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‫األثجذ٠خ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ‬English Alphabetic َ‫ ألغبَ اٌىال‬Parts of Speech ًُّ ٌ‫أٔٛاع ا‬Sentences ‫ج‬ ْٛ‫ “فؼً ”٠ى‬Verb to BE ًّ‫ “فؼً ”٠ؼ‬Verb to DO ‫ “ فؼً ”٠ٍّه‬Verb to HAVE ‫ األعّبء‬Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌّؼذٚدح‬Countable Nouns  ‫لٛاػذ إِالء‬Spelling Rules for Plurals  ‫اٌجّغ‬ ‫ األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬Uncountable Nouns  ‫ أدٚاد‬Definite & Indefinite Articles  ‫اٌزؼش٠ف ٚ إٌىشح‬ ‫اٌعّبئش‬Pronouns ٗ‫ ظّبئش اٌّفؼٛي ث‬Object Pronouns  ‫ ظّبئش االٔؼىبع١خ‬Reflexive Pronouns  ً‫ظّبئش اٌٛص‬Relative Pronouns  ‫ رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬Making Questions How ‫اعزؼّبالد‬ ٞ‫ أ‬any/‫ثؼط‬some/ ٟ‫رىٛ٠ٓ إٌف‬Making Negative ‫ األصِٕخ‬TENSES ‫ اٌّعبسع اٌجغ١ط‬Present Simple Tense  ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬Past Simple Tense  ‫ اٌّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط‬Future Simple Tense  ‫ اٌّعبسع‬Present Continuous Tense  ‫اٌّغزّش‬
  


  



    

ٟ‫ اٌّبظ‬Past Continuous Tense  ‫اٌّغزّش‬ Future Continuous Tense  ‫اٌّغزمجً اٌّغزّش‬ ‫ اٌّعبسع‬Present Perfect Tense  َ‫اٌزب‬ َ‫ اٌّبظٟ اٌزب‬Past Perfect Tense  َ‫ اٌّغزمجً اٌزب‬Future Perfect Tense  Present Perfect Continuous  ‫اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش‬ ‫ ص١غخ األِش‬Imperatives ‫ األفؼبي إٌبلصخ‬Modals ‫ ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد‬Comparing Adjectives ‫اٌظشٚف األدٛاي‬Adverbs ٟٕ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّج‬Active & Passive ‫ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ Transitive & Intransitive Verbs ... ‫األفؼبي اٌالصِخ ٚ األفؼبي اٌّزؼذ٠خ‬ ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬Prepositions ‫األعئٍخ اٌّز٠ٍخ‬Question-Tags ‫ٌٛ“ اٌششط١خ‬Conditional “if” ” ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬Reported Speech ٚ ْ‫اٌجٍذا‬Countries and Nationalities ‫اٌجٕغ١بد‬

      


  

English Alphabet ‫األثجذ٠خ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ‬

Capital Letters ‫األثجذ٠خ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ اٌىج١شح‬
A N B O C P D Q E R F S G T H U I V

.1

J W
.2

K X

L Y

M Z

Small Letters ‫األثجذ٠خ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ اٌصغ١شح‬
a n b o c p d q e r f s g t h u i v

j w


k x

l y

m z

Consonant Letters ‫اٌذشٚف اٌغبوٕخ‬
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v

w x


y

z

Vowels Letters ‫اٌذشٚف اٌّزذشوخ‬
a e i o u

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫‪Parts of Speech‬‬ ‫ألغبَ اٌىالَ‬
‫رؼش٠ف‬
‫‪Noun‬‬ ‫اعُ‬ ‫‪Pronoun‬‬ ‫ظّ١ش‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫فؼً‬ ‫‪Adjective‬‬ ‫صفخ‬ ‫٘ٛ ِب ٠ذي ػٍٝ اعُ أٚ ٠ذً ِذٍٗ‬

‫ِضبي‬
‫‪Ahmed, book‬‬

‫..…… .‪I, he, she, it, etc‬‬

‫٘ٛ ِب ٠ذي ػٍٝ دذٚس شٟء فٟ ٚلذ ِب‬ ‫٘ٛ ػجبسح ػٓ وٍّخ رصف االعُ ٚرىْٛ لجٍٗ‬

‫‪Play, played, will play‬‬

‫‪ rich man‬سجً غٕٟ‬ ‫الدظ أْ اٌصفخ ٕ٘ب عجمذ االعُ اٌّٛصٛف ثؼىظ‬ ‫اٌٍغخ اٌؼشث١خ اٌزٟ رىْٛ ف١ٙب اٌصفخ ثؼذ االعُ‬ ‫اٌّٛصٛف‬ ‫.‪Ahmed writes quickly‬‬ ‫أدّذ ٠ىزت ثغشػخ.‬

