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Chapter 23- Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

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					Chapter 23- Nationalism
  Triumphs in Europe
    By James Kazlausky
    Section 1-Building a German
               Nation
• After the invasions made by Napolean, territorial
  changes developed in German speaking lands.
  Many people welcomed the French ruler, others
  were sparked with German nationalism and
  demanded a unified German state. Metternich
  for example, felt Germany should have
  dismantled the German states in order to unify
  them. Instead the German Confederation was
  created, a weak body headed by Austria. The
  position as king was offered to the Prussian King
  Frederick IV of Prussia; he declined.
• Otto Von Bismarck, the Prussian prime
  minister, helped in the unification of
  Germany. He believed in the way of “the
  ends justified the means.” Unfortunately,
  Bismarck was not a German nationalist.
  He was a Prussian nationalist. He had the
  purpose to strengthen the Prussian army
  and pursue an aggressive foreign policy.
  • Bismarck ventured Prussia into 3 main wars:
• Schleswig and Holstein- Austria and Prussia took
  over these provinces and divided them.
• War with Austria- Prussia won and took all lands won
  in the Schleswig and Holstein war. They also got rid of
  the German Confederation led by Austria and added the
  new North German Confederation led by Prussia.
• Franco-Prussian War- Napoleon declared war on
  Prussia after seeing it take over Austria and after the
  Spanish offered Bismarck a spot on the throne. With the
  help from the Germans, Prussia crushed the French
  giving Prussia yet another victory.
• *Bismarck also set up a two house legislature, but the
  way it was set up, it was far from democratic. Real power
  was in the hands of the emperor and his chancellor.
Section 2- Strengthening Germany
• William I and his chancellor, Bismarck, are
  now running Germany and have made it
  very powerful. German shipping was
  second only to England among European
  powers.
• Germany’s industry was very popular and
  was very well developed, due to a strong
  work force and a larger population of
  50,000 employees.
• Germany was also very supportive of their
  scientific developments. They developed
  new chemicals and dyes.
• Economic development was very
  supported. A single currency was made,
  banking system was new, and the
  railroads were coordinated.
• They wished for economic and military
  power.
• Bismarck tried to eliminate all threats to his
  country. He isolated the French so his ties could
  grow with Austria and Russia. He also caused
  tension with Britain’s navy.
• He also tried to eliminate the Catholic church
  and socialists from his government.
• He tried to make Catholics focus on loyalty
  towards the throne and not towards the pope.
  He launched the Kulterkampf to try and
  supervise Catholic activities.
• This idea backfired and the church rebelled. He
  realized his mistake and quickly made peace
  with the church.
• Bismarck also felt that socialists would
  undermine the loyalty of German workers and
  turn them to a revolution.
• He tried to shut socialism down, but his idea
  backfired, they united against him.
• Instead he steered people away from socialism
  by giving them benefits by following his ways.
• It partly worked, but socialism was still a belief of
  many.
• William II soon followed, who asks Bismarck to
  resign due to his belief in divine right to rule. He
  introduced many reforms and strengthened the
  navy to fight rivals, Britain and France at sea.
      Section 3- Unifying Italy
• Around the 1830’s, Italy was a very
  separated country and was lacking unity.
• Giuseppe Mazzini was the first to step
  forward and wanted to form a united Italy.
• After the Congress of Vienna, Austria had
  held land in Northern Italy. Now revolts
  were brought up against them and they in
  turn sent troops to crush these rebels.
• Mazzini founded young Italy, which was a
  secret society to help unite Italy.
• Although his rebellion failed, it gave life to
  other nationalists and united the country.
• Nationalism soon arose in Sardinia, led by
  Victor Emmanuel II. He then appointed
  Count Camillo Cavour as his prime
  minister. Cavour wished to expell Austria
  from Italy and add land to Sardinia.
• Cavour later helped Britain and France
  against Russia. It gave them support from
  other countries and a say at the peace
  conference. With this power Sardinia and
  France got rid of the Austrians in Italy and
  Sardinia got the land they wanted.
• Soon, Garibaldi and his red-shirts were
  taking control of Sicily and unifying it as
  one. He also later took control of the major
  parts of Italy. He turned these lands over
  the Victor Emmanuel II and crowned him
  king of Italy.
• Soon after Rome was retaken and named
  capital since the fall of the Roman empire.
• Although Italy was now united as one
  country it still was not truly united.
• There was a split between the north and
  the south due to their economies. Their
  was also a split between the religious
  organization of the people, concerning the
  pope and the government.
• Still some people went against this united
  government but the turmoil was handled.
  Italy’s industry rose as well as its
  economy. Italy lacked resources but they
  made up for it in other industries.
 Section 4- Nationalism Threatens
            Old Empires
• The Hapsburg Empire consisted of
  Austria, Romania, Poland, Ukraine and
  Italy and was led by Metternich and
  Francis I. They tried to keep the kingdom
  conservative and steer them away from
  nationalism. They tried to limit industry and
  keep the country traditional. Despite their
  efforts, factories were popping up
  everywhere and socialism was stirring.
• Of the 50 million people in the Hapsburg empire,
  less then a quarter of them were German-
  speaking Austrians. Austria was the main land of
  the empire. Due to this wide spread of
  nationalities, rival groups often shared the same
  region. When nationalist revolts erupted, the
  government quickly crushed them.
• Young Francis Joseph soon inherited the throne
  and set up a constitution and a legislature. This
  body was mainly German-speaking Austrians
  which angered other countries of the empire.
  The Hungarians especially would settle for
  nothing less than self government.
• In 1866 Austria loses to Prussia in a war.
  A year later Francis Deak, a Hungarian
  leader, compromises a Dual Monarchy of
  Austria-Hungary.
• Under the agreement Austria and Hungary
  were two separate states led by Francis
  Joseph. They shared the same ministries
  of finance, defense, and foreign affairs.
  Other then that they were independent of
  each other.
• The Balkans in the Ottoman power was as
  bad as the Hapsburg empire. Nationalism
  erupted and caused crises and wars.
• The Russians saw the empire in a weak
  state and started an invasion. So did other
  countries like Britain, France and
  Austrians.
• The empire was divided up and taken by
  other countries. In between all these wars,
  nationalities revolted and fought among
  themselves. This region was later referred
  to as the “Balkan powder keg”, the
  explosion that came in 1914 helped set off
  World War I
   Section 5- Russia: Reform and
              Reaction
• By 1800 Russia was the biggest nation in
  Europe. It had great natural resources and it size
  gave it global interests and influence.
• Unfortunately it fell behind and was highly
  undeveloped. By the 1800’s, czar’s feared
  modernization because it would undermine
  absolute rule. The country was ruled by rich
  landowners but was mostly made up of serfs.
  Serfdom had disappeared in Western Europe by
  the 1700’s but still remained in Rusia.
• Alexander I took the throne in 1801. He
  seemed interested in reform and even
  talked about freeing the serfs. When
  Napoleon invaded in 1812 he drew back
  from the reform.
• Nicholas I takes the throne in 1825 and
  quickly suppresses any revolts for liberal
  ideas, the “Decembrist Revolt.”
• Nicholas was a very strict ruler and
  focused on the 3 pillars of Russian
  absolutism. “Orthodoxy, autocracy, and
  nationalism.”
• Even though he was strict, Nicholas did try
  to modernize towards the end of his rule.
• Alexander II took the throne in 1855 during
  the Crimean War. Russia lost, revealing
  how not modernized they truly were.
• Liberals demanded for change and in
  1861 the serfs were freed. Other reforms
  like assemblies, trial by juries, woman’s
  liberation were made at this time.
• Many radicals were not happy with the
  reforms like the terrorist group called the
  “People’s Will.” They assassinated the
  czar and other officials.
• The new Alexander III, took the harsh
  methods of Nicholas I and shut down all
  liberal movements. He was strict and had
  a secret police to expel critics.
• He also persecuted Russian Jews.
  Pogroms, or attacks on the Jews, were
  performed and they were robbed and beat.
  They became refuges and had to escape
  to a safer area, like the U.S..
• Under Alexander III and his son Nicholas
  II, Russia entered and industrial age. The
  Trans-Siberian Railway was built
  stretching 5,000 miles long. He tried to
  industrialize.
• He faced socialist revolutionaries such as
  Vladimir Ulyanov, or Lenin. His brother
  was executed as being part of the
  assassination of Alexander III. He wanted
  revenge on the government. He was a
  follower of the ideas of Karl Marx and
  would take power in a revolution to
  transform Russia.
• War broke out in 1904 between Russia
  and Japan. Russia had been losing.
  Nicholas II feared his people revolting. As
  crisis deepened, Father George Gapon
  organized a religious march to show the
  czar how much the people were really
  suffering. When the people got to the
  palace of the czar, Nicholas II, in fear,
  called on his army. They fired at the march
  for no reason. This day is known as
  “Bloody Sunday”, the day when the
  people’s trust was lost in the czar.
• After Bloody Sunday, reforms needed to
  be made. He gave people more freedom
  and created a Duma, or a an elected
  national legislature. No law could be
  passed without going through the Duma.
• The Duma didn’t last. Nicholas tried to
  have a prime minister, but because of the
  prime minister’s conservative beliefs, he
  was assassinated. By 1914, Russia was
  still an autocracy, with peasant and worker
  unrest.

				
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