should be                   • Operational problems are caused by
performed without authorization, otherwise            lack of equipment, training and adequate
there is crime prevention and restriction of          organizational structure and the need to work
public access computer network if there is any        at high speed regardless of time zone,
legal basis to prevent someone access to a            language and cultural differences.
public computer network.                                      The main problem is in finding and
        Criminal offenses against computer            gathering evidence.'' [3, 4, 8]
data is often called cyber crime. The term
"cyber" is often used to describe new                                      Conclusion
concepts in computer technology and terms
associated with the Internet. Cyber crime                    Tools that are available on the
would identify all criminal activities                Internet, both commercial and free, they are
committed using computers. The Convention             not designed for intruder wireless networks.
on Cyber crime of the Council of Europe, the          On the contrary, are designed to indicate the
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potential weaknesses of the system, network                    9.    http://www.niap-ccevs.org/cc-scheme/
resources and security failures so-called                      10.   http://all.net/books/ir/nswc/incident.handle.html
                                                               11.   http://www.cert.org/stats
security holes. Knowledge of these programs                    12.   http://nvd.nist.gov/
is very important for administrators to better
understand how to protect its network and
prevent data theft. Tools that are available are
usually divided into categories:
1.    Tools to search the area to find the
      network signal, of the protection
      network and the strength of its signal.
2.    Tools to intercept the data sent over the
      air and convert them into readable form,
      breaking the protective key.
3.    Using these tools is mostly illegal and
      therefore punishable by law. For these
      reasons, the names of these tools are not
      mentioned in this paper. We draw
      attention to the administrators with the
      help of these programs can realize
      significant errors and omissions in the
      networks that can be used to protect
      your network and I have an information
      system.

                     References

1.   Adam Engst, Glenn Fleishman (2004): Wireless
     networking, Computer Library, Cacak
2.   Andy Ruth, Kurt Hudson (2004): Security +
     Certification, Computer CET Beograd
3.   Criminal Code RS art. 112 page 18 and art. 303
4.   Expert comment Code of Criminal Procedure in
     offenses against the security of computer data
5.   James A. Seen (2007): Information technology:
     principles, practices, opportunities, computer
     library, Belgrade
6.   L. Stošić, M. Bogdanović (2012). RC4 stream
     cipher and possible attacks on WEP, (IJACSA)
     International Journal of Advanced Computer
     Science and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 3, march
     2012, (pp. 110-114), ISSN 2156-5570 (Online),
     ISSN               2158-107X               (Print),
     https://www.thesai.org/Downloads/Volume3No3/
     Paper19-
     RC4_Stream_Cipher_And_Possible_Attacks_On
     _WEP.pdf
7.   LAN/MAN Standard Committee, Wireless LAN
     medium access control (MAC) and physical layer
     (PHY) specifications, 1999 edition, IEEE
     standard 802.11, IEEE Computer Society, 1999.
8.   Ljubisa Lazarevic: Commentary of the Criminal
     Code of the Republic of Serbia, page. 750, 751




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ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL ECONOMY

                                        PhD Stanka Đurić, Ministry of Finance, Serbia

                    PhD Ljiljana Mihajlović Stošić, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia


         Abstract: Liquidity is generally the biggest          production in 2012. had a real decline of
problem of the Serbian economy. At the end of                  17.5%.
November 2012th Serbia's public debt stood at EUR
17.5 billion, which is close to 60% of gross domestic
                                                                        It is now clear that the only time in the
product (GDP), the debt continued to rise in December          modern Serbian obliged as the former
for new debt, so the debt could soon be equal to the           Yugoslavia in early 2013. A trend of
one that had the entire ex- Yugoslavia.                        borrowing, so that - among other signed
         Historically, the growth of the economy,              contract to Serbia mortgage an additional
increasing employment and living standards in Serbia
in the next three years can only be done if you reduce
                                                               EUR 640 million in the Chinese Exim Bank,
the deficit in the state budget, curb inflation and the        Chinese Corporation for Roads and Bridges
gap between the inflow and outflow of money abroad.            will build two highways: from Belgrade to
         Keywords:            national        economy,         Cacak and Novi Sad and Ruma as a tunnel
macroeconomic research, economic development                   through the mountain Fruska. Serbia will get
                                                               money from Chinese banks for 20 years, and
                INTRODUCTION                                   we will implement most of the projects of
                                                               Chinese companies and workers, while local
        Overall economic activity in 2012., as                 construction company to dispose of nearly
measured by gross domestic product (GDP)                       250 million euros. Despite huge public debt,
and are presented in prices last year, will have               the government of Serbia is only in the last
a real decline of 1.9% compared to the                         two days of the 2012th when she decided to
previous year. However, the European Bank                      borrow nearly a billion euros, bearing in mind
for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)                      that it signed a contract with the Chinese
announced in mid-January to improve the                        company agreed to build a highway for 330
prediction of economic growth in Serbia in                     million euros.
2013. by one percentage point, to 2.1%                                  The Serbian is only 2012. was only for
respectively.                                                  11 months, the debt has increased by more
                                                               than three billion euros, never in the past 12
 1.       THE FALL IN GDP AND DEBT IN                          years as the debt has not jumped this year. We
                  2012.                                        literally borrowed more than 100 euros every
                                                               second during weekdays and holidays, as
        Real GDP decline in 2012. in Serbia                    taximeter, the debt grew and the only concern
amounts to 1.9% compared to the 2011th                         is that speed can be accelerated, not slowed
year. The fall in GDP was the highest in the                   down.
sector of agriculture, forestry and fisheries,                          Another warning refers to interest that
and other services sector accommodation and                    Serbia must pay. According to the approved
meals. The decline in industrial production in                 budget for 2013. Serbia will only interest for
2012. was 3.4%, mainly due to the energy                       the next year will have to pay 900 million
supply sector, gas and steam.                                  euros.
        On the other hand, the highest
recorded GDP growth in the following                               2. THE UNSUSTAINBILITY OF THE
sectors: information and communication,                           FOREGIN TRADE DEFICIT SERBIAN
professional,    scientific   and    technical
activities, administrative and support service                       The trade deficit in Serbia 2012. The
activities. It is estimated that agricultural                  amount is close to 7 billion, which is 4.7%
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less than in the same period of the 2011.                    3. INFLATION ARGET – MYT OR
Exported goods worth 10.36 billion dollars,                                REALITY
which is 4.4% less than in the same period                      Economic         growth,       increased
last year, while imports 17.19 billion, a              employment and living standards, Serbia over
decrease of 4.6%. Export-import ratio was              the next three years can only be done if you
60.3% and was higher than the same period              reduce the deficit in the state budget, curb
last year, when it stood at 60.2%.                     inflation and the gap between the inflow and
        In exports, the main foreign trade             outflow of money abroad. For price stability
partners, were Germany, Italy, Bosnia and              is in charge of the National Bank. Its program
Herzegovina, Romania and Russia.                       of monetary policy in 2013. NBS is
        In imports, the main foreign trade             committed to the goal of 4% inflation, leaving
partners, were Germany, Russia, Italy, China           the possibility that fails by 1.5 percentage
and Hungary.                                           points. In fiscal strategy for the next three
        The external trade was the largest of          years, the Serbian government records that
the countries with which Serbia has signed             will, in turn, do all to the growth rate in 2013.
free trade agreements. The EU countries                be 5.5%, a year later, five, and in 2015. only
account for more than half of total trade -            4.5%.
58.5%. The second most important partner of                     Presumably, the Central Bank will
Serbia to the CEFTA countries, with which              cost the most disciplined 'fix' interest, which
we have a trade surplus of about 1.21 billion          has so far done. But if the state does not do its
U.S. dollars, which is the result of increasing        part, by the amount of inflation in the future
exports of agricultural products and exports of        we will be champions of Europe infamous. In
iron and steel.                                        this case, it is particularly embarrassing, since
        Observed by countries, the largest             the desired economic growth, increased
surplus was realized with former Yugoslav              employment and standards in the next three
republics - Montenegro, Bosnia and                     years there will be nothing. The fight against
Herzegovina and Macedonia. From other                  NBS relatively high inflation over the past
countries, according to a surplus with                 few years have been sufficiently successful.
Romania and Slovakia. The largest deficit in           Despite tight monetary policy, the growth rate
trade with China and with Russia. Follow               is regularly exceeded expectations.
deficit with Germany, Italy and Hungary.                        Because of the restrictive monetary
        By sections of the Standard                    policy, which will, in all likelihood, take in
International Trade Classification largest             the coming year given the high rate of
share in exports were cereals and products             inflation this year could hurt the recovery of
made from them with 777 million dollars,               production, employment and export growth.
electrical machinery and equipment - 766               Serious threat looming over the economic
million, non-ferrous metals - 626 million,             reality of Serbia. Nime, and Ako in 2013. lose
vegetables and fruits - and 500 million road           time and seriously recover production,
vehicles - 482 million.                                increase employment and exports, justified
        The top five sectors with the highest          fear that we will experience a situation that is
share of imports are petroleum and petroleum           similar to Greece's current economic
products to $ 1.57 billion, road vehicles -            situation.
about a billion dollars, natural gas - 990                      Against inflation can be successfully
million, electrical machinery and equipment -          dealt with only the central bank. In this battle
754 million, and medical and pharmaceutical            must be included antitrust, and the
products - 646 million. Department                     Competition Commission should be given
unclassified goods, which now includes the             much greater rights, but also a lot more
goods in the customs warehouse, has a share            responsibility. In fact, Serbia has much more
of total imports 7.3%.                                 serious to confront those retailers and
                                                       manufacturers who use the opportunity to be a
                                                       little on the market and raise prices as much
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as it suits them - behaving like a monopolist.          of the public sector, which can not be
You need to apply experience from the world,            disposed of, as well as tax reform. For its
legal and practical solutions that can be               implementation requires a general consensus.
implemented decisively. Do not repeat the                       However, the expectation is that the
situation to the Competition Commission                 full effect of the measures taken so far
several times during the last period of a               monetary policy on inflation yet manifest, and
decision to withdraw part of the proceeds               the NBS will in the future to assess whether it
companies that use illegal Serbian market,              is necessary to further monetary tightening.
and other relevant institutions to later release        The Executive Board of the NBS estimated
the company from liability.                             that inflation in the previous period, due
         Scope of monetary policy is limited,           primarily to the extremely high growth in
because the Serbian market is ruled by two              food prices and the depreciation of the effects
currencies simultaneously - our U.S. and                of the increase in value added tax and excise
Euro. Economic Policy Challenges Serbia in              duties. Contributed to rising inflation and
2013. That in times of crisis must achieve              high public spending in an election year, and
harmony between governments, central                    unfavorable developments in the international
banks, unions and employers. All should                 environment. Specifically, from 9.5% at the
agree that neither they themselves favor a              inflation growth from April to December
foreign currency, or Euro. It is a condition for        2012. - The contribution to food price
achieving the inflation target and preserve             increases related to 6.6 percentage points.
monetary sovereignty.                                   This means that inflation in that period
         In addition, it should be noted that the       decisively influenced by the growth of the
inflation target difficult to achieve, if, in           price, which was the result of low agricultural
conjunction with measures of monetary                   production due to drought and a significant
policy, not the application of some measures            increase in world prices of primary
and fiscal adjustments. Bearing in mind that            agricultural products, and specific food
an established large imbalance in the Serbian           market in Serbia. Given the high share of food
economy, and foreign and domestic, so that a            in the consumer price index - 38.8%, inflation
realistic assumption that monetary policy will          in Serbia is the price shocks this group
not only be able to be successful in this effort        particularly vulnerable.
- especially as the only instrument of                          In addition, because the existing
monetary policy reference rate. It is true that         system solutions in our food prices are much
it affects the demand for money, but also               more volatile than in the neighboring
makes the economy access to bank loans. For             countries, as can be seen from their higher
the money economy is already set, so the                growth in that period. Speed toward the goal
bank probably continue to invest money in               of returning inflation to a large extent depend
the purchase of government securities.                  on the upcoming agricultural season - if it is
         In fact, the pending reform of Serbia -        average, significantly reducing inflation is
can hardly be no significant changes to the             expected from the second quarter of the 2013.
system, it is still sticking to the old Serbian         Possibly worse than normal agricultural
economic model that has produced the desired            season could slow down the process of
results. This is confirmed by the fact that             reducing inflation. Recognizing that the
industrial production makes up 13% of GDP,              nature of the current inflationary pressures
which shows that it has been totally de-                crucially determined by the food market
industrialization, and still pushing the same           instability, so we should be promptly
model - which in the long run simply                    identified and implemented for measures that
unsustainable. Serbia has in the past 12 years,         would contribute to the stabilization of the
spent more than generating and hence all our            market and reduce volatility in food prices.
present and future troubles so far tapped the
last minute to take radical measures. For long-
term stability is needed fundamental reform
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  4. SERBIAN GROWTH FORECAST IN                         fees for loans that are granted to her, and not
               2013.                                    being used. Thus Serbia, according to the
                                                        Public Debt Administration, last year paid a
         European Bank for Reconstruction and           total budget of 429.5 million dinars just to
Development (EBRD) announced in mid-                    name a commission to approve and
January that the improved forecast economic             Commitment in respect of borrowing.
growth in Serbia in 2013. by one percentage                      Official figures show that there are
point, to 2.1% respectively. As stated in the           loans that are approved and before us five or
January report, "Regional economic outlook,"            six years, and have not yet been fully
the EBRD economists expect a moderate                   exploited. That, however, and that costs
acceleration of growth in gross domestic                money. However, some loans are withdrawn
product (GDP) in the region, to 3.1% in 2013.           in installments, so that the full amount and
After a slowdown in economic activity in                can be used immediately.
2012.. EBRD Chief Economist Erik Berglof                         The biggest problem with the delay in
said that for the first time after a long period        the use of soft loans from international
sees an opportunity to reduce the risk for the          financial institutions are unprepared for the
region, especially due to the weakening of the          projects they are responsible for their own
crisis in the euro zone. By Berglof: "It is still       debt. Therefore, not only are the investments
too early to say that everything is fine, but           and is not relieved by ready money, but to pay
shows signs of stabilization." Serbia's                 for it and - penalties.
economy, the report said, is currently showing                   According also to official data from
a series of weaknesses, registered a decline of         the European Investment Bank (EIB),
2% of GDP in 2012. due to weak domestic                 guaranteed by the Serbian, public companies
demand and the impact of the crisis in the              were used 80% of the totals contracted 924.5
euro zone exports. This, together with                  billion in the past 10 years. With a guarantee
political uncertainty affected the confidence           by the European Bank for Reconstruction and
and investment. The EBRD report was first               Development (EBRD), the situation is even
presented separately forecast for Kosovo,               worse: as of October, SOEs are pulled only
which will be as expected, and international            57.2% of the contracted 550.28 million.
banks, have a GDP growth of 3% in 2013.,                         When looking at direct obligations of
the largest in Southeast Europe.                        domestic companies, the EIB loan was
         In addition, it should be noted that the       withdrawn less than half, only 49.1% of the
arrangement will expire Serbia with the                 contracted 596.6 million. And these people
International Monetary fond (IMF), which has            are borrowing, other than the Republic of
been frozen for almost a year. In Serbia, the           Serbia, and small and medium enterprises.
evident importance of the role of the IMF and                    "Serbian Railways" is one of the
a potential new arrangement with the                    companies that did not fully utilize the
institution,       confidence-building       and        contracted       loans    from     international
stabilization in Serbia. Serbia's GDP to grow           institutions. From the EBRD approved a loan
by 2.1% in the second place, followed by                for Corridor 10 was withdrawn only a part.
Albania with 2%, Bulgaria (1.9%),                       The common interest of Serbian Railways and
Macedonia (1.8%), Romania (1.4%).                       the international financial institutions to
         Montenegro, according to the EBRD,             expedite all procedures, credit hire as soon as
could expect growth of 0.8% in 2013., and the           possible and start decentralization of several
bottom of the list, Bosnia and Herzegovina,             projects of modernization of infrastructure
with growth of 0.6%.                                    and rolling stock. Among the companies that
                                                        are not fully contracted funds are withdrawn
    4.1.    Penalties for Unused credits?!              Power Industry of Serbia, Serbia gas, "Roads
                                                        of Serbia", and the Republic of Serbia as the
      In addition to the interest that the              borrower.
government pays on loans, wage and penalty
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       Of 10.5 billion euros of the total               in Serbia that are interested in this kind of
external debt, the name of the Serbian loans            loan approval. Thus, as of 1 February
taken by the European Investment Bank owes              interested companies will be able to apply for
1.42 billion. The total debt of the European            this type of loan. Liquidity is generally the
Bank for Reconstruction and Development                 biggest problem of the Serbian economy, and
"heavy" is 375.5 million euros.                         billions of euros, the state set aside to cover
                                                        the interest these loans, contribute
  4.2. Fund development of serbian - major              significantly to alleviate this problem at least.
          state financial institutions                           Evidence of the last year has shown
                                                        that for this type of loan is a great interest, but
        In 2012. were placed 19 billion from            that the company used only for refinancing of
the Development Fund of the Republic of                 liabilities. Therefore, fear and open large
Serbia. RS Development Fund will provide                companies that have used the previous year
the economy in 2013. The soft loans with                subsidized loans for liquidity will have to find
longer repayment periods and lower interest             other sources of funding.
rates. The Fund is the largest state-owned                       Last 2012. the further a certain amount
financial institution that is over five years           to subsidize the economy of 300 million
invested 13,450 loans worth 100 billion.                euros. Thanks to that banks had to sell foreign
        The objectives of the Fund are to               currencies and sell dinars companies, which
promote balanced regional development,                  resulted in the stabilization of the exchange
primarily undeveloped areas, encouraging the            rate. That was the first part of anti-crisis
development of small and medium-sized                   measures to help the economy. The bank
enterprises, competitiveness and liquidity of           sanctioned loans with a grace period of five
the economy and increasing exports of                   months and 13 months of repayment, and
domestic companies. In 2013. the Fund will              firms could use them for liquidity or
provide 12 billion in lending to the economy.           refinancing loans. The loan amount is
        More than 80% of the loan fund is               dependent on the size of the company.
intended for small and medium enterprises               Interest rates were the best on the market.
and entrepreneurs and at interest rates that are
considerably lower than for commercial                                  4.4. Exchange Rate
banks. Unlike banks, which only take into
account only the economic viability of the                      U.S. never ceases to surprise.
project, the Fund takes care of the social              Expectations are that the U.S. will continue to
justification of funding.                               strengthen. Notice of the loans - all of this has
        Newspapers that have been introduced            affected and affects the U.S. as the foreign
in the work of the Fund in 2013. The                    exchange market operates in the notice to be
rescheduling of the loan in order to keep the           foreign exchange.
economy and the growth of employment and                        Demand for foreign currency is
the provision of consultancy services to the            relatively small, and the dinars stable. Given
borrowers.                                              that favorable weather condition - in the sense
                                                        that it does not require large amounts of
4.3. Subsidized loans for small and medium-             energy supply, demand caused by missing
          sized enterprises in 2013.                    these seasonal factors, and on the other hand,
                                                        there is a certain interest of foreign investors
       The Serbian government adopted a                 in local securities, all of which keeps the
decree on subsidized loans for liquidity for            course stable level.
companies. This year's quota is intended                        It seems to be a realistic forecast that
economy will refer exclusively to small and             the euro will be 108 dinars, which is based on
medium-sized enterprises. Loans will be                 expectations of better economic situation in
implemented after the Ministry of Finance               Serbia, with economic growth of 2.1%. In
and Economy to sign contracts with all banks            addition, the forecast is based on the
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expectation that the situation in the euro zone         district heating will be higher again. This
will be relatively stable, as well as the               means that for a 60 square meter apartment
political situation in the country, the budget          that is attached to the heating plant, and which
deficit will be lower, and foreign direct               is now heating up costing about 6,500 dinars
investment at the level of one billion euros.           increase accounts for about 300 dinars. At the
Finally, in anticipation of a solid year for            same time the average family of four who pay
agriculture. In support of the economic                 a monthly fee of about 4,000 current dinars,
situation and go to a new possible                      as of February, if the current rise by then, will
arrangement with the IMF and further                    pay an increase of 12% to about 480 dinars
progress of the process of European                     more.
integration.                                                     Those that are heated in the furnace
        Strengthening of the dinars should be           TA at night and during the day dogrevaju, so
seen in both the short and medium term. In              their monthly bills go up to 10,000 dinars will
fact, at some point the U.S. will have to               pay expensive electricity for about 1,200
decline. As it was not realistic to weaken the          dinars. It is certain that if the price increase
middle of last year, so not real strengthening          was 10 and 12%, so that for a higher amount
of the current exchange rate, because we have           in the account at the same number of kilowatt
high inflation differential between Serbia and          hours, compared with nearly the same power
the euro zone, high budget and trade deficits,          consumption, night and day. If, however,
and we have a strong economy that would fit             there was a higher consumption in the red, the
behind it.                                              most expensive area, as well as changes in the
                                                        relationship between the zones, and
4.5. Price increase energy impact of inflation          automatically make consumers feel it in their
                                                        accounts. It is also certain that the power will
        The announced price increase of                 not be able to heat or households will also
energy in the first quarter of 2013. should not         receive free kilowatts. The average household
cause significant inflationary shock. The               of four uses 350 kilowatt-hours, and those
announced price rise of about 12%, about 10             involving about 1,500 heaters. From that they
gases, heating for five to seven percent, will          receive from the state, will pay a fifth of the
directly affect the growth of inflation by about        account.
1.2%. The indirect effect, however, will be
higher because traders will take advantage of                               CONCLUSION
energy price hikes to increase prices of basic
foodstuffs, and chemicals.
        Electricity price increase of 12%                       Inflation in Serbia has seen rapid
direct inflation increases by 0.8%, gas for             growth and at the end of last year was about
heating and 0.1 to 0.2%, a larger price                 13%, reflecting the weakening of the dinars
increases should not occur due to the fact that         and rising food prices caused by drought,
the purchasing power of citizens and demand,            which has been badly affected agricultural
very modest, a stable exchange rate.                    production.
        On this year is not expected even                       The main challenges for the Serbian
greater increase in the price of fuel, which is         government fiscal deficit and reduce public
one more reason that prices are suspended.              debt, which has reached 60% of GDP, well
What, however, the concern is that we are               above the legally allowed limit of 45%.
only halfway through the heating season, and                    European Bank for Reconstruction and
already announced another price increase for            Development (EBRD) announced in mid-
heating and to increase gas prices by about             January that the improved forecast economic
10%. Since half of a gas plant for which the            growth in Serbia in 2013. by one percentage
purchase price of heating account for more              point, to 2.1% respectively.
than 70% of the money, it is reasonable to
expect that those accounts are heated with
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               REFERENCES


    1. Macroeconomic trends and indicators,
National Bureau of Statistics.
    2. "Regional economic outlook," the EBRD
report of January.
    3. Program Development Fund of the Republic
of Serbia in 2013.




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        SMALL BUSINESS – ALTERNATIVE TO UNEMPLOYMENT
           REDUCTION IN ECONOMY UNDER RECESSION
                    PhD Trajković Svetlana, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia

                                     PhD Trajković Predrag, Mapro, Vranje, Serbia

 MSc Milan Ivanković, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Department for rural development,
                                                 Belgrade, Serbia

         Abstract: The decade long trend of                     Montenegro, Serbia and Albania is reaching a
unemployment rate increase, reduction of national               very dangerous level, especially in Albania
income and salaries of the employees and demand
reduction implies the necessity for taking urgent
                                                                where it equals 60 percent of gross domestic
measures and counteracting the high inflation rate in           product, although it is rapidly growing in
order to reduce the unemployment of both the younger            Serbia and Montenegro. World Bank
population as well as the elderly population (older than        forecasts for Serbia are the most pessimistic,
50) which is often considered to be unneeded. More              because our country has difficulties in
active initiation of small business through
entrepreneurship, even self-employment can be an
                                                                stimulating growth at a time when it seeks to
impetus for healing the economy.                                cut its growing budget deficit. Interview with
         Education, financial support in the form of            the coordinator of the World Bank for the
favorable loans together with the fiscal policy of new          Western Balkans, Reuters Agency: Jane
entrepreneurs can initiate entering into business of            Armitage 06/11/2012/1
people with the feeling, awareness and readiness for
innovative work and uncertainty, and those who are
                                                                        The situation in our economy and the
ready to face the risk of anticipating future                   whole society indicates a turning point, which
developments and market turbulences which are                   has only two options (to stop further
inevitable companions of modern business.                       deterioration of our economy and turn the
         Key words: recession, small business,                  curve in the direction of the progression of
unemployment, national income, salary, inflation,
entrepreneurship, business risk, fiscal policy
                                                                GDP, decreasing the level of indebtedness,
                                                                reducing the budget deficit by reducing
                    Introduction                                unemployment or otherwise to experience
                                                                bankruptcy).
        The transition together wit all the side                        Small business development through
effects, which accompanied the economy of                       entrepreneurship makes one of the powerful
our country (economic isolation, hyper-                         segments, which can stop further deterioration
inflation, dirty, unfair and inefficient                        of the economy, increase in production,
privatization, tycoonisation etc.) totally                      development of services directed to meeting
destroyed our economy and economic system,                      the needs of consumers, discovery and
so that we are returned to the economic level                   development of new demand, and surely
of the prior decades in an economic sense.                      employing the new population with
Our economy is nowadays fully economically                      entrepreneurial visions, as well as motivating
devastated, with permanent decline in gross                     the young people to awake their business
domestic product paired with recession.                         inclination for which they were even not
        The Western Balkans faced new                           aware of.
recession in 2012, with the largest decline of                          Our country has significant natural
2.5 percent expected to target Serbia, while                    and human resources at disposal, although
the recovery will be fairly slow in 2013,                       they are quite destroyed in technical sense but
according to the World Bank statement. Debt                     this is enough, if there is political will and
levels are too high in some countries.                          readiness of some departments to streamline
Moreover, the level of our economy is                           the functioning of national institutions for the
comparable to the economies of Albania and
Montenegro, which means that the debt is in                     1
                                                                    http://www.studiob.rs/info/vest.php?id=82392
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design and adoption of appropriate business                         -   Are      new      methods      and
policies in order to be able to use what we                             technologies being employed?
have and ensure cease of further economic                           - Have new target markets been
deterioration.                                                          created?
                                                                    - Have new sources of supply of
                                                                        raw materials and resources been
         Entrepreneurship in business                                   used? and
                                                                    - Are new forms of organizational
        Entrepreneurship is an economic                                 structure being employed?
activity that is focused initiation; organization                  For contemporary entrepreneurial
and business innovation with the main                      activity in the world and our business
objective of creating new value that meet the              communication the term business is used,
needs of people and the resulting profit.                  which symbolizes the individual or group
Entrepreneurship is open to all areas and                  business ventures meeting production or
spheres of human activity. Develops                        service market needs, in order to maximize
creativity, enhances developments of ideas                 profits. In theory of marketing, the acceptable
and enriches human needs2.                                 concept is that the profits are result of the
        Entrepreneurship is about creating                 quality of meeting the consular needs.
new values while taking the market risks,                          In the theory of economy, such
which is full of uncertainty, in order to                  philosophy is not readily acceptable, but if
satisfactions the customers or users of                    one meticulously analyzes the fact that the
products or services and the ultimate goal of              customer is an individual investing his money
making profit. General elements relevant to                in order to satisfy his/her needs, he/she will
entrepreneurship observed by the means of                  undeniably not participate in this game
analysis of many definitions of this economic              without personal satisfaction. This indicates
phenomenon can be classified and expressed                 that without profit there is no business.
in the form of:                                                    New small enterprises emerge as an
         - creativity and innovation,                      effect of entrepreneurship, and they are
         - identifying and gathering           of          significant creators of new products (tangible
            resources,                                     and intangible assets that meet the needs of
         - establishing        of       economic           individuals, groups or overall economy),
            organization-system and creating               which can be very important in changing the
            of opportunities for profit and the            people's lives. This economic activity can,
            acceptance of risk and uncertainty.            should and must result in the creation of new
                                                           jobs and economic structure of the system.
        Entrepreneurship requires certain                          Entrepreneurship is usually initiated
changes in business and management, as well                with low capital, which makes a business i.e.
as managers, and configuration of certain                  a small entrepreneurial activity which
resources. This indicates the acceptance of the            furthermore enables monitoring of all the
claim that entrepreneurship is present and it is           factors relevant to the market hence making it
reflected in the degree of change and                      very flexible, to be able to rearrange their
innovations       /software’s,     technology,             business engagements. Small entrepreneurs,
resources, management/                                     when it comes to their ability of adaptability
        Schumpeter suggests categorization                 and flexibility, their main advantage is that
of changes as a combination of responses to                they make decisions ahead of time, as well as
the questions:                                             they are running first in realization, being
        - Has new product or service been                  therefore the main precursors of innovation.
            found?                                                 History of economics points out that
                                                           the world economies have always grew out
2
                                                           economic crisis by means of entrepreneurship
 (Penezic N. PhD – 2003.): How to become an
                                                           and small business, and therefore one should
entrepreneur - 2003.
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not ignore the opinion, that the small                 responsibility, dynamism, commitment to the
enterprises are the entrepreneurial engine             business and in particular perseverance and
of economic development, and even more,                persistence.
that this business segment promotes private                    Several arguments indicate that
ownership and entrepreneurial power -                  entrepreneurs ought to be knowledgeable and
readiness and ability to accept the risk which         skillful, especially in terms of entrepreneurial
is ever present in business, but it almost             decision making which should not be done ad
always overcomes all obstacles on the road to          hoc, by intuition from case to case, but it
success. The dominating opinion accepted in            should be done based on previous research
the economic literature which deals with               and analysis of relevant factors affecting
entrepreneurship, is that small enterprises are        future events and market changes. An
synonym for the private sector and                     entrepreneur can not afford weak handling
entrepreneurship.      The      concept      of        within his/her business sphere, which is
entrepreneurship development as an economic            selected and where overall resources are
segment that at least partly solves the                employed in order to achieve the set goal. It
unemployment in a successful way and                   does not mean that, if an entrepreneur is a
contributes to increasing of the national              person with appropriate knowledge, that
product, is present in Europe and worldwide,           his/her career should be based on existing
which indicates that it can be applied to              knowledge. He/she should continuously learn
Serbian case likewise.                                 and acquire new knowledge that is up to date
                                                       with technical and technological development
        Entrepreneur and his/her traits                of the society by getting acquainted to new
                                                       technology. A special segment of each
        Since the planning, organization and           entrepreneur's knowledge pool allows him/her
implementation of activities that need to              to orientate entirely on the market, which
happen in the future can not be fully foreseen,        imposes the necessity to be completely aware
the final outcome is uncertain. Even the               of the market and of all the market
entrepreneur himself/herself invests own               participants. The focus of his/her interest must
capital with no guarantee that he/she will be          be people with their character traits and
able to have it recovered, and certainly he/she        abilities.
is expecting profits from his/her own work                     Entrepreneurial knowledge and skills
and commitment of resources.                           are an important factor in work because of:
        Creativity is reflected in the creation                - easier coping the business
of ideas, design of the model for the                  challenges,
implementation of the ideas and planning of                    - entrepreneur chooses the subject of
the conceptual design for the functioning of                   business and certainly that the focus is
the system. If a person wants to sail the                      on what seems to be acceptable,
waters of entrepreneurship only by the means                   - entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs
of ownership transfer of a company, trying to                  are present in all spheres of human
keep the rest as a whole, there is no                          society, making profit and making the
entrepreneurship. It can be said that this is                  driving force of human resource
rather change in ownership structure, which                    development (education, upbringing,
is abundant in our country, without success                    providing security to partners).
and with many negative effects, which                          The quality of entrepreneurs is a very
constitutes one of the causes of this poor             common topic in the theory of economic
economic situation and brings the economy to           analysis, and therefore we highlight Herper,
the edge of bankruptcy.                                who lists eight different qualities of
        Entrepreneurs are characterized by             entrepreneurs: / 3
specific features, such as: possessing the tank                - finders of new opportunities,
of knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as
creativity, spirit of initiative, courage,             3
                                                           https :/sistes.google.com/site/
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       - focused on the future,                            Teachers are still practicing cabinet research
       - constantly trying to be the best,                 rather than field research. Students learn
       - market-oriented,                                  about topics they do not truly need without
       - know how to appreciate their                      being capable of recognizing elementary
associates,                                                details. The curricula need to be adapted so as
       - realistic,                                        to meet the needs of specific entrepreneurship
       - diligent and accepting all sorts of               categories. We need more specialized
jobs,                                                      education with specific knowledge of a
       - full of life.                                     certain level of entrepreneurship. It is needed
                                                           to have appropriate institutions offering
    Education and discovering the entrepreneurial          integral and systematic approach of
                       spirit                              introducing entrepreneurship as a subject to
                                                           relevant authorities at all levels of the
        In our country, majority of                        education system. This opinion is based on
entrepreneurs start the adventure of                       analysis of the current state of entrepreneurial
businesses by inertia, sometimes out of                    education in Serbia, which is the trend of
necessity, not knowing that they possess                   good practice in European countries, which
unique gift for business. If a person is                   have introduced entrepreneurship into formal
business inclined i.e. owns skills of                      education system. Hence, the government
entrepreneurs, it often come to know by                    would take a strategic commitment to develop
working hard usually a tedious job, that it is             education about entrepreneurship, so that the
possible not only to survive but also to                   intention of development of entrepreneurial
succeed in certain business job. Entrepreneur              education is consistent and logical.
is learning through work from the basic                            If we introduce entrepreneurial
content of business up to a level of being                 education at all levels, one should expect a
capable to deal with. Due to business                      strong influence on the young population, by
commitments entrepreneurs do not have time                 raising     awareness      and      encouraging
to develop professionally. Paradox of                      entrepreneurship so that entrepreneurial
entrepreneurial education is often seen here.              education could serve to individuals for
"Majority      of    entrepreneurial   training            starting a business, as well as it can initiate
programmers take place at university or                    innovation and entrepreneurial values.
through informal education, while the
majority of entrepreneurs are people with                           Education can be organized as:
primary       and     secondary      education.
Entrepreneurs start to experiment and launch                       - vocational training, retraining and
different ideas and business options at a very             additional training of existing staff,
early phase in their lives because of their                        - introduction of financial support
spirit and proactive attitude.                             programmers for entrepreneurial activities,
Each business requires time and commitment,                        - establishing of institutions for the
which usually leads to the situation that many             collection of information and other relevant
entrepreneurs do not have time for a                       data,
university education and they tend to follow                       - communication with the information
various courses and seminars./4                            users in the form of information distribution,
        On the other hand it is convenient to                      - development and setting up of
mention that program curricula at our                      entrepreneurial schools and colleges (business
universities and colleges are often not based              schools, mostly in private hands, where
on the real needs. They have a more                        quality of knowledge that leads to success
theoretical approach without any specific                  should be offered and built, because the self-
methodology for problem setting and solving.               employed are not going to invest capital in
4
                                                           the short term, but their main goal would be
 /www.cdop.rs/2o11/03/podsticanje preduzetnistva
                                                           creating the knowledge brand).
kroz edukaciju
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       Since we do not have the required                         Community for beginners - those who
profile of teachers in the field of                     are appearing for the first time to register an
entrepreneurship, it is necessary to define the         enterprise should have gratis the following
same and work on teacher education for                  activities:
entrepreneurship.                                         to regulate simplification of business
       Given the current state of our                        registration in terms of legislation - less
economy, it is necessary to model the system                 forms,
of economy based on the market economy as                 to reduce as mush as possible the period
soon as possible, monopoly must be                           from submitting the application to
eliminated, and follow the laws of market.                   issuance of a permit and,
The core of the economy should be                         not to limit the possibility of registration
represented by privately owned small and                     by requesting of the special conditions,
medium-sized enterprises as a basic form,                    which often mean ban for of entry into
with emphasis on the rapid development of                    certain business (simply preventing
manufacturing and service industries, for                    competition just selectively),
which we have natural resources.                          it is often happening here that entering
                                                             into some business is preconditioned by
 Administrative support for entrepreneurship                 requesting the profiled personnel and
                                                             equipment, as if it was not clear to us that
         For many people, the motivation and                 the entrepreneur, especially a beginner
interest for entrepreneurship awakes at some                 does not have the funds to spend
point, and then they initiate activities in order            unreasonably and engaging in illegal
to find out more about entrepreneurship (from                activities and therefore the business is not
friends, reviewing literature, enrolling the                 going to start before ensuring the quality,
entrepreneurship courses). This phase is                  to allow and request from entrepreneurs
relatively short and a decision on accepting                 to introduce internal self-audit in their
that the activity of the business is made. Some              business and to preventively control their
people already have concrete ideas at this                   business more frequent,
stage and they know what they want and what               to allow achieving of the business
they are capable of, whereas a certain number                requirements phase by phase, where the
of others are keen to get to work, but they are              process of activities takes place
not certain about which direction to move                    successively in stages, as there are no
into. What is it, what the market needs and is               funds available for investing into
not covered? Can it animate the new needs of                 equipment and staff, which are not likely
consumers which would be satisfied through                   to be used perhaps in the coming few
its entrepreneurial activities?                              years,
         Now the would-be entrepreneurs need
                                                          to organize and implement preventive
help and free support from the community,                    and more frequent control in the form of
because they are economically still not in a                 advising        for       beginners       in
position to invest in the quest for ideas, the               entrepreneurship, certainly based on the
conceptual design of a business plan, i.e. a                 complexity and on the social importance
preliminary comparative analysis of income                   of the activity certain entrepreneur is
and expenses and anticipated profits, and                    engaged in (working with people, food,
perhaps even not the registration activities -               etc.).
companies.
         In order to solve the problem, which is        Financial support of entrepreneurial business
expressed in the country's economic situation,
it is necessary to set up agencies for                         In order to start a business, an
animation entrepreneurship, which would be              entrepreneur needs to have several qualities in
engaged in providing free services.                     addition to personal qualities (inventiveness,

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courage, knowledge, readiness for self-                      recipient fails to comply with conditions,
sacrifice and maximum commitment), he/she                    which are foreseen in the employment
also needs certain amount of financial assets,               contract providing financial support for
depending on the conceptual design of the                    entrepreneurship, it is necessary to
activities relevant for the certain business. It             penalize personnel occupying positions
is difficult to ensure all the previous                      of decision makers regarding the
conditions because of the following reasons:                 beneficiaries of the funds if they do not
  loans from friends-acquaintances are                      respect the principles of business -
     difficult to obtain because of the                      established policy,
     economic situation, there are few if any               it is necessary to have adequate control
     able to offer them them in various ways,                over all funds involved in the
  loans from commercial banks come with                     development        of    entrepreneurship,
     a guarantee, which is usually difficult to              because the experience in the Western
     obtain for a young entrepreneur,                        Balkans indicates a wrong approach to
  borrowing from relatives and parents is                   the work entrusted to them.
     possible but often insufficient,                       the beginners should be made free of
  alliance with friends and entering into a                 paying the administrative fees, taxes and
     partnership is possible, but it is often not            contributions for at least for a period of
     secure,                                                 three years from the moment of the
  funds from seling of an asset if so, which                business start-up,
     further increases the risk for young                   criminal policy should be applied for
     entrepreneur, but it ensures motivation                 those who pretends to circumvent laws
     for the maximum vigilance and                           by closing the existing enterprise and
     commitment.                                             they are always the beginners - it is a
                                                             crime,
         Initial proposal for motivating                    customs policy should be used to
entrepreneurs in business:                                   motivate the business beginners.
  normative regulation and organization of
     financial support for the beginners by the                 Regardless of the fact that it is a very
     institutions - agencies from the fund that         difficult economic situation, funds are always
     should be established with the specific            available for promising ideas that guarantee
     purpose, which may take the form of:               making profit, if a beginner in the business is
     grants, interest-free loans with a grace           not able to realize their ideas otherwise.
     period of several years, loans with a              Associations of small entrepreneurs need to
     favorable interest rate, competition               be set up with the sole task of funding the
     awards for creative ideas, assistance to           good ideas and programs, which would
     entrepreneurs from international funds             consequently motivate young people and
     for the development of entrepreneurship            those able to commit to the creation of
     and employment, and in the case of                 inventive ideas.
     allocation of subsidized financial                         There are populations that need more
     resources it is necessary to establish             help in the form of the development of social
     criteria that would apply to all. Practice         entrepreneurship and the development of
     has shown in our country that such funds           women's entrepreneurship and others and this
     are often provided selectively, which is           should also be noticed and regulated by law.
     equal to crime, or even more that those
     funds are spent inappropriately.                                        Conclusion
  states must make a realistic strategy,
     rather than a list of pledged desires for                 Notwithstanding the importance of
     entrepreneurship development, with                 small business as an entrepreneurial activity,
     established principles and sanctions if the        it seems that the most responsible people do
                                                        not understand the problem and the solution is
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missing for resurrection of the faltering               because of the strength and quality of large
economy and the partial resolution of                   companies, but because of creating such a
unemployment reducing and the increase of               business environment. The problem is the fact
the people's purchasing power.                          that we do not have a sufficient number of
         It is evident that the appropriate             small businesses (entrepreneurs, managers)
authorities are aware of the situation in which         who could present their activities to financial
the people of this country is, and that we              institutions by using their skills. Even if
know the importance of entrepreneurship as a            someone knows, acts he/she independently,
proven model in dealing with the recession.             not being able to draw attention of the
Until now, much has been done to motivate               institutions to him/herself.
these activities. Business strategies have been                  It is necessary to establish associations
presented, as well as the financing and                 of small entrepreneurs through unions,
development, but the actions are not taking             alliances or some branch organizations, so
place. The funds, which have been obtained              that the joint approach draws attention of the
from the international community for this               relevant merit institutions ready to support the
purpose, or they have been set aside in the             development of these activities while
budget, are either not properly being directed          community must get to understand the
or they are often inappropriately being spent.          importance of entrepreneurial business for the
This suggests that our society did not provide          economic recovery of the country by means
sufficient and appropriate actions by the               of its economic development strategy.
relevant       institutions      to     support
entrepreneurship in the past. There was a very                                Reference
unfavorable business climate, because many
institutional methods have been used to guide               1.  Klose, Alfred. Poduzetnička etika. Školska
                                                                knjiga, 1996.
the activities and resources of the big                     2. Knoblauch, Jorg. Biti poduzetnik života. Step
companies,         which       have       stifled               press, 2002
entrepreneurship. In these circumstances, it is             3. Kolin, M. Paunovic, Z. (2007) Neprofitni
only hardly possible for the small business                     sektor i socijalna preduzeća u Milan
newcomers to start a business, but it is even                   Podunavac        (ed.)   Godišnjak     Fakulteta
                                                                političkih nauka 2007, Čigoja, Beograd;
harder to survive and succeed. Big companies                4. Leburić, Anči i Mira Krneta. Profil
have not perceived small businesses as                          poduzetnika. Naklada Bošković, 2003
manufacturers of the elements for finalization              5. Lowe, Robin and Sue Marriott. Enterprise:
of their products, and they were solving the                    Entrepreneurship          and        innovation.
gap through imports and increased foreign                       Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006
                                                            6. Moorman, Jerry W. and James W. Halloran.
currency demand, which consequentially                          Successful        Business      Planning     for
caused the weakening of the value of our                        Entrepreneurs. Thompson South-Western,
national currency.                                              2006
         Competitiveness of small enterprises               7. Penezić N.- 2003 Kako postati preduzetnik-
is limited by the monopolistic policies of                      2003.
                                                            8. www.cdop.rs/2o11/03/podsticanje
large companies and a lack of funding, just as                  preduzetništva kroz edukaciju
it is also by the high costs of alimentation                9. https :/sistes.google.com/si
funding and launching of entrepreneurial                    10. http://www.studiob.rs/info/vest.php?id=82392
activities. A particular problem is the                     11. https :/sistes.google.com/site/
elimination of the effects of the market, not




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              CONSUMER’S EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE & VISUAL
               MERCHANDISING EFFECTS: SHOPPING MALLS
                          *PhD Ranjan Upadhyaya &** MSc Govind Nath Srivastava, India


          Abstract – The research empirically examines        guide to specific judgment (Barrett and
the impact of emotional influence in evaluation and           Campos- 1987). Emotions can guide and
purchase decision with special reference to goods sold
in shopping malls. Various factors which influence the
                                                              persuade consumers (Andrade and Cohen-
consumer decision, such as ease offered by retailer to        2007).The emotions are all those feelings that
customers in defining, selecting and purchasing the           so change men as to affect their judgments,
product, brand value, utility of the product, reference       and that are also attended by pain or pleasure
group, value for money, advertising and its appeal etc        (Aristotle-2004). Due to qualitative aspects of
are being critically analyzed and its impact is being
empirically assessed. Apart from all the factors,
                                                              emotions most of the retailers are not able to
emotion play a critical role in consumer decision-            incorporate emotional strategy in their
making and it strongly influence the consumer’s               marketing strategy. Emotions matters and
choices. Very little efforts have been done in the past       emotional connect with the customers delivers
in order to understand the source of emotional arousal        very strong edge to the firm over traditional,
in purchase decision. Emotions are subject to change
and it is subjective in nature. Emotions silently and
                                                              rational appeal. Most of the customers hide
unconsciously drive the consumer’s decision at the            their true desire and emotion and that’s why
destiny, where customers intend to go. Emotions are           their decisions are unconsciously driven by
not necessarily permanent and it varies from customer         unspoken desire and emotions. The
to customer and even for the same customer, it is             customers, who are relatively more driven by
different, in different situation, so in order to be
successful in this hyper competitive business era,
                                                              emotion, skip some of the important steps of
organizations need to leverage emotions for business          consumer decision making process and takes
success, for better brand value, customer satisfaction        decision in shortest span of the time. This
and employee management                                       increases inventory turnover, return on asset,
        Key     words-    Emotional     dynamics,             and quick return on investment and reduces
Neuromarketing, visual merchandising, Mannequins,             inventory-carrying cost. It is no longer
Emotion Driver.                                               enough to explain to customers what a
                                                              product can do for him, infact firm need to
                   Introduction                               win the emotion of the customer in order to
                                                              go deep inside in the heart and mind of the
        What & why customer buy is most                       new generation customers (emotion mics,
important aspect of consumer behavior? What                   Dann Hills). Consumer decision-making also
customers buy is well known facts and data                    depends on mood of consumers. Several
are available regarding consumption pattern                   studies have shown that in a happy mood
and frequency of the purchase. Why customer                   customers are more driven by their first
buys is most difficult question of marketing,                 feeling and emotion and they take quick
this must be answered for diagnosis of                        intuitive judgment. Intuitive decision-making
influences, and for incorporating these                       is characterized by sense by which customers
influences in marketing mix strategy. The                     perceive an option better than another. The
rational decision making, which is being                      customers are not necessarily able to find out
based on price benefit relationship and                       the source of this intuition. Sad individuals
involves intensive information search have                    are strongly persuaded by strong arguments,
very strong logical and sound justification                   but not by weak arguments, whereas happy
behind     the   purchase     decision,   but                 individuals are moderately persuaded by
unfortunately the consumer’s decision which                   strong as well as week arguments (Marieke D
is driven by emotions, do not have such sort                  Vries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.M. Witte
of explanation, because emotional attributes                  man, Psychology press). Bolte, Goschke and
are highly qualitative in nature. Emotions
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Kuhl, 2003 suggested that happy mood                   believed that 80% of influence/impression is
individuals respond more intuitively than              created by sight that’s why mannequin and
those in bad mood. While choosing an option            window display is weightier than thousands
from various alternatives customers may rely           of the words. The impression of different
on their intuition or customer may decide              elements of visual merchandising such as
deliberately by analyzing pros and cons of             colour, light, merchandise, odour, sound is
different option before making final decision.         different for different customers as impact of
In the world of retailing today almost all the         this encounter is unique for each customer in
firms are offering the same benefit and more           terms of emotional influence.
than hundred brands are available in one
product category so rational approach of                       Elements of Visual Merchandising-
selling the product and product customization                          Window Display
will no longer deliver benefit to the firm.
Retail firms need to leverage the emotions for               Window display is like a visiting card
grabbing business opportunity. As most of the          of the store and it is most controllable element
customer are not able to define the product            of the store in relation to image building.
while purchasing the product and they do not           Well-designed window display works like a
know exactly what they are looking for in              talking point and communicate with the
terms of colour, feature and benefit so firm           customers silently regarding merchandise
should integrate emotions with their                   story. Attractive window displays not only
merchandising and visual display for                   draw the attention of the customers and
acquiring competitive edge over competitors.           creates first impression but it also entertain
It is also observed that women are relatively          pedestrians.
more driven by emotional influence. Colour,                  Real setting, Atmospheric setting, Semi
status of the person who wear a particular             real setting, Abstract setting and whimsical
dress in a party or social event, window               setting of window display creates different
display, dress style of mannequin with related         impact over customer’s mind.
items, fresh arrivals and new fashion
merchandise which is displayed through                                         Colour
fixture and attractive visual aids are account
for emotional arousal which ultimately drive                 Medical science has proven that colours
the purchase decision of customers. It is being        have definite and various impact over the
observed in the past that Actress of some              nervous system. Colour can immediately
famous serials created a huge demand for               create the mood and it is biggest motivation
particular dress style and customers blindly           for shopping. Colours cheer us up whenever
purchased the product without any assessment           we feel bad. Colours are associated with
regarding usage, quality and price of the              human emotions and it is highly
merchandise. In order to succeed in market             individualistic. The problem for the visual
place retailer should align his merchandising          merchandiser is that each person may have
strategy with emotional strategy for catering          distinct reaction to the same colour. In the
unspoken desire/ emotion of the customers.             vast and global market place there are cultural
                                                       and regional differences in colour preference.
 Visual Merchandising as an Emotion Driver             Following are the general feeling of particular
                                                       colour.
      Visual merchandising is the display                    a) Yellow- caution, cowardice,
tools that transform shoppers into stoppers            treachery
and passers into buyers. It should be noted                  b) Red- passion, love
that visual merchandising does not impose                    c) Orange- knowledge, warmth, energy,
any idea over customers and works as an                force
idea person and lead the emotion in the                      d) Violet- royalty, depression
direction where customers wish to go. As it is               e) Blue- fidelity, sobriety, fear
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      f) Green- Wealth, outdoors, luck, nature          reasoning     strategies    are     defective
      g) Brown- Maturity, humility                      (Damasio, 1999)
      h) White- Purity, truth                                3-“The wiring of the brain favors
      i) Black- Death, sorrow, depression               emotions” (Ledoux, 1996)
                                                           (Sources- Advertising journal of Research,
     Sources- (Swati Bhalla, Anurag S, Visual             March, 2009, John Pawle and Peter Cooper)
                              merchandising)
                                                                     Objectives Of the study
               Neuromarketing
                                                        1-     To analyze the impact of emotional
       Neuromarketing is emerging field that            influence in consumer decision-making.
utilizes medical technologies such as FMRI              2-     To identify the most important
(functional magnetic Resonance Imaging) and             influence in consumer decision making
EEG (Electroencephalography) to study the               3-     To judge the rationality of consumer
brain’s response to marketing stimuli (P Raj            decision-making and to find out variation for
Devasagayam,        Tara     Maloney,     DIAS          the same product category.
Technology review, vol-6, No-2, Oct-Nov-
2010). FMRI is used by researcher for                                    Literature Review
measuring the change in the activity of the
brain and to learn what part of the brain is                   John Pawle and Peter Cooper used the
affecting decision and why consumers take               Lovemak grid and incorporated quantative as
decision. As it is believed that brand choice of        well as qualitative insight for measuring
the customers is based on sub conscious                 emotions. In their study they found that
thought process so Neuromarketing uses                  actual contribution of emotional factors to the
traditional Neuroscientific method to map the           brand decision-making is significantly greater
brain pattern against encounter between                 than functional factors and ranges from 63-85
stimuli and brain. It also analyzes impact of           % depending on product category. According
these stimuli on consumer decision-making.              to John Pawle and Peter Cooper         Human
The Retailer need to do the research at sub             behavior is is heavily influenced by emotions
conscious level to know what customers are              not solely by reason. Consumers are highly
thinking and why and neuromarketing is                  emotional and intuitive in their behavior,
believed to give answer of these questions. As          operating through emotional center of the
the participants is shown a particular                  brain directed by their heart and often
stimulus, his or her brain is monitored with            independent of conscious control (John Pawle
neuroimaging monitor such as FMRI, EEG,                 and Peter Cooper). Robert (2004) developed a
PET, TMS, SCR Etc, . Any one of these                   love mark grid in order to understand the
monitors can be used for brain mapping.                 relationship between brand and consumer. In
Eventually the brain pattern is interpreted by          his study he emphasized that brand not only
determining whether or not person liked what            need to create respect but it should also earn
he was experiencing and up to what degree.              respect from customers. Heath-2001 argues
                                                        that brand decision is not wholly rational.
                                                        Consumers take the decision via senses,
    Views from the field of Neuroscience                emotions, instinct and intuition. He pointed
                                                        out that customers are physically incapable of
      1-“The essential difference between               making decision based on purely rational
emotion and reason is that emotion leads to an          thinking. Kelvin Roberts in his study argued
action while reason leads to conclusion”                that human beings are powered by emotion
(Calne, 2000)                                           and whenever there is conflict between
      2-“Over 85% of the thought,                       emotion and reason emotion always wins.
emotions     and     learning    occur      in          Myeong –GU-SEO and Feldman Barrett
unconscious mind and it can be said that                analysed the impact of feeling (good or bad)
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over the decision-making performance. They            among consumers. Wakefield and Baker
argued that decision making performance               (1998) found that physical environment play a
depends on how people experience, treat and           very crucial role in determining consumer’s
use their feeling during decision making and          desire to remain at shopping area. The way
both functional and dysfunctional effects can         consumer experience emotion determines his
be simultaneously managed to maximize their           behavioral intention (Yach and Spangenberg-
positive effects and minimize negative                2000). It is pointed out that Positive emotion
effects. They suggested that affective feeling        creates approach behavior while negative
can improve decision-making performance by            emotion produces avoidance behavior. Mooy
facilitating and even enabling decision               and Roben-2002 in their study found that
making process. Damasio (1994) pointed out            customer wish to touch the product for better
that feeling boost the conscious attention and        evaluation and purchase decision. On the
continued working memory required for any             other hand Argo, Dahl and Morales-2006
reasoning or deciding pleasant and unpleasant         demonstrated that customers do not want the
feelings can help decision makers to resolve          product to be touched by the others that they
this dilemma by invoking distinguishable              would like to purchase and view touched
frame of the mind. Blair Kidwell, David M.            product as a negatively contaminated. Jenifer
Hardesty & Terry L. Childers argue that EI            J Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea C.
and emotional processing play a crucial role          Morales examined that when physical contact
in highest quality of decision and emotional          between the product and another person
processing have very strong influence on              creates positive outcome for consumers and
consumer outcome. Jennifer S. Lerner                  how consumers respond when other people of
(Howard University), Seunghee Han and                 varying level of attractiveness touch the
Dacher Keltner Described the significance of          product that they wish to purchase.. They
incidental emotion as well as integral                brought new insight regarding impact of
emotion. They defined the integral emotion as         attractive social influence in consumer
a feeling that is related to judgment or              decision-making and mentioned that a highly
decision at hand. Marieke D. Vries, Rob W.            attractive contact source and received
Holand, and Cilia L.M. Witte man in their             consumer must be of opposite sex for positive
study argue that compatibility between mood           contagion to occur. Male consumers are more
and decision strategy has very strong                 influenced by attractiveness level of another
influence over subjective value of decision           woman and that female consumers are more
outcome. They Examined mood and intuitive             influenced by attractiveness level of another
Vs deliberative decision-making. In their             man (Abbey1982, Buss 1989). Learner and
study they mentioned that Deliberative                Keltner (2000, 2001) used appraisal tendency
decision-making is cognition based, precise           Framework (ATF) as a basis for describing
and slow. Deliberative decision makers take           the effect of specific emotions on judgment
their time to thoroughly analyze the positive         and decision making. Ingrid Smithey, Fulmer
and negative aspects of different options.            and Bruce Barry identified neural system for
       Luisa Andreu, Enriquebigne, Ruben              incorporating     integral    emotions    and
Chumpitaz and Valerie Swaen investigated              controlling incidental emotions.
the impact of retail environment in two
different retail setting (shopping center and                              Hypothesis
traditional retail area. They established the
linkage between retail environment, emotion,                 a) H1- Consumers primarily take
satisfaction level and behavioral intention of        emotional decision driven by emotion
consumers. They formed three-dimensional                     b) H2- Consumers spend less time in
construct for analyzing behavioral intention.         Intuitive decision driven by emotions.
Baron et al described the concept of Retail                  c) H3- Consumers feels joy and
Theater for creating pleasant experience for          satisfaction in post transaction driven by
increasing satisfaction level and loyalty             emotion.
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                                                         are strongly driven by their senses in purchase
               Research Design                           decision and sight is most important influence
                                                         which energies customers to purchase the
       A structured undisguised questionnaire            goods. Most of the respondent said that they
is used and sample sizes of 200 were taken for           give priority to first impression in purchase
study. Both male and female respondents                  decision. We also felt in the research that
were taken in order to minimize the impact of            fragrance, music, light is very important
gender bias. Data are analyzed through SPSS.             source of emotional arousal and it influence
In the study dependent and independent                   consumer decision making up to great extent.
variables were identified. Consumer’s                    It was also found that most of the customers
judgment and purchase evaluation is                      take intuitive judgment.
dependent variable while social influence
(Attractiveness     of     contact    person),                         Limitation of the Study
compassion, atmospheric, retail setting,
temperature, music, colors, odor, décor,                        This study is heavily depends on
window dishplay, anger, fear, pride, affection           analysis of feelings of just 175 respondents in
etc is independent variable. Respondents were            retail setting. As emotion is very subjective in
asked to assess their feelings on five point             nature and most of the customers may not be
likert scale in order to find out that when              able to express their feelings exactly so the
customers felt joy, anger, fear, contentment             result may not be absolutely accurate. Lastly
and disgust.                                             this study can not be generalized as study is
                                                         conducted in NCR region only and emotion
              Scope of Research                          driver, drive the emotions of consumers based
                                                         on geographical location.
      This research empirically analyzes the
impact of emotional influence in consumer
decision making for goods in different retail
setting. This study can be further extended for
variety of the goods and most importantly the
sources of emotional arousal for each product
category can be identified. As in a retail
setting different factors such as decor, light,
color, odour, music, contact person, window
display are accountable for emotion formation
among the consumers so an effective emotion
matrix can be developed in order to
incorporate this matrix in sensory marketing.

           Analysis and Discussion

       Total     200     questionnaires     were
distributed among the customers in a different
retail setting as each shopping mall have
different architectural design, lay out and
window display. Finally 175 questionnaires
were found usable. Apart from SPSS analysis
tool, pie chart is also used to analyze the data.
Total 16 questions were asked to respondent
to analyze the impact of senses, emotional
influence over customer decision making.
Majority of the customers admitted that they
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                                     Interpretation of the data

Table-1
    How strong you are driven by your senses in purchase decision?
           Particulars       Frequ
                             ency Percent           Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
     Valid Strongly driven   94      47.0           47.0           47.0
           Rarely             52       26.0              26.0                73.0
           Moderately         52       26.0              26.0                99.0
           Not at all         2        1.0               1.0                 100.0
           Total              200      100.0             100.0
    Table-2
    Which of five senses hold you most during purchase?
               Partic
               ulars Frequency             Percent Valid Percent             Cumulative Percent
       Valid   See    118                  59.0    59.0                      59.0
               Smell    10                 5.0       5.0                     64.0
               Touch    28                 14.0      14.0                    78.0
               Hear     14                 7.0       7.0                     85.0
               Taste    30                 15.0      15.0                    100.0
               Total    200                100.0     100.0

       Table-3
       Do you follow what your senses say during purchasing & up to what extent?

           Particul
           ars      Frequency Percent                Valid Percent           Cumulative Percent
     Valid Always 68          34.0                   34.0                    34.0
           Rarely    62             31.0             31.0                    65.0
           Sometim   68             34.0             34.0                    99.0
           es
           Never     2              1.0              1.0                     100.0
           Total     200            100.0            100.0




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Table-4
  How much passionate you are about your favorite colour in purchase decision?
          Particul
          ars        Frequency Percent          Valid Percent     Cumulative Percent
    Valid Very       72        36.0             36.0              36.0
          Deeply
          Moderat 102          51.0             51.0              87.0
          ely
          Rarely 24            12.0             12.0              99.0
          Not at all 2         1.0              1.0               100.0
          Total      200       100.0            100.0

Table-5
 Are you ready to spend more money to get your favorite colour?
        Partic
        ulars    Frequency      Percent             Valid Percent            Cumulative Percent
  Valid Yes      130            65.0                65.0                     65.0
        No       70             35.0                35.0                     100.0
        Total    200            100.0               100.0

Table-6
 How much passionate you are about your favorite music?
        Particulars    Frequency Percent          Valid Percent              Cumulative Percent
 Valid Very Deeply 96              48.0           48.0                       48.0
        Rarely Matters 62          31.0           31.0                       79.0
        Moderately     42          21.0           21.0                       100.0
        Total          200         100.0          100.0


 Table-7
 How much you are driven by your favorite fragrance in purchasing cosmetics?
       Particulars     Frequency   Percent           Valid Percent            Cumulative Percent
 Valid Strongly        80          40.0              40.0                     40.0
       Moderately      74          37.0              37.0                     77.0
       Sometimes       42          21.0              21.0                     98.0
       Not so          4           2.0               2.0                      100.0
       effective
       Total           200         100.0             100.0




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  Table-8
  Do you feel that music, and fragrance in the shopping mall energies you for purchasing more?
          Particulars Frequency Percent                Valid Percent       Cumulative Percent
   Valid Strongly        56           28.0             28.0                28.0
          agree
          Agree          106          53.0             53.0                81.0
          Disagree       32           16.0             16.0                97.0
          Indifferent 6               3.0              3.0                 100.0
          Total          200          100.0            100.0


 Table-9
Do you get more satisfaction when you purchase the goods based on first impression rather than
deliberately analyzing the pros and cons of product?
      Particulars        Frequency     Percent      Valid Percent          Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree     26            13.0         13.0                   13.0
      Agree              110           55.0         55.0                   68.0
      Disagree           54            27.0         27.0                   95.0
      Indifferent        10            5.0          5.0                    100.0
      Total              200           100.0        100.0

Table-10
How strong are you in distinguishing or identifying stimulus, when you are given blindfold?

      Particulars       Frequency      Percent      Valid Percent          Cumulative Percent
Valid Always            18             9.0          9.0                    9.0
      Most of times     82             41.0         41.0                   50.0
      50-50             82             41.0         41.0                   91.0
      Rarely            18             9.0          9.0                    100.0
      Total             200            100.0        100.0

 Table-11
Are you so strongly driven by your senses that you overlook your budget?
       Particulars                                       Valid
                        Frequency        Percent         Percent           Cumulative Percent
Valid Mostly it happens 54               27.0            27.0              27.0
      50-50             58               29.0            29.0              56.0
      Sometimes it      64               32.0            32.0              88.0
      happens
      Never happens     24               12.0            12.0              100.0
      Total             200              100.0           100.0
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 Table-12
Do you go for analysis of price benefits when you find it as priority of your taste?
      Particulars Frequency            Percent    Valid Percent             Cumulative Percent
Valid Always         58                29.0       29.0                      29.0
      50-50          98                49.0       49.0                      78.0
      Rarely         36                18.0       18.0                      96.0
      Never          8                 4.0        4.0                       100.0
      Total          200               100.0      100.0


Table-13
How many times conflict takes between emotions & reasons in purchase decision?
       Particulars      Frequency Percent       Valid Percent        Cumulative Percent
 Valid Always           22          11.0        11.0                 11.0
       Sometimes        130         65.0        65.0                 76.0
       Rarely           40          20.0        20.0                 96.0
       Never            8           4.0         4.0                  100.0
       Total            200         100.0       100.0

Table-14
How much time you take to make purchase decision when you are emotionally driven?
        Particulars                                            Valid
                                 Frequency Percent             Percent         Cumulative Percent
 Valid Spontaneously             46        23.0                23.0            23.0
       Discuss and consult with 96         48.0                48.0            71.0
       friends
       Think of pros and cons 50           25.0                25.0            96.0
       Try to contect user/users 8         4.0                 4.0             100.0
       Total                     200       100.0               100.0

Table-15
How emotional influence is important for you and it affect your purchase decision?
         Particulars                Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
  Valid Very important              36          18.0       18.0             18.0
         Moderately important       110         55.0       55.0             73.0
         Not important              38          19.0       19.0             92.0
         Indifferent                16          8.0        8.0              100.0
                    Total               200       100.0          100.0




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Table-16
Do you give priority to emotion over reason during the purchase decision?
       Particulars                                          Valid
                                  Frequency Percent Percent                            Cumulative Percent
Valid Always                      18             9.0        9.0                        9.0
       Sometimes                  104            52.0       52.0                       61.0
       Rarely                     24             12.0       12.0                       73.0
       Never                      16             8.0        8.0                        81.0
       Both emotion and reason 38                19.0       19.0                       100.0
       are equally important
       Total                      200            100.0      100.0



                    Conclusion                                      5) Marieke Dvries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.
                                                            M. Witteman ‘Fitting decisions: Mood and intuitive
                                                            deliberative decision strategy’, Psychology press
       Most of the customers hear to their                          6) Jennifer J. Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea
emotion while taking decision that’s why                    C.Morales ‘Positive consumer contagion: Responses to
their decision is primarily driven by the                   attractive others in a retail context’, Journal of
emotion and emotional influence play a very                 marketing research, vol-xlv, dec-2008, pp-690-701
important role in consumer decision making
                                                                  7) Ingrid Smithey Fulmer and Bruce Barry
process. It is also found from the research that            ‘Managed hearts and Wallets: Ethical issues in
intuitive decision driven by the emotion                    emotional influence by and within the organisation’,
provide more post purchase satisfaction and                 Business ethics quarterly 19.2, April-2009
pleasure .It is also found during the study that
emotion based decision take less time in
purchase decision as compared to reason
based decision making.


                     Reference

       1) John Pawle and Peter Cooper ‘Measuring
Emotion-Love marks, the future beyond brands’,
Journal of advertising Research-March-2006,
       2) Lisa Feldman Barrett ‘Being emotional
during decision making good or bad? An empirical
investigation’, Academy of management journal, 2007,
volume-50,
       3) Blair Kidwell, David M. Hardestyand Terry
L.Childers     ‘consumer     emotional  intelligence’,
Advances in consumer research, vol-35, 2008
       4) Lennifer S. Lerner, Seunghee Han and
Dacher Keltner ‘Feelings and consumer decision
making-Extending the appraisal tendency framework’,
Journal of consumer psychology




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EMPLOYER BRAND AND ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL
                 PhD Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia

          Abstract: As companies and individuals to             show that the employer does not comply with
live their best release? What should companies and              certain legal provisions, such as for example
individuals were the most successful? What job would
bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further
                                                                the prohibition of discrimination, well, let's
development? What would be the fastest way led to the           say, clearly states the age limit up to which
realization of corporate goals and their own?                   the applicant may apply. Are you in this case
          Answers to these questions can be obtained            is that the employer does not have a full
through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of              Labour candidates or bills that do not know
individual potential (AIP). Employer brand analysis
and analysis of individual potential is the process of
                                                                the legal provisions or is a habit that in
identifying the strengths and potential of the company          Serbia, many laws are passed, but few are
as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is        implemented and respected. Whatever it
that a company or person works best, how to motivate            comes to know that unnecessarily put
people and to the field of application of discovered            themselves at risk to be punished with fine
talent. The main objective of this procedure is the
development of an overall as well as personal and
                                                                which may amount to a million dinars, or
professional development of individuals in the                  prohibition of activity, in the worst case. In
direction of those activities and areas that will bring         this regard, the analysis of individual potential
long-term satisfaction.                                         involves the following steps: determining
          Keywords: employer brand, the analysis of             personality traits, motivations, talents, values
individual potential, organizational culture
                                                                and inhibiting efficiency.
                INTRODUCTION
                                                                          FIRST EMPLOYER BRAND
        The easiest way to find out the answer
                                                                         Brand actually make intangibles such
to the question of whether to Serbia
                                                                as perceptions, emotions and associations that
recognizes the importance of employer brand
                                                                exist in one's mind of the employer. The
is to be flipped Newspapers and look for job
                                                                ultimate goal in creating the brand is
listings. We will see that most multinational
                                                                attracting and maintaining customers just as
companies are concerned about their own
                                                                in this case, the consumer current or future
brand, and in many local companies, there is
                                                                employees. The brand has become a tool for
still not the case. Often we come across
                                                                attracting, hiring and retaining candidates.
advertisements that contain only a job title, a
                                                                Reflects the core values and vision of the
list of tasks and requirements that students
                                                                company, an offer that is unique and different
must meet. Those ads do not give any
                                                                from the competition and meaningful message
information about the employer, the employer
                                                                that is sent to the target group.
who is, what it stands for and what we offer to
the successful candidate. On the ads we
                                                                  1.1. Of which depends on the success of the
encounter partly because certain employers do
                                                                                      brand?
not consider the role that the brand has in
                                                                        The most important prerequisite for
attracting and retaining appropriate candidates
                                                                the success of the brand's credibility. The
because they want to save it by taking a
                                                                brand should reflect the organizational culture
smaller inventory. [1]
                                                                firm. If the brand is not consistent with the
        However, you should know that in this
                                                                organizational culture CCE candidates will be
case the big question when and how to attract
                                                                drawn on the basis of false images and
a given position, and the cost generated by
                                                                promise, which is also a waste of time and a
selecting the wrong candidate is much greater
                                                                waste of money. Brand should not be based
than the cost of an adequate advertising.
                                                                primarily on what the company aspires to
However, this is not the most serious flaw,
                                                                that, but first of all on what the company is,
even bigger omission is based on the ad to
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because it is based on an employer's ability to        company        organization      culture      and
fulfill the promise. In a word, the employer           contribution to the chief executive (CEO) is a
needs to understand their organizational               critical and invaluable, it has to be a model
culture, to turn into a brand that employs and         corporate value. The person making the
in accordance with it.                                 recruitment and selection should assess how
                                                       the candidate fits into the organizational
SECOND TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL                         culture of the company. The assessment is
           CULTURE                                     made on the basis of the knowledge of the
                                                       value system of organizational culture on the
         There are several different divisions,        one hand and the value system of the
but it is most useful division of the following        candidates on the other.
types of organizational culture [2]:                           Attempts to define organizational
     First guild,                                     culture through the key competencies at the
     Second ad hoc,                                   corporate level and seeking candidates with
     3rd hierarchical, and                            competencies date have failed. If a company
     4th market.                                      believes that its organizational culture reflects
         Key values that are in the clan culture       teamwork, communication and interpersonal
insists the unity, harmony, background, taking         skills that is too broad framework for
part in decision-making, teamwork, loyalty,            decision-making, as all companies require
trust.                                                 teamwork and communication skills and
         In an ad hoc organizational culture           interpersonal skills, while in terms of
insists on entrepreneurship, innovation,               organizational culture are different. Recently
creativity, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance,      there has been in the United States tested a
and all because they are looking for new               new instrument assess cultural fit titled
markets and new development opportunities.             "Culture link" that provides reliable
Hierarchical organizational culture deals with         information to the employer's organizational
herself and poorly directed outward, turn the          culture and on the candidate's work style,
key values, rules, monitoring and control.             specific approach and philosophy of life and
         Market       organizational      culture      their compatibility with the employer's
develops competitive spirit and orientation on         organizational culture.
performance, and the highest value is to                       There are several ways to display the
achieve results.                                       value system of candidates, but it is most
         How to determine the organizational           useful for practical purposes, it scales from 32
culture of their own companies? The                    values on which candidate should be self-
organizational culture of most companies is in         assessment. According to the scale candidate
fact a mixture of two or more cultural type,           can be important different things such as
where, however, stands one who dominates.              achievement, advancement, authority, balance
Setting up simple questions such as: what are          between professional and private life,
the relationships in our company, as the work          belonging, contribution, creativity, nursing
is done by us, who can advance in the                  homes, enjoyment, excitement, fame, family,
company to help us determine our                       freedom,          friendship,       professional
organizational culture. How important is it to         development,         independence,      integrity,
know its own organizational culture and                knowledge, loyalty, money, success, power,
recruit according to her is the fact a recent          quality, recognition, religion, security, self-
survey according to which 75% of the main              realization, kindness, spirituality, stability,
reason for the failure of the executive director       teamwork and victory. [3]
does not indicate a lack of expertise, but their               It is important that the candidate be
incompatibility with the organizational                offered employer to recognize in addition to
culture of the company. This fact is not               psychological and material gain, and
surprising since all the employees and                 emotional income. Recall that research has
management have to live the brand or                   shown that the salary in the last place on the
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list of reasons why employees leave the                motivation, values and inhibiting efficiency,
company.                                               while personality profile is determined
                                                       personality tests. An integral part of this
                                                       process is the part of the reporting and
     3. ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF                       advisory services, with particular emphasis on
             INDIVIDUAL                                the application of specific talents and areas
                                                       for further professional and personal
        The analysis procedure of individual           development of the person.
potential is created within the Institute for          AIP is intended:
Cognitive Management in Stuttgart. In our                      a) Individuals who want to make a
country it is conducted by psychologists these         decision about a career change, further
centers, certified for application of this             professional training and development.
procedure.                                                     b) Companies that want to optimize
        Analysis of individual potential               operations through better knowledge of its
involves the following steps: determining              employees, through this process the company
personality traits, motivations, talents, values       will provide useful information about
and inhibiting efficiency.                             employees on the basis of which they can
        Personality traits - a person's tendency       make      decisions    on     promotion      and
to act in a certain way. In the process of AIP         development of personnel.
is very important to determine whether our                     People who complain and grumble all
talents based on relevant personality traits.          day long they can live longer than others,
        Motivation - gives us the answer to the        according to a research group of German
question: What drives us? Why we do certain            scientists at the University of Jena. Scientists,
activities? Motives can sometimes be                   who have been followed more than 6,000
functional      (positive)     and     functional      patients, have come to the conclusion that
(sabotaging). Applying AIP to determine                people who tend to express negative mood are
what it is that drives a person and whether it         less affected by physical or mental illness,
is useful for her.                                     reported today the French media.
        Talent - an ability of a person to an                  In contrast, people who hold negative
activity performed better than all the other           emotions in themselves are vulnerable to
activities that may take place. Talents, defined       cardio-vascular disease, high blood pressure,
through AIP, and they all have the need to             cancer or kidney disease.
find them. They can be cognitive, verbal,                      The scientists, whose research is
creative, social, motor ...                            published in the scientific journal JHP (Health
        Value - indicates the field of                 Journal Psychologies), however, did not
application of our talents. They show us why           specify how many years the "advantages" of
it is important and significant that we do what        those who express a bad mood, but noted that
we do. In choosing our area further                    it is good for people to express negative
development, values play a very important              emotions.
role.
        Blockade efficiency - indicate thinking
and behavior that we can block and impede               4. INTRODUCTION ENTERTAINMENT IN
the development of their own potential. One                   ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
of the tasks of the AIP and identifying them                 STRONGER EMPLOYER BRAND
and giving suggestions for overcoming them.
                                                              Entering the entertainment business
  3.1. The analysis procedure of individual            stronger employer brand which increases the
                  potential                            company's ability to attract quality candidates,
                                                       and employees become more satisfied, more
        The procedure involves AIP specially           engaged and motivated, and to a greater
structured interview aims identify talent,             extent invest in the company. Then, reduce
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the amount of stress at work, increase team             labor market so that they can not be
spirit all of which contributes to a longer             generalized. Therefore, the conclusion that
retention of employees in a company or in the           can be made is that the offering as an integral
absence of fluctuations are reduced. With all           part of the entertainment business and one of
that fun at work starts increasing productivity         the key corporate values should be the main
and creativity, and all together it has a               way to recruit graduates. In support of this is
positive impact on the profitability of the             the fact that in 2012. The Google ranked first
company. That these are not idle claims                 company on the Fortune 100 list of the most
testify studies conducted on the subject.               desirable companies to work for you (2012
                                                        FORTUNE "100 Best Companies to Work for
     4.1. The desirability of fun at work               it), among others, and because the company
                                                        did make it fun to be a part of doing business
        The group of American university                with the firm.
professors has conducted research on the                        After all that has been said, the
desirability of fun at work among senior                question that arises is how to enter the
students. The results were published in a               entertainment business, entertainment and do
publication called "The fundamental role of             business. [4]
entertainment at work in attracting
candidates" ("The Fundamental Role of                                 4.2. Creating fun at work
Workplace Fun in Applicant Attraction" issue
of Journal of Leadership & Organizational                       There are countless ways you can
Studies, 2012). The study involved nearly               become a fun part of the job. But here are
four hundred university students at three U.S.          some suggestions that can be found on the
universities. The subjects were asked to read           Internet [5]:
and evaluate the desirability of different ads                  1. Give each employee a certain
for the fictitious company's business, which is         freedom and resources to design decorate
called for recently graduated candidates.               their work space and that in a way that you’re
        Ads have differed among themselves              personal touch. Then select the best decorated
as to whether it offers fun on the job, earning         corner commending the work of originality
prestige or the possibility of rapid                    and creativity.
advancement.                                                    2. Use bright colors in the interior.
        After you read the ad respondents               Color bar are not expensive and can
answered a series of questions in terms of the          significantly improve mood.
extent to expect that the work will be                          3. Place the posters on the walls. Faces
interesting and fun, assess the extent that they        of celebrities can be replaced by a person
fit into the organizational culture of the              employed who seems ridiculous, but also
company and what would be likely in real life           motivating.
to report on one such ad.                                       4. Make a party on the occasion of the
        The results showed that the extent to           upcoming holidays are a great opportunity to
which respondents perceived to have a fun job           socialize employees.
positively influence their decision to apply for                5. Celebrate success; treat yourself
jobs and assessment to fit right into the               with cookies or other food.
organizational culture of the company. Also,                    6. Enter the day of wacky clothing.
the extent to which respondents perceived to                    7. Declare open day for pets, children,
have a fun job has a greater positive impact            parents.
on their assessment that would fit right into                   8. Smile. Rejoice. If you as a manager
the organizational culture of the company               moody and lethargic so will everyone around
compared to the profit or prestige possibility          you.
of rapid advancement.                                           9. Set up a playroom in the room
        Nevertheless, the results are related           where people spend a break or lunch.
primarily to those who are just entering the
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        10. Play music and organize dance or                   4.   Cvetković,     Lj.    (2008)      Poslovno
karaoke party. Capture and record all the                           komuniciranje,MB Grafika, Niš.
                                                               5.   www.singipedia.com pristup: 28.12.2012
ridiculous poses.
        11. Enlist a professional photographer
to take pictures of your employees, and most
successful showcase photos in a prominent
place.
        12. If your employees wear uniforms
stitched to order an original, fun, funny
uniform.
        13. Enter a pause of several minutes
for the collective exercise or relaxation.

       Namely, what are unexpected are the
new and fun, and everything that the child be
employees or customers instead adult. For
example, if training on communication call in
the usual way as communication skills that
may seem boring as something that has
already seen a hundred times, but if they have
the skills and tactics training call, then it
sounds more interesting.

                CONCLUSION

        For employers to decide whether to be
an employer of choice or compulsion. And to
remind you, to what we have noted in the
previous issue dedicated to the concept of
social responsibility of the company to play
an increasingly important role in building
brand employer.
        In any case, all that fun has the power
to initiate energy, attract and motivate why
should plan to bring entertainment into the
organizational culture of the company and
make the job fun because it's one of the ways
to attract and retain quality people in your
company, especially when it comes of young
people who are entering the labor market and
who are generation Y.

                 REFERENCE


   1.   Mihajlović, S. Lj. ( 2011) Marketing, VŠPSS,
        Vranje.
   2.   Mihajlović, S. Lj. (2012) Organizacija
        poslovnih sistema, VŠPSS, Vranje.
   3.   Subotić, D. (2009) Poslovna etika i veština
        komuniciranja, Beograd


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    TOURIST PROFILE OF YOUNG-ADULTS IN MACEDONIA AND
               THEIR PERCEPTION OF E-TOOLS

PhD Biljana Petrevska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics, Goce Delcev” University - Stip,
                                  Macedonia, e-mail: biljana.petrevska@ugd.edu.mk


      Abstract: The paper intends to create a tourist                 and connecting. Hence, the development of
      profile of young-adult consumers as well as to                  the Internet and the on-line social networks
      examine their attitude towards e-tools. More
      precisely, the study examines how young people
                                                                      (OSN) empowered the "new" tourists who
      percept the Internet as rapidly evolving medium,                became        knowledgeable       and     ask
      and do they use the on-line social networks (OSN)               exceptional value for their money and time
      in sharing experiences. In both cases, the main                 (Buhalis and Law, 2008).
      research area is tourism and travel. So, the aim and                   Whether a potential tourist will be
      objective of the paper are to determine a tourist
      profile among young population in Macedonia and
                                                                      interested in a certain item depends on the
      simultaneously to determine the level of application            preferences. Although may sound fragile,
      of e-tools. For this purpose, a survey was conducted            but the vast majority of today’s tourists
      among undergraduate students. The results point to              know exactly what they are looking for.
      interesting conclusions regarding travel habits and             They are very demanding and have
      interests,    planning       activities,    type      of
      accommodation, preferences and other data that
                                                                      complex, multi-layered desires and needs.
      support the created tourist profile. With regards to            Today’s so called “postmodern tourists”
      research hypotheses, the outcomes confirm solid                 have specific interests and individual
      causality between tested variables concluding that              motives which results in tailored made
      young population in Macedonia use e-tools for                   tourist products according to their
      travel and tourism purposes. Such findings one may
      find useful for tailoring strategies to the specific
                                                                      particular preferences. They are often high
      characteristics and initially created tourist profile of        experienced in travelling and demand
      young consumers in Macedonia.                                   perfect tourism products rather than
      Key words: Tourist profile; Young-adults; Internet;             standardized ones.
      OSN; Tourism.                                                          In this line, each generation has a
                                                                      different motivation for travel and tourism.
                        1. Introduction                               The seniors want to be active, feel useful,
                                                                      and meet with other people to gain new
            There is an inevitable relationship                       friends (Ekerdt, 1986). The young people
      between      tourism   and     information.                     want to gain new skills, to be part of the
      Moreover, it is a widely‐recognized the                         community and to enjoy life. Being ICT
      fact that information and decision‐making                       literate, they use the technology for various
      have become the foundation for the world                        purposes. So, in Macedonia 92.1% of
      economy (Wang, 2008).In the other side,                         computer users aged 15-24 years, are
      bigger number of tourists and travelers also                    registered that have ever used a computer.
      means potential source for strengthening                        Among them, 89.0% are Internet users
      the national economy. However that is not                       with high and exceptional frequency of
      a trouble-free process, particularly in                         86.0% of Internet usage on daily basis.
      turbulent environment. Moreover, by                             Furthermore, from all activities on the
      mediation of digital environment, it is                         Internet        (like:     e-correspondence;
      noticeable      the   obvious      tourists’                    telephoning; reading or downloading
      transformation from“passive audiences” to                       online news; finding information about
      “active      players”    (Prahalad      and                     goods or services; listening/watching
      Ramaswamy, 2000). A noteworthy change                           radio/TV; playing or downloading games,
      was made from just passive searching and                        images; Internet banking etc.), 89.7% goes
      surfing to creating content, collaborating                      on posting messages to chat sites, OSN,
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blogs, newsgroups or online discussion                 2. Literature review on Internet, OSN and
forum and use of instant messaging.                             search engines in tourism
Among all user groups aged between 15-
74, the group consisted of young                            In very short time, the Internet was
population between 15-24 years use the                introduced as a rapidly evolving medium
most mobile phones or smartphones                     for travel and tourism. It successful
representing 77.8%. They even access the              introduction to e-tourism is fully supported
Internet away from home via mobile                    by the search engines which became a
phones or smartphones in 28.1% (State                 dominant source in tourists’ use to access
Statistical Office, 2012: 5-6). So, it is easy        particular tourism and travel products
to conclude that Facebook, MySpace,                   (Schonland and Williams, 1996). In this
Twitter, Friendster, Bebo or some other               respect, the OSN gain in significance as
OSN supported by mobile device are                    well. It is known that social networking is
among favorite things the youngsters in               a platform, or a site that focuses on
Macedonia are addicted to. Generally, to              building and reflecting of social networks
this conclusion one may add regional or               or social relations among people, who have
even world approach.                                  similar or somewhat similar interests,
       This study, specifically intends to            backgrounds or activities and share them
answer the following research questions,              simultaneously.        Although        social
which address the young-adult tourism                 networking is possible in person, it is most
consumers in Macedonia:                               popular on-line by application of the
       1. What are their travel and tourism           websites. As the increase in popularity of
       preferences, interests, needs and              the OSN is on constant rise, the OSN find
       expectations?                                  its application in travel and tourism
       2. Do they use the Internet and OSN            purposes. It is often a case to be used for
       for travel and tourism purposes?               sharing travel and tourism information and
       3. Do they share travel and tourism            experience with one another.
       experiences by e-media?                              Due to its significance, the issue of e-
      In order the meet the research                  tools and their application in tourism
questions, the paper is structured in several         domain raised an interest within academia.
parts. After the introductory part, Section           Generally, they argue regarding the
two makes a brief overview on some                    understanding how search engines work
relevant literature referring e-tools and             and how travelers use the Internet and
their application in tourism purposes.                booking systems as tools in e-tourism
Section        three     incorporates      the        (Morrison et al., 2001; Singh and
methodology and research design. The                  Kasavana, 2005; Connolly and Lee, 2006;
results, analyses, discussion and evaluation          Pan et al., 2007; Buhalis and Law, 2008;
are noted in section four. Section five               Pan et al., 2011; Xiang and Pan, 2010).
includes conclusions and future research              Moreover, the success of search engine
directions.                                           marketing requires a good understanding
      Generally, the contribution of this             of consumer behavior in order to provide
paper lies in the fact that makes an attempt          the information desired by different
to create a tourist profile of young-adults           consumers. Furthermore, the necessity of
which may be used for tailoring a tourism-            developing digital technology that will
segmented strategy for young consumers in             support the personalized services to
Macedonia. Additionally, it presents some             address individual needs is fully justified.
interesting findings regarding their                  Tourism actors should collect customer
perception of e-tools and their application           information before, during and after a visit
in travel and tourism purposes.                       in order to better understand consumer
                                                      behavior choices and determinants

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(Buhalis and O'Connor, 2005). Additional            survey process and possibly bias the
insights regarding the progress of IT in            results. Since young people are eager to
tourism domain is noted in many research            consume, as well as are conscious of their
findings (Kluge, 1996; Kirk and Pine,               experience, they are valid consumers for
1998;Frew, 2000; O’Connor and Murphy,               this study (Sproles and Kendall, 1986).
2004; Leung and Law, 2005 and 2007;                         The     structured       questionnaire
Law et al., 2009).                                  consisted of three sections. Section 1
       Some researches address different            contained demographic attributes of the
approaches dealing with variety of                  respondents. Section 2 was consisted of
relationships that appeared in e-tourism.           fifteen items pointing to travel and tourism
So, Weber and Roehl (1999) explored                 preferences, attitudes, desires and motives
demographics between Internet users and             towards various points. Section 3
tourists at the same time. However, little          contained ten items measuring the
research has been done on the travel-               application of e-tools. A total of 520 copies
related behaviors of Internet travelers. In         of the questionnaire were distributed, out
this respect, Morrison et al. (2001) found          of which 502 were deemed complete and
that some book travel on-line, while others         usable, thus having response rate of 97%.
go to travel agents or call the toll-free           The collected data were transferred to a
numbers of travel providers after getting           common scorecard database in SPSS 20.0.
travel information on-line. With regards to         Some       descriptive      statistics    and
the behavioral dimensions, it may be                nonparametric statistical tests were used
utilized to segment travel markets as a             for creating an initial tourist profile among
powerful tool in managing e-tourism                 young-adults. The research hypotheses
(Hennessey et al., 2008). Regardless the            were tested by χ2 - test.
approach, it must be underlined that
tourism needed this kind of information                      3.1. Creating a tourist profile
some years ago, while today we are faced
with tourists with different travel patterns                For the purpose of creating a tourist
which cause different activity while                profile of young respondents, the data
travelling.                                         gathered by Section 1 and Section 2 were
                                                    acquisitioned. In order to assess
   3. Methodology and research design               respondent’s ratings the Likert scale and
                                                    the semantic different scale were applied.
      The study mainly took a quantitative          So, the respondents had to choose a rating
approach to answer the research questions           for the items from Section 2 on a adopted
noted in the introductory part. The data            4-point Likert scale, whereas 1=poor,
were collected by a self-administered               2=average, 3=good and 4=very good.
questionnaire survey in three locations in          Simultaneously, the satisfaction perceived
Macedonia: Skopje, Stip and Gevgelija.              by the respondents was measured by a 4-
The survey was conducted during March               point semantic different scale, whereas
2012 among undergraduate students in                1=far below ideal, 2=very close to ideal,
tourism studies. They were previously well          3=better than expected and 4=very
informed about the survey’s aims in order           satisfied.
to avoid any attempt to manipulate the




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                   Table 1.Demographic profile of respondents (n = 502)
                              Characteristic           Valid     %
                                                        n
                    Gender
                       Male                            246      49.0
                       Female                          256      51.0
                    Age
                       ˂ 30                            484      96.4
                       ˃ 30                             18       3.6
                    Place of living
                       Town                            404      80.5
                       Village                          98      19.5
                    Geographical area
                       Skopje                          103      20.5
                       North-East                       26       5.2
                       East                            210      41.8
                       South-East                      137      27.3
                       Vardar                           10       2.0
                       Pelagonija                        4       0.8
                       South-West                        7       2.8
                       Polog                             5       1.0
                    Marital status
                       Married                          30       6.0
                       Single                          472      94.0
                    Working status
                       Employed                         35       7.0
                       Unemployed                      467      93.0
                    Monthly household income (€)
                       ≤ 250                           133      26.5
                       250-300                         242      48.2
                       ˃ 300                           127      25.3

      Table 1 presents the demographic                    With regards to questions that refer
attributes regarding: gender, age, place of        to frequency of making a holiday, duration
living, geographical area, marital and             of stay, companionship, planning activities,
working status, as well as monthly                 type of transport and accommodation, the
household income. It is noticeable almost          profiling is as follows:
ideal gender equality among respondents,                  - Travels once per year with a
whereas the vast majority is under 30 years        duration of 5-10 days;
of age. Furthermore, majority live in urban               - Travels in a group of 3-5 persons,
areas (81%), being single (94%) and                very rarely with family members;
generally come from three (out of eight)                  - Aim of travel: fun;
geographic regions in Macedonia (Skopje -                 - Always travels in season (summer);
21%, East - 41% and South-East - 27%).                    - Travels by car, generally within
Since the sample is consisted of university        Macedonia, and sometimes in neighboring
students, it is expected to be unemployed          countries;
(93%). The monthly household income is                    - Always plans the holiday one week
between €250-300 (48%) presenting an               in advance;
average salary in Macedonia.                              - Type of accommodation: hotel with
                                                   3 stars or private accommodation - BB.

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       With regards to questions that refer           reach the following objectives: (a) to gain
to type of holiday, level of consumption,             an in-depth understanding of application of
sources of financing, methods of payment              Internet among young-adult consumers in
and level of satisfaction with services, the          Macedonia, and (b) to empirically tests the
profiling is as follows:                              application of the OSN in tourism and
       - Likes active holiday;                        travel purposes and sharing experiences.
       - Spends on additional tourism                         Hence, the following hypotheses
consumption between € 100-300, mostly                 are proposed:
on food and fun;                                              Q1: Young-adults use Internet for
       - The price is the main factor for             travel and tourism purposes.
making decision for travel and tourism;                       Q2: Young-adults apply OSN for
       - Very rarely, almost never uses a             sharing travel and tourism experiences.
tourist guide;
       - The holiday is paid by others                     4. Results, analysis, discussion and
(parents or partners);                                                  evaluation
       - Always pays in cash for services;
       - In case of being unsatisfied with the               As noted previously, for testing the
services, almost never undertakes measures            research hypothesis we applied the χ2 - test
and actions.                                          to test the association between the
                                                      variables. Since, the significance level was
            3.2. Research hypotheses                  set at 5%, the variables whose mean value
                                                      was ˃ 0.05 were considered under relation
      Based on research questions stated in           oriented.
the introductory part, the study intends to

                           Table 2.Test of hypotheses (n = 502)
                                            Q1
                                     Value        Degree of freedom                      p-value
           2
  Pearson χ                          6.752                 2                              .034
  Likelihood Ratio                   6.939                 2                              .031
  Linear-by-Linear Association       6.223                 1                              .013
                                            Q2
                                     Value        Degree of freedom                      p-value
           2
  Pearson χ                         18.099                 9                              .004
  Likelihood Ratio                  21.623                 9                              .010
  Linear-by-Linear Association       9.771                 1                              .002

       In this line, we test both research            is 0.004. In both cases the values are less
hypotheses. Namely, the tests for Q1 refer            than the significance level. Further data
to association between travel and tourism             presented in Table 2 additionally support
needs and the Internet among the young-               the significant outcomes towards Q1 and
adults in Macedonia. The tests for Q2 are             Q2, thus confirming solid causality
in line of detecting whether there exists             between the variables.
relationship between the OSN and sharing                    The next step is the evaluation of the
travel and tourism experience among                   research. Different tests may be applied to
young population in Macedonia. The                    reinsure the research results. Among the
results are presented in Table 2. The                 variety of concepts, the reliability and
research indicated positive effects for both          validity of data (Yin, 1994) are introduced
hypotheses i.e. substantial results since the         in addition. The reliability is regularity and
Pearson χ2value for Q1 is 0.034 and for Q2            soundness of a tool used for measurement

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of data. It shows how much reliable is the            Namely, the fact that youngsters spend 5-
measurement which has been adopted to                 10 days on holiday, which is bigger than
measure the collected data. More precisely,           the average stay of domestic tourists in
the reliability tells if the repeated                 Macedonia (4.8 days) implies that this
replications research happens the same                group should be considered as serious
results would be achieved. It explains how            potential consumers. Since their main aim
far away the approaches yield the same                of travel is fun, one may argue the
conclusion. The concept of validity is used           necessity of enhancing this kind of
for the measurement of quantitative data. It          facilities that are in favor of supporting
is described as to what extend the                    active holiday. Interesting, but not
conclusion can reflect the accurate                   surprising is the fact that young-adults
conclusion, leading to conclusion that the            prefer to travel in small groups up to five
findings are valid and trustworthy.                   persons who are not family members. As
Moreover, the validity is degree to which             the student vacation is in summer,
adopted measurement tools may be helpful              normally they use it as a main travel and
to measure the asked questions.                       tourism season. The modest travel budget,
      Furthermore, we introduce the                   limits them to travel within the country or
Cronbach α coefficient as a coefficient of            to neighboring countries the farthest, being
reliability. It is commonly used for                  accommodated in three-star hotels with BB
measuring       internal  consistency       or        service. Yet, surprising is the finding that
reliability of a psychometric test score for a        although being juniors, they always plan
sample of examinees. The results indicated            their holiday one week in advance, which
Cronbach α for questionnaire (502 items)              points to a preference to reduce the risk for
was 0.901 representing excellent internal             unpleasant surprise. Due to fact of being
consistency. Furthermore, the results                 unemployed        category    (since      the
pointed from good to acceptable internal              respondents were students), they are
consistency. So, the Cronbach α for                   categorized as consumers with low
individual variable of perceived fit was              consumption power whereas the price is
(0.857); perceived usage (0.821) and                  the main factor for making travel
sharing experiences (0.794).                          decisions. Generally, their parents or
                                                      partners are the main source of financing.
      5. Conclusion and future work                   Obviously they are not very responsible
                                                      with money spending, since always pay in
       This study investigated the initial            cash for services and not use credit-cards.
tourist profiling of young population and             The finding that they almost never use a
their attitude towards application of e-tools         tourist guide underlines the necessity of
in tourism and travel purposes. In this               undertaking measures for advanced
respect, besides creating a tourist profile of        informing about the important role that
a typical young tourist and traveler of               tourist guides play in travel and tourism
Macedonia, two additional aspects were                process. Although being full with energy,
particularly addressed: the perception of             the data showed that in cases when not
Internet as an e-medium for travel and                being satisfied with the services, they
tourism, and the application of OSN in                never undertake measures and actions.
sharing travel and tourism experiences.                      Another aspect of this paper was to
       A survey was conducted on a                    find out whether young population in
sampling consisted of undergraduate                   Macedonia is keen on applying CT for
students as representatives of young                  travel and tourism. Through statistical
population. The outcomes from the                     analysis it was identified that generally,
profiling process confirmed some already              they use the Internet as a basic source for
known facts but posed some new as well.               travel and tourism information. The vast

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majority of respondents has a profile page                        4.Ekerdt, D. (1986). The Busy Ethic Moral
on the OSN and uses it for sharing travel                 Continuity Between Work & Retirement. The
                                                          Gerontologist, 6(3), 239-244.
and tourism experiences. So, the young                            5.Frew, A. J. (2000). A critical analysis of
population in Macedonia identified the                    tourisminformation technology research. In D.
OSN as a cradle for sharing info from their               R.Fesenmaier, S. Klein, & D. Buhalis
trip and holiday.                                         (Eds.),Information         and        communication
       Furthermore, the study was limited                 technologies intourism (pp. 39-52). New York:
                                                          Springer-Verlag.
by several factors that may be addressed in                       6.Hennessey, S. M., MacDonald, R. &
some future research. Because only cross-                 MacEachern, M. (2008). A Framework for
sectional data were collected through a                   Understanding Golfing Visitors to a Destination.
questionnaire survey, the study may suffer                Journal of Sport & Tourism. 13(1), 5-35.
from common method variance effect. The                           7.Kirk, D., & Pine, R. (1998). Research in
                                                          hospitalitysystems and technology. International
sample size was also not big enough to                    Journal ofHospitality Management, 17(2), 203-217.
verify the factor structures. Namely, the                         8.Kluge, E. A. (1996). A literature review of
analysis took a snapshot of a selected                    informationtechnology       in     the     hospitality
sample in Macedonia referring university                  curriculum.Hospitality ResearchJournal, 19(4), 45-
students who have generally limited travel                64.
                                                                  9.Law, R., Leung, R. & Buhalis, D. (2009).
and tourism experience. Moreover, the                     Information technology application in hospitality
results address 90% of respondents coming                 and tourism: a review of publications from 2005 to
only from three geographical areas                        2007. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing,
(Skopje, East and South-East). To gain a                  26: 5-6, 599-623.
better overview of this research area, future                     10.        Leung, R., & Law, R. (2005). An
                                                          analysis ofinformation technology publications in
studies may expand the sample to include                  leadinghospitality journals. FIU Hospitality
young population from other statistical                   Review,23(2), 55-65.
planning regions in Macedonia in more                             11.        Leung, R., & Law, R. (2007).
equal manner. Thus, it may not be possible                Information technologypublications in leading
to generalize the results to whole young                  tourism journals: A studyof 1985 to 2004.
                                                          Information Technology &Tourism, 9(2), 133-144.
population in Macedonia. As this research                         12.        Morrison, A., Su, J., O’Leary,
represents a relatively small sample size,                J.&Cai, L. (2001). Predicting usage of the Internet
future work may also focus on extending                   for travel bookings: An exploratory study.
the number of respondents and other                       Information Technology and Tourism, 4(1), 15-30.
aspects of investigation. Despite these                           13.        O’Connor, P., & Murphy, J.
                                                          (2004). Research oninformation technology in the
limitations, the study is reach on useful                 hospitality industry.International Journal of
findings and poses some valuable                          HospitalityManagement, 23(5), 473-484.
directions for further research.                                  14.        Pan,     B.,    Litvin,     S.W.&
                                                          O’Donnell, T. E. (2007). Understanding
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               BRANDS AND BRANDING - EXAMPLE: COCA-COLA
                PhD Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia


         Abstract: The most valuable brand in the                   Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is one of
world is still "Coca Cola", and the highest increase        the largest companies in the non-alcoholic
was recorded value "Apple" because that's who
entered the top ten most valuable brands.
                                                            beverages in the country and authorized
         Coca-Cola HBC Serbia makes a                       bottlers of Coca-Cola. To justify its
significant contribution to the local economy. In           leadership position in the market, regularly
three bottling plants, distribution centers and sales       conducts research and a variety of actions
offices in Serbia and employ over 1500 people.              in terms of improving their own business
Taxes that are paid regularly Serbian authorities are
yet another way of contribution to the national
                                                            and improve the environment.
economy.
         Keywords: brand, branding, marketing,                The most legendary SAGA two brands:
Coca-Cola                                                             Coca-Cola and Pepsi
          1.       INTRODUCTION                                     In fact, it is one of the most iconic
                                                            stories ever on the fight between the two
        The word brand (trademark) is an                    brands in the business world. Portal
English word and its first application was                  CnnTees researched and wrote a
the cowboys of the Old West, which they                     chronological tale of two competitors that
branded their cows to distinguish them                      includes all of the well-known soft drink
from the other cows on the prairie. From                    producers. 'Saga' begins in the 1886th
the business point of view on the market,                   when John S. Pemberton developed the
branding is very similar branding at the                    original recipe for the "Coca-Cola".
ranch. The purpose of branding is to                        "Pepsi-Cola" appeared 13 years later by
differentiate your product in the market                    pharmacist Caleb Bradhama. At that time,
from other cows. Even if most of the cattle                 "Coca-Cola" has already sold over a
in the prairie are very similar to each other,              million liters of beverages a year. "Coca-
the perception of your product must be                      Cola" soon develops a "cult" and a bottle
different.                                                  expands to European market.
        The rivalry between the world's                             Meanwhile, the "Pepsi" is bankrupt
largest manufacturer of soft drinks, "Coca-                 because of the First World War, and eight
Cola" and "Pepsi" is more than a century.                   years later, again faced with bankruptcy,
        List as most valuable global brands                 but soon coming into her own, and
dominate brand in the U.S., which has a                     increases sales.
total of 49th From Europe is on the list of                         During World War II "Pepsi" is
38 brands and from Germany, France,                         increasing its marketing investment and
Switzerland, Italy, Britain, Sweden, the                    begin to sell their drinks in cans. During
Netherlands, Finland and Spain. The other                   the fifties, "Coca-Cola" is a strong focus
brands are from Japan, Korea, Canada, and                   on television advertising, and "Pepsi" it is
one each from Mexico and Taiwan. The                        accompanied, not wanting to lose the fight.
research is based on a complex                                      1962nd "Coca-Cola" comes to the
methodology developed by "Interbrend".                      stock market, and will soon launch a new
Use the form that combines the power of                     brand - Sprite - which quickly became one
brands future and its role in creating                      of the world's most successful brands.
demand. Firms must be publicly available                    Connecting to snack producer, the "Frito
financial data, and a third of revenue must                 Lay", "Pepsi" has brought many benefits
come from abroad.                                           and helped him considerably, especially in

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the last decade. On the other hand, "Coca-        European brand, and now it's Mercedes at
Cola" has remained in the beverage.               the 12th place. Nokia has lately been
        Although "Pepsi" brands of drinks         struggling with problems and had to lay
may not be as strong, the job with the            off workers, mainly due to strong
production of snack foods, so-called. Nail        competition in the smart phone market.
them literally booming. "Coca-Cola" has a                  The new company, which is among
bigger market share drinks, but "Pepsi"           the top 100 most valuable brands, the
because of the wide range of businesses           Taiwanese mobile phone manufacturer
earn higher incomes.                              HTC, which came in 98th place. This is
        Each of the brands on his side a          the first time the company found itself on
whole brigade of celebrities, for her             the list of Taiwan.
marketing job, of course, very well paid.
From its founding until the day, and                      3. COCA-COLA HBC SERBIA
"Coca-Cola", "Pepsi" was implemented
numerous changes in the appearance of                     Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is one of
their logos. Wholeheartedly embraced the          the largest companies in the non-alcoholic
popularity of digital media and take              beverages in the country and authorized
advantage of all the marketing advantages         bottlers of Coca-Cola. The company
of social networks today provide                  manufactures and distributes a unique
companies.                                        range of quality brands for around 7.9
                                                  million inhabitants of Serbia, bringing
 2. THE MOST VALUABLE BRANDS                      enthusiasm in marketing of products,
                                                  while taking a leadership role in the area of
         Brand (after Coca-Cola) are              corporate social responsibility.
leading the top ten on the list of brands                 Coca-Cola HBC Serbia operating
that are just in the United States. From          in Serbia since 1997. With headquarters in
another country is best placed 11th at            Zemun, has three bottling plants across the
Toyota place. Coca-Cola is located at the         country. In addition, distributing products
head of the ladder since 2000. when he            from four distribution centers. It employs
began to research and to publish. Last            over 1,300 people and indirectly affect
year, its value increased by 2% to 71.861         employment 10 times more people who are
billion dollars. Second place belongs to          in the value chain. Their goal is to provide
IBM, Microsoft and third. From                    our customers become the number one
technology companies among the top ten            supplier to provide and support programs
are, and Google, on the fourth, seventh           to more than 37,000 customers who sell
Intel, Apple in eighth and Hewlett-Packard        products to consumers.
as tenth.                                                 This company is part of Coca-Cola
        Ladder ten most valuable brands           Hellenic Group, one of the largest bottler
complement the General Electric GE-fifth,         of Coca-Cola in the world and the largest
McDonald's, Disney, and the sixth to ninth        in Europe. Coca-Cola Hellenic operates in
place. Apple's brand value increased by           28 countries, offering products for more
58%, so the manufacturer of your favorite         than 570 million people. You're sitting
iPhone and iPad climbed to eighth position        company located in Athens, and the
from the previous 17th Apple's value has          company is listed on the stock exchange in
increased mainly due to the dominant              Athens, New York, London and Sydney.
position in the market of tablets.
        The biggest drop was sustained                         3.1. The product range
brand Nokia which has slid to 14th place,
with eight, and its value is reduced 15%.                Coca-Cola HBC Serbia produces,
Nokia last year was the most valuable             sells and distributes a wide range of

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beverages, most of which are the                       3.2.1. Management of water resources
trademark of Coca-Cola. Our product                         The needs for fresh water in our
portfolio includes:                                 environment are increasing, and climate
        • Leading brands: Coca-Cola,                change affect traditional forms of
Coca-Cola light, Coca-Cola, Fanta and               precipitation. As the number of inhabitants
Sprite                                              in the country, the needs for drinking water
        • Local brands such as Rosa, Next,          are becoming alarming.
SU-Fruit, Joy                                               Capacity Business Development,
        • Brands licensed from other                Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is directly related
companies, such as Nestea, Burn, Ultra              to the availability and quality of local
Energy and Schweppes.                               water resources. Therefore the greatest
        Continuously              consider          efforts are directed towards managing
opportunities to expand its product range           water resources and taking an integrated
in order to offer consumers the ability to          approach to this issue, which is of key
Serbia as diverse choices. We do our best           importance:
to provide the highest quality of its                       First    Improving      water     use
products.                                           efficiency: it is to reduce the amount of
                                                    water needed for the production of
      3.2. Sustainable Development                  beverages
                                                            Second Working in partnership in
        To ensure long-term success, Coca-          order to protect local rivers and promote
Cola HBC Serbia impact on the                       sustainable     management        of   water
environment to a minimum and                        resources, works with partners whose
contributing to the quality of life in local        number is getting bigger
communities. Long term and are                              The bottlers are closely monitoring
committed to constantly meeting these               water resources in order to amount of
goals. Given the growing number of                  water pumped to a minimum. Introducing
sustainability challenges, focus on issues          water-saving technology on the production
that are a priority for the business. These         lines, made more efficient use of water.
are:                                                For example, to install a washing systems
        • Management of water resources             which operate on the principle of high
        • Climate protection & protection           pressure,     significantly    reduce     the
of energy resources                                 consumption of water, water that is used
        • Packaging & Recycling                     for the five lines washer is collected and
        • Consumer Health                           used for the toilets; syrups is made in the
        • Developing people                         program in which the last flush with water
        • Engaging suppliers                        sanitation collected and used as the starting
        • The well-being of the local               point for the next sanitation, for Water
community                                           treatment devices are installed that
        • United Nations Global Compact             measure water consumption for each
        For each of these issues are set            product line, which significantly improved
objectives, monitoring and measuring the            monitoring of water consumption in the
progress equally rigorous as in other               production.
segments of its business. Follow the                        Each bottling plant regularly to
leading standards and methodologies and             assess risk. Regularly to study and monitor
operations transparent reporting on the             the quantity and quality of local water
progress made in the report on corporate            supplies taking into account the legal
social responsibility (CSR).                        requirements and the environment. Based
                                                    on the assessment made in order to create
                                                    an action plan to mitigate the risks.

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        Although they managed to increase            Belgrade, Faculty of Applied Ecology,
water use efficiency to a great extent, will         University of Belgrade, NGO world and
never be able to influence the reduction of          the Danube and many other associations,
the amount of water in the products. What            representatives of ministries and relevant
is being produced greater amounts of                 media partners. It also sponsors the first
alcohol, it will use more water. Therefore,          conference on groundwater, and began a
it is extremely important to continue to             project to protect the river Vlasina.
work on the efficient use of water. This is                  At the international level, the Coca-
exactly the reason I constantly investing in         Cola Hellenic is a signatory of the CEO
new, more modern technology.                         Water Mandate the establishment of the
        Coca-Cola HBC Serbia provides all            UN Global Compact. This initiative aims
the water that is returned to the Danube, is         to tackle the problem of sustainability of
processed to a level that allows the fish to         water resources in operations, supply
live in it. The bottling plant in Serbia have        systems and communities as well as to
waste water treatment plants located on the          work closely with government and non-
factory grounds, and Vlasinka and Fresh &            governmental organizations involved in
Co using public utility systems for water            shaping policy in this area. In order to
treatment. Treated water is returned to the          achieve a better understanding of water use
environment is suitable for use in                   in the domestic supply system, Coca-Cola
agriculture and safe for plants and aquatic          is also working with Water Footprint
life.                                                Network.

            3.2.2. Partnerships                                  3.2.3. Energy Efficiency

        In order to successfully cope with                   Climate change is the biggest and
problems related to water resources, Coca-           most alarming challenge facing our planet.
Cola HBC Serbia is cooperating with other            It takes quick and decisive action to ensure
stakeholders through a series of                     that our society is focused on the
partnerships.                                        development path that will feature a low
        Green Danube Partnership for there           carbon economy. The business sector,
for many years. Together with the                    which has a capacity for innovation and
International    Commission       for    the         investment, plays a key role in the
Protection of the Danube River, to                   transformation of large-scale.
participate actively in the struggle to                      Coca-Cola HBC Serbia wants to
preserve the river and conduct a variety of          take a leadership position so that there will
activities aimed at raising awareness both           be adapting their business demands and
in Serbia and in nine other countries that           opportunities of the economy characterized
lie in the basin of this river. These                by low carbon emissions. Therefore, all
activities include the annual Danube Day             efforts directed towards the areas of
celebrations in which take part in the tens /        operations that derive the greatest amount
hundreds of thousands of people.                     of energy: bottling plant, vehicles and
Celebration organized by Coca-Cola HBC               refrigeration equipment.
Serbia, in partnership with the Ministry of                  • The Coca-Cola bottling plant
Agriculture,     Forestry    and      Water          Serbian expanding the program Safe and
Management - Republic Directorate for                Eco-Driving
Water, the City of Belgrade, Secretariat of                  • The transportation services
Environment of Belgrade, Recycling                   beyond the use of hybrid vehicles and
Agency of Republic of Serbia, Secretariat            alternative fuels. Also, through the "Safe
for Utilities and Housing for the city of            and Eco-driving" influence creation of
Belgrade,     Tourist    Organization     of         good habits in the run.

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        • Coca-Cola HBC Serbia has a new              development of new models of
energy-efficient refrigeration equipment              refrigeration equipment and devices to
that emits 50% less CO2 compared to the               control energy use, the equipment is
results from 2004.                                    purchased now, in terms of energy
        • Combined heat and power: The                consumption, 50% more efficient than the
largest reduction in carbon dioxide from              one in 2004. year. We are also conducting
the bottling plant will just come from                training programs for its employees to
plants that combine electricity and heat              ensure proper use of these devices on the
(CHP), and for developing plans and                   market.
receive approval on CHP approval of                           In addition, working to avoid
construction in Serbia and elsewhere in the           hydro-fluor-carbonate (HFC) compounds,
Group. Cleaner and much more efficient                greenhouse gases, which are widely used
than conventional power plants, the                   in refrigeration equipment in homes and
combined units located within the plant               businesses.
bottling supplier of electricity, heating and
cooling. When you finish, the program                                      3.3. Partnerships
will lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions
originate from all manufacturing plants to                   At the international level, the Coca-
20%, while Coca-Cola HBC Serbia and up                Cola Hellenic is one of the founders and a
to 40%.                                               signatory of the UN Global Compact on
        • energy-saving programs: The                 Climate Protection, the world's largest
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia during bottling is               business association centered around
the application of energy-saving, which               issues of climate protection. In Serbia, an
will lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions             active member of UNGS and early 2009.
per liter of beverage produced. It is                 was selected as the chair of the group for
interesting that even though their                    the environment in which it will focus this
production facilities use more energy than            year will be very energy efficient.
office space and other applications, certain
measures are taken in terms of reducing                             3.4. Packaging and recycling
CO2 emissions in those areas. For
example, the Green IT program works to                        Packaging plays a vital role in the
change the computer equipment used in                 safe delivery of products to customers and
creating good user habits. Using audio,               consumers. However, once the product
video and on-line conferencing, reducing              takes, it becomes a quality packaging
business travel and hence CO2 emissions.              material for recycling, leaving the burning
        • Energy efficient refrigerator:              furnaces that produce waste heat energy -
When thirsty, consumers expect in                     or ends up as landfill waste.
restaurants and stores find products,                         We strive to reduce our impact on
chilled and ready for consumption.                    the environment which originates from the
Because of this, an important part of the             packaging in any part of its life cycle. Our
business strategy of Coca-Cola HBC                    integrated approach includes:
Serbia involves setting up cooling systems                    • Reducing the amount of
and equipment in buildings buyers.                    packaging we use
Although not produce themselves, and                          • Increase recycled content in the
they do not operate this equipment, they              composition of new packaging
are liable to affect the reduction of CO2                     •    Promote       recycling     and
emissions resulting from these devices.               renewability
Therefore, working with suppliers to                          The ultimate goal is to close the
increase the energy efficiency of the                 circle of recycling, conversion of used
equipment      used.    Thanks       to    the        packaging in the new one. Bottle-to-bottle

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recycling plant whose establishment in                          3.4.1. Promoting recycling
Austria just helped Coca-Cola Hellenic,
the company now supplies high quality                        Coca-Cola HBC Serbia strongly
and very affordable recycled material from           helps establish the necessary infrastructure
which to make new bottles. In addition to            for recycling and encourages consumers to
working on to reducing packaging waste to            recycle packaging. We are working on
a minimum and also try to reduce our                 establishing a scheme of packaging waste
waste production and bottling.                       management in Serbia, as they have done
        Reducing the amount of packaging             in other countries in which Coca-Cola
we use to a minimum, which is one of the             Hellenic operates. They are one of the
most important ways in which generally               founders of Sekopak organization that
reduce the impact on the environment by              advocates for the adoption of the legal
reducing the amount of material used for             framework in the field of packaging and
packaging, this also leads to an overall             packaging waste on the model and in
reduction in CO2 emissions generated                 accordance with the regulations that exist
during the life cycle of packaging of                in the EU Directive 94/62/EC on
production through transportation to                 packaging and packaging waste posed
disposal or recycling. Rosa Danube PET               Agreement to utilization and recycling
bottles is one of the lightest on the market.        before all entities in the chain to the end
Weighing just 15 grams and is nearly three           user - the producers, packers / fillers,
times lighter than the one that preceded it.         importers, distributors and retailers,
Ultra-glass bottle which is used to produce          putting them in position to make reuse of
one-third less glass, is now in use in Serbia        packaging placed on the market by the
and 16 other countries in which Coca-Cola            percentage that the State may determine.
Hellenic conduct business.                           This principle of "responsibility of waste
        Packaging consists primarily of              generators" is incorporated into the
recycled material: PET, aluminum, glass              Serbian Law on Waste Management and
and steel. Since these are the most                  the Law on Packaging and Packaging
common materials recycled, the only thing            Waste, adopted in May 2009. by the
that can be done to reduce the impact of             Parliament of Serbia. So far, the company
our packaging on the environment is that             has helped establish the system in 19
in these materials is steadily increasing            countries and is the co-owner of 17
content of recycled materials. Using                 companies involved in recycling and waste
recycled aluminum for cans, saving up to             recovery.
95% of the energy normally required when
using non-recycled aluminum. Our                                  3.5. Staff development
aluminum cans and glass bottles already
contain up to 60% recycled material.                         Business objectives can be
Turning recycled PET bottles in our                  achieved only with the help of talented and
challenge in terms of availability and cost.         committed people. Therefore we strive to
Although the recycling of PET widespread             attract skilled people and develop their full
(in Serbia is much cheaper and easier to             potential.
use the same in the production of other
goods, such as clothing or carpets, as well                 3.5.1. Training and Development
as the industry itself does not require such
high standards necessary when it comes to                   One way in which this is achieved
packaging for food products) .                       Coca-Cola HBC Serbia lies in providing
        In the seven countries where the             exceptional opportunities to build a career.
company operates and to use 15% recycled             They invest heavily in formal training,
PET material.                                        which combined with other tasks and

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projects     of     equal     development          the UN Universal Declaration of Human
opportunities. This structured approach            Rights. Employment of children is
allows you to develop leadership skills            prohibited, and accordingly shall be
necessary for the successful conduct of the        permanent and checks during the hiring
business now and in the future.                    process. Employees and managers are
                                                   trained regarding the use of human rights
      3.5.2. Employee Engagement                   in their daily operations, and regularly
                                                   performs     and     monitoring    actual
        To    ensure     motivation     and        performance.
commitment of employees at Coca-Cola
HBC Serbia regularly make information of                       3.5.6. Equal Opportunity
employees and listen carefully to their
views. This is done in various ways,                       Dedicated    to     creating    an
through: internal magazine, suggestion             environment in which all employees to act
boxes, bulletin boards, internal TV and            in a fair and equitable manner. Equal
other means of communication with                  opportunities policy protects employees
employees. On an annual basis conduct              from discrimination and ensuring that
research on engagement, which allows               there is equal opportunity and fair
employees to express their views on a              treatment for all. Although men
range of topics? Then carefully examine            predominate among employees, in part
the data and based on their suggestions and        because of the physical nature of the work,
make action plans.                                 a significant number of our managers are
                                                   women - 25% of total management.
         3.5.3. Competitive labor                  Almost all the managers of Coca-Cola
                                                   HBC Serbia at higher positions are from
        Salaries of employees of Coca-             Serbia. Where are temporarily appointed
Cola HBC Serbia are getting competitive            managers from foreign countries, local
in the market. In order to comply with the         talented    employees     are    sent   on
competition,        comparing       regular        assignments abroad to acquire new skills.
compensation received by employees in
return for other successful companies.                  3.5.7. Relationship with employees

     3.5.4. Fair working environment                      The Coca-Cola HBC Serbia
                                                   respects the right of employees to freedom
        Coca-Cola HBC Serbia respects the          of association: whether or not to join
fundamental rights of employees and                unions or engage in collective bargaining.
strives to create an open and positive             Regularly holds consultations employees,
working environment that provides equal            unions, and office of the European Council
opportunities to all. Policies are well            for labor in terms of major business
known and are an integral part of the              decisions and matters of common interest.
training program manager. Also, the
guiding principles for suppliers ask the                       3.5.8. Health and Safety
same      expectations   and      vendor
environments.                                              The aim of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia
                                                   is to provide its employees a safe working
               3.5.5. Human rights                 environment and in this respect a culture
                                                   of safety at work. To achieve this, apply
       Coca-Cola HBC Serbia Politics of            the internationally recognized OHSAS
Human Rights includes monitoring                   18001 management systems and strives to
provisions of the UN Global Compact and            achieve full certification.

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       Implemented a program to promote                sales of classic vision and the ways to be
healthy and active lifestyles of employees.            exchanged goods and money in the
       • Each year, they organize "Sports              market. Today, most products on the
Day" for its employees and their family                market are not sold are purchased.
members.                                               Consumers themselves are directly
       • provide support to employees                  confronted with the products (brands), and
who are engaged in recreational sports,                the decision to buy is up to them. Bearing
and bear part of the cost of membership in             the aforementioned in mind, Coca-Cola
a number of centers of fitness.                        HBC Serbia is a leader in the market of
       •    A     healthy      lifestyle  is           non-alcoholic beverages.
knowledgeable and management through
the "Fit for the Future" organized by the                                   Reference
Academy of Coca-Cola Company.
                                                                     1. Stošić Mihajlović, dr Lj. (2012)
       3.6. Creating economic value                         Marketing, VŠPSS, Vranje
                                                                     2. Stošić Mihajlović, dr Lj. (2011)
        Coca-Cola HBC Serbia makes a                        Istraživanje marketinga, VŠPSS, Vranje
                                                                     3. www.coca-
significant contribution to the local
                                                            colahellenic.rs/Productsandbrands
economy. In three bottling plants,
distribution centers and sales offices in
Serbia and employ over 1500 people.
Taxes that are paid regularly Serbian
authorities are yet another way of
contribution to the national economy.
        In addition, they provide a range of
other, indirect benefits. For example, the
"multiplier effect" that business has seen in
the fact that for every job that exists in this
system goes ten times as many jobs
provided by vendors and buyers. Given the
fact that one of the main investors in
Serbia,     helping      introduction      and
development of new technologies and
thereby influence the attraction of new
investments.

              CONCLUSION

       Old rule is that a company that
cares about its products, constantly
examining and verifying their market
position, contributing to the creation of
brand products.
       It is believed that the most
important function of marketing today just
building a brand. What's more, many of
the world's leading marketing experts
believe that the main function of marketing
and only building a brand. What is
accelerating this trend is steadily declining

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          MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR TOURISM
                        DEVELOPMENT
  PhD Margarita Matlievska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Goce Delcev University – Stip, Macedonia,
                                        margarita.matlievska@ugd.edu.mk

PhD Biljana Petrevska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics, Goce Delcev University – Stip,
                                     Macedonia, biljana.petrevska@ugd.edu.mk



         Abstract: Based on variety of impacts                So the aspect of developing management
that tourism poses over national economies, each              practices and philosophies that protect natural
country is interested in supporting its                       environments while reinforcing positive and
development. Moreover, everyone urges measures                orderly economic growth, must be addressed.
for increasing the number of tourists who are
eager in meeting their travel and tourism                              In this respect, Macedonia is one of
preferences. Since the motive for tourism flows               the countries which have identified tourism as
lies in natural or cultural background, it is                 a mean for generating various micro and
necessary to find solutions for enhancing such
                                                              macro-economic impacts. Consequently, a
basis. This paper supports the fact that tourism
                                                              National Strategy for Tourism Development
development may not be addressed if environment
is neglected. For that purpose, the research is               2011-2015 was prepared with a main vision -
focused on environmental policy as a precondition             Macedonia to become famous travel and
for preserving safe and sound grounds for tourism             tourism destination in Europe based on
development. In this respect, the case of                     cultural and natural heritage. Yet, up-to-date
Macedonia is investigated with its corpus of                  the results in terms of economic prosperity by
environmental laws being in a state of                        tourism development are modest, but the
approximation with the ‘horizontal’ legislation of            negative effects on environment cannot be
the European Union. So, the contribution of this              stopped. Environmental pollution, depletion
paper lies in the fact that provides overview and             of natural resources, loss of biodiversity,
facts at glance not only on the environmental
                                                              ozone layer depletion, climate change, with
protection legislation in Macedonia, but on the
                                                              all its severity imposed on the global scene. It
constitutional regulation as well. The research
outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis             becomes clear that to preserve the
for obtaining national environmental legislation              environment means preserving the life. Hence
fully in line with already established international          the tendency of each country declaring itself
standards. Hence, one may argue that                          as a responsible one, to build legislation that
environmental policy provides basis and legal                 would provide a higher level of environment
opportunities      for    strengthening     tourism           protection as much as possible.
development.

       Keywords:   Environment;             Tourism;
Development; Management.                                             1. Snapshot on environmental policy
                                                                                 beginnings
                   Introduction
                                                                      Since each country applies different
        It is more than obvious the existence                 approaches for legally regulating the
of inevitable relationship between tourism and                environmental issue, they all urge to update
environment. Moreover, one may note that                      and amend its existing legislation. As to the
tourism is environment by itself. Without safe                legislation concerning the protection and
and well preserved nature, tourism will not be                improvement of the environment, the
in a position to offer something sustainable.
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European Union (EU) appears as a leader in                by transposed legislation in order of effective
the world.                                                implementation of new powers and
                                                          responsibilities. In order to meet the criteria
        Macedonia initiated the relations with            for full membership, in April 2007 Macedonia
the EU in 1992 with the main objective to                 adopted a National Programme for the
become its member state. For this purpose,                Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA II). It
the government reaffirmed its readiness to                contains plans for harmonization of national
join the Union by developing relationships                legislation with the EU and the necessary
and placing membership in the EU as a                     dynamics of institutional strengthening for the
national goal of the highest priority. In 1995,           implementation of the legislation. Further on,
Macedonia established diplomatic relations                the NPAA contains the necessary resources
with the EU, and six years later in 2001, the             for the implementation and an Action Plan.
Stabilisation and Association Agreement
between the European Communities and their                        It is believed that the Environment
Member States, of the one part, and the                   Chapter is one of the hardest, most abundant
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of                 and      most     complex     chapters   on
the other part5 (Council of the European                  implementation out of 33 EU Acquis
Union, 2001) was signed. In 2004, the                     Communautaire chapters. In the NPAA the
Government submitted the application for                  environment is covered by Chapter 27 and is
membership in the EU, and in 2005 it was                  comprised of 10 sectors: horizontal
given the status of a candidate country. The              legislation, water management, air quality,
principle of partnership was legalized by a               waste management, industrial pollution
Decision in 2006, when the EU Council                     control and risk management, nature
adopted the European Partnership with                     protection, forests, chemicals, genetically
Macedonia.                                                modified organisms and noise.

        The Membership requirement for a                          In the past period, Macedonia has
candidate country is to harmonize its legal               adopted several policy strategic documents in
system with the EU legislation, the so-called             several sectors of the environment. In most
Acquis Communautaire that covers all                      cases, the government policy aiming in
membership obligations and criteria. The                  improving the environment is clearly defined
process of integrating the "European" law in              (Vision 2008, National Strategy for European
national legal administrative system is called            Integration, National Environmental Action
“process of approximation”. It is consisted of            Plan II). Yet, the main responsibility for
three main components: legal transposition of             implementing the legislation is located in the
EU legislation, its practical implementation              Ministry of Environment and Physical
and control of the implementation of                      Planning. One may note that other sectorial
legislation.                                              ministries     have      responsibilities   in
                                                          environment      protection    (Ministry    of
        In December 2006, the Ministry of                 Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management,
Environment and Physical Planning, as a                   Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Transport
governmental       body     responsible    for            and Communications, Ministry of Health,
environmental issues, adopted a new                       Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Interior).
administrative and organizational structure in
accordance with the different environment                        The status of the transposition of EU
sectors. It corresponds to obligations imposed            environment legislation was perceived on the
                                                          basis of the conducted legal analysis of the
5
    Macedonia is the first country that signed
                                                          shortcomings of previous laws for different
Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU       areas of environment. Generally, the legal
in the region.
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transposition in different environment sectors               is just as important as defending abroad.
is in a different stage, and in a significant                Otherwise, what is there to defend?".
number of directives, the transposition is in
the early stages. However, it is very important                      In this respect, the Art. 8 states that
the horizontal legislation transposition to get a            one of the fundamental values of the
high priority and to progress, because                       constitutional order of Macedonia is
legislation in this sector has an impact on                  ”ecological protection and development”. So,
many other sectors. Furthermore, the Law on                  the Constitution establishes fundamental
Environment belongs to horizontal legislation                human rights and freedoms, among which:
and therefore, it is important to assess the                 Everyone has the right to a healthy
level of transposition with the directives of                environment to live in. Everyone is obliged to
the Union.                                                   promote and protect the environment. The
                                                             Republic provides conditions for the exercise
                                                             of the right of citizens to a healthy
                                                             environment (Art. 43). Furthermore, the Art.
      2. Constitutional approach towards                     43, beside the right of every person to a
             environmental issue                             healthy environment, determine his obligation
                                                             to promote and protect the environment. In
                                                             this line, the Constitution includes an
         The Preamble6 of the Constitution of                obligation for Macedonia to provide
Macedonia reads: "The citizens of                            conditions for enjoying the citizens’ right to a
Macedonia, …taking responsibility for the                    healthy environment. The same article
present and future of their fatherland ... and               introduces a right and an obligation as well. In
responsible to future generations to preserve                this context, it is important to note that the
and develop everything that is valuable ... ".               obligation is an integral part of the
From this formulation, it is obvious that the                fundamental rights and freedoms of man and
Constitution emphasized the accountability                   citizen. That is the reason that the
that present generation have in front of future              constitutional text regulates the obligations
ones to maintain and develop all that is worth               along with fundamental freedoms and rights
keeping and developing, knowing that the                     as an inseparable whole. The duty for
descendants will collect the fruit. But what is              environment and nature protection directly
it that is valuable, not only to preserve but to             emanates of the human right to a healthy
develop as well? The Constitution (Art. 56,                  environment. And it must be so, if we want to
par. 1) gives the answer to this question: "All              come up with a change in our behavior
the natural resources of the Republic of                     towards the environment and if we want a
Macedonia, the flora and fauna, amenities in                 certain change to prevail. It must be so if we
common use, … , are amenities of common                      want to respect what Gandhi said: "Be the
interest for the Republic and enjoy particular               change you want to see in the world.”
protection. With this formulation, the
Constitution transferred what Robert Redford                          With the Art. 55 (par. 1) "The freedom
thought when he said: "I think the                           of the market and entrepreneurship is
environment should be put in the category of                 guaranteed." In the same article, par. 3 states
our national security. Defending our resources               that: "The freedom of the market and
                                                             entrepreneurship san be restricted by law only
6
                                                             for reasons of the defence of the Republic,
  This is referred to in item 1 of Amendment IV of the       protection of the natural and living
Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. Item 2
says: "Item 1 of this Amendment replaces the Preamble        environment or public health”. From this
of the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.”           article, it is evident that the possible negative
Amendment IV was published in the Official Gazette           impact on the market and entrepreneurship on
of RM No. 91 of 20 November 2001.
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nature and environment is anticipated, and,                       The Directive 2003/4/EC7 addresses
although the freedom of the market and                    the issue of public access to environmental
entrepreneurship is defined fundamental value             information. It aims to guarantee the right of
(Art. 8, par. 1, line 7) and the same is                  access to information in the field of
guaranteed (Art. 55, par. 1), it may be                   environment that are owned by the public
restricted by law for the reason, among others,           authority or are possessed for the public
of preserving the nature and environment. In              authorities. This Directive makes an effort to
this article, it is interesting that the nature and       ensure that the environment information
environment preservation is stated after the              progressively become more available. Further
defense of the country (as the primary social             on, it secures that this information are
interest of the citizens of each state), and even         published with the intention of their widest
before the people health.                                 possible systematic dissemination to the
                                                          public through electronic media and using
        It is indisputable that the Constitution          computer telecommunications. It contains the
of Macedonia specifies the environment as a               terms in which public authorities should make
fundamental value, as a freedom and as a                  information available and strictly defined the
right. Furthermore it defines its protection and          cases in which public authorities can refuse a
improvement as a duty and an obligation of                request for information.
the citizens of Macedonia. So, generally, it
lays down the foundation and provides the                         The Directive 2001/42/EC8 refers to
basis for development of environment                      the assessment of the effects of certain plans
legislation. The first Law regulating the                 and programs on the environment. This
environment after Macedonia’s independence                directive is one of the more recent legal acts
was the Law on Environment and Nature                     of the EU. Its goal is to enable a higher degree
Protection and Promotion (Official Gazette                of environmental protection, as well as to
No. 69/96, 13/19, 41/00, 96/00 and 45/02)                 contribute towards environmental issues
representing      a    framework      law     on          integration when preparing plans and
environmental protection.                                 programs. This means that its intention is to
                                                          guarantee the assessment of plans and
        However, Macedonia's aspiration to                programs that may have significant effects on
become a member state of the EU imposed a                 the environment.
need of preparing a new law, which was to
meet the requirements in accordance with the                      The Directive 85/337/ЕЕС9 and the
obligations arising from the Union's so-called            supplementary Directive 97/11/EC10 argue on
horizontal     directives   in    this   area.            the assessment of the effects of certain public
Consequently, the new Law on Environment
was prepared and adopted in 2005 (Official                7
                                                            Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and
Gazette No. 53/05, 81/05, 24/07).
                                                          of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to
                                                          environmental information and repealing Council
     3. Overview on horizontal directives                 Directive 90/313/EEC.
                                                          8 Directive 2001/42/ec of the European Parliament
        The rules apply to all environment                and of the Council of 27 June 2001on the
media and waste, are part of the so-called                assessment of the effects of certain plans and
Horizontal EU legislation and are regulated               programmes on the environment.
by the so-called Horizontal Directives. In the            9
                                                            Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment
new Law on Environment, several horizontal                of the effects of certain public and private projects on
directives of the EU are transposed.                      the environment 85/337/EEC.
                                                          10
                                                              Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997
                                                          amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of
                                                          the effects of certain public and private projects on the
                                                          environment.
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and private projects on the environment. This            analyses. In doing so, we detected four areas
Directive regulates the environment impact               as hot-spots that are differently regulated.
assessment of public and private projects
which are likely to have a significant                           In this sense, the Law on Environment
environmental impact. The environmental                  and Nature Protection and Promotion does not
impact assessment identifies, describes and              regulate precisely the rights and obligations
assesses the impacts that a project has on               regarding access to environment information
humans, flora and fauna, soil, water, air,               and the right of access to justice, as well as
climate and landscape, material assets and               the procedures for impact assessment of
cultural heritage.                                       certain projects, plans and programs on
                                                         environment. Furthermore, this law lacked
        The Directive 96/61/EC11 is concerned            provisions that would have provided the basis
with the integrated pollution prevention and             for ensuring integrated environmental
control. This Directive contributes towards              management. This might have been the case
achievement of integrated prevention and                 through a separate system of integrated
control of pollution arising from the activities         permits, as well as prevention and protection
or the activities of the installations listed in         against accident hazards.
Annex I of the Directive. It is consist of
measures designed to prevent or reduce                           As to the first element, the rights and
emissions to air, water and soil as a result of          obligations regarding access to environment
the above mentioned activities, including                information and the right of access to justice,
measures concerning waste, in order to                   the national legislation contained several
achieve a high level of environmental                    provisions relating to the active and passive
protection in general.                                   dissemination of information, in various acts,
                                                         but they were not clear enough. For example,
        The Directive 96/82/EC12 puts an                 the past law stated that data on quality and
accent on the control of major-accident                  environmental      phenomena       endangering
hazards involving dangerous substances. This             public, without explanation whether they
Directive enables prevention of major                    should be actively disseminated or passively,
accidents involving dangerous substances and             simple with responding the request for
limitation of their consequences for man and             information. In this law, interpretation of the
the environment in order to ensure a high                provisions in this area was too limited to that
level of environment protection in a                     which is in accordance with the definition of
consistent and efficient manner.                         environmental information according to the
                                                         Directive 2003/4/ES (as according to the
     4. Analyses, findings and discussion                Aarhus Convention13 (UNECE). According
       The level of transposition of European            to that Directive, it was necessary to
Horizontal Directives in the two Laws (the               determine which bodies are obliged to
previous one - the Law on Environment and                disseminate information actively and to
Nature Protection and Promotion, and the new             respond to the requests for information. The
adopted one - the Law on Environment) was                same Directive also contains provisions on
the main criteria for undertaking comparative            the application of procedure and provision of
                                                         information that should be considered when
                                                         regulating this matter, as well as provisions
11   Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning               for legal protection when the request for
integrated pollution prevention and control, IPPC.       information is denied or insufficiently
12Ciuncil Directive 96/82/EC of 9 December 1996          answered. So, the general impression is that
on the control of major-accident hazards involving
dangerous substances.
                                                         13
                                                              It entered into force on 30 October 2001.
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the legal framework in this area was weak                     assessment of certain public and private
(despite the efforts of the authorities for                   projects (provided for in the Directives
transparent operation), which required an                     85/337/ЕЕС and 97/11/EC) is associated with
entirely new approach - an approach that is                   the procedure for building permit issuance. In
contained in the new, Law on Environment.                     previous legal practice in Macedonia it was
                                                              not requested the opinion (which gives the
        Regarding the second element, the                     body of the state administration responsible
procedure for assessment of the impact of                     for the affairs of the environment) to be
certain projects, plans and programs on the                   binding on the competent authority issuing a
environment, in accordance with previous                      license to carry out the project, which was not
legislation, the adoption of plans and                        in accordance with Directive. The public
programs of the state administration was                      should be informed about the project
conducted with no assessment of their                         implementation and it should be given the
environmental impact. With the new Law on                     opportunity to express its opinions or to
Environment, the procedure (laid down in                      participate in the process of decision making.
Directive 2001/42/ES) aimed at the                            The inclusion of the public and the cross-
environmental consequences to be identified                   border effects should be taken into account.
and assessed during the preparation and                       Chapter eleven of the new Law, along with
before the adoption of certain plans and                      the bylaws (secondary legislation) provided in
programs was enforced. Pursuant to the Law                    it, fully transposing this Directive.
on Environment, the public and the authorities
can give their opinion and all conclusions are                        Associated with the third element,
integrated and taken into account in the                      integrated    environmental      management
ongoing proceedings.                                          through a separate system of integrated
                                                              permits, as an obligation to join the EU, the
         After the adoption of the plan or                    new Law provides a procedure and time limits
program, the public is informed of the                        for complying the economic sector with new
decision and the way it was made. Moreover,                   norms and standards for the environment
the Government informs the public about its                   protection.
work and the annual program for
implementation, while according to the Law                            The EU has a set of rules for permits
on Local Self-Government, the municipal                       for industrial installations. All installations
authorities have an obligation to inform                      covered by Annex 1 of Directive 96/61 are
citizens about the plans and programs that are                required to obtain permission from the
important for the development of the                          competent authorities in the country. If they
municipality and public participation is only                 do not have a permit, their operating will be
at the initiative of the citizens.                            banned. Permits must be based on the BAT
                                                              concept (Best Available Techniques). For
        According to Directive 2001/42/EC,                    these installations, the Directive gives 11-year
public participation is seen as an individual                 transition period to comply with the
right and obligation of the competent                         requirements of the Directive from the date of
authority and therefore it must be placed in a                entry into force of this Directive.
legal text, which is done by the Law on
Environment14.                                                        Previous Macedonian legislation
                                                              encompassed more types of permits related to
      Further on, it should be stressed that                  the environment, but none of them was issued
the procedure for environmental impact                        only by the state administration responsible
                                                              for the affairs of the environment. With other
14
  Bylaws allow achieving full transposition of the            words, environmental aspects were taken into
Directive.
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account through consultation between                    differently regulates matters regarding the
ministries. By contrast, the Law on                     environment. It determines and specifies the
Environment developed a separate system of              rights and obligations regarding access to
issuing licenses and it sets rules and deadlines        environment information, and the right of
for achieving conditions in a manner as                 access to justice. Also, this law sets out
required by the Directive permits and                   environment impact assessment procedures of
according to the experience of the Member               certain projects, plans and programs.
States of the EU.                                       Additionally, it contains provisions that
                                                        provide the basis for integrated environmental
        With regards to the fourth element,             management, through a particular system of
prevention and protection of accidents                  integrated permits, and provisions for
hazards, in the previous legislation, the               prevention and protection against accidents.
measures to protect the environment and
people from accidents caused by hazardous                       So, the research findings stipulate that
substances were contained in many acts. The             the Law on Environment establishes overall
new Law on Environment unifies activities               legal framework for management, supervision
and measures taken to damage prevention and             and protection of the environment in
protection in a single act and fully in                 accordance      with    the    principles     of
accordance with the requirements of Directive           professionalism and competence, and
96/82/EC.                                               provides a multi-sectorial approach to
                                                        environmental protection. As so, it may serve
            5. Concluding remarks                       as a solid base for enhancing tourism
        Since the Constitution of Macedonia             development issue. Generally, the current
guarantees the citizen the right to a healthy           environmental      policy     confirms      that
environment, simultaneously provides basis              Macedonia has an integrated environmental
for tourism development. Based on fact that             protection system, and regulation in line with
the Constitution also sets out the duty of the          established international standards in this
state to enable the fulfillment of this right, it       area. Thus, one may argue the possibilities for
means that it is spotted a necessity for                providing     background      for    integrated
planning and managing tourism flows.                    environmental management of tourism
Without well preserved nature, Macedonia                development.
may not be able to fulfill strategic objectives.                             References
        The research found that the Law on                  1.   Amendment IV of the Constitution of the
Environment is a framework law made                              Republic of Macedonia. Official Gazette of
according to the pattern of western laws                         the Republic of Macedonia No. 91 of 20
                                                                 November 2001.
where basic principles and horizontal issues                2.   Directive 2001/42/EC of the European
are regulated in one, basic law. The                             Parliament ond of the Council of 27 June
comparative analysis resulted with findings                      2001on the assessment of the effects of certain
that this law is a kind of a general                             plans and programmes on the environment.
                                                                 Official    Journal    of     the    European
environmental law that covers common issues                      Communities. NO L 197/30. 21.7.2001.
regulated by sectorial laws for the different                    (Available            at            http://eur-
environmental media and waste management,                        lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
such as laws on water, on waste management,                      =OJ:L:2001:197:0030:0037: EN:PDF).
                                                            3.   Law on Environment and Nature Protection
on nature protection and on ambient air                          and Promotion. Official Gazette of the
quality. Furthermore, this law struggles to                      Republic of Macedonia No. 69/96, 13/19,
meet the requirements contained in the EU                        41/00, 96/00 and 45/02.
Directives that are approximated in it. Yet, the            4.   Law on Environment. Official Gazette of the
                                                                 Republic of Macedonia No. 53/05, 81/05,
in-depth analysis showed that this law                           24/07, 159/08, 83/09, 48/10, 124/10, 51/11.
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                                                          (JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
                                                                                                  Vol. 1, No.1, 2013.

5.   National Strategy for Tourism Development                      OFFICIAL JOURNAL L 257. 10/10/1996 P.
     2011-2015. Government of the Republic of                       0026 – 0040. (Available at http://eur-
     Macedonia (2012). Skopje.                                      lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
6.   Stabilisation and Association Agreement                        =CELEX:31996L0061:EN: HTML).
     between the European Communities and their                 10. Council Directive 96/82/EC of 9 December
     Member States, of the one part, and the                        1996 on the control of major-accident
     former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of                      hazards involving dangerous substances.
     the other part. Council of the European Union,                 OFFICIAL JOURNAL L 010. 14/01/1997 P.
     2000. (Available at          http://ec.europa.eu               0013 – 0033. (Available at http://eur
     /enlargement/pdf/the_former_yugoslav_repub                     lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
     lic_of_macedonia/saa03_01_en.pdf).                             =CELEX: 31996L0082:EN:HTML).
7.   UNECE        Convention      on     Access    to           11. Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997
     Information, Public Participation in Decision-                 amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the
     making and Access to Justice in                                assessment of the effects of certain public and
     Environmental      Matters.     (Available    at               private projects on the environment. Official
     http://www.unece.org/env/ pp/treatytext.html).                 Journal No. L 073. 14/03/1997 P. 0005.
8.   Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the                       (Available        at        http://ec.europa.eu/
     assessment of the effects of certain public and                environment/eia/full-legal-text/9711.htm).
     private projects on the environment                        12. Directive of the European Parliament and of
     85/337/EEC. Official Journal NO. L 175.                        the Council of 28 January 2003 on public
     05/07/1985 P. 0040 – 0048 (Available at                        access to environmental information. Official
     http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/full-legal-                Journal of the European Union NO L 41/26.
     text/85337.htm).                                               14.2.2003.             (Available             at
9.   Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24                               https://www.elaw.org/system/files/EU.20034E
     September 1996 concerning integrated                           CDirective.pdf).
     pollution      prevention      and      control.




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 MOBILITY SKILLS CONDITION IN MACEDONIA AMONG YOUTH
                    IN HIGH SCHOOL

  Academic-DHK-Angel Dzhambazovski Center for scoliosis - Department of Anthropological kinesiology, Skopje,
                                              Macedonia

 Associent Prof. Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova - PhD in Medicine, Faculty of Physical Culture, Department of Kinesiology
                                          Anthropology, Skopje, Macedonia

               D-r.med. Nevenka Panovska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

           M PhD. Selim Alili freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia

          MA. Kjamilj Elmazi freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia


          Abstract - Within this research, the                 evaluation of the total condition related to the
manifestation of the ontogenetic differences degree in         mobility student status, as well as the
some motor manifestations between male and female
pupils is investigated, which attend a regular course in       functional ability, followed and analyzed by
physical (Kinesiology) and health education in the             the intellectual and personality characteristics,
secondary education in the Republic of Macedonia               it is necessary to make an inspection of the
related to age. The total male pupils are 320 students,
                                                               possibilities and pupils capacities based on
and 280 of female students in 8 colleges from urban
and rural areas in the whole territory of our country.         the objective indicators, which are
These samples are divided into four sub samples of the         manifested, to be transferred towards
respondents for each sex separately, which are males:          differentiated approach in the implementation
from I-st grade (N = 75), II-nd grade (N = 85), III-rd
grade (N = 75) and IV-th grade (N = 65) . For the
                                                               of the realization of the education itself. An
assessment of the status of the respondents the mobility       initial step in the analysis of the level of
applied battery of tests based upon EUROFIT children           development of the mobility, is enlighten of
program. From the obtained results the significant             the certain represents of the balance of the
differences can be stated from the ontogenesis
development between male and female pupils from
                                                               relationship by recording the differences in
different chronological age, suggesting a demand for           the ratio by the age of the students. In our
differentiated programs for mobility development and           present research the degree is defined through
kinesiology and health education.                              the manifestation of differences in some
          Keyword - teaching, education, female
students, male students, physical kinesiological               mobility indicators between female and male
education, morphological, mobility, differences,               pupils who attend a regular course in physical
ontogenesis EUROFIT.                                           and health education in secondary education
                                                               in the Republic of Macedonia. In other
                                                               researches we will perform complete analysis
                INTRODUCTION
                                                               of the mobility, functional, intellectual and
         Due to physical and health education                  corrective personality characteristics, to
course, the evaluation, regarding and defining                 examine the correlation between them.
of the ontogenetic development level of the
motor skills to students, presents one of the
basic prerequisites for the implementation of                           THE OPERATION METHOD
appropriate education contents. Depending on
the level of the pupil’s development mobility
it is required to anticipate and implement the
teaching adequate contents that will have the                         The total sample consists of 320male
optimal effect. Namely, through the                            students, and 280 of female students from 8
                                                               colleges from urban and rural areas in the
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whole territory of our country. These samples         pupils of both sex the proportion is evident
are divided into the four sub samples-the             into the increase in the overall mobility
respondents for each sex separately. For the          (compared to the observed area) with the
evaluation of the mobility status of the              chronological age of the students.
respondents, the battery of tests based on
EUROFIT children program was applied. For
the evaluation of the mobility skills, the                                               The Level          of
balancing tests on the bench, the tapping with                          Evaluation
                                                                                         Importance
hand, deep reach on bench, the jump in
length, dynamo measurement by hand, lifting           Vilkov
of the body within 30sec. the knuckle                                   .751624
                                                      lambda
endurance, running 20 meters and * 5 meters
and more gradually progressive run - 20m, as          Рао           Р
                                                                        1.837385         .003
well as running 20 meters of sprint.                  (33,595)

        For the determination of the                  Table 1. Multivariance analyzes of variance
differences in the degree of manifestations in        of the male sub samples.
the overall analyzed area the multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) are applied,
while the single differences in each variable
are determined by analysis of variance
univariance (ANOVA). In order to define the
differences Univariate between pairs of
groups of respondents in every age and every
single analyzed events, is applied to the
testing of these differences by appliance of
the LSD (Last differences significant) test,
with which actually the level of significance
of the differences between each with each
group in every single variable is defined.

      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

        Based upon the applied multivariate
analysis variance, which is determined by the
differences in the overall analyzes between
the mobility area surveyed by male and
female respondents, the significant difference
between the groups can be concluded in the
level of significance of 0003 and 0005 related
to their age. Univariate differences between
the groups are significant in each variable
mobility single analyzed in the both samples,
were registered in all analyzed variables,
except the variables in the balance of the
bench (MRAM), tapping with hand (MTAP)
and the hand shake (MSTIS).

        On the basis of the defined univariate
differences, it was concluded that with the
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kals         mram       mtap      mdlp     mskok        mstis        mstom      mzgib         m10*5      mleg        m20m

1            10.15      10.96     50.79    182.68       25.50        19.21      11.91          22.57     36.40        4.08

2            10.66      11.26     47.18    186.15       27.71        19.29      15.70          21.86     38.01        3.88

3            9.97       10.94     48.35    193.71       27.62        20.32      17.50          21.43     37.89        3.87

4            10.77      10.43     44.34    205.52       27.63        22.74      22.20          20.04     43.45        3.70

                 Table 2. Middle evaluation of the mobility variable of the male sub samples

                       Mobility variable     Effect      Ф(df1,2)         The Level of Importance

                       MRAM                    7.            .093                      .964

                       MTAP                    4.            1.123                     .341

                       MDLP                   288.           4.540                     .004

                       MSKOK                 3616.           2.997                     .032

                       MSTIS                  73.            .680                      .565

                       MSTOM                  84.            4.637                     .003

                       MZGIB                  716.           3.576                     .015

                       M10*5                  40.            5.019                     .002

                       MLEG                   286.           5.149                     .002

                       MTR20M                  1.            4.790                     .003

                       Table3. Univariant of analyze of variance of the female sub samples.

                                                Evaluation           The Level of Importance

                           Vilkov lambda               .63

                           Рао Р (31.43)              1.83                      .005

                     Table 4. Multivariance analyzes of variance of the female sub samples.

               k                                                                              m10*                m20
               mram       mtap     mdlp     mskok        mstis       mstom      mzgib                  mleg
       las                                                                                     5                  m

               1
               10.11      11.46    51.19   152.16       23.20        15.54       8.87         24.57    35.43      4.88

               2
               10.21      11.24    48.14   166.17       23.51        16.43       9.54         23.86    36.64      4.34

               3
               10.01      11.13    49.32   173.11       23.32        18.31       9.94         22.43    37.62      4.20

               4
               10.32      11.17    47.24   184.62       23.81        20.64      10.25         23.04    39.53      3.89

                Table 5. Middle evaluation of the mobility variable of the female sub samples


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         Mobility
                               Effect               F(df1,2)            Importance Level
         variable

         MRAM                    6.                   .086                     .876

         MTAP                    7.                  1.102                     .315

         MDLP                   300.                 4.431                     .001

         MSKOK                  3537.                2.675                     .035

         MSTIS                   71.                  .578                     .565

         MSTOM                   79.                 4.547                     .002

         MZGIB                  721.                 3.486                     .019

         M10*5                   37.                 5.631                     .001

         MLEG                   275.                 5.026                     .003

         MTR20M                 1.01                 4.672                     .004

            Table 6. Univariable analyses of the variance of the male sub samples



            4. CONCLUSION                           capabilities that sport is destined and what
                                                    level will can be trainned.
        From the results of applied analysis
that defined the differences in each                       Finally we can conclude that the
individual morphological and mobility               need for a hour kinezioloshko (physical)
manifestation among male and female                 health education is needed in the
respondents, in terms of chronological age,         prevention against disease hipokinesis of
it reveals significant differences between          the civilizational achievements.
the pupils and students of different
chronological age. Defined individual
events of separately age, should be taken                                Reference
as the total content of the subject area
(physical) kineziological health education
in the secondary education. Besides the
                                                     1.   Enoka. R. M.: “Osnovni kineziologii”, Kiev,
complete research          of ontogenetic                 2000 (Osnovi na kineziolo{kata teorija-
development among students in terms of                    humana kinetika).
mobility-functional     capabilities,    the         2.   Winter DA.: Foot trajectory in human gait.
                                                          Physical Therapy, Vol 72, 1, 1992
antropometric, intellectual abilities and
                                                     3.   Блахуш П.: К теории тестированиа
features are demanded.                                    двигателних способностеи. Физкултура и
                                                          спорт, Москва, 1982
       For the purpose of the sport it is            4.   Блашковиќ, М.: Релације морфолошких
necessary selection to be done in all above               карактеристика         и         моторичких
mentioned capabilities without training as                способности. Кинезиологија, 1979.
                                                     5.   Бошковиќ      М.:     Анатомија      човека.
early as preschool and early school age                   Медицинска кнјига, Београд-Загреб, 1975.
would be developed and genetic
kinesiology and children's manifest

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6.  Верхошански Ј.: Развој снаге у спорту                 и средното образование во Македонија
    (превод са руског), НИПРО Партизан,                   како предикција за селекција во спортот,
    Београд, 1979.                                        Мај 2006, Скопје.
7. Виски Н.: Факторска структура тјелесне             12. Топузов И., Е. Кавдански, Д. Вчков, Н.
    тежине. Кинезиологија, 2, 1972.                       Петрова,    Г.    Начева,  Д.   Денчева:
8. Гајиќ М.: Основи моторике човека.                      Югозападен Университет - Благоевград,
    Факултет физичќке културе Универзитета                Катедра кинезитерапия „Антропометрична
    у Новом Саду, ООУР Институт физичке                   и функционална характеристика на
    културе, Нови Сад, 1985.                              ученици      и     студенти“,Физическото
9. Джамбазовски        А.;      Кинезиолошка              възпитание и спортът между два века,
    медицина - спортска физиотерапија -                   Велико Търново, 2000.
    медицинска кинезиологија, Скопје 2011.            13. Топузов И., К. Бојчев, М Глушкова.:
10. Старделова     Дж.    М.:    Теорија   на             Валеологията в обучението на студентите
    антрополошката кинезиологија, Скопје,                 по физическо възпитание, „Физическото
    2011.                                                 възпитание и спортът между два века“
11. Старделова Џ. М.: Онтогенетскиот развој               Велико Търново, 2000.
    кај учениците од двата пола од основното




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   KINESIOLOGY IN FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL-MUSCLE
       DEFORMATION PREVENTION AT SCHOOL AGE


 Associent Prof. Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova - PhD in Medicine FKK, Department of Kinesiology Anthropology,
                                             Skopje, Macedonia

                    Associent Prof. Dimitrinka K. Conkova VTU, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

              Dr.med. V. Krstevska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

           D-r.med. Nevenka Panovska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

       M PhD. Selim Alili freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia

    Academician - DHK Prof. Dr.. Angel Dzhambazovski Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy, Skopje -
                                             Macedonia


         Abstract: The research is conducted on             activities due to growth and development
1000 male respondents from the eighth grade all             stage of their body-lately the orthopedic
the way to the completion of their secondary
                                                            deformities are present with a very high
education. The deviations of the foot and the spinal
cord malformations as well as the bad body posture
                                                            percent. The analysis of different health
with chest deformities were mainly analyzed.The             checks      within Balkan countries and
visual method was used for the registration of all          Europe      showed      an  increase    of
the malformations that represent a deviation from a         malformations among students. The
normal body posture. Analysis of orthopedic and             reasons for this situation despite hypo
aesthetic bodily disorders were carried out by the          kinesis are also the wrong diet, the long
abovementioned authors on a thousand students
                                                            sitting in front of the TV Set, computers,
from 15 to 19 years of age. Deviations were found
in the normal form of foot 23.8%, spinal cord
                                                            improper seating, creating of wrong
deformities 20.5%, and the bad body postures with           stereotyped posture models, as well as the
chest deformities 16.3%. The main reason for this           switching the night-time with the day-time
situation are the hypokinesis, and in order to be           sleep.
solved it is recommended private and the state                       The biggest problem for this
property centers for aesthetic and orthopedic               situation are the densely populated urban
kinesiology and physiotherapy to open.
                                                            areas where the physical activity is
        Keywords:        Kinesiology Medicine,              reduced to zero. If ever a man mentally
Physiotherapy, Kinesiotherapy, diseases of                  used to perform 1% of his survival
nowadays, malformations.                                    activities, and the rest he was shiftin
                                                            through the personal physical effort and
                                                            gravitate up to 100%, the physical effort
             1. INTRODUCTION                                today in urbanized areas is reversed, so
                                                            that the physical effort gravitates toward
       Kineziology       Medicine        -                  zero, and the intellectual up to 100 %.
Physiotherapy and Kinesiotherapy are                        Such a condition of hypokinesia is one of
relevant in the presence of pandemics of                    the reasons for the huge percentage of
diseases of nowadays, such as: skeletal                     skeletal-muscle malformations.
deformities, cardiovascular, degenerative
diseases, hormonal etc.. This results as a
lower physical burden of children

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   2.0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                        entitled      "Computers     hunched      the
                                                      children"), are following:
         From our research it is shown that                    1.0. Deformities among primary
the percentage deviation from the normal                       school students
development of the body of the child in the                    1.1. Foot deformities 22.6%
process of growth and development is very                      1.2. Spinal cord deformities 17.6%
large. Having in mind that 23.8% of                            1.3. Bad body posture 17.3%
children have a deviation from normal                          2.0. Deformities among high
physiological-morphological structure of                       school students
the foot, with a lowered arch, called flat                     2.1. Bad posture 22.5%
foot. We assume that that this situation                       2.2. Foot deformities 17.6%
arose due to lack of physical effort, rarely                   2.3. Spinal cord deformities 15.9%
walking of children with barefoot. It is                      The results are published in the
interesting to note that children who have            percent of a thousand children.
flat feet usually have vertebral deformities,
so that their percentage is 20.5%, and                              3.0. CONCLUSION
many of them have deformities of the
chest 16.3%. General and the main reason                       Nowadays diseases, the skeletal
for this situation are the hypokinesis and            deformities      -     cardiovascular    and
they result with the appearance of gained             degenerative hormonal diseases, according
vertebral deformities known as: one-sided             to other studies, also follow our obtained
or     two-sided      distortions    columna          results. These skeletal-muscle apparatus
vertebralis, generally called skoliosi,               condition diseases are the nowadays
meaning lateral curvature of the spine,               diseases and are result of insufficient
then curved front-rear direction, known as            physical children and adults activity, a
lordosi and kifosi, also the false feet called        condition generally known as hypokinesia
planus pedis, and various deformities of              that genuine concerns and probably is
the chest.                                            confirmed as the main cause for the spinal
         Similar results in a larger study by         cord deformities. Beside the hypokinesis,
the Institute of Public Health of the                 the lifestyle is also important, the nurture,
Republic of Macedonia obtained data for               the material conditions, the general quality
alarming       deterioration      of    back-         of life etc.. The cause of the hormonal
deformations. Thus, the Institute for                 disorders, apoplexy, heart attacks, high
Healthcare Macedonia analyzed over 2000               blood pressure and other nowadays
students from primary, secondary and                  diseases are also already above mentioned
higher education, respectively in 1995 and            factors.
the same population was examined in                            Within a situation like this, the
2006. From the results in 2006 compared               State University of Physical Education
to the 1995, there has been a kifozite                should present in front of the state
deterioration in 18.5%, in skoliozite                 authorities a special program for the
26.9%, lordozite between students and                 prevention      of     the    skeletal-muscle
upper classes showed deterioration 86.2%              deformations, as well as the functional-
comparatively speaking in terms of pre ten            motor disabilities preventively to be
years ago today. Which results with a                 stopped, i.e.by increasing of the number of
constant deterioration.                               hours of physical and health education at
         According to the National Institute          least three hours per week starting in first
of Public Health in Republic of Macedonia             grade. To increase the teaching quality of
Research results (published on 12.02.2007             aesthetic body shaping and to control the
in the daily Newspaper "Vreme" p.2                    physical development of the students, to be
                                                      followed by the teacher and to monitor the

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biological formation of the student                          8. Popovski, D.: Sportovite vo voda, Univerzitet
together with the doctor, referring to                       “Kiril i Metodij” Skopje, 1988.
                                                             9. Radovanović,: Uspeh studirawa i sportska
children who have vertebral deformities to                   aktivnost studenata. Fizička kultura, Beograd,
instructing them to the kinesiotherapy                       1974.
centers. The demand for the establishment                    10. Stardelova Dž. M.: “Ontogenetskiot razvoj kaj
of private offices – a cabinet for                           učenicite od dvata pola od osnovnoto i srednoto
orthopedic and aesthetic kinesiology                         obrazovanie vo Makedonija kako predikcija za
                                                             selekcija vo sportot”.Doktorska disertacija, Maj
becomes greater. Creating preconditions                      2006, Skopje
for mass physical culture among the                          11. Stardelova Dž.M.: Kineziološkite aktivnosti
population, infrastructure as well as                        kako zadol`itelna potreba i nu`nost na novoto
enrichment opportunities with sports                         vreme, Ohrid, 2003.
facilities.Motivating       and      guiding                 12. Stardelova Dž.M.: Struktura na fizičkata
                                                             kultura, struktura na kineziologijata, 17 i 19
graduated people for specializations for                     Septemvri 2004, Ohrid.
two semesters for orthopedic and aesthetic                   13. Stardelova Dž.M.: Kineziološka medicina i
kinesiology, and the master's degree to                      kineziološka ortopedija. Ruse, 2004.
perform the function of cocoordinating                       14. Stardelova Dž.M.: Kineziološko obrazovanie
theory with practical knowledge and                          kako zadol`itelna nu`nost na 21ot vek. Varn,
                                                             Oktomvri 2004.
differential efforts to be put into operation                15. Stardelova Dž.M.: Transformacija na fizička
needs of the kineziology -medical practice.                  kultura od interdisciplinarna nauka vo samostojna
The demand of larger state investment in                     nauka      narečena       Kineziologija.    Belgrad,
these diseases prevention is the need and                    12.12.2003.
necessity of the 21st century.                               16. Stardelova M. Dž ambazovski A., Panovska N.:
                                                             Ergonomic standards for children. Naučna
                                                             konferencija s me`dunarodno učastie. Fizičesko
                 REFERENCE                                   vzpitanie, sport, kineziterapija. Blagoevgrad 2009.
                                                             17. Stardelova Dž.M. Dž ambazovski A., Conkova
                                                             D.: Antropometrično-motornite funkcionalnite
1. Enoka. R. M.: “Osnovni kineziologii”, Kiev,               sposobnosti na učenicitre od osnovnoto i srednoto
2000 (Osnovi na kineziološkata teorija-humana                obrazovanie. V. Trnovo, 2006.
kinetika).                                                   18. Stardelova Dž.M., A. Dzambazovski, N.
2. Zavod za zdravstvena zaštita, Kompjuterite i              Panovska, V. Krstevska.: Značaj fizičkog
rancite gi zgrbavija decata. Grupa avtori: “Vreme”           obrazovawa za vaspitače strukovnih studija u
12.02.2007, Skopje.                                          funkciji prevencije kičmenih deformacija i bawsko
3. Janev V.: “Intelekt i dejnost na sportista”.              - fizioterapeutskog turizma. Zbornik radova sa
Sporten intelekt, Sofija, 1997                               sestog simpozijuma “vaspitač u 21 veku”.
4. Momirović, K., R, Medved., V. Horvat, Pavišić -           Aleksinac, 2011.
Medved., B.: Normativi kompleta antropometriskih             19. Džambazovski A.: “Kineziološka medicina”,
varijabla školske omladine oba spola u doba od 12            Skopje, 1990.
do 18 godina, fizička kultura br. 9-10, Beograd,             20. Džambazovski A.: “Teorija na fizičkata
1979.                                                        kultura”. (voved vo kineziologijata). Skopje, 1998 i
5. Naumovski A., S. Matovski, A. Xambazovski:                2002g.
“Komparirawe na biomotornata faktorska struktura             21. Džambazovski A., M. Stardelova, D. Kadinova
kaj učenicite pred i posle treningot so različni             - Conkova.: Antropometriskite - motornite i
sportovi”. Fizička kultura, Skopje, Tom 26, 1-2, str.        funkcionalnite sposobnosti na učenicite od
20-25, 1995.                                                 osnovnoto i srednoto obrazovanie. Rusevski
6. Petrov, L.: Formirane i razvitie na Teorijata i           Univerzitet, Ruse, 2005.
praktikata na fizičeskoto vospitanie, glava 1.               22. Džambazovski A., M. Dž. Stardelova.:
Teorija na fizičeskoto vospitanie, Veliko Trnovo,            Specijalna kineziologija. Orginalen naučen doklad.
2003..                                                       Rusenski Univerzitet. Ruse, 2005.
7. Petrov N; Džambazovski A.; sorabotnici:                   23. Džambazovski A., Stardelova Dž.M.,
“Proekcija     za     razvojot,     inoviranjeto    i        Džambazovski K., Spasovska K.: Primena terapije
transformiranjeto na sistemot na vospitanieto i              za grupu habitualne likasacije ramenog zgloba.
obrazovanieto      vo     Republika    Makedonija”.          Zbornik radova sa šestog simpozijuma “vaspitač u
Redakcija na spisanieto, “Prosvetno delo”, Skopje,           21 veku”. Aleksinac, 2011.
1994.                                                        24. Džambazovski A., Stardelova M.: Our
                                                             physiotherapy in curing of discus hernia. Jobileina


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naučna konferencija s me`dunarodno učastie.
“Fizičeskoto vzpitanie i sport v obrazovatelnata
sistema”. Blagoevgrad, 2007.
25. Džambazovski A., Stardelova M., Krstevska
V.: Našija opit v lečenieto na grbačnite deformacii.
Na tr`estvenoto čestvanie i naučna konferencija
pod patrona`a na rektora na NSA “V. Levski” prof.
L. Dimitrov, 60 godini Kineziterapija v Bulgarija
2007.
26. Džambazovski A.: Kineziološka medicina -
sportska fizioterapija - hiropraktika - medicinska
kineziterapija, Skopje, 2011.
27. Džambazovski A., Stardelova Dž.M.: Teorija
na antropološkata kineziologija. Skopje, 2011.




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   TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHLOROPICRIN AND IMPACT OF SORBED
               WATER STEAM ON PROTECTION
             Milena Nikolić, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia milena_nikolic@yahoo.com

    Mladen Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

      Dragan Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia dragannikolic60@yahoo.com


         Abstract: Chloropicrin is a chemical                   30 seconds, and the concentration of 0.05
substance that has a very toxic effect. Exerts its effect       mg/dm3        was      unbearable.      Higher
on the respiratory system. Causes pulmonary edema
and difficult breathing and suffocating effect.
                                                                concentrations cause nausea, vomiting and
Respiratory protection may be carried into execution            stomach.Damage to the respiratory system
respiratory filters. On the protective power filter based       occurs at concentrations greater than 0.1
on active coal affects adsorbed water vapor. This paper         mg/dm3, and death at a concentration of 2
presents the results of the adsorption of water vapor on        mg/dm3 and exposure of 10 minutes.
activated carbon from 5% to 25%. Was used for the
experiment apparatus for dynamic adsorption, the
                                                                        The main mechanism of action is
results showed that the humidity of 5% coal provides            occurrence of pulmonary edema. Pulmonary
most power protection, while humidity of 25%                    edema occurs due to disturbance alveolar
minimum protective power.                                       capillary permeability and causing the output
         Keywords:       toxic,   Chloropicrin,     filter,     of fluid from the blood into the alveolar
adsorption, water vapor, relative humidity, activated
carbon, protective power
                                                                spaces. The increase in lung vascular
                                                                permeability is the result of direct action of
         1. Toxic effects of Chloropicrin                       the poison and disorder nervous regulation of
                                                                capillary function. Poison, and the reaction
        Chloropicrin was first obtained by the                  products act on the receptors of the lungs,
action of chlorine lime picric acid. Besides                    where the vagus nerve impulse is sent through
insecticide Chloropicrin effect acts as a                       the central nervous system. Effector impulses
fungicide, herbicide and nematocid. Has an                      back to the effector organ via the sympathetic
important application in soil disinfection.                     nerves. Reflex defenses are manifested by
        Restricted used for disinfection and                    creating fluid in the alveoli lungs. In further
storage space due to its toxicity to humans.                    reflection of the pathologic character, which
        Chloropicrin is a colorless oily liquid                 leads to an increase in pulmonary edema. The
and a characteristic pungent odor. Obtained                     occurrence of pulmonary edema initially
by light green-yellow color due to                              difficult, and later disables reception of
decomposition of chlorine and nitrogen                          oxygen from the blood into the alveoli and
oxides. Solubility in water is 0.16%. In                        excretion of carbonic acid from the blood into
organic solvents to dissolve well.                              the alveoli. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation
        Chloropicrin is stable compound and a                   decreases and at the moment of death is
derivative of methane preserved the properties                  almost no oxygen.
of saturated hydrocarbons.At elevated
temperature and the boiling temperature of                               2. Protection from Chloropicrin
slightly decomposed. Chloropicrin hydrolysis
does not take place in an aqueous medium,                               Respiratory protection of Chloropicrin
even at elevated temperatures.                                  may be provided with respirators. Filling most
        Chloropicrin is a strong poison that                    suitable respirator is activated carbon.
adversely affects the lungs. Liquid                                     Activated carbon is one of a group of
Chloropicrin causes severe damage to the                        materials that have a highly developed
skin. Concentration of 0.002 mg/dm3                             porosity. Carbon atoms are held together by
suzavačka cause of action for a period of 3 to                  covalent bonds, are arranged in a plane in the
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form of hexagonal rings. The distance                           Oxidized     surface,      formed    at
between the planes is higher than that of              hemisorpciji oxygen at high temperatures,
graphite. A number of these two planes                 unless there is a shift in the gas phase, they
placed one above the other, form crystallites.         differ from those of stability of chemisorption
Crystallites of activated carbon are each              formed at lower temperatures. In this case,
different in size, they are not properly lined         there is a great diversity of surface oxygen
up next to each other, and therefore have high         composition. When the surface of activated
surface heterogeneity.                                 carbon oxidized atmospheric oxygen, at a
        Micropores are the smallest pores with         temperature of about 300 0C hemisorpcije
a diameter below 15-16 x 10-10 m. Based on             process there is an increase, and the
tests Dubinina, a large number of                      maximum level is formed at a temperature of
microporous       activated    carbons     have        400-450 0C. At higher temperatures, the
micropore diameters in the range of 4 - 8 x            oxide breaks down into several parts, and at a
10-10 m. The size of these pores coincides             temperature of 900 - 1000 0C most of the
with the size of molecules adsorbujućih.               unbuilt.
        Micropore volume of activated                           Carbon surface can be reduced by
carbons ranges from 0.20 to 0.60 cm3 / g, a            hydrogen at high temperature, or increasing
surface area of 1000 - 2000 m2 per gram.               hydrogen pressure.
        Transitional     pores    larger    than                Presence of chemisorbed oxygen on
micropores and have diameters of 15 - 16 to            the surface of carbonaceous substances has an
1000 to 2000 x 10-10 m.                                important effect on the adsorption of water
        Transition pore volume of activated            vapor.
carbons was in the range of 0.02 to 0.10 cm3 /                  Pierce and Smith described the
g. Area per gram in the range of 20 - 70 m2.           adsorption of water, where the water
Effective transition pore diameters are in the         molecules bind to the primary adsorption
range of 40-1000 x 10-10 m.                            centers. The adsorbed water molecules are
        Have a radius of macropores above              subsequently act as secondary centers, which
1000 - 2000 x 10-10 we are most massive                builds multimolekularna the adsorption
pores of activated carbon. Macropore volume            pressure increased.
ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 cm3 / g, and the area                    When the pressure is sufficiently high,
per gram within the limits of 0.5 - 2 m2.              the micropores are filled, and with further
        Some carbon atoms in activated                 increase in pressure multimolekularna
carbon are not at the same energy level. These         adsorption continues to create the surface of
include unsaturated carbon atoms valence that          the membrane, and in large enough pore
allows chemical bonding with other                     capillary condensation builds, the water vapor
molecules, atomic groups and radicals.                 pressure sufficient for saturation.
        Gaseous substances adsorbed onto                        Dubinin and coworkers have found
activated carbon is of particular importance to        that the work for the process of interaction of
oxygen. Oxygen can be adsorbed onto                    active carbon and oxygen characteristic two
activated carbon in two basic ways:                    extreme cases:
        • physically adsorbed and                               - At a temperature of 0 - 1000C on
        • chemisorbed.                                 activated carbon surface oxides are formed
        Which of these modes dominates,                the base character and
depends      on    temperature.     At    lower                 - At temperatures above 2000C the
temperatures, the oxygen is adsorbed mainly            interaction of activated carbon and oxygen
physical adsorption, and as the temperature            leads to the formation of surface oxides
increases, and increases the reaction                  primarily acidic character.
hemisorpcije, where oxygen molecules are                        Some research has shown that the
dissociated into atoms, which react                    presence of acidic surface oxides of abnormal
chemically with the atoms of coal and                  adsorption capacity of activated carbons by
generate the surface oxide layer.                      polar molecules.
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        Dubinin and conspiracy investigated            the polarity of groups at higher relative
the adsorption isotherm of water on samples            pressures,      capillary    condensation     in
of activated carbon. They found that there is a        transitional pores.
substantial influence of surface oxides on the                 Kiselov and his colleagues concluded
ability of activated carbon with absorption by         that the adsorption of water vapor on
water vapor.                                           activated carbon, depending on the degree of
        Dubinin and coworkers laid the basis           oxidation of the surface and porosity of coal,
of the theory of adsorption of water vapor,            and that the primary role in the adsorption of
based on hemisorpciji the primary adsorption           water vapor capillary condensation.
centers, ie, the surface oxides.                       Daceya, Clunier and Thomas during the
Water chemisorbed on oxides, via hydrogen              experiment, water vapor adsorption on
bonds, creating new secondary centers                  activated carbon, found no hysteresis loop
suitable for further chemisorption.                    which explains the high microporous structure
        Both types of surface oxides,                  of activated carbon.
especially acidic character, show a significant                Research adsorption of water vapor
influence on the adsorption of water vapor on          state that is the same as a function of chemical
activated carbon. At relative humidity greater         structure and porosity of activated carbon and
than 40-50%, water vapor molecules bind                also quite far from the end of the possible
with the free polar centers of the lattice and         solutions. However adsorbed water vapor, and
the previously adsorbed water molecules                to a certain extent and relative humidity affect
through hydrogen bridges, so that a                    the protective power, or on the adsorption of
significant increase in the adsorption of water        toxic substances within the meaning of
vapor, which can be seen on the adsorption             increase or decrease in the protective power
isotherms of water vapor.                              which depends on the physico-chemical
        When the carbon surface is covered             properties of adsorbing matter.
with almost complete monomolecular covers,
with a further increase of the relative pressure,                    3. Experimental research
are formed Pore volume is filled at the point
when the water vapor is adsorbed on opposite                   Used for the experiments of the
walls combination. When activated charcoal             apparatus shown in Figure 1 The apparatus
that does not contain a proportional                   was composed of the following parts: 1
relationship transition pore volume of                 Rotometar air, 2 Court with concentrated
adsorbed water vapor at saturation pressure is         sulfuric acid, 3 Court with water,
equal to the volume of micropores. Hysteresis          4.Psihrometar, 5.Mixer , 6 Rotometar for
loop can not be compared with the capillary            secondary air, 7 Wash with concentrated
condensation of water vapor, because the               sulfuric acid, with a dry 8.T ower solid
same thing happens on activated carbon,                adsorbent, 9 Wash with Chloropicrin, 10 Way
which is no transition pore, and hysteresis            stop cock, 11 Respiratory filter, 12
loops show a striking effect of molecular              Respiratory filter to be tested, 13.Collon with
sieves.                                                dry activated carbon, 14 Quartz heating tube,
        When activated carbons that have               15 indicator
developed transitional pores, they become
full-induced capillary condensation at high
relative pressures, it becomes a permanent
case of monomolecular and multimolekularne
adsorption on the walls of the pores.
        Water vapor adsorption on activated
carbon with developed porosity transition
progresses in two phases hysteresis on
adsorption isotherms. At lower relative
pressures, a hysteresis loop is determined by
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                              Figure 1. Aparatus for filter testing


        Through the respiratory filter is            impact on the protective power of
a mixture of vapor permeable                         Chloropicrin filter. Increasing water
Chloropicrin and air mixture at a flow               vapor adsorption on activated carbon
rate of 0.5 dm3 / s with a concentration             adversely affects the protective power
of 0.5% Chloropicrin Cmdr. The                       filters.    Adsorbed     water    vapor
amount of air mixed with 24 dm3/min                  adsorption space is occupied by active
air mixer and passed through                         carbon, so that the cut surface of
respiratory filter. Chloropicrin mixture             activated carbon, which is available
of air and breaking through the                      Chloropicrin. Chloropicrin is not
respiratory filter is carried out through
                                                     susceptible to hydrolysis, which further
a quartz tube that is directly heated
                                                     reduces the adsorption power of coal.
burner, and then sent to indicator.
                                                     In       Respiratory   protection     of
Chloropicrin when going through the
quartz tube leads to its destruction.                Chloropicrin should strive to charcoal
Chlorine, which is created by                        filters, which are filled with a
decomposition of Chloropicrin in                     minimum sorbed water vapor.
contact with the indicator as active
                                                             Table (1) Effect of water vapor
iodine     from      potassium      iodide
                                                     adsorbed at a relative humidity of 50%
suppressed      and     newly      formed
                                                     in the protective power
elemental iodine with starch builds a
blue discoloration of the end of the                      Moisture of
                                                                         Relative    The protective
experiment.                                                activated
                                                                         humidity    power of filter
                                                           charcoal
                                                                           (%)         min s
                                                              (%)
       4. Results and discussion                               5            50        48         32
                                                               10           50        45         15
        The effects of water vapor                             15           50        43         40
adsorption on activated carbon in the                          20           50        39         35
respiratory protective power filter are                        25           50        37         27
given in Table 1 and Graph 1.
        From the table (1) and graphics
(1) shows that the adsorbed water
vapor on activated carbon has an

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                                                susceptible to hydrolysis and adsorbed
                                                water vapor adversely affects the
                                                protective power filters. The study
                                                showed that activated charcoal
                                                humidity of 5% provides protective
                                                power of 48 min and 32 s, while
                                                activated charcoal humidity of 25%
                                                reduces the protective power of filters
                                                at 37 min and 27 s.

                                                                  References
Graph 1. Protective power of time to
Chloropicrin filters depending on the                   1.Brajović M.: Chemistry of poison
     adsorption of water vapor                  gases, Belgrade (1983)
                                                        2.D. Nikolic, R. Biočanin: activated
            5. Conclusion                       carbon NBC protection function, Bulletin
                                                NBC, Krusevac (1995)
                                                        3.D. Nikolic: Influence of relative
        For     filtration    of     air        vlažosti air purification air pollution in order to
contaminated with Chloropicrin can be           protect the ecosystem, Ekologika 3, (1996)
used filters based on activated carbon.                 4.D. Nikolic: Protection against the
Aivated charcoal may have, depending            effects of toxic substances and effects of NBC
                                                weapons, SC NBC Krusevac (1997)
on     usage    conditions,    different                5.Nikolic D.: Geometry of filters for
humidity, and can be used at different          respiratory protection, environment and
relative humidity. Desorbed water               ecosystem from toxic gases and vapors,
vapor on activated carbon was                   Bulletin NBC, Krusevac (1996)
important for the sorption of                           6.Stanković D.: Medicine, Medical
                                                Books Belgrade-Zagreb (1986)
Chloropicrin. chloropicrin is not




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   EFFECTS OF ATROPINE SULFATE AFTER POISONING
       WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
               MSc ph Milena Nikolić, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia
                                milena.nikolic.1987@gmail.com

 Mladen Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Serbia mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

           Abstract:        Organophosphorus            compounds. There are over a thousand
compounds are most toxic synthesized                    different              organophosphorus
substances. This group consists of the
substances used in the composition of
                                                        compounds, in addition to soman, sarin
chemical weapons. Less toxic substances in              and tabun.
this group are used as insecticides. These                      Between themselves PCS this
compounds are inhibitors of the enzyme                  type there is a difference in the level of
esterase-holing. First aid and treatment of             toxicity that can be manifold.
poisoning with these substances is achieved by
atropine sulfate.
                                                                Tab. (1) Inhalation toxicity of
           Keywords:        organophosphorus            paralytic OHS neural activity in the
compounds, insecticides, toxic effects, atropine        form of vapor or aerosol to people of
sulfate, first aid                                      average weight
                                                                          Lethal        Start
                                                                       contretation       of
              1. Introduction                                OHS
                                                                       LC50 (mg in effect
                                                                         min/m3)        (min)
        Development      of     organo-
                                                             VX-
phosphorus compounds begins in the                                         4 –5          4-10
                                                            poison
nineteenth century. They penetrate
organism through the respiratory                            Soman        45 – 70         1-15
system, skin and digestive tract. They                       Sarin       70 -100         2-15
act directly on the central nervous                         Tabun       300 – 400       10-15
system, depending on the dose can in a
short period of time, lead to death. At                 PCS nerve paralytic effects are
higher doses, there is a so-called                      irreversible inhibitors of cholinesterase
momentary effect, death occurs                          in the human body. Inhibition of this
immediately. For this substance is also                 enzyme leads to the accumulation,
typical to have a cumulative effect.                    endogenous acetylcholine'', so that
        The organophosphorus com-                       each new quantity of the release of
pounds are among the most toxic                         acetylcholine cause a longer and more
compounds synthesized and their part                    intense effects on organs. Excess
in chemical weapons and insecticides                    acetylcholine in the body initially
is significant.                                         stimulates and then paralyzes impulse
                                                        transmission at all synapses where
           2. Toxic Substances                          acetylcholine appears as a mediator, in:
                                                                - The central nervous system,
        The most important repre-                               - Neuromuscular coupling,
sentatives of the toxic chemicals from                          - Sensory nerve endings,
the composition of chemical weapons,                            -      Ganglionic       synapses
here in after referred to PCS, as sarin,                holinergic and adrenergic (sympa-
soman and tabun. The mechanism of                       thetic and parasympathetic) nerves,
action of the substance is the same.                            - Post ganglionic drenergic
Chemically speaking, all PCS paralytic                  nerve terminals that innervate glands
nerve activity are organophosphorus                     and blood vessels,

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         - Adrenergic nerve terminals                     On the nerve endings there are
(without ganglionic synapses) in the              specific microscopic entities on which
adrenal gland and                                 delivery is made through nervous
         - Post ganglionic cholinergic            impulses from one neuron to another
nerve terminals.                                  or from the nerve to the effector organ.
         When it comes to toxico-                 These structures are called synapses.
dynamics, there are three main                    Submissions of impulses in the
activities of the effect of acetylcholine.        synapses are made by the mediator. In
         - The biochemical structures             the peripheral nervous system mediator
innervated cholinergic nerves, leading            is acetyl-choline. In the central nervous
to stimulation of bronchial smooth                system, there are multiple mediators,
muscle, organs, abdomen, heart                    and plays an important role of acetyl-
muscle, sweat and mucus glands and                choline. That is, the transmission of
others., These effects are also called            nerve impulses in a healthy organism
acetylcholine muscarinic and, due to              is produced by a compound acetyl-
the analogy with the effect of alkaloid           choline.      Created      acetyl-choline,
muscarine,                                        influenced enzyme cholinesterase
         - The biochemical structure of           breaks down and it stops the muscle
ganglion cells and nerve endings in the           contractions that seemed. PCS
cross-striped muscle. This action is              paralytic nerve activity is associated
called nicotian, because of the                   with the enzyme cholinesterase,
similarity with the effects of nicotine,          resulting in the accumulation of acetyl-
         - The biochemical structure of           choline. The increased amount of
the central nervous system that has               acetyl-choline in the body cause
muscarinic and nicotian receptors.                disorders that impair the normal
         These substances do not cause            functioning of all organs, especially of
any inflammatory changes in the points            the respiratory and circulatory system.
of entrance in the body and thez don’t            In normal conditions, the effect of
cause irritation of nerve endings                 acetylcholine is a millionth of a
sensible nerves.                                  second, and the active center of
         Volatile substances are non              cholinesterase in these conditions can
polarised, with high liposolubility,              be hydrolyzed 300,000 molecules of
which is very well absorbed from the              acetylcholine.
mucous membranes, even through                            More      serious     forms     of
intact skin. At these features is their           poisoning have the following layout
use as agents. Repeated exposure of               and flow: secretion from the nose,
the organism to low doses repeatedly              chest tightness, constriction of pupil
in a relatively short period of time can          (miosis) and visual impairment-
cause poisoning and even death.                   eclipse, difficulty in breathing, fascial
         Disorders that cause these               muscle spasms, excessive sweating,
substances are grouped into the                   nausea, vomiting, uncontrolled release
following categories:                             of urine and diarrhea, muscle
         - Acetylcholine-cholinesterase           twitching, staggering, severe headache,
system,                                           confusion, drowsiness, convulsions
         - Nervous system,                        and death by paralysis. These
         - Respiratory system,                    symptoms develop rapidly and death
         - Cardiovascular system                  can occur in about 10 minutes.
         - Digestive system and                           Code for mild poisoning or
         - Certain organs.                        exposure at lower concentrations, show
                                                  the following symptoms of poisoning:

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pupil constriction and impaired vision,          and is the main reason for the heavy
chest tightness and shortness of breath,         breathing and the occurrence of man
anxiety, eye pain and headaches. In              feeling of tightness in the chest),
further developing the symptoms of                        - Respiratory center (changes
poisoning are severe, but in a milder            can be quantitative and qualitative
form. In the use of antidotes atropine           changes in the flow in two phases that
sulfate syringe these symptoms are               in the first short-term toxicity observed
starting to lose after several hours.            irritation of respiratory center, which
        When PCS neural effects of               was later reduced long-term depre-
paralytic effects on the nervous system          ssion, but if you are organized enough
it can be concluded that:                        to resuscitate a long (2 to 3 hours) may
        - Central nervous system                 be established functions of breathing),
stimulant react at first, and later                       - Respiratory muscles (pois-
inhibition,                                      oning causes characteristic changes in
        - In the pathological process all        the muscle's breathing muscles as well;
parts of the central nervous system are          appear jerky muscle contractions,
involved and                                     tremors muscle fibers, partial or
        - The rate of participation of           complete muscle weakness).
certain parts of the nervous system in                    PCS paralytic nervous activities
the pathological process of distortion           also act on the cardiovascular system.
and intensity of its functions is not            In this system, there are changes of
equal, that is the most sensitive cortex.        vascular tone and the functional state
        PCS paralytic nerve activity             of the heart muscle.
and cause of disruption in the work of                    These substances slow the heart
the organs and glands that have smooth           rate and reduce the force of contraction
muscle fibers (eye, intestines, bronchi,         of the muscle as a result of the action
gland).                                          of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors
        It also causes disturbances in           in the heart. With this disorder leads to
motor nerves and muscles, a                      the disruption in the electrical
consequence of convulsive contraction            conductivity of the nervous system of
of muscle spasms muscle fibers muscle            the heart.
weakness, etc..                                           PCS nerve paralytic causes
The immediate cause of death in the              heavy salivation, increased secretion of
PCS effects of neural activity is a              glands and increased contractions of
paralytic disorder breathing function.           the stomach and intestines, which
        Breathing disorder occurs in             among other things has resulted in
the early stages of poisoning, and               listless bowel movements.
under the influence of small amounts                      A sign in the action of these
of these substances these disorders              substances is miosis (constriction)
arise from effects of action on the              pupils. It is stable and
central nervous system, the peripheral           depending on the concentration of the
nervous system and the effector                  poison that has acted may last for days.
organs.                                                   Toxic chemical type VX for its
        The disorder breathing function          toxic effects belonging to the group of
involved several factors:                        toxic chemicals neuro-paralytic action,
        - Bronchospasm (a conse-                 or a group of toxins that irreversibly
quence of the effects on the structure           inhibit cholinesterase. In its chemical
holino reactive bronchial broncho-               structure are organophosphorus esters.
spasm may be one of the reasons for                       VX most toxic poisons are
the occurrence of death, bronchospasm            toxic chemicals. From other listed

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toxic nerve agents are up to a hundred           organs and tissues. The effect of these
times.     Work      quickly     through         compounds is based on the irreversible
respiratory, skin and digestive tract.           inhibition        of      the       enzyme
        Act as poisons and neuro-                acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
paralytic or block cholinesterase and                     The     clinical     picture      of
cause general poisoning organism.                poisoning       by      organophosphorus
Symptoms       of    poisoning      toxic        pesticides is displayed through three
chemicals VX types are: muscle                   effects:
tremors, difficulty breathing, excessive         -        Muscarinic effect, which is
salivation,     convulsions,      muscle                  manifested by chest pain,
paralysis and death. First aid are used                   coughing, shortness of breath,
as antidotes for nerve agents such.                       pulmonary edema, diarrhea,
                                                          pupils,     narrowed,       blurred
  3. Organophosphorus insecticides                        vision, slow heart operations
                                                          and a drop in blood pressure,
        Insecticidal effects of organo-          -        The effect of nicotine, which is
phosphorus compounds have been                            manifested muscle twitches,
known since 1935. During the                              fine muscle tremors, muscle
synthesis of these insecticides it was                    weakness, muscle cramps and
found that in addition to insecticidal                    all
properties are very toxic to warm-               -        The effect of the central
blooded animals, especially humans.                       nervous      system      that     is
After detection of these insecticides, it                 manifested       by     dizziness,
was found that the basic mechanism of                     pressure      in     the      head,
the toxic action of the enzyme acetyl-                    restlessness,         drowsiness,
cholinesterase inhibition.                                headache, uncertainty in gait
        All insecticides of this group                    and coma.
share a common structure and are                 -        Great importance in the
considered esters of phosphoric acid or                   development                       of
tiono phosphoric. Thus phosphorylated                     organophosphorus insecticides
inactivated enzyme is very stable and                     had fluorophosphates           ester
there is no hydrolysis and recovery of                    synthesis (soman and sarin)
enzyme activity depends on the                            1930. Year 1935. showed
synthesis of new enzyme compounds.                        strong physiological effects of
The mechanism of toxic effects are a                      organophosphorus compounds,
group of general functional toxin.                        and originated the rapid
        Figure 1. Degradation of                          development of insecticides.
acetyl-choline by ache                           -        A      certain     number         of
                                                          organophosphorus compounds
                                                          have systematically insecticide-
                                                          effect, or when adsorbed by
                                                          plants, included in the vascular
                                                          system of the plant and insect
                                                          remains in the body.
                                                 -        Organophosphorus insecticides
                                       .                  are usually liquid. Have high
                                                          vapor pressure and act via the
       After penetration in to the                        respiratory tract. Good to
organism into the bloodstream and                         dissolve in fats and penetrate
maturity, uniformly transmitted to all                    through the skin. Some

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      organophosphorus insecticides             -       Pirofosforne       acid    esters
      are not toxic, but only after it                    (pyrophosphate), Represen-
      became transformation in the                        tative: sulfotep,
      liver (cholinesterase inhibitor           -       Esters of phosphorus acid
      parathion    has     not    been                    (phosphonates),       Represen-
      transformed into paraoxon,                          tative trihlorfon.
      which is an inhibitor).                           USE OF atropine sulfate
      The most important types of               poisoning              organophosphorus
organophosphorus insecticides are:              compounds
-     Tionophosphorous acid esters-                     Atropine Sulfate is a tool
      tionophosphate representatives            without which it is impossible to
      are parathion, fenthion and               imagine a first-aid and treatment of
      others.,                                  people poisoned by organophosphorus
-     Esters of phosphoric acid                 compounds. Clinical experience has
      (phosphate), representatives are          shown that the organism is poisoned
      mevinfos, fosfamidin, mono-               with organophosphorus compounds,
      crotophos and others.,                    tolerated doses of atropine'' enormous,
-     Ditiofosforne     acid    esters          and in the first hour after adminis-
        (dithiophosphate), represent-           tration and in the later stages of
        atives are disulfon and                 treatment.
        tiometon,

        Tab. (2) Average dose of atropine required for effective treatment of different
stages of acute poisoning
                                                    Atropisation
                                                   maintainance
                                          Oral
                                                   In next three
                        Stage of     atropisation
                                                     days since
                       poisoning     in first hour
                                                     poisoning
                                         (mg)
                                                    (daily dose
                                                       in mg)
                          Easy            2-3            4-5
                       Medium -
                                         20-25          30-50
                         Heavy
                         Heavy           30-50        100-150

        Atropine sulfate in large doses                 Therapeutic effects of the
effectively antagonises the muscarine-          substance can be explained in two
like manifestations of poisoning in the         ways:
periphery and partly in the central                     First Reactivation of inhibited
nervous system. Relatively ineffective          cholinesterase allows the enzyme to
against the actions of the mediators in         exhibit the physiological function of
the autonomic ganglia and has no                acetylcholine degradation accumul-
effect     on     muscle      weakness.         ated,
Pharmacologically speaking, atropine                    Second Creating complex
sulfate acts by blocking muscarinic             reactivators-venom in most cases
receptors, making them, in effect''             makes the poison harmless and allows
insensitive to acetylcholine.                   the organism to various metabolic
                                                processes release toxins.


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         It is theoretically possible that                         Conclusion
every person, regardless of clinical
form of poisoning be saved by                             Organophosphorus compounds
appropriate treatment. However there              are highly toxic substances and only
are the following problems that can               some natural toxins, such as botulinum
occur:                                            toxin, is more toxic of these toxins.
         -Presence of the treatments in                   Synthesized over a thousand
the immediate vicinity and in sufficient          different organophosphorus comp-
quantity,                                         ounds, in addition to soman, sarin and
         -Vocational training to provide          tabun, and there are several extremely
therapy                                           toxic.
         -Evaluation of dose in relation                  These substances are most
to the image of poisoning and others.             toxic substances from the family of
         No matter whether you are a              synthetic poisons. They act very
first aid or treatment is necessary:              quickly, and in high concentrations
         -Break contact between the               rapidly.
toxin and the man,                                        These compounds are inhibitors
         -Immediately       inject   2mg          or blocking or decreasing the activity
atropine sulfate intramuscularly with             of cholinesterase in the human body.
autoinjectors or Syringe,                         Except as may be used in the
         -Repeated injection of atropine          composition of chemical weapons,
sulfate every 3 to 10 minutes until the           many of the family of compounds that
occurrence of signs atropisation,                 are less toxic and are used as
         -If there are conditions,                insecticides. These compounds have a
atropine sulfate may be injected and              cumulative effect. First aid and
intravenously.                                    medical treatment can be carried
                                                  through atropine sulfate.
         On the first day of treatment,
especially in severe poisoning, it is                             5. References
necessary to use up to 50 mg of
                                                       1. Bunevski R.: Military Toxicology,
atropine sulfate. Easy to maintain a                      CVTŠ Zagreb (1984)
degree of atropisation giving oral                     2. Daničić M., PetkovićM., Mechanism
atropine sulfate (1 to 2 mg) in                           of action of organophosphorus
appropriate intervals, and as long as                     compounds, Bulletin ŠC NBC-7,
there is any symptom of poisoning.                        Krusevac (2001)
                                                       3. Dreisbach RH: Poisoning, diagnosis
         When there are signs of marked                   and treatment, administration of
disturbance of pulmonary ventilation                      modern Belgrade (1980)
and the patient shows signs of                         4. HPRang,        MMDA,         JMRitter,
cyanosis, artificial respiration should                   PKMoore: Pharmacology, data status,
be given to the disappearance of these                    Belgrade (2005)
                                                       5. JovićR., W Djarmati., JovićN.:
symptoms, and then access the                             Pesticides, chemistry, toxicology and
injection of atropine sulfate. Injection                  application protection IRO Belgrade
of atropine sulfate during cyanosis is                    (1988)
contraindicated, as administration of                  6. M.     Milosevic,     S.    Vitorović:
atropine sulfate in a state of anoxia can                 Fundamentals of toxicology with
                                                          elements of ecotoxicology, Scientific
cause fibrillation cardiac chambers.                      Book, Belgrade (1992)
         To remove a local disturbance                 7. Soldatović D. et al: Toxicology of
in the eyes-miosis, it is necessary to                    pesticides with analytics, Economic
instill atropine 1% solution.                             Survey, Belgrade (1980)
                                                       8. Vojvodić V.: Toxicology of poison
                                                          gases, Viz, Belgrade (1981)

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               HARMFUL EFFECTS AND MONI TORING OF NOISE
                    Mladen D. Nikolić, dipl. ing. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
                                            mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

            PhD Dragan M. Nikolić, prof. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
                                         dragannikolic60@yahoo.com

                MSc Fortuna Dragutin, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia

          Abstract. High noise levels can contribute to           short time after the beginning of exposure.
different health problems. This paper shows the results           The aforementioned effect is manifested in
of monitoring of noise in urban enviroment. Fonometer
has been used for measuring. The measurements were
                                                                  blood pressure increase, decrease stroke
made on five different places. The measurements were              volume of the heart and reduces peripheral
made at day, dusk and at night. Five measurements                 blood circulation. Changes in breathing,
were made at each site. The results shows that the                changes in bowel movements, changing the
noise level at certain sites is higher than allowed (by 20        function of the central nervous system and
dB). In order to minimize noise level some counter
measures has to be done.
                                                                  overall       metabolism.   And     endocrine
          Key words: noise, fonometer, monitoring,                disturbances occur, expressed in particular in
traffic, measuring sites.                                         release of adrenal glands, pancreas then, and
                                                                  pituitary. All this is accompanied by fatigue,
                   1. Introduction                                irritability,    insomnia   and     vegetative
                                                                  disturbances of various degrees.
        Noise is every unwanted sound. that
means that every sound effect (roistering,
murmur…) that disrupts work or reposing can
be represented as noise. To make a sound
called noise it needs to be lound enough,
different that other sounds in that moment.
        In basics, we can define two types of
noise, by its source: noise of natural sources,
and manmade noise.                                                   Fig.1. Noise levels from various sources 1
        Noise in urban enviroment can be
partitioned on noise in working enviroment
                                                                         Noise sources can vary, some sources
and noise in living enviroment.
                                                                  which can create a certain level of noise is
        Effects of noise can be partitioned on
                                                                  shown in Figure (1). For communal
auditory, extraauditory, and psychogenic. By
                                                                  environment of particular importance is the
frequency characteristics it can be partitioned
                                                                  noise generated by the internal combustion
on: the effects of audible noise spectrum,
                                                                  engine and of traffic.
infra sound, ultrasound and vibration effects.
        It should be noted that man does not
                                                                                  2. Aim and methods
permit either absolute silence, what is the
example of a completely isolated chambers.
                                                                          The aim of this study was to measure
Then the noise of the body, such as: heart
                                                                  the value of noise in the urban environment.
rate, respiration, digestion and blood flow
                                                                  The measured values are compared to the
becomes very loud and unpleasant.
                                                                  allowable noise levels.
        When background noise of over 60 dB
                                                                          Noise measurement was conducted in
and 80 dB above particular note is the
                                                                  the city of Krusevac. Noise measurement was
relatively rapid increase in symptoms of
                                                                  performed on five measuring points: Fountain
sympathetic tone, that the increased intensity
                                                                  Square, the United Nations Settlement,
becomes very pronounced and occur in a

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Bagdala Park, Pools - Sports Centre Lazarica-
direction to Kraljevo, and the results are
compared to the allowable noise levels.
        To measure the noise level
Phonometer was used. Dynamic range of
sound level meters from 26 dB to 140 dB,
thus providing noise monitoring on the widest
range.
                                                               FIGURE 2. PHONOMETERS 1


                        Terms noise measurements are shown in Table. (1)
                                                                                       Night period
                 Day period                       Dusk period 06:00pm to
                                                                                       10:00 pm to -
          from 06:00 am to 06:00 pm                      10:00pm
                                                                                         06:00 am
           I                  II                 III           IV
                                                                                     V Measurement
      Measurement         Measurement       Measurement Measurement
                                             08:00 pm       10:00 pm                      00:00
      09-11:00 am      12:00 am 02:00 pm
                                             10:00 pm         00:00                      06:00 am
                                Table 1. Terms of measurement

                                                       5. Lazarica-time in Kraljevo, the noise
                 3. Measuring sites                    comes from the traffic. The street is
                                                       lined with single-storey and single-
               Municipal noise measurements            storey building with shops for different
      were made at five stations. During               purposes.
      measurement followed by the number
      of vehicles that have passed since the                          4. The results
      noise is mainly caused by traffic.
               1. Trg Fontana, measurements                    The measurement and allowed
      were carried out in addition to the              noise levels are shown in Table (2):
      memorial monuments and fountains
      surrounded by two very busy streets. In
      the vicinity of the building, and the
      noise of the traffic originates.
               2. United Nations settlement,
               3.Park        Bagdala,       the
      measurement was carried out in the
      park, which is surrounded on three
      sides by roads. Noise originates from
      traffic from neighboring areas and
      activities catering object.
               4. Bazeni - Sports Centre, noise
      originates mainly from traffic. The
      street is lined with one-story and multi-
      story buildings with shops for different
      purposes.




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Measurin
     g
    site
                                                        Allow     IV          V
 (average                      II
                  I                        III           ed      Measur     Measur      Allowed
   No of                   Measureme
             Measurement               Measurement      level    ement      ement       level of
 vehicles                      nt
               ( day )                   (night)          of                             noise
light/hev                    (day)
                                                        noise     (night)   (night)
y hourly )
1. Square
 Fontana
                 65           62            63          65 dB       60         56        55 dB
 1052/36
     2.
Settlemen
   t UN          46           47            46          55 dB       48         42        45 dB
   64/10
  3. Park
 Bagdala
                 60           48            53          50 dB       60         54        40 dB
   48/6
  4. Pool
  center
                 63           64            62          60 dB       65         53        50 dB
 443/11
   5.
Lazarica-
 road to
                 69           70            70          55 dB       64         64        45 dB
Kraljevo
 562/42
                   Table 2. The results of the noise measurements

                                                 average number of vehicles easy/tough
               5. Discusion                      vehicles 64/10 .
                                                         Measuring point No. 3.
                                                 Bagdala Park.
        Measuring point no 1. Fountain                   Of exceeding the noise level
Square.                                          during the day it was up to 7 dB, for an
        Exceeding the noise level                evening of up to 5 dB, while the night
during the day was 3dB, 2dB during               was exceeded by up to 20 dB. During
the evening were exceeded, and at                the measurements it was found that the
night it was overrun by 5 dB. During             noise has uncountinued character and
the measurements it was found that the           is mainly derived from the vehicle in
communal noise has uncontinual flow              park and the activities of the citizens
and that largely comes from traffic.             especially during the night. The
The average number of vehicles on the            average number of vehicles was an
measuring site was easy/tough vehicles           easy 48/6 heavy in one hour.
1052/36.                                                 Measuring point No. 4. Pools-
        Measuring point no.2 United              Sport center. Exceeding the noise level
Nations settlement .                             during the day it is up to 2 dB, to 5 in
        Exceeding the noise level                the evening and during the night dB to
during the day and the evening was not           15 dB. During the measurements it was
until overdraft for the night was 3 dB.          found that utility for continuous flow
During the measurements it was found             and noise that comes from traffic. The
that the utility uncountinued flow noise         average number of vehicles easy/tough
and largely comes from traffic. The              vehicles 443/11 .

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       Measuring point # 5. Lazarica                       Measured values of noise
road to Kraljevo. Exceeding the noise              pollution, exceeded especially at night,
level during the day was up to 15 dB               may adversely affect the relaxation and
during the night to 15 dB, and at night            general health of the people in
to 19 dB. During the measurements it               particular how their effects for
was found that the utility for                     continuous characters.
continuous flow noise and is mainly                        Noise     problem      that    is
derived from traffic. The average                  increasingly present in the human
number of vehicles was an easy 562/42              living and working environment,
on a heavy vehicles per hour.                      achieves gradual culmination. It is
                                                   sufficient to note that hearing loss by
         6. Proposal measures                      noise are present in the most visible
                                                   problem      occupational     pathology.
        -Divert heavy vehicles on the              When we add the other, non auditory
roads around the city, or the                      effects of noise on humans, it is clear
prohibition of heavy vehicle traffic               what are the possible repercussions of
through the city zone,                             pollution of our environment by noise.
        - Control of noise emitted by              Do not forget to follow the noise and
motor vehicle technical control in                 vibration,    and     ultrasound     and
everyday traffic                                   infrasound who can not be heard, but
        - Automatic traffic control and            they have a harmful effect on humans
synchronization of traffic lights at               which is why this whole issue even
some junctions                                     more.
        Introduction-timers at traffic
lights that last longer than one min,                                Reference
especially at intersections with major
significance,                                           1. Preobraženski         N.A.: Tugouhost,
        - Planning and setting up of               ,,Medicine’’ Moskva 1978.
                                                        2. Schulltz T. J. Communiti Noise
green shelterbelts and plantations of              ratings, Applied Science Publishers, London
different scheduling multistory tree,              1972.
shrub species, Linden, Berlin poplar,                   3. Simonović M., Kalić D., Pravica P.:
oak, hornbeam, Canadian poplar, birch              Buka štetna dejstva merenje i zaštita, Niš
and evergreen shrubs along the roads               1982.
                                                        4. Simonović M.: Zvuk i vibracije,
of traffic in order to reduce noise                Buka, <<medicina rada, Sarajevo 1978.
pollution.                                              5. Vaičić I.: Buka i njeno štetno dejstvo.
                                                   Institut zaštite na radu, Niš
             7. Conclusion                              6. Yost W. A, Nielsen D. W.:
                                                   Fundamentls of Hearing, Holt, Rinehart and
        The measuring cycle, noise                 Winston, New York 1979.
pollution at the observed locations
were significantly higher for the day,
but for the night before all the sites, all
located in a residential zone.
        The noise in the middle of the
utility derived from the observed
counts of transport (public transport
buses, heavy trucks, light vehicles)
especially on the observed counts,
which are actually the main traffic
routes.

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           METHODS FOR ECOLOGIC AL DESING OF TECHNICAL
                     PROCESSES AND SYSTEM S
                    Slobodan Stefanović1, Nadezda Šubara2, Radoje Cvejić3, Jasmina Stojiljković4

     College of Applied Professional Studies, Vranje, 2 Railway High School, Belgrade, 3 Faculty of strategic and
                                     operational management, Belgrade, Serbia

         Abstract: The basic concept (the default), the                Material that is installed must be new
designer in design for manufacturing system is to
                                                               and of good quality,
integrate production equipment, transport means,
equipment and harmonious introducing modern                            For smooth functioning of the system
technology for monitoring systems and processes to             is responsible contractor,
integrate and manage computer equipment. The main                      In the event that the proposed solution
technological machine projects must meet both general          to a bad and wrong, the investor provides the
and mechanical conditions.
         Key words: technical - mechanical projects,           change project,
health and safety, plastic returnable materials.                       The estimate of the subsequent works,
                                                               Attest, security measures, leading to
              1. INTRODUCTION                                  construction and building log book,
                                                                       Must be carried out technical
         General conditions in the major                       acceptance,
mechanical and machine projects regulate                               There must be a project as built in
relationships      and    responsibilities   of                three copies,
participants      in    the     implementation                         The face of the supervision provided
(construction) of technological systems:                       by the investor,
        Assignment of works based on the law                          The contractor is responsible only
on the construction of the facility and its                    supervisory authority,
amendments,                                                            Testing the contractor shall,
        Conclusion of the contract between                            A completed examination consists of
the investor and the contractor,                               the records,
        All bidders receive a project for                             End: The contractor shall submit a
review,                                                        written report to the supervisory authority of
        The offer must be included in the                     the completion of works,
price,                                                                 Technical examination (complete
        The investor assigns work best                        documentation),
bidders,                                                               Commission for technical inspection
        The contract is considered concluded                  of its opinion,
when the parties declare in writing to build                           Contractor removes the shortcomings
the plant and the price (cost, time, quality,                  found,
method of payment, control ...),
                                                                       Permission to use a supervisory
        A natural person who works and                        authority,
manages a natural person for supervision,
                                                                       Probationary,
        Deviations from the project permitted
                                                                       The investor and the contractor after
only with approval of planners,
                                                               obtaining permission to use the facility are
        Building permits and water + energy,                  required to perform the statutory deadline and
        The warranty period for the quality of                hand over the final settlement of all derivative
the installation (run from the technical                       works.
preparations),
        Defects,
        Damages,
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   2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS                                   Safety measures can be classified into
 RELATING TO THE SPECIFIC PROJECT                       three groups:
                                                                General - the ones that apply to all
         Prescribe the characteristics of the           assignments in all business activities (health
equipment        is     installed,   installation       conditions,        noise      and       vibration,
requirements, type testing and installation,            transportation, movement of workers, the
etc.                                                    effect of electrical energy, damaging
         The practices are:                             radiation, hazardous and noxious substances,
        Technical requirements for the                 first aid worker, investment structures, tools
installation of central heating                         to work, rescue workers and resources for
        Technical requirements for the                 personal protection ...)
installation of air conditioning and ventilation                Special measures ZNR - determine for
        General technical requirements                 specific types of technological processes and
        Specifications                                 operations that can be considered general. The
        Technical requirements for city gas            positions at which the next application of
pipeline network                                        safety measures during design, construction
        Requirements for construction works            and use of buildings can’t eliminate the risk
        Technical conditions of construction           of injury and occupational disease having the
of city gas pipeline network of steel pipes             character of places with special conditions for
        Technical conditions of construction           work.
measuring and regulating stations for gas                       Preliminary measures ZNR - relate to
        Specification for general piping               investment structures designed to support and
installation                                            work rooms, facilities where the investment
                                                        process work takes place outdoors (tools for
        Technical requirements for the
                                                        working in the mechanized plant), as well as
installation of a divorce cold, producing hot
                                                        means for personal protection.
water and hot
                                                                 The special contribution of the project
        Technical installations for divorce by
                                                        measures to protect the work, made for each
conditions komprimanovog air
                                                        type of project (building - architectural,
                                                        machine - technological, electrical ...) and
  3. CONTRIBUTION OF THE PROJECT
                                                        signed by the responsible planners for each
      APPLIED SAFETY MEASURES
                                                        area. Each contribution should include:-a list
                                                        of all the risks and hazards related to the
        Protection Act at work relates to the
                                                        purpose facility that can occur during
field of labor relations, environmental
                                                        construction and operation - provides for
protection, personal work, etc. The concept of
                                                        measures to eliminate these dangers and
safety includes appropriate measures whose
                                                        hazards, and regulations that cause - general
implementation ensures the protection of life
                                                        notes and obligations - Conclusion.
and health at work, the working environment
                                                                 In addition to special reports on health
of health and safety risks.
                                                        and safety, the project may include a special
        ZNR enjoy all persons who are in any
                                                        report on the measures applied to protect
respect the legal and physical entities.
                                                        against fire, if there is a special nature of the
Provision of ZNR is an obligation, which can
                                                        technological process of an increased risk of
be realized starting from the design of the
                                                        having stirred up.
building, facilities and installations, through
                                                                 The fire protection measures include:
their construction and use.
                                                        ways to prevent the occurrence of fires, fire
        The prescribed measures to protect the
                                                        alarm systems, fire alarm systems for
dignitary included in the technical
                                                        hazardous concentrations of flammable gases
documentation and made it into the special
                                                        or vapors, fire hydrant systems to protect
favor of the measures applied ZNR.
                                                        against the cellular anti-fire equipment.

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    4. METHODS OF DESIGNING                                      Synthetic materials are separated in
  TECHNOLOGICAL – ECOLOGICAL                            the      thermoplastic     (soften     at   high
 SYSTEMS FOR THE TREATMENT OF                           temperatures, thermostable plastics) resistant
 RETURNABLE PLASTIC MATERIJALS                          to high temperatures (with an increase in heat
                                                        curing) and elastomers, which are elastic and
         The term'' plastic'' refers to the             Foamed materials (like rubber). All three
specific properties of matter plasticity - the          types of synthetic material combustion,
ability to create. In many languages,                   developing high temperature and this feature
commonly referred to as'' artificial'' material,        can be applied for recycling, with caution
but also the nature of plastics products (peat,         when burning PVC, must not allow spreading
tar, natural rubber, etc.) Plastic can be               through the chlorides. (Come) into the
obtained from many natural materials and                atmosphere. From the ecological point of
most of the hydrocarbons. One tenth of                  view, recycling of synthetic materials is
refined crude is used for the production of             acceptable, since it can’t be re-used even hard
plastic materials. Plastic materials are used for       plastic bottles.
years for packaging, although a problem in                       Another solution is to replace PVC
terms of environmental protection. The                  with PET (PETE) - unipolimer plastic, which
reasons for increasing the use of low cost raw          could be recycled indefinitely if the organized
materials, low weight and different                     collection of used mass. To produce one
possibilities of technology. The specific               (PET) bottles must be 60% of energy used in
energy consumption (per unit of packed                  glass or 25% of the energy needed to
product) is much lower for the production of            manufacture aluminum cans. These economic
plastic packaging materials, as compared to             initiative are significant from the standpoint
glass or Aluminum.                                      of what the empty bottle can produce goods
         The basic problem of feedback plastic          for other purposes, e.g. in the U.S. are made
materials (plastic waste) is that most often            from recycled bottles for cable insulation,
ends up on landfill disposal (often due to              new bottles, foil, etc.
human impact and other external influences).                     Plastics used in the household (since
Dumps a large number of cities in developed             they are not naturally degradable) require the
countries practically are completed and new             research      and    solutions     for    natural
ones (due to high prices) does not build the            disintegration in a manner similar to the
right speed.                                            degradation of other organic matter. The latest
         For plastic packaging waste, this              experiments are built out of plastic bags of
waste is removed with a way particularly                natural sugar (bio-degradable and are
unfavorable due to taking a large space (large          degraded to a purely natural way
volume),      non-compostable       under     the       bacteriologically). This solution is still in
influence of atmospherically changes,                   research phase, I expect good results and
especially from the standpoint of energy loss           extensive application. This could be the
(indefinitely) for obtaining new materials              primary way of utilization of waste plastic,
related to polymers. In our country there are           and a secondary combustion. Synthetics from
no conditions for the collection, sorting and           natural, renewable sources appears again in
efficient processing of plastic waste.                  some products in construction. Their basis is
Theoretically, from the ecological standpoint,          not a hydrocarbon, but the natural materials as
it is not wrong use of synthetic materials, with        well as jazein, formalin, cellulose, natural
regard to plastic bags and other products can           rubber, natural asphalt, tar or bitumen. They
be used several times, and it is feasible and           can be regarded as renewable materials and
recycling. In current conditions, however, and          plastic products are not harmful to the
organized recycling of plastic materials, waste         environment. Hydrocarbons with time will
collection and disposal of prescribed, plastics         surely expensive (impoverishment of stock)
can’t be regarded as neutral for the                    and researchers are new natural resources.
environment.                                            Until then you can use the environmental
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benefits of synthetics such as good thermal            (so called), PET (PETE) packaging
insulation, light weight and durability for            (polyethylene terephthalate), but for us, these
which they can’t compete with traditional              problems are still not considered. (Unlike
materials. Green plan favors simple recycled           other European states and known standards).
materials that have special properties, but            It is believed that only make the plastic
with a compromise between the possible                 bottles because of the large volume and that
environmental damage and safe use.                     does not pollute the environment. The data
        Products from plastic materials are of         show that only registered Serbia wastes (other
current use, but creates long-term problem for         locations are not considered) daily amount of
the environment. Amount of plastic materials           PET bottles - 100 tons! If all this division
in municipal waste are very great, the                 with 50 grams of weight which is the bottle,
CONSIDERATIONS Liquid from households                  get the information that we have a daily two
account for 30%. Since the plastic is not              million plastic bottles. The biggest problem in
dissolved and remains as a solid mass,                 Serbia is an organized collection of reuse PET
increases the amount and volume of waste.              bottles. In 2005 we imported the 34.000. tons
(PVC) is made up of many plastic materials,            of granulate for PET bottles as part of
obtained by the polymerization of vinyl                municipal waste occupy a large volume of our
chloride, which is a toxic gas and the toxicity        landfills.
is very problematic. From vinyl chloride                        The biggest problems occur if there is
plastics are slowly released into the air and          burning, where the stand is very toxic gases.
sealed in food, and slowly destroys the liver,         Preventive methods are implemented projects
nervous system and totally destroys the testes         and recycling facilities in order to protect eco-
and immunity. Because of the toxic additives           systems and irreplaceable economic effects.
such as phthalate (Phthalate) lead and                 Discarded bottles are a major problem of our
kadminum (PVC) are difficult to recycle. If a          rivers. Going to the hydro power plant at the
ignite 1kg (PVC)-A mass, relieve the amount            Danube Kalda inflict huge amounts of PET
of 0.5kg chloro acid.                                  bottles.
        PC polycarbonate plastics used to                       Plastic bottles, containers and other
manufacture bottles for child nutrition,               packaging are one of the oldest and most fully
kitchen, microwave ovens, the inner lining             realized systems for labeling. Although the
cans and plastic polytetraflourethylene                world uses more system identification, one
(PTFE), known as taflon are toxic polymers.            can say that they all generally based on the
Unfortunately, the desire for profit in the            standard (ISO 1043 -1) with small
market enabled the development of some new             modifications to the look and it is given in the
types of polymers. The only question is when           table 1.
will the time be scientifically proven and                      Symbols are important users of dual
discover that the toxic elements from the              indicating whether packaging can be recycled,
packaging into the water crossing.                     recyclers and the type and characteristics
        Plastic bottles in Serbia, although the        plastic matter.
light cover even 30% is the decay lifetime
longer than 100 years. And there are
allegations of large profits from the so-called




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Table 1. Symbol and meaning
      Symbol                 Meaning

                           Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE)
                           The most widespread species of plastic material because they are mostly
                    used for the bottle of water, juice, and etc., containers for food and other
                    packaging.
                          High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
                          Used for a bottle of milk, cream, juice, water, detergent and other
                    chemical products.
                           Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
                           Also used for bottles for detergents, shampoos and other chemical
                    preparates, cables and many other building material.

                             Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
                             Used for flexible bottles, bags for bread, and frozen food.

                             Polypropylene (PP)
                             Aloes used for the bottles of yogurt, syrups, ketchup, medical bottles,
                    and cap for a bottle
                             Polystyrene (PS)
                             We can use it for a tightly packking, plates, glasses, and medicines
                    boxes.

                             Other
                             Plastic packaging and other (mention above) - specified products.
                                                              producing energy through direct
        Draft Law on the management of                        incineration (burning) with or without
packaging and packaging waste defines the                     other waste for obtaining heat and
processing of packaging waste as well as                     organic recycling process as aerobic
exploiting its valuable properties and                        (composting)        or       anaerobic
constituents for the purpose of production                    (biomethanisation), under control
(including recycling), for energy purposes, in                cconditions     and    using     micro-
order to reduce the amount and volume of                      organisms, biodegradable parts of
packaging waste, and partial or complete                      packaging waste, which produces a
removal and recycling of hazardous                            stable composition of organic or
characteristics as processing of packaging                    methane.
waste for its original purpose.                              recycling of technical products is
        According to the Directive of the                     defined as "re-use or use of products
European Parliament and the Council on                        or parts of products within
packaging and packaging waste by recycling                    the roundabouts. "This definition was
means:                                                        first mentioned as a roundabout and it
     processing of waste materials in the                    makes sense considering the origin of
        production process for the original                   the word recycling, (recycling: re ..."...
        purpose or for other purposes                         back, back ..." + cycle "roundabout,
        including organic recycling but                       cycle").
        excluding energy recovery,
     obtain energy by using burnt
        packaging waste for the purpose of
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                                                        complex analytical procedures and the most
                                                        modern equipment. In some cases, however, it
 5. DESING PROCESS FOR RECYCLING                        takes only an approximate estimate or
         PLASTIC METERIALS                              determines the type of the tested plastic
                                                        material. Developed and adopted a simple and
        Plastic materials back into solid form          rapid method of identification. Recognition of
mixed with other types of materials in                  used packaging polymer is easiest if it is the
municipal solid waste (heterogeneous) were              symbol for recycling with the listed types of
very dirty. For the purpose of recycling, it is         polymer materials it is made.
necessary to collect and prepare. In the                         SEPARATION sorted plastics and
preparation, plastic waste is separated from            crushed plastic material is performed
the other, identify and separate the species. In        according to him caused by physical
the recycling process is crushed, washed,               properties such as density, connectivity, and
dried and re granulate processed and the                electrical conductivity.
packaging or in some other products. To                          For the industry are of particular
perform these operations require specific               importance to the procedures based on
equipment, obtaining a set of recycled                  differences in density. Using these procedures
materials. It was found that the whole process          can be a mixture of plastics separated
of treatment was less expensive and simpler if          fractions and up to 98% purity. Difficulties
the plastic waste material collected by a               arise in the separation of soft (PVC) type.
separate, containers. Allocation of necessary           Principle hydrocyclone technique is based on
materials from the waste can be organized in            the separation of fractions of different specific
or by the citizens themselves (in households,           weight (density) in the action of centrifugal
schools,       shops,        non-manufacturing          force. In addition to these methods of
businesses, streets, etc..).                            separation are known methods of separation
        And centralized system of special               and flotation, separation based on different
plants (plants with a complete technological            electrical conductivity (electrostatic device
line).                                                  for sorting), etc.
                                                                 Used plastic products can be reused or
    6. DIFFERENTIATING FEEDBACK                         processed by different processes (depending
          PLASTIC MATERIALS                             on the goal, but also because of the reduction
                                                        of the deposited mass) and a number of ways
        The recycling process is the most               (see Figure 1:
important similarity material. As a rule, can                           melting, with no change or
be achieved relatively expensive previous               little change macromolecular structures,
classification. To obtain high-quality plastics,                        chemical,    hydrolysis     and
should be processed only homogeneous                    alcohol are available monomers, or
plastic mass. Separation of plastic materials           hydrogenation of the starting material can get
can be divided into identification and                  organic raw materials such as gases and oils,
separation:
                                                                        controlled burning, from which
        IDENTIFICATION, characterization
                                                        you get heat and combustion products are
and complete identification of plastic
                                                        carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
materials is a very big task that requires




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                            Picture 1: Treatments of plastics feedback matters.

       Processing of fusion. Re granular              the macromolecules containing the plastic
molding is one of the oldest and most                 waste hydrocarbons can be obtained in the
common methods of recycling. The basis of             form of gas or oil, which can be further,
this method of recycling is the ability to re-        processed in refineries petrochemical
melt as much as possible with the                     processes. This set of procedures can be
thermoplastic.                                        performed reductive (e.g. Hydrogenation or
                                                      pyrolysis) or oxidative (e.g. Obtaining
7. CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES                       synthesis gas) mode. These procedures are
   ARE GROUPED INTO TWU GROUPS                        known       as      extrusion      Degradation,
                                                      hydrogenation, pyrolysis and gasification.
        The first group of chemical treatment                 Incineration of plastic waste is
processes include chemical reactions which            intended to obtain heat. Direct use of oil for
are macromolecular (polymers) are translated          energy production from the point of
into low molecular weight substances. Thus,           "sustainable development" in the long run,
the obtained polymers or poly condensation            does not make sense. Given that the products
reactions poly addition method to recycle the         stored in plastic virtually total energy of oil,
starting monomer in the presence of certain           of great benefits that the energy accumulated
reagents. This way you can recycle many               oil in plastic products used for energy
types of plastic materials such as polyesters,        purposes, but only at the end of their life
polyamides, polyurethanes, polycarbonates,            cycle. This method of using plastic waste
etc. Because they have the active chemical            should be applied only when it cannot be
and easily shared connection. These processes         recycled in other ways.
can be characterized general notion of                        Deposition.     Since plastics      are
solvolysis. Depending on the presence of any          relatively new materials for a longer period of
solvent to the reaction (alcohol, water...)           deposit are present many unknowns.
speaks of the hydrolysis, alcoholysis,                        In foil and thin parts are already
glycolysis, aminolysis or methanolysis.               processes of decomposition, but did not show
        Application of recycled materials             visible degradation phenomena. Found, also,
obtained by this procedure so far is still            that microorganisms do not have any
limited. It is a known application procedure          influence on the decomposition of certain
methanolysis or glycolysis in the processing          types of plastic materials such as PP
of drinking bottles of PET. This procedure to         (polypropylene) and PE (polyethylene), while
obtain raw materials for hygienically clean           in other species, e.g. with polystyrene or
PET and PUR, which can be used for                    polyurethane they sped up the process of
packaging of foodstuffs.                              decomposition.
        Another group of chemical treatment
processes include chemical reactions in which

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              8. CONCLUSION                                     Processing procedures are considered
                                                        one of the ways with which it can
        Plastic materials with other waste, in          significantly alleviate a serious environmental
the present conditions of our development,              problem, but only if it becomes profitable and
shall be deposited in landfills for municipal           industrial activity.
solid waste. It can be assumed that due to the
decreasing space in the rapidly growing costs                              REFERENCE
of future deposits and to present solutions for
the disposal of waste will not be able to keep.         1.   N. Subara: "Ecology in traffic," CIP 502.17:656
It should be noted that the plastic materials in             628.2/.3 66 074 COBISS. SR-SR-ID 134317836
                                                             ISBN 86-7307-190-9 "Želnid" Belgrade, 2006.
regulated landfills polluting the smallest              2.   N. Subara, S. Stefanovic: Green logistics,
streams (not dissolved in water) and do not                  TEHDIS, Belgrade, 2008.
pollute the air.                                        3.   N. Subara, S. Stefanovic: Traffic Ecology,
        In contrast to materials whose                       Society for Energy Efficiency, Banja Luka,
recycling is done for economic reasons since                 Serbian Republic, 2008.
                                                        4.   S. Stefanovic, R. Cvejic: Environmental
ancient times, recycling of plastic materials is             Management, TQM Center, Zrenjanin, 2009.
technologically         and       economically
problematic, and in some areas is the subject
of intense research. What is the procedure of
processing to be applied, depending on the
degree of dirt and sorted waste and the
desired end product quality?
        Processing of material melting process
of the same type and pure plastic waste can be
obtained recycles quality selection that can be
used as a replacement for the original raw
material, the same or similar quality. Such
waste is generated in the production of plastic
materials and production of the packaging.
        Waste materials from household’s
characterized heterogenetic, and depending on
the system of collecting, plastic materials
contamination. Processing costs for a high
value product, beyond the cost of new
materials.
        Technological solutions for processing
mixed plastic waste were found (typically not
sorted because of the demanding and
expensive process of sorting and the lack of
separation conducted by the consumer).
However, the resulting recycles are lower
quality and the market cannot compete with
new material (and current production facilities
are ready to expand its product portfolio and
based on recycled materials).
        The advantages of chemical treatment
are the possibility of processing mixed plastic
waste (often dirty), the saving of fossil fuel
supply with the market for products, but
currently high price does not cover the cost of
recycling.
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              ANALYSIS OF MONITORING OF CONNECTION BETWEEN
             REENGINEERING ECONOMIC PARAMETERS IN SMALL AND
             MEDIUM ENTERPRISES USING THE METHOD OF CREATING
                          OPTIMAL QUESTIONNAIRE
                                1
                                    Slobodan Stefanović, 2Dragoslav Ilić, 3Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković, 4Radica Pavlović
                        1
                            High School of Applied Professional Studies of Vranje, Serbia. slobodanstef@gmail.com
                                                     2
                                                      JKP "Water" Zajecar, Serbia. dragoslav.dragi@gmail.com
                                         3
                                          Faculty for Business Studies, Belgrade, Serbia. ncvetkovic@megatrend.edu.rs
                                         4
                                             Faculty for Business Studies, Požarevac, Serbia. rpavlovic@megatrend.edu.rs


         Abstract - The analysis of this type of                                      the connection between economic parameters of
connecting economic parameters by using re-                                           re-engineering G should be transformed into an
engineering is reflected through the formation of an
                                                                                      optimal questionnaire Go .
Optimal questionnaire G o which allows connecting
the N parameters by the question of connection                                        1. Two lists are formed using the weight of
                                                                                          economic parameters and bases and values of
between         q m   hl , with the basis                    a m and                   the questions from the questionnaire on the
              mM     lL
valuec l so the divergence stem of economic effects                                       connection of parameters G , being: list 1 –
with the root          x o is as follows :                                                weights pz k   pz k 1 , k  1,2,.. N , and list 2 – a
                                                                                          pair of bases and values of connection
N                                  
          q m X a m  1  1 , and their peaks are
                                                                                                          
                                                                                          questions a j , c j      where the bases are
        mM
arranged into a descending set in terms of their
                                                                                          arranged        into           a non-descending set
ranks.
        Key words: Questionnaire algorithm ,                                               a j    
                                                                                                   a j 1 , j  1, 2,.. N , and the values in the
Questionnaire Graph,parameters of reengineering
monitoring.
                                                                                          ascending set are          c j   c j1 , j  1,2,.. Q .   For
                                                                                         the analysis we usually accept j+1.
           1. Introduction – qestionnaire algorithm                                                             
                                                                                      2. The pair 2 a j , c j from the list refers to the
                                                                                          questions of connection beween economic
        The publication of this kind of
                                                                                          parameters x i of the optimal questionnaire
                                                                                                                                               
questionnaire can be presented through Algorithm
(George WR (1990)).                                                                       Go , i.e., it is regarded as follows: a x j  a j i
        Algorithm: A questionnaire has been
given regarding the connection between re-
                                                                                             
                                                                                           c xj cj.      a j of the first weights are erased

engineering     economic       parameters      G                                          from the list 1 and are accepted as the weights
                                   N economic                                             of the first adherents of the questions of
differentiating set E from
                                                                                          connection between economic parameters x j .
parameters y i with the weights of connection
   
p yi , i  1, 2,3,..., N
             , the help of Q questions
                                                                                          Defining the weight of the questions of
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                          aj
imposing when it comes to their connection                                                connection x j is:      p x j   p zk .
                                                                                                                         k 1
                                                                                                                                     
where the questions   q m have the bases                                              3. List 1 is modified, keeping the unerased
       
am , m  M         i       h            questions have the values                       weights in it and including the question
                                                                                         weight px j . Those weights are arranged into
                                l
cl ,   l  L i (Adamović Z., Stefanović S.,
                                          (2008)).
The transformation of the initial questionnaire on                                       a non-descending set. They check the
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     accurateness of j: in case of j  Q , then they
     increase j to 1 and return to p2; in case of
                                                                     5
                                                                                                           
                                                                     UKN bifore.costs  NEE NO  NEE NP  NEE NP +
                                                                   i 1
      j  Q then they cross over to p4.                            NEESP + NEEPR + NEEPP +             NEE NSR .          (1)
4. The finishing of the optimal questionnaire G o
     formation.                                                             The marks of this group of parameters are:
           The presented methodology for the                       economic parameters created by the completion
analysis of the connection between the re-                         and documenting of the detailed re-engineering
engineering economic parameters shall be carried                   project comprising of: a new organisation model
out on the re-engineering model. The general                       in the enterprise as well as the characteristics and
algorithm model shall be formed on the basis of                    roles of new jobs within that new organization;
economic parameters of groups 1,2,3. It shall                      /parameter NEENO  NEENP , NEE NO - parameter
serve as the initial questionnaire on the                          of the economic effect bearer relating to the new
connection between re-engineering economic                         organization model and it exclusively depends on
parameters G . For its formation we shall use the                   NEE NP - parameter of the economic effect bearer
groups of parameters with weight records,
determined on the grounds of the significance in                   relating to the characteristics of new jobs within
the following table, and they shall include their                  the new organization of small and medium
values from 0 to 1 regarding the significancies in                 enterprises by applying re-engineering; Economic
the process of re-engineering in the candidate's                   parameters created by carrying out the system
opinion (Bateson J (2002)).                                        support in the new organization in small or
           Questionnaires Gi are presented in Table                medium enterprises; /parameter NEESP -
1 for the three parameters of the groups:                          parameter of the economic effect bearer relating
 x1 x0 , x1 , x2  , x 2 x3  , x3 x 4  for 24 events
                                                                   to the carrying out of the system support;
                                                                   economic parameters created by carrying out the
 y1 , y2 ,...... y24  .
                    The events' and questions'                     “pilot solution'', i.e. the system support within the
weights are shown parallelly with the                              new organization of small or medium enterprise
corresponding peaks, numbers without brackets,                     by testing the enterprises through applying the re-
and questions' values with numbers in brackets                     engineering       on       small-scale   production;
(picture 1.). The events' values were chosen                       /parameter NEEPR - parameter of the economic
regarding the priorities of re-engineering                         effect bearer relating to the carrying out of the
parameters' significancies in the order shown in                   “pilot solution''; Economic parameters which are
Table 1., while the candidate himself has                          general and are related to the introduction of the
suggested the significancies' values based on his                  employees with the planned changes and the
experience gained while monitoring the re-                         application of the plan during the re-engineering
engineering process in small and medium                            carrying out in phases; /parameter NEEPP -
enterprises in our country (Bonn MA (2003)).
                                                                   parameter of the economic effect bearer relating
                                                                   to the invested time needed for the carrying out of
                     2. Group of algorithm
                                                                   the planned changes and the application of the
                                                                   plan during the carrying out of re-engineering in
         Group 1) The first and third type in Table
                                                                   phases in the enterprise; Economic parameters
1.     are comprised by: Total expenses
  5                                                                which are general and relate to the training of
  UKN                      arising in the course of applying      employees for the new process and the new
i 1   bifore.costs
the research subject and are defined as the bearers                system of work with the planned changes and
of economic parameters in the carrying out of the                  application of the plan in the process of re-
re-engineering, are expressed by the adding up of                  engineering carrying out in phases; /parameter
parameters (Sefanović S., (2010)),                                  NEE NSR - parameter of the economic effect bearer
                                                                   relating to the expenses arising in the course of
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the employees' training for the new system of                                      securing the processes of functioning of all
work; Economic parameters of the financial                                         structures and quality systems in small and
recovery of small or medium enterprises NEEFS ,                                    medium enterprises       by introducing re-
by introducing re-engineering comprising of the                                    engineering NEESK ; Economic parameters
introduction of an integral logic system into a                                    securing the competitiveness of the products'
small or medium enterprise; Economic                                               prices on the market NEECP created in the
parameters securing the functioning of                                             conditions of production applying the re-
entrepreneurship for the carrying out of re-                                       engineering.
engineering NEEKP ; Economic parameters

Table 1. Values of events in optimal questionnaires Gi for three parameters of groups
Group                                                                            Events
parame
  ters
                  5                       y1  NEE NP                y 2  NEESP                  y3  NEEPR               y 4  NEEPP ,   y5  NEE NSR
              x0  UKN pred.troskovi 
    1             i 1               
                                                 0,5                         0,2                         0,1                     0,1                    0,1
                         1,0
                         
                     x1 R PP                              n
                                          y 6  INTCIM   Pi
                                                                                     n
                                                                     y 7  INTCIM   T j
                                                                                                                 n
                                                                                                  y8  INTCIM   I k
                                                                                                                                                   n
                                                                                                                                  y9  INTCIM   Ci
                                                        i 1                        i 1                        i 1
                                                                                                                                                 i 1
                         1,0                                                0,25                         0,25
                                                0,25                                                                                      0,25
                     
                 x 2 NEESK               y10  NEEFS ,              y11  NEEKP                  y12  NEESK                          y13  NEECP
                         1,0                    0,25                        0,25                         0,25                             0,25
    2            
              x3 CENE                        y14  TR P                y15  VNM                     y16  CN                          y17  PT
                         1,0                   0,25                       0,25                           0,25                              0,25
                                             y18  RM                   y19  RNR                    y 20  RMd|                        y 21  RP
                         
                     x 4 VEF                  0,25                       0,25                           0,25                              0,25
    3                    1,0                y 22  R PKP               y 23  R EFF                 y 24  RVZP
                              0,33            0,33             0,33
NOTE: Meanings of re-engineering group parameters' symbols (Sefanović S., (2010)).


        The second type of parameters in Table                                                                                                     n
                                                                                   sum of new production programmes);                             Tj     - the
1. includes the Cartesian product of the Computer                                                                                                i 1
Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) integration rules                                                                                                           n
                                                                                   sum of new high production technologies;                                Ik   -
– of the enterprise and the given set of                                                                                                                 i 1
components influencing the re-engineering                                          the sum of new high information technologies ;
                                                                                     n
carrying out in the following form (Stefanović S.,                                   Cl      -    the      sum         of     high      communication
Cvejić R. (2010)):                                                                 i 1
                                                                                   technologies (networked business people).
                  n
                i 1
                       n
                      i 1
                                n
                              i 1
                                        n
R PP  INTCIM   Pi   T j   I k   Cl
                                      i 1
                                                              (2)
                                                                                           Group 2 This type of Table 1. includes the
where: R PP - is the integration rules product; CIM                                following parameters of the market and prices as
                                                                                   manufacturing factors analysis as the basis for the
– Computer Integrated Manufacturing business
                                                                                   re-engineering application, being: production
activities (Computer Integrated Manufacturing);
  n                                                                                costs, i.e. the value of the goods that needs to be
  Pi   - the sum of new competitive products (or the                              converted into money TR P ; the value of the
i 1

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monetary material used to express the value of the             carrying out in small and medium enterprises'
goods VNM ; the value of the price measure used                organization.
as the value measuring unit CN ; the ratio of
supply to demand PT .                                                    3. Relization of algorithm formation

        Group 3       Table 1 includes the non-                        Relations for the formation of algorithm -
economic factors VEF i.e. the general financial                questionnaire graph are as follows (Stefanović S.,
parameters of small and medium enterprise                      and sar.(2007)).
functioning which causatively influence the
carrying out of re-engineering under the conditions            Algorithm A1 for questionnaire G1
of transition and they comprise of: process                    STEP            1:              Record1:             relations
management R PR  ; Luirao Marketing function                                    y1 , y2 ,...... y13   values
RM  ; scientific and research function RNR  ; the          (0,5;0,2;0,1;0,1;0,1;0,25;0,25;0,25; 0,25;
function of management approach in production                  0,25; 0,25; 0,25; 0,25);
planning RMd |  ; the function of financial planning         Record 2: relations
                                                                x0 1  1 1  1 x1  x1 1  1 x 2  x 2 1 .
for the purpose of enterprise development RP  ;               1 3  3 3  3 1  1 3  3 1  1 3 
                                                                                                       
the function of planning and controlling of
business RPKP  ; economic and financial function
                                                               For the two relations' adherents we will note the
                                                               first and last weight  p 0,5 i  k 0,25 .
REFF  and the function of connecting salaries
with the performances RVZP  .                                          STEP 2: The total mid value of algorithm
                                                                                               0,5  0, 25
       Picture 1. shows the graph of connection                weight in step 1 is:      
                                                                                        p1                   0.375   that's the
                                                                                                   2
between re-engineering parameters for the                      value of the question of connection between re-
formation of algorithm and the monitoring of its               engineering coefficients for group (1) parameter.




            Picture 1. Questionnaire graph (General model of algorithm for re-engineering monitoring)
                                             (Sefanović S., (2010))

       Algorithm A2 for questionnaire G 2                      (0,25;0,25;0,25;0,25);
STEP                                                    3:     For the two relations' adherents we will note the
               Record1:relations                               first and last weight  p 0,25 i  k 0,25 .
                y14 , y15 , y16 , y17   values
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STEP 4: The total mid value in algorithm in step 3                                engineering coefficients for the group (3 – II
               0, 25  0, 25                                                      group).
is:     
       p 2                     0.25   that's that's the value of
                    2
the question of connection between re-engineering                                 STEP 9: The total mid value of algorithm weight
                                                                                                                                  0, 25  0,33
coefficients for group (2) parameter.                                             in steps 5, and 7 is:                      
                                                                                                                          p 3                    0.295   that's
                                                                                                                                       2
          Algorithm A3 for questionnaire G3                                       the value of the question of connection between
STEP                                                5:                            re-engineering coefficients for the group (3).
                Record1:relations
                  y18 , y19 , y20 , y21   values                                                                4. Conclusion
(0,25;0,25;0,25;0,25);                                                                    Mid values of algorithms, regarding the
For the two relations' adherents we will note the                                 significance of total weights, are:
first and last weight  p 0,25 i  k 0,25 .                                               0,5  0, 25
                                                                                      
                                                                                      p1                    0.375 ,   G1
                                                                                                  2
STEP 6: The total mid value in algorithm in step 5                                            0, 25  0, 25
               0, 25  0, 25                                                           
                                                                                      p 2                     0.25 , G 2
is:     
       p 2                     0.25   that's the value of the                                     2
                     2                                                                        0, 25  0,33
question of connection between re-engineering                                          
                                                                                      p 3                     0.295 ,   G3
                                                                                                   2
coefficients for the group(3 – I group) .
                                                                                  which points to the conclusion that during the
STEP 7: Record 1: relations y 22 , y 23 , y 24   values
                                                                                  carrying out of re-engineering parameters in small
                                                                                  or medium enterprises one should conduct the
             (0,33;0,33;0,33);                                                    questionnaires G1 and G3 and then the

For the two relations' adherents we will note the                                 questionnaire G 2 comprising the event parameter
first and last weight  p 0,33 i  k 0,33 .                                   groups. Picture 2 represents a graphic display of
                                                                                  the monitoring algorithm dependence curve
STEP 8: The total mid value of algorithm weight                                   (Sorad Dj. (1979)). .
                               0,33  0,33
in step 7 je:           
                    p 2                         0.33   that's the value
                                    2
of the question of connection between re-
                                         p(i)



                                                                G1 (A1, 0.375)
                                         0.375

                                          0.29                                                          G3 (A3, 0.29)
                                          0.25
                                                                                  G2 (A2, 0.25)




                                                                A1               A2                A3       Algoritam (Ai)


      Picture 2. Curve of dependence of reengineering monitoring algorithm on the parameter significance
                                                   weights


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                 References
1.   Adamović Z., Stefanović S., (2008). RE-
     ENGINEERING             OF         BUSINESS
     PROCESSES IN SMALL AND MEDIUM
     ENTERPRISES, a Scientific and Expert
     Conference ''Proactive machine maintenance''
     , 15th – 16th May 2008, Vrnjacka Banja.
2.   Bateson J (2002). Consumer performance and
     quality in services. Manage. Serv. Qual.,
     12(4): 206-209.
3.   Bonn MA (2003). Employee service quality
     issues, Meeting the needs of our internal
     customers. In Managing employee attitudes
     and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality
     industry, ed. Salih Kusluvan, Hauppauge,
     NY: Nova Science. pp. 433-452.
4.   George WR (1990). Internal marketing
     organizational behaviour: A level, J. Bus. Res.
     20(1): 63-70. partnership in developing
     customer-conscious employees at every.
5.   Sefanović S., (2010). Economic effects of
     reengineering in small and medium
     enterprises, PhD thesis, MEGATREND
     UNIVERZITET, Beograd, 2010.
6.   Sorad Dj. (1979).            Economic and
     Mathematical methods and models, the
     Faculty of Economics, Subotica, 1979.
7.   Stefanović S., Cvejić R. (2010). Conducting
     projects from the aspect of mathematic
     modelling, „TQM“ Centar, Zrenjanin, 2010.
8.   Stefanović S., Cvetković S., Grbić N.,
     Veljković M., (2007). Defining the minimum
     and maximum by using simplex method, a
     Scientific and Expert Conference ''
     Development, use and maintenance of
     hydraulic and pneumatic components and
     systems“, Collection of studies on CD, no. of
     study HIP 45, Vršac, 16th November 2007 ,
     ISBN 978-86-83701-08-7.




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     DETECTION OF RADIATION CONTAMINATION OBTAINED BY
    THE DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION IN FIELD CONDITIONS

                      Mladen D. Nikolić, dipl. Ing. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
                                                   mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

                        MSc Fortuna Dragutin College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia

                     PhD Dragan M. Nikolić, prof. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
                                                  dragannikolic60@yahoo.com

         Abstract: The paper discusses the characteristics       μSv / h [4, 5]. Theoretical maximum equivalent
of transmission imaging DECT who are most commonly               dose of gamma irradiation of the whole body is
used to detect radioactive contamination caused by the
application of depleted uranium (DU), 30 mm, under field
                                                                 25 μSv for 1h [6]. Neutron radiation is within the
conditions, during and after the NATO bombing. In a              limits of variation of natural background neutron.
separate section of the paper discusses the Protection of        Surface velocity emission of alpha particles, the
beta emitting nuclei of DU projectiles.                          surface of the projectile nucleus of 1 cm2, is 23 to
         Key words: depleted uranium, a portable X-ray           27 1s alpha particles in a volume calculated
detector, detection of radioactive contamination, beta
radiation
                                                                 equivalent doses of alpha radiation (in direct
                                                                 contact with the core of the missile) is 0.4 to 0.5
                    1. Introduction                              Sv / (h ∙ cm2) [7]. Surface velocity emission of
                                                                 beta particles from the surface of the projectile
         During the air strikes on the territory of              nucleus of 1 cm2, were 841 1s beta particles in a
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY),                        volume calculated equivalent doses of beta
NATO in 1999. he used ammunition with                            radiation (in direct contact with the core of the
projectiles (30 mm) from the OU. Characteristics                 missile) is 1.4 mSv / (h ∙ cm2) [7] . OU is in the
of the resulting radioactive contamination have                  open field through efficiently detect beta
been described in the literature [1, 2, 3].                      radiation emitted [4, 5, 8, 9].
                                                                         OU is a mixture of isotopes, including a
                                                                 strong emitter of beta radiation 234mPa (Emax. =
                                                                 2.3 MeV), which is in radioactive equilibrium
                                                                 with 238U. 238U is represented in percentage
                                                                 with 99.8%. In practice, the control of radioactive
                                                                 contamination of DU is reduced to running,
                                                                 suitably protected beta probe, via contaminated
                                                                 surfaces, the (1-3) cm. The probe is protected
                                                                 from contamination by thin nylon film.
                                                                 Depending on the thickness of the foil used beta
                                                                 radiation detection efficiency decreases to about
                                                                 (5-20)%. Speed control adjusts inercionoj
                                                                 constants instrument. Counting Speed is
Figure 1. 30 mm caliber bullet and core from the                 compared with the response of the surface
                     OU                                          activity of 90Sr-90Y (or thin-source uranium).
                                                                 Response to surface activity is determined
        The core of the projectile (30 mm) from                  experimentally for each particular type of beta
the OU, emits alpha, beta, gamma and neutron                     probe, before using them. Under field conditions,
radiation. Strength equivalent dose of gamma                     the soil cover and aerosol penetration into the
radiation at 5 cm from the projectile nucleus is                 deeper layers of the OU land, protected beta
approximately 2.7 μSv / ha to 1m less than 0.1                   counting speed probes on the contaminated soil is
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compared with the speed of counting the beta                     2. Radioactive contamination meter M87 (MRK-
particles uncontaminated soil (about 100 yards                                        M87)
outside the area affected by DU projectiles). A
suitable place to perform a more detailed                                Layout set for MRK-M.87 has been
expertise, including response to surface activity                shown in Figure 2.
and taking soil samples for laboratory analysis.                         MRK-M.87 is a handheld device designed
The counting rates of beta probes at a distance of               for dosimetry in determining the amount of
1 cm, gamma photons involved with (5-7)%.                        radioactive contamination of people, water, food,
Control of radioactive contamination is                          weapons, equipment, facilities and vehicles
performed with the use of appropriate protective                 contaminated with radioactive fission products.
equipment. Radioactive contamination from DU,                    The degree of radioactive contamination, as well
beyond the sensitivity limits of the beta probe is               as the DR-M.3, is determined by the gamma
determined by taking soil samples and their                      method. Unit reliably detects radioactivity
analysis    by    mass      spectrometry,    alpha               missiles and missile components (30 mm),
spectrometry and gamma spectrometry.                             specific radioactivity of the soil with high levels
        In addition to uranium isotopes (238U,                   of radioactive contamination (so-called "hot
235U, 234U) projectile nucleus contains trace                    spots") and radioactivity holes penetrating
236U, 237Np and Pu 239.240 indicating that the                   missiles on combat and non-combat vehicles.
missiles used to produce uranium waste from the                  Because of the low detection sensor surface,
processing of spent nuclear fuel [10].                           inadequate measurement units, unadjusted for
        Upon      detection      of    radioactive               ergonomic control surface contamination and a
contamination from the use of DU ammunition                      long response time, MRK-M.87 can not be used
was used a number of instruments of domestic                     for a detailed radiological control soil
and foreign production. This paper describes the                 contaminated with DU and performance testing
radiological detectors that are used in the most                 carried out decontamination work in the field.
radioactively contaminated sites [1].                            MRK-M.87 can be used on contaminated sites to
                                                                 measure the natural background gamma radiation.

                                                                 3. Modified universal monitor radiation KOMO-
                                                                                       TN

                                                                        The appearance of the universal sets
                                                                 modified radiation monitor KOMO-TN is shown
                                                                 in Figure 3.

  Figure 2 Set MRK-M.87
  1. MRK M.87
  2. Power adapter from the vehicle
  3. Carrying Case
  4. Sources of Power
  5. Plastic bags for protection against contamination




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                                                                     Figure 4. Universal monitor radiation
                                                                     KOMO-TM
  Figure 3. The set of modified universal
  detector                                                        Universal monitor radiation KOMO-TM
                                                          is an integral part of the pack radiometric
  1. detector, 2. sources of supply, 3. Standard          laboratories M.2 (LR-M.2) and LARA-10. The
  probe(GM tube ZP 1451), 4. speaker cable and            device is designed to measure the radiation fields
  connector,5. new detection probe with 5 gm              of gamma radiation, beta activity measurements
  tubes, 6. aluminum holders detection probes,            of samples contaminated with fission products
  7. leather case with strap for detector carrying,       and the determination of the degree of radioactive
  8 speaker connector, 9 connection detection             contamination of various surfaces. When working
  probes, 10 LCT 3B17 GM tube                             in the field conditions, the device needs to be
                                                          done to improvise or carry strap and handle the
                                                          probe. The installation was done additional probe,
        Universal monitor radiation KOMO-TN is            large detection area (90 cm2), 3 gm tubes (the
an integral part of the transmission sets of              same as the type of KOMO-TN). Due to the
radiometric laboratories LARA-2. The basic                satisfactory sensitivity for beta radiation and the
version is a device intended to measure the               possibility of using a standard AC probes and
radiation fields of gamma radiation, beta activity        additional probes (large detection area), the
measurements of samples contaminated with                 universal radiation monitor KOMO-TM can be
fission products, determination of the degree of          used to control radiological contamination of land
contamination of various surfaces and assessment          with DU and performance testing carried out
of alpha contamination. Modification, with the            decontamination work in the field.
added and modified parts (4, 5, 6 and 8 in Fig. 3),
obtained      significantly   improved      device
characteristics. Due to the satisfactory sensitivity               5. Contamination monitor ADK 6150
for surface contamination and the possibility of
beta emitters alternating use of standard probes                The contamination monitor ADK 6150 is
and new probes (large detection area), the                shown in Figure 5.
modified universal monitor radiation KOMO-TN
can be used to control radiological contamination
of land with DU and performance testing carried
out decontamination work in the field.

   4. Universal radiation monitor KOMO-TM

      The appearance of the universal radiation
monitor KOMO-TM is shown in Figure 4.

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 Figure 5. Contamination monitor ADK 6150
                                                           Figure 6. Universal monitor LB 123 (Umo
        Monitor contamination ADK 6150 (Fig.               LB123) with probe 1231
5) is structurally solved so that I fit the meter
mounted on top, "useless" proportional surface                    Umo LB 123 with a probe LB 1231 is a
probe with handle. Guardrail may be extended              contemporary, portable proportional counter. In
with additional aluminum handle, sets the                 memory stored data on the calibration factors of
monitor contamination. The meter is available in          surface activity for 25 radionuclides that are in
more variants (6150 AD1, AD2 6150, 6150 AD3,              practice often occur as contaminants. This device
AD4 6150, 6150 and 6150 AD5 AD6) and a                    has a high sensitivity for beta radiation and very
central unit to which, according to the                   good sound indication. It is possible (in soil
characteristics of the meter, I can connect the           density of 1.24 g/cm3) detect missile (30 mm)
appropriate detection probes with different               from OU to a depth of 26 cm [2]. With Figure 8
characteristics. There are variants to the correct        Umo see that LB 123 LB 1231 A probe is not
type of meter is set to other types of stationary or      suitable for continuous measurement of surface
portable devices (alarm station, teletektor et al.),      radioactive contamination of large areas of land.
Then making them one functional unit. When                It was used at Cape Arza to verify the existence
using the monitor contamination can be easily             of radioactive contamination OU in that place,
and functionally protected from radioactive               which is detected by other instruments and
contamination. The device is used in INN                  performance testing carried out decontamination
"Vinca" to perform specific tasks of the institute.       [2].
Because of the very high sensitivity for beta
radiation, excellent sound indications, good              7. Beta radiation of the core of depleted uranium
ergonomics, high reliability and large detection                              projectiles
area of the probe, contamination monitor 6150
ADK can be used to control radiological                           The largest contribution to the dose from
contamination of land with DU and performance             external radiation from the nucleus of DU
testing carried out decontamination work in the           projectiles in its immediate vicinity, gives beta
field. For contamination control can be used and          radiation [21]. Most commonly, the classic
the combination meter 6150 AD6 with alpha-                radiation protection pays attention to gamma
beta-gamma probe 6150 AD-17. This probe has               radiation in this case, at a distance of 1 cm,
similar characteristics as the measurement                represents only 7% of the total dose from external
standard universal probe radiation monitor                radiation. Therefore, in one laboratory exercises,
KOMO-TN.                                                  in order to optimize radiation protection, and the
                                                          measured beta radiation radioactive nuclei of DU
6. Universal monitor LB 123 (Umo LB 123) with             projectiles (30 mm), which was placed in a
               a probe LB 1231                            Plexiglas box (5 mm thick). Measuring method is
                                                          shown in Figure 7.
      Apperance of Umo LB 123 with probe
LB 1231 is shown in figure 6..
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                                                                              where are;

                                                                            • μ (β, p) - ratio of mass energy absorption
                                                                    of beta radiation in plexiglass (cm2 / g),
                                                                            • ρ (p) - Plexiglas density (1.18 g/cm3),
                                                                            • x (p) - the thickness of Plexiglas (cm)
                                                                            • μ (β, v) - ratio of mass energy absorption
                                                                    of beta radiation in air (cm2 / g),
                                                                            • ρ (p) - the density of air (0.001293
                                                                    g/cm3) and
                                                                            • x (p) - air layer thickness (cm).
                                                                            Mass energy absorption coefficients of
                                                                    beta radiation, plexiglass and air, were calculated
  Figure 7 Measuring the intensity of the                           by the formula [23]:
  absorbed dose of beta radiation                                           µ(β,p) = 17 (Emax)-1,14 (cm2/g) i µ(β,v) =
  1. beta / gamma probe AN/PDR-77                                   16 (Emax – 0,036)-1,4 (cm2/g).
  2. nucleus of DU projectiles in a plexiglass
  box                                                                       Emax is taken for the value of 2.3 MeV.
                                                                            Table 1. Calculated and the measured
                                                                    values of the absorbed dose of beta radiation from
        Was used for the measurement of                             the surface of the core of DU projectiles (in a
multifunctional imaging detector AN/PDR-77                          plexiglass box)
[22]. Beta / gamma probe AN/PDR-77, with an                         DISTANC
open window as shown in Figure 9, the measured                      E FROM
                                                                                                         (dD/dt)
beta radiation absorbed dose of 0.1 μGy / h to 5                    CORE            (dD/dt)
                                                                                                         x          (dD/dt)m
cGy / h. Data on the absorbed dose of beta                          SURFACE                     Ks
                                                                                    MC
                                                                                                         (µGy/h     (µGy/h)
                                                                    MISSILE         (µGy/h)
radiation in the air, at different distances from the               (cm)
                                                                                                         )
nucleus of DU projectiles, obtained by the Monte                    0               1960        -        1960        -
Carlo method, taken from literature [21]. The                                                   0,02                 2,349 ±
calculated and measured values of the absorbed                      5               144                  2,97
                                                                                                06                   0,042
dose intensity of beta radiation are shown in
                                                                                                0,02               0 1,088 ±
Table 1.                                                            10              46
                                                                                                13       ,98         0,092
                                                                             Note:
        The results on the strength of the absorbed
                                                                             At a distance of 1 cm was measured
dose of beta radiation in air, obtained by Monte
                                                                    absorbed dose of beta radiation of about 6
Carlo, (dD / dt) MC, corrected cumulative
                                                                    μGy / h but due to lack of proper values in
attenuation coefficients for Plexiglas and air
                                                                    the literature [21], obtained by Monte Carlo,
layer, X, and is obtained by calculating the value
                                                                    was not included in the table.
of the absorbed dose of beta radiation in the air,
after the passage of different type of absorber,
                                                                            The results of calculations and
(dD / dt) x. Measured values of the absorbed dose
                                                                    measurements indicate the importance and
of beta radiation in the air marked with (dD / dt)
                                                                    necessity of taking proper care of beta radiation
m. Measurements were carried out in an
                                                                    when working with projektilia from OU,
automatic forfeiture regime phon. The
                                                                    regardless of whether they are carrying out
measurement results were analyzed using the
                                                                    rehabilitation works and laboratory exercises.
Statistical EduStat 4.05. Attenuation coefficient
was calculated by the formula [23]:
                                                                                                 Conclusion
        Ks = e –[ µ(β, p)·ρ(p)· x(p)] · e –[ µ(β, v)·ρ(v)· x(v)]


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        During the air strikes on the territory of                         NATO forces in Bosnia made from depleted
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY),                        uranium, INN Newsletter
                                                                           "Vinca" no. 4, 1997., Pp. 205-212
NATO in 1999. he used ammunition with                                      [8] D. Fortune, D. Dimitrijevic, Senic women.,
projectiles (30 mm) from the OU.                                 Practical aspects of the detection of radiation
        For the detection of radioactive                                   contamination caused by the application of
contamination caused by the application of                       depleted uranium, chemical
depleted uranium (DU), 30 mm, under field                                  Industry No2, Belgrade, 2002., pp. 98-100
                                                                           [9] G. Pantelic, G. Kolarević, Z. Ivkovic,
conditions, during and after the NATO bombing                    Dosimetric control shell PGU-14 / B
kotišćeni the DECT portable imaging such as                                     API penetrator of depleted uranium, XXI
radioactive contamination meter M.87 (MRK-                       Symposium JDZZ, Proceedings
M.87) , modified universal monitor radiation                                contractors, Beograd, 2001., pp. 375-378
KOMO-TN, universal monitor radiation KOMO-                                 [10] V. Bar, Radenkovic M., Paligorić D., Djuric,
                                                                 J., Alfaspektrometrijska analysis
TM monitor contamination ADK 6150, universal                               missiles with depleted uranium, XXI Symposium
monitor LB 123 (Umo LB 123) with a probe LB                      JDZZ, Proceedings
1231 and others. Depleted uranium is in the open                           contractors, Beograd, 2001., pp. 69-72
field through efficiently detect beta radiation                            [11] Radiological detector M.3 (DR-M.3), VIZ,
emitted, and the test results indicate the                       Belgrade, 1978.
                                                                           [12] The meter of radioactive contamination M87
importance of the need for protection against beta               (MRK-M87), VIZ, Belgrade, 1989.
radiation when working with missiles based on                              [13] I. Dimitrijevic, S. Mihajlovic, Detection and
OU.                                                              dosimetry of radiation, VIZ,
                                                                                Belgrade, 1982., Pp. 400-405
                       Reference                                           [14] Portable X-ray radiation meter KOMO-TN
                                                                 Description with instructions for handling,
                                                                               IBK "Vinca", Belgrade, 1980.
         [1] B. Djurovic et all, Depleted Uranium                          [15] I. Dimitrijevic, S. Mihajlovic, Detection and
(detection methods, direct repair                                dosimetry of radiation, VIZ,
             effects and prevent late consequences), Draslar                    Belgrade, 1982., Pp. 374-392
Partner, Belgrade, 2011., pp. 31-36                                        [16] P. Markovic, Ristic DJ., Mirić I., P. Miric,
         [2] P. Vukotic, Anđelić T., Zeki R., M. Kovacevic,      Calibration of instruments for measuring
V. Vasic, N. Ristic, D. Fortune,                                                surface contamination, IBK-93, IBK "Vinca",
         Dosimetric experience decontamination Arza from         Belgrade, 1964.
depleted uranium, XXI                                                      [17] Philips data handbook, Electron tubes, Book
         JDZZ Symposium Proceedings, Belgrade, 2001.,            T6, 1986., Pp. 97-100
pp. 201-208                                                                [18] Radiological contamination meter KOMO-
         [3] S. Petkovic, M. Zaric, Z. Devic, use of             TL, Description with instructions for handling,
depleted uranium ammunition in                                                  IBK "Vinca", Belgrade, 1985.
         NATO aggression against the Federal Republic of                   [19] Dose rate meter 5/6/k 6150 AD, Operating
Yugoslavia, Chemical Industry No2, Belgrade                      Manual, Automess GmbH, 1995.
         2002nd, pp. 62-68                                                 [20] Operating Manual, UMO LB 123, Berthold
         [4] UNEP, Depleted Uranium in Serbia and                Technologies, EGG Berthold, 1993.
Montenegro, Post-Conflict Environmental                                    [21] R. Pollanen et all, Characterisation of
         Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,       projectiles composed of depleted uranium,
Switzerland, 2002.                                                              Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 64
         [5] UNEP, Depleted Uranium in Bosnia and                (2003), pp. 133 -142
Herzegovina, Post-Conflict Environmental                                   [22] Radiac Set AN / PDR - 77, Technical Manual,
              Assessment, Switzerland, 2003.                     New Jersey, 1995.
         [6] S. Fetter, Von Hippel F. N., The hazard posed                 [23] J. Martin E. Physics for Radiation Protection,
by depleted uranium munitions, Sci.                              Second Edition, Strauss GmbH,
              Global Security 8, 1999., Pp. 125-161                             Mörlenbach, 2006.
         [7] D. Ristic, R. Benderać, Vejnović Z., M. Orlic,
S. Pavlovic, ammunition used by




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                                INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS


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