‫‪Adverb‬‬ ‫دبي‬

‫٘ٛ ػجبسح ػٓ وٍّخ رصف اٌفؼً أٚ رض٠ذ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اٌصفخ ٚظٛد ً‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Parts of Speech‬‬ ‫ألغبَ اٌىالَ‬
‫رؼش٠ف‬
‫‪Preposition‬‬ ‫دشف اٌجش‬

‫ِضبي‬

‫.‪ ٛ٘ Ahmed goes to school‬وٍّخ رأرٟ ِغ االعُ أٚ اٌعّ١ش ٌزج١ٓ‬ ‫أدّذ ٠ز٘ت إٌٝ اٌّذسعخ‬ ‫ػاللزٗ ثىٍّخ أخشٜ‬
‫.‪They traveled by plane‬‬ ‫ُ٘ عبفشٚا ثبٌطبئشح‬

‫‪Conjunction‬‬ ‫دشف اٌؼطف‬ ‫‪Interjection‬‬ ‫دشف رؼجت‬

‫‪ ٛ٘ Ali and Ahmad visited us‬وٍّخ رصً ِب ث١ٓ وٍّخ ٚ وٍّخ أٚ جٍّخ‬ ‫.‪ٚ yesterday‬جٍّخ .‬ ‫.‪ ٛ٘ Alas! She died‬ػجبسح ػٓ أصٛاد أٚ ص١ذبد رؼجش ػٓ‬ ‫اٌزؼجت‬

‫ػٍٟ ٚ أدّذ صاسٚٔب أِظ‬ ‫٠ب ٌألعف ! ٌمذ ِبرذ.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Parts of Speech‬‬ ‫ألغبَ اٌىالَ‬
‫رؼش٠ف‬
‫‪Article‬‬

‫ِضبي‬

‫أداح‬

‫ٕ٘بن صالس أدٚاد فٟ اٌٍغخ‬ ‫اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ:‬ ‫‪a, an, the‬‬ ‫رغزخذَ ‪ a‬لجً االعُ إٌىشح اٌزٞ ٠جذأ‬ ‫ثذشف عبوٓ.‬ ‫رغزخذَ ‪ an‬لجً االعُ إٌىشح‬ ‫اٌزٞ ٠جذأ ثذشف ِزذشن.‬ ‫ٌٍزؼش٠ف.‬
‫.‪This is a book‬‬ ‫٘زا وزبة.‬ ‫.‪This is an apple‬‬ ‫٘زٖ رفبدخ.‬ ‫.‪yesterday‬‬ ‫٘زا ٘ٛ اٌىزبة اٌزٞ اشزش٠زٗ أِظ.‬

‫‪ This is the book I bought‬رغزخذَ ‪the‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫ِالدظخ :‬
‫اٌجذ٠ش ثبٌزوش أْ اٌجٍّخ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ الثذ ٚأْ رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ فؼً خالف‬ ‫اٌٍغخ اٌؼشث١خ اٌزٟ لذ رىْٛ ف١ٙب اٌجٍّخ اعّ١خ أٞ ثذْٚ فؼً ِضً‬ ‫:(ػٍٟ طج١ت) ٌٚٛ أسدٔب رشجّزٙب ئٌٝ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ دشف١ب ٔمٛي :‬ ‫.‪Ali doctor‬‬ ‫ٚ٘زٖ جٍّخ ئٔجٍ١ض٠خ خبطئخ ٌؼذَ ادزٛائٙب ػٍٝ فؼً ٚاٌظذ١خ أْ ٔؼغ‬ ‫ٌٙب فؼً فزظجخ :‬ ‫.‪Ali is a doctor‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Sentences ًُّ ٌ‫أٔٛاع ا‬ ‫ج‬

Simple Sentences ‫جًّ ثغ١طخ‬ Compound Sentences ‫جًّ ِشوجخ‬

Complex Sentences ‫جًّ ِؼمذح‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Simple Sentences ‫جًّ ثغ١طخ‬
:‫ٟ٘ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ فؼً ٚادذ فمط‬ :‫ِضبي‬ I saw a boy. (1 The boy was riding a bicycle. (2

:‫٠ّىٓ سثط اٌجٍّز١ٓ ٌٕىْٛ جٍّخ ٚادذح ثغ١طخ‬ I saw a boy riding a bicycle.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Compound Sentences ‫جًّ ِشوجخ‬
‫ٟ٘ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ رزشوت ِٓ جٍّز١ٓ ثغ١طز١ٓ ٌّٙب طٍخ ثجؼؼّٙب اٌجؼغ‬ :ً‫ٌٚىً ِّٕٙب ِؼٕٝ ِغزمً د١ش ٠زُ سثطّٙب ثذشف ػطف ِض‬ and/ but /or
‫ ٚاٚ اٌؼطف :رشثط جٍّز١ٓ ٌّٙب ػاللخ ث١ٓ ثؼؼّٙب‬and:

Ahmed did his homework yesterday. Anas helped him.
: ‫٠ّىٓ سثط اٌجٍّز١ٓ ٌٕىْٛ جٍّخ ٚادذح‬

Ahmed did his homework yesterday and Anas helped him.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Compound Sentences ‫جًّ ِشوجخ‬
ٓ١‫ ٌىٓ :رشثط جٍّز١ٓ ػٓ ش١ئ١ٓ ِخزٍف١ٓ أٚ ِزٕبلؼ‬but:

Khaled is rich.

He is unhappy.

:‫٠ّىٓ سثط اٌجٍّز١ٓ ٌٕىْٛ جٍّخ ٚادذح‬

Khaled is rich but he is unhappy.
‫ أٚ :رشثط جٍّز١ٓ ٠ىْٛ ف١ّٙب خ١بس‬or:

We can play football.

We can watch TV.

: ‫٠ّىٓ سثط اٌجٍّز١ٓ ٌٕىْٛ جٍّخ ٚادذح‬

We can play football or we can watch TV.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Complex Sentences‬‬ ‫جًّ ِؼمذح‬
‫ٟ٘ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ أوضش ِٓ فؼً ٚادذ ٚ ِشوجخ ِٓ جٍّز١ٓ:‬

‫‪ Main Clause‬جٍّخ أعبع١خ‬
‫ٟٚ٘ صالصخ أٔٛاع: ‪ Subordinate Clause‬جٍّخ صبٔٛ٠خ‬ ‫جٍّخ أعّ١خ ‪Noun Clause‬‬ ‫جٍّخ ٚطف١خ ‪Adjectival Clause‬‬ ‫جٍّخ ظشف١خ ‪Adverbial Clause‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Clause & Phrase ‫اٌجٍّخ ٚ شجٗ اٌجٍّخ‬
A clause is a combination of words containing a verb and has a complete meaning. :‫اٌجٍّخ ٟ٘ ِجّٛػخ وٍّبد رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ فؼً ٚ ٌٙب ِؼٕٝ ربَ. ِضبي‬ I saw the man who was carrying a stick.

A phrase is a combination of words forming part of the sentence but without a verb.
:‫شجٗ اٌجٍّخ ػجبسح ػٓ ِجّٛػخ وٍّبد رىْٛ جضءاً ِٓ اٌجٍّخ ثذْٚ فؼً. ِضبي‬ I saw the man carrying a stick.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

”Verb to BE ْٛ‫فؼً ” ٠ى‬
It is used as a principal and a helping verb.

:‫٠غزخذَ وفؼً سئ١غٟ ِٚغبػذ‬
Subject ً‫فبػ‬ I He, She, It Present ‫ِعبسع‬ am is Past ٟ‫ِبظ‬ was was Past participle ‫أعُ اٌّفؼٛي‬ )ً‫(اٌزصش٠ف اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼ‬ been been

We, They, You

are

were

been

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫فؼً ” ٠ىْٛ ” ‪Verb to BE‬‬
‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّؼبسع ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ ػبداد أٚ دمبئك صبثزخ.‬

‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّبػٟ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ شٟء دظً ٚأزٙٝ فٟ اٌّبػٟ.‬
‫أِضٍخ ‪:Examples‬‬ ‫.‪I am a pupil‬‬ ‫.‪They are boys‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Negative Sentences with the verb to “ْٛ‫اٌجًّ إٌّف١خ ثبٌفؼً ”٠ى‬ BE

We make negative statements with the verb to BE by using the word not after the verb to be. ‫ٔىْٛ جًّ ِٕف١خ ِغ فؼً (٠ىْٛ) ثٛػغ وٍّخ‬ (not) . ٖ‫ثؼذ‬
Affirmative ‫إصجبد‬
I am at home. You are tall.

Negative ٟ‫ٔف‬
I am not at home. You are not tall.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Making Questions with the “ْٛ‫رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي ِغ فؼً ”٠ى‬ verb to BE
”Yes“ or ”No“ questions and short answers

:‫األعئٍخ ة(ٔؼُ) ٚ (ال) ٚ اإلجبثبد ِخزظشح‬
”Yes“ or ”No“ questions Short Answers

‫أعئٍخ ئجبثزٙب ثـ ٔؼُ ٚ ال‬
Affirmative Be +Subject ً‫فبػ‬ + Complement ‫رىٍّخ‬

‫ئجبثبد ِخزظشح‬
‫إصجبد‬
Negative

ٟ‫ٔف‬

Yes + Subject + Be

No + Subject + Be + not

Are Were

you the boys

a teacher? at school?

Yes, I am. Yes, they were.

No, I am not. No, they were not.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫فؼً ” ٠ؼًّ ” ‪Verb to DO‬‬
‫.‪It is used as a principal and a helping verb‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ وفؼً سئ١غٟ ٚفؼً ِغبػذ :‬
‫‪Subject‬‬ ‫فبػً‬ ‫‪Present‬‬ ‫ِعبسع‬ ‫‪Past‬‬ ‫ِبظٟ‬ ‫‪Past‬‬ ‫‪participle‬‬ ‫أعُ اٌّفؼٛي‬ ‫(اٌزصش٠ف اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼً)‬
‫‪done‬‬ ‫‪done‬‬

‫,‪I, you, we‬‬ ‫‪they‬‬ ‫‪He, She, It‬‬

‫‪do‬‬ ‫‪does‬‬

‫‪did‬‬ ‫‪did‬‬

‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّؼبسع ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ ػبداد أٚ دمبئك صبثزخ.‬ ‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّبػٟ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ شٟء دظً ٚأزٙٝ فٟ اٌّبػٟ.‬
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫فؼً ” ٠ٍّه ” ‪Verb to HAVE‬‬
‫.‪It is used as a principal and a helping verb‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ وفؼً سئ١غٟ ٚفؼً ِغبػذ :‬
‫‪Subject‬‬ ‫فبػً‬
‫,‪I, you, we‬‬ ‫‪they‬‬ ‫‪He, She, It‬‬

‫‪Present‬‬ ‫ِعبسع‬
‫‪have‬‬ ‫‪has‬‬

‫‪Past‬‬ ‫ِبظٟ‬
‫‪had‬‬ ‫‪had‬‬

‫‪Past participle‬‬ ‫أعُ اٌّفؼٛي‬ ‫(اٌزصش٠ف اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼً)‬
‫‪had‬‬ ‫‪had‬‬

‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّؼبسع ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ ػبداد أٚ دمبئك صبثزخ.‬ ‫ٔغزخذَ ط١غخ اٌّبػٟ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ شٟء دظً ٚأزٙٝ فٟ اٌّبػٟ.‬
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a main verb ٟ‫اٌجًّ إٌّف١خ ِغ فؼً ”٠ٍّه“ وفؼً سئ١غ‬

Subject

ً‫فبػ‬
I He They

+ do/does/did

+ not

+ have

+ Complement

‫رىٍّخ‬
not not not have have have a car. a new watch. breakfast this morning.

do does did

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Making Questions with the verb to HAVE as a main verb ٟ‫رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي ِغ فؼً ”٠ٍّه“ وفؼً سئ١غ‬
”Yes“ or ”No“ questions Short Answers

‫أعئٍخ ئجبثزٙب ثـ ٔؼُ ٚ ال‬

‫ئجبثبد ِخزظشح‬
Affirmative ‫إصجبد‬ Negative ٟ‫ٔف‬ No + Subject + do/does/did +not

Do/Does/ Did

+Subject ً‫فبػ‬

+have

+ Complement ‫رىٍّخ‬

Yes + Subject + do/does/did

Do Does Did

you he they

have have have

a car? a new watch? Breakfast this morning?

Yes, I do. Yes, he does. Yes, they did.

No, I do not. No, he does not No, they did not.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Verb to HAVE as a helping verb ‫فؼً ”٠ٍّه “ وفؼً ِغبػذ‬

Verb to have is used as a helping verb to form the perfect tense. . َ‫٠غزخذَ فؼً ٠ٍّه وفؼً ِغبػذ ٌ١ىْٛ صِٓ اٌّؼبسع اٌزب‬

:‫أِضٍخ‬
They have lived here for two years. Adel has just finished his work.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ‫اٌجًّ إٌّف١خ ِغ فؼً ”٠ٍّه“ وفؼً ِغبػذ‬

.ً‫ ثؼذ ٘زا اٌفؼ‬not ‫ٌزىٛ٠ٓ ٔفٟ ِغ فؼً ٠ٍّه ٔؼغ‬ :‫أِضٍخ‬ I have lived here for a long time. I have not lived here for a long time.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Making Questions with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ‫رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي ِغ فؼً ”٠ٍّه“ وفؼً ِغبػذ‬
”Yes“ or ”No“ questions and short answers :‫األعئٍخ ثـ ٔؼُ ٚ ال ٚ اإلجبثبد ِخزظشح‬ .ً‫ٌزىٛ٠ٓ عإاي ِغ فؼً ٠ٍّه وفؼً ِغبػذ ٔمذَ ٘زا اٌفؼً ػٍٝ اٌفبػ‬ :‫ِضبي‬ They have lived here for a long time. Have they lived here for a long time? Yes, they have. No, they have not.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Other Uses of Verb to HAVE

“‫اعزخذاِبد أخشٜ ِغ فؼً ”٠ٍّه‬
To express necessity in the present and past have to, has  to, had to. :‫ٌ١ؼجش ػٓ اٌؼشٚسح فٟ اٌّؼبسع ٚ اٌّبػٟ. ِضبي‬ I have to leave now. ________________________________________________ With some modal auxiliaries. :‫ِغ ثؼغ األفؼبي إٌبلظخ. ِضبي‬ You had better see a doctor. ________________________________________________ ____ To show that something is caused by another person. :‫ٌ١ج١ٓ أْ ش١ئً ِب دظً ثٛاعطخ شخض اخش. ِضبي‬ ‫ب‬ I have my shoes cleaned every week.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫ األعّبء‬Nouns
Nouns are words we use to name: :‫األعّبء ٟ٘ اٌىٍّبد اٌزٟ ٔغزخذِٙب ٌزوش‬ .‫اعُ ، ػٍُ ، شخض ، شٟء ، ِىبْ ، أفىبس ، شؼٛس‬
‫أشخبص‬ People man, father, teacher, neighbor, …

‫أش١بء‬
ٓ‫أِبو‬ ‫أفىبس‬ ‫شؼٛس‬

Things
Places Ideas Feelings

book, table, sugar, fruit, …
school, street, city, house, ….. freedom, honesty, truth, …. happiness, anger, boredom, joy, ….

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Countable & Uncountable Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌّؼذٚدح ٚ غ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬

Countable Nouns: are things that are counted as one, two, three, and so on.
‫األعّبء اٌّؼذٚدح: ٟ٘ األش١بء اٌزٟ ٠ّىٓ ػذ٘ب ثـ ٚادذ ، اصٕبْ ، صالصخ‬ .‫ٚ٘ىزا‬

Uncountable Nouns: cannot be counted.
.‫األعّبء اٌغ١ش ِؼذٚدح: ٟ٘ اٌزٟ ال ٠ّىٓ ػذ٘ب أٞ ال ٠ّىٓ ٚػغ سلُ لجٍٙب‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Countable Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌّؼذٚدح‬
These nouns have singular and plural forms.  .‫٘زٖ األعّبء ٌٙب ط١غ ِفشدح ٚ جّغ‬ Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an.

(a/an)

َ‫لجً األعّبء اٌّفشدح اٌّؼذٚدح رغزط١غ اعزخذا‬

You cannot use singular countable nouns alone without words such as: a, an, one, my, your, his, etc. .‫ال ٔغزط١غ اعزخذاَ أعّبء ِفشدح ِؼذٚدح ثّفشد٘ب ثذْٚ اٌىٍّبد اٌغبثمخ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Spelling Rules for Plurals ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬
We form plurals of most nouns by adding ”s“ to the singular noun. ‫ٔى ّْ اٌجّغ ِٓ ِؼظُ األعّبء ثاػبفخ‬ ٛ ”s“.‫ٌالعُ اٌّفشد‬ Singular one book one horse Plural two books many horses

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Spelling Rules for Plurals ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬

‫دـــــــــبالد خبصــــــــــــــخ‬
es ‫ ٔع١ف ٌٙب‬sh, ch, z, x, s ‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثبٌذشٚف‬

Singular match bus dish box
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Plural matches buses dishes boxes
ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Spelling Rules for Plurals‬‬ ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬

‫‪ٚ y‬عجمٗ دشف عبوٓ، رذزف ‪ٔٚ y‬ع١ف ‪ies‬‬
‫‪Singular‬‬ ‫‪city‬‬ ‫‪baby‬‬

‫دـــــــــبالد خبصــــــــــــــخ‬
‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثذشف‬

‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪cities‬‬ ‫‪babies‬‬

‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثذشف ‪ٚ y‬عجمٗ دشف ِزذشن، ٔع١ف ‪ s‬فمط.‬

‫‪Singular‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪boy‬‬
‫‪key‬‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪boys‬‬
‫‪keys‬‬

‫‪Spelling Rules for Plurals‬‬ ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬

‫دـــــــــبالد خبصــــــــــــــخ‬
‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثذشف ‪ٚ o‬عجمٗ دشف عبوٓ، ٔع١ف ‪es‬‬

‫‪Singular‬‬ ‫‪potato‬‬ ‫‪tomato‬‬

‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪potatoes‬‬ ‫‪tomatoes‬‬

‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثذشف ‪ٚ o‬عجمٗ دشف ِزذشن، ٔع١ف ‪ s‬فمط.‬

‫‪Singular‬‬ ‫‪radio‬‬ ‫‪zoo‬‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪radios‬‬ ‫‪zoos‬‬

Spelling Rules for Plurals ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬

‫دـــــــــبالد خبصــــــــــــــخ‬
es ‫ ، ٚٔع١ف‬v ‫ ٔذٌٛٙب إٌٝ دشف‬fe ٚ‫ أ‬f ‫األعّبء اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثذشف‬

Singular knife shelf Singular classroom

Plural knives shelves
:‫األعّبء اٌّشوجخ رجّغ دغت االعُ األخ١ش‬

Plural classrooms

policeman

policemen

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Spelling Rules for Plurals ‫لٛاػذ ئِالء اٌجّغ‬

‫دـــــــــبالد خبصــــــــــــــخ‬
:‫ٕ٘بن ثؼط األعّبء اٌشبرح‬
Singular man woman child Plural men women children

person
foot tooth goose

people
feet teeth geese

mouse
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

mice

Uncountable Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬
Uncountable nouns cannot be counted. es , s ‫ٟ٘ اٌزٟ ال جّغ ٌٙب ثاػبفخ‬
:‫أِضٍــــــخ‬ salt, coffee, tea, food, meat, gold, music, blood.

‫ لجً األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬an

ٚ‫أ‬

a

َ‫ال رغزط١غ اعزخذا‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Uncountable Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬

‫ِض٠ذا ِٓ األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬ ً
flour information butter sugar news milk rice rain cloth

‫دل١ك‬ ‫ِؼٍِٛبد‬ ‫صثذ‬ ‫عىش‬ ‫أخجبس‬ ‫دٍ١ت‬ ‫سص‬ ‫ِطش‬ ‫لّبػ‬

salt coffee food gold glass paper wood steel music

‫ٍِخ‬ ‫لٙٛح‬ َ‫طؼب‬ ‫ر٘ت‬ ‫صجبط‬ ‫ٚسق‬ ‫خشت‬ ‫دذ٠ذ‬ ٝ‫ِٛع١م‬

meat knowledge tea blood cheese bread furniture grass marble

ُ‫ٌذ‬ ‫ِؼشفخ‬ ٞ‫شب‬ َ‫د‬ ٓ‫جج‬ ‫خجض‬ ‫ِفشٚشبد‬ ‫ػشت‬ َ‫سخب‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Uncountable Nouns ‫األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح‬
.‫جّ١غ األعّبء اٌغ١ش اٌّؼذٚدح رؼبًِ ِؼبٍِخ اٌّفشد‬ :‫أِضٍخ‬
Coffee is a traditional drink in Saudi Arabia. Milk has many minerals. ًِ‫ٚ ٌىٓ ٌٛ ٚػؼذ وٍّبد رذي ػٍٝ اٌىّ١خ لجً االعُ اٌغ١ش ِؼذٚد فأٔٗ ٠ؼب‬ .‫ِؼبٍِخ اٌجّغ‬ Two cups of tea are not enough for me. Five liters of oil do not operate this machine.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Definite & Indefinite Articles ‫أدٚاد اٌزؼش٠ف ٚ إٌىشح‬
are used as indefinite articles. .‫رغزخذِبْ وأدٚاد ٔىشح‬

a/an The

is used as definite articles. ‫رغزخذَ وأداح ٌٍزؼش٠ف‬

We put “a” before a noun starting with a constant sound. .ٓ‫ لجً األعّبء اٌزٟ رجذأ ثذشف عبو‬a ‫ٔؼغ‬
We put “an” before a noun starting with a vowel sound. .‫ لجً األعّبء اٌزٟ رجذأ ثذشف ِزذشن‬an ‫ٔؼغ‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Indefinite Articles ”a“ & ”an“ ‫أدٚاد إٌىشح‬
We put ”a“ before a noun starting with a constant sound. .ٓ‫ لجً األعّبء اٌزٟ رجذأ ثذشف عبو‬a ‫ٔؼغ‬ We put ”an“ before a noun starting with a vowel sound. .‫ لجً األعّبء اٌزٟ رجذأ ثذشف ِزذشن‬an‫ٔؼغ‬ Vowels : ‫اٌذشٚف اٌّزذشوخ‬

a

e

i

o

u

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Indefinite Articles ”a“ & ”an“ ‫أدٚاد إٌىشح‬

We use a/an
Before a singular countable noun. Before a job, a particular group of people or a nationality.

.‫لجً األعّبء اٌّفشدح اٌّؼذٚدح‬ ‫لجً اٌٛظ١فخ أٚ ِجّٛػخ ِؼ١ٕخ‬ .‫ِٓ إٌبط أٚ اٌجٕغ١خ‬

a table an egg Saleh is a doctor He is an engineer. She is an English woman.

With numbers that mean every.

“ً‫ِغ األسلبَ اٌزٟ رؼٕٟ ”و‬

He washes his hands ten times a day. (means every day).

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Indefinite Articles ”a“ & ”an“ ‫أدٚاد إٌىشح‬

We DO NOT use a/an
No article is used with abstract nouns and the names of metals. ‫ال رغزخذَ أٞ أداح ِغ‬ ‫األعّبء‬ ‫اٌّؼٕٛ٠خ ٚ أعّبء‬ .ْ‫اٌّؼبد‬ Love, beauty, hatred, wood, silver, gold

No article is used before plural or uncountable nouns.

ً‫ال رغزخذَ أٞ أداح لج‬ ‫اٌجّغ أٚ األعّبء اٌغ١ش‬ .‫ِؼذٚدح‬
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

There are books on the table. Milk is good for you.

‫اٌغبثك‬

The Definite Article ”The“ “‫أدٚاد اٌزؼش٠ف ”أي‬
“‫ رغزخذَ أداح اٌزؼش٠ف ”أي‬The is used before: :ً‫لج‬
A noun that is the only one of its kind. Names of rivers, seas, oceans, etc…. A noun which is the object of a sentence. The names of musical instruments.
‫اٌغبثك‬

ِٓ ‫االعُ اٌزٞ ال ٠ٛجذ‬ .‫ٔٛػٗ عٜٛ ٚادذ فمط‬ ٚ ‫أعّبء األٔٙبس‬ .‫اٌجذبس........اٌخ‬ ٗ‫االعُ اٌزٞ ٠ىْٛ ِفؼٛي ث‬ .‫ٌجٍّخ‬ .‫أعّبء ا٢الد اٌّٛع١م١خ‬

The river Nile The Ka’aba The Arabian Gulf The Red Sea Umar answered the question. Can you play the piano?

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

The Definite Article ”The“ “‫أدٚاد اٌزؼش٠ف ”أي‬
The is used before: :ً‫رغزخذَ أداح اٌزؼش٠ف ”أي“ لج‬

Names of some countries.
With some time expressions. With dates. With some general expressions.

.ْ‫أعّبء ثؼط اٌجٍذا‬

The United Kingdom The U.S.A.
at the weekend in the evening On the first day of every month. Listen to the radio/news. Go to the market/desert.

‫ِغ ثؼط اٌزؼبث١ش اٌذاٌخ‬ .‫ػٍٝ اٌٛلذ‬ .‫ِغ اٌزٛاس٠خ‬ .‫ِغ ثؼط اٌزؼج١شاد اٌؼبِخ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

The Definite Article ”The“ “‫أدٚاد اٌزؼش٠ف ”أي‬
Use article with the name that is repeated. No article is used with the names of studies of subjects. No article is used before such words as school, home, bed, work, etc. No article is used before such words such as day and month names. ‫ٔغزخذَ أداح اٌزؼش٠ف أي‬ ‫ِغ االعُ اٌزٞ روش ٌٍّشح‬ .‫اٌضبٔ١خ‬ ‫ال رغزخذَ أٞ أداح ِغ‬ .‫أعّبء اٌّٛاد اٌذساع١خ‬ ً‫ال رغزخذَ أٞ أداح لج‬ ،‫أعّبء ِؼ١ٕخ ِضً ِذسعخ‬ ....ًّ‫ِٕضي، عش٠ش، ػ‬ ‫ال رغزخذَ أٞ أداح ِغ‬ ٚ َ‫أعّبء ِؼ١ٕخ ِضً األ٠ب‬ . ‫اٌشٙٛس‬ I saw a man. The man was young. I do not like science. My favorite subject is mathematics. I am going to school. I always go to bed early. on Monday, in June in summer (sometimes in the summer). before breakfast.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Pronouns ‫اٌؼّبئش‬
A pronoun replaces a noun. ُ‫اٌؼّ١ش ٠ذً ِذً االع‬
Subject Pronouns ً‫ظّبئش اٌفبػ‬ Object Possessive Pronouns Adjectives ٗ‫ظّبئش اٌّفؼٛي ث‬ ‫صفبد اٌٍّى١خ‬ Possessive Pronouns ‫ظّبئش اٌٍّى١خ‬ Reflexive Pronouns ‫ظّبئش االٔؼىبط‬

I
you he she it we you they

me
you him her it us you them

my
your his her its our your their
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

mine
yours his hers its ours yours theirs

myself
yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Pronouns ‫اٌؼّبئش‬
We use a pronouns instead of a noun when it is clear who or what we are talking about . ‫ٔغزخذَ اٌؼّ١ش ثذال ِٓ االعُ ػٕذِب ٔىْٛ ػٍٝ ػٍُ ِغ ِٓ أٚ ػٓ أٞ شٟء‬ .‫ٔزذذس‬ ‫أِضٍخ‬ Examples Ali is a good student. He has passed all his tests.

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌغبثك‬ ‫اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Object Pronouns ٗ‫ػّبئش اٌّفؼٛي ث‬
We use an object pronoun ٗ‫ٔغزخذَ ػّ١ش اٌّفؼٛي ث‬

After a preposition.

‫ثؼذ دشٚف اٌجش‬

Do you live near them? Send the box directly to me.

After to and for with verbs like make, give, send, lend, pass, take, show.
The little boy made it for her.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Reflexive Pronouns ‫ػّبئش االٔؼىبع١خ‬
Reflexive pronouns are used: ‫ٔغزخذَ ػّبئشاإلٔؼىبع١خ‬
for emphasis
Did you do the decorations yourself ? I did the painting myself.


‫ٌٍزأو١ذ‬



With some special expressions ‫ِغ ثؼغ اٌزؼبث١ش اٌخبطخ‬
Help yourself . Enjoy yourself. Behave yourself. I live by myself. (I live alone)



‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Relative Pronouns‬‬ ‫ػّبئش اٌٛطً‬
‫‪The relative pronouns are used to join‬‬ ‫.‪sentences together‬‬
‫رغزخذَ ظّبئش اٌٛصً ٌشثط اٌجًّ ثؼعٙب ثجؼط.‬ ‫ٚ ٌشثط اٌجًّ ارجغ اٌخطٛاد ا٢ر١خ:‬ ‫1- ٔجذش ػٓ وٍّخ ِزىشسح فٟ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ صُ ٔجذش ػٓ ِٛلؼٙب.‬ ‫فئرا وبٔذ فبػال ػبلالً ٔغزؼًّ ‪who‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ٚإرا وبٔذ ِفؼٛ ً ثٗ ػبلال ٔغزؼًّ‪ٔ ٚ which‬ؼشف رٌه ثٛجٛد اٌىٍّخ ثؼذ اٌفