Business Communication Chapter 6 by leader6

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									Business Communication
      MGMT 355
 Pre-examination Review Two
Business Communication
       Chapter 6
  Delivering Good and Neutral
           Messages
       Good and Neutral News
      Written, Electronic or Verbal
 Direct (deductive) approach:
  > Opening states main idea
  > Body provides detailed explanation
  > Closing summarizes and includes a
  future-oriented thought
 Advantages:
  > emphasizes main idea with position
  > easy to grasp quickly
  > saves time
            Thank-you Notes
 Make it short, specific, and thoughtful.
                    Example
  I was pleasantly surprised to receive a
  certificate to your online music site in return
  for conducting your strategic planning
  seminar. Downloading music added some
  “jazz” to my day while giving me more
  insight into your business model. Thanks
  for your kindness and the useful gift.
      Appreciation/Congratulation
              Messages
 Make it timely, simple, short, sincere and specific!

  Example
  This past week, I found myself applying the
  principles you discussed in your speech to the
  Lincoln Jaycees. The time analysis you
  suggested easily identified areas requiring more
  management focus. Prioritizing my daily activities
  will be a challenge, but now I see the need for it.
  Thanks for an informative and useful seminar.
                Routine Claims
A routine claim for replacement, refund, exchange or monetary
reimbursement where responsibility is obvious does not require a
forceful or accusatory tone.

Example
Our company recently purchased your Audit Partner 7.0 software. The
6.2 version served us well and we were interested in the additional
features offered by the upgrade. Unfortunately, the new edition does
not work. Our computer technology group discovered several bugs,
especially in the reporting modules. As the attached error logs show –
and your technical staff agrees – these problems are inherent in the
software.

Please refund our money or provide a corrected program that we can
distribute to our audit staff. Thank you.
 Favorable Response to Claim
Your November 3d letter was referred to me for reply. Thank you for
calling our attention to the problems you have encountered with Audit
Partner 7.0. We have studied your error logs and agree that the
software includes coding errors. We don’t yet know how they slipped
through our rigorous quality control procedures, but we will find out.

Meanwhile, please accept our apology and a service pack to correct
them. Please let us know if you encounter any other problems. We
appreciate your prompt feedback.
           Writing Instructions
 Use a separate line for each step.
 Number each step if order is important; if not, use
  bullets.
 Begin each step with an action verb and use
  active – not passive – voice.
 If complex, include a flow chart visualizing the
  procedure.
 Before distributing, test the procedure by having
  someone unfamiliar with it carry it out.
                     Example
               Requesting Computer Service
   Provide the requested information.
   Check your email for a service confirmation (typically
    within 24 hours).
   Complete normal shut-down procedures when you leave;
    technicians will use their personal login procedure to
    complete service after normal business hours.
   Check your email for a service completion notice.
   Email us if the service was not completed to your
    satisfaction.

Revised 3/21/08
  Business Communication
         Chapter 7

Delivering Bad-news Messages
         Reporting Bad News
 Goal: Communicate bad news tactfully so
  the recipient accepts it and is willing to
  continue a positive relationship.
 Historically, delivered face-to-face; however,
  in today’s far-flung global operations, email
  often is used.
 The message still must be carefully
  constructed with empathy and tact.
         Delivering Bad News
 If bad news is delivered in the first sentence
  of the message, the recipient may shut
  down and refuse to accept the rationale
  supporting the decision.
 Instead, use an indirect approach with the
  rationale first in order to build a pathway to
  understanding and acceptance; “why” first,
  “what” second.
            Direct Approach?
 A direct approach for communicating bad news is
  justified only if:
  > The message is the second response to a
  repeated request
  > The request is immoral, illegal or unethical and
  you want to “shake” the sender
  > Your relations with the receiver are strong
  enough to survive the effects of a direct approach
 But consider carefully before choosing a direct
             approach to deliver bad news!
   Writing an Indirect Message
 Opening
  > generally hint at the message without fully
  revealing it
  > but don’t emotionally close the receiver
  down with too much detail too early
  > and don’t build false hopes by being too
  empathetic
          Yes, it’s a balancing act.
       The Inoffensive Opening
 Start with a compliment
 Express gratitude for something in the request
 Agree with one point in the request, “Yes, but…”
 If two requests, grant the smaller one
 If refusing a claim, begin with some positive
  statement about the product
 Review circumstances preceding the disputed
  transaction
        The Supportive Middle
 Build your case for the bad news with
  logical, persuasive reasons clearly stated
 Try to find a significant alternative that can
  be done
 Avoid negative or accusatory words
 Use passive voice
 Imply refusal: I wish we could, but…
         The effective Close
 Use a unifying summary sentence
 Use a positive, forward-looking idea: “We
  value our ongoing business relationship…”
 Avoid statements that imply you are
  conflicted about your refusal: “We hope you
  can understand…”
 Don’t invite further debate: “If you have
  further questions…”
                 Good Example
The HighFly skis you stocked this past season are skillfully crafted from
the most innovative and durable materials. Offering a wide assortment
of these high-quality products demonstrates your excellent business
strategy for developing customer loyalty.

Our refund policy provides you the opportunity to do so at the lowest
possible cost. We fully reimburse you for unsold merchandise returned
at the close of the season minus a modest 15 percent to cover our cost
of holding the returned merchandise until the next season. The
reimbursement we sent covers merchandise you returned at the end of
February.

In anticipation of the coming season, you can save 10 percent by
ordering any of the new skis described in the enclosed catalog before
May 10th. We look forward to meeting your future needs.
                 Denying Credit
 Every business communication is directly or indirectly a
  sales message. If you must refuse a credit request
  accompanying an order, the goal is to retain the customer
  on a cash basis rather than have them seek products and
  credit from a competitor.
 Give reasons for the denial up front and try to show that the
  decision was carefully considered, not arbitrary.
 Have legal counsel review all credit refusals to assure that
  they comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA)
  and other regulations governing fair credit practices.
        Communicating Negative
         Organizational News
 Build a basis for trust by maintaining ongoing,
  open, two-way communication and widely sharing
  company performance information with employees
 If you must convey bad news, do it as soon as
  possible to avoid damaging rumors
 Include a candid, complete, rational explanation
  outlining contemplated corrective actions and
  showing empathy. Indicate that you are available
  to respond to concerns.
 Be prepared for this “internal” communication to
  become “external” quickly.
         Crisis communication
 Have a crisis communication plan including a
  simplified decision-making process involving only
  the absolutely necessary people.
 Immediately activate a crisis command center.
 Remain calm, even though those around you
  aren’t.
 Appoint a single- trained spokesperson through
  whom everything is communicated (not the CEO
  and not you).
 Communicate promptly with absolute accuracy to
  all impacted audiences.
    Business Communication
            Chapter 8
Delivering Persuasive Messages
                Persuasion
 The ability to use an honest, organized
  presentation of information to influence
  others to buy whatever you’re selling (a
  product, a service, an idea, yourself, etc.)
 To succeed, you must know both your
  product and your audience intimately.
                The Product
   What is its chief strength?
   What are its weaknesses?
   How does it compare to competitors?
   What does it cost?
   What will it do for the audience?
              The Audience
 Who are they (age, gender, race, culture,
  occupations, similarities, differences, things
  shared with you, etc.)?
 What do they need, want, fear?
 What are the best channels/ways to reach
  them?
 What is your goal? How can you leverage
  their needs to achieve yours?
                      The Process
 Goal: establish an immediate relationship between the audience and
  your product
  Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA)
 Immediately grab attention with something startling or something they
  need
 Use a central, unique feature as the theme
 Write concisely with short, bite-sized bullets and paragraphs
 Use concrete, visually vivid nouns and active verbs
 Use “you” language: You will enjoy…
 Use specific, convincing evidence
 End with a summary paragraph containing a “hook” to generate
  immediate action: Get 15% off until March 1st…
 Always be honest and accurate
 Beware cultural sensitivities
    Business Communication
            Chapter 9
Reports and Business Presentations
                   Reports
 Report: an orderly communication of information
  to fuel decision-making or problem-solving
 Fact-based, objective and for a limited audience
 Either inductive or deductive, but always
  organized
 Can travel down or sideways, but usually goes up
  in response to a request from upper management
               Proposals
 Proposal: conveys how my organization
  can meet your needs
 Often generated by a Request For Proposal
  (RFP)
 Some companies have entire departments
  specializing in proposal preparation
Reports to Support Problem-solving

  Problem-solving:
1. Recognize and define the problem
2. Select a method for solving
3. Collect and organize data, documenting
   sources
4. Reach a conclusion
           Define Problem
 Frame the problem
 State the goal of the study
 State the hypothesis to be proved or
  disproved
  “Productivity will increase when skilled
  employees are organized to work as teams
  rather than solely as individuals…”
                Define Scope
   What? A study of support staff salaries
   Why?     To determine if competitive
   When? Immediately
   Where? Our metropolitan area
   Who?     Bank support staff
   Derive purpose statement: To survey
    support staff salaries in local banks to
    determine if our salaries are competitive.
       Select Solution Method
 Secondary Research: mines and reports
  information already produced by others
  > Quick
  > Cheap
  > Avoids needless duplication
  > Can establish need and point of departure
  for primary research
                Searching
 Be skeptical of all sources
  > Who wrote this?
  > Is it objective and credible?
  > How current? When published?
  > Do other sources contradict it?
  > It based on other data, what are they?
            Primary Research
 Observational studies: observation and analysis
  of occurrences such as customer buying habits
 Experimental research: study of two or more
  identical samples with one significant variable
  (Does the variable affect the outcome?)
 Normative surveys: snapshot of a situation at a
  certain point such as an election exit poll
 Sampling: a sufficiently large number selected at
  random from a population will reflect certain
  characteristics, opinions, etc. roughly in proportion
  to the total population
                       Warning
 Define the targeted population as narrowly and exactly as
  possible in order to assure that the sample is
  representative
 Pilot test the survey instrument to refine it and assure its
  validity before conducting the full-scale survey
 Select an appropriate data collection method that will
  generate accurate statistically significant results
 Repeat to assure that the results are reliable over time
 DON’T TORTURE DATA TO FORCE IT TO SUPPORT A
  PRE-CONCEIVED CONCLUSION; INSTEAD, LET IT
  LEAD YOU TO THE TRUTH. FACTS WILL SET YOU
  FREE.
             Types of Surveys
 Mailed: relatively cheap; can reach a wide
  number; often generates a low rate of return
 Telephone: quick and inexpensive; allows
  probing; short because of intrusion; may exclude
  unlisted
 Face-to-face: useful for in-depth exploration of
  complex or sensitive topics; labor-intensive and
  expensive
 Email: fast, inexpensive, easily updated, limited to
  those with computers

								
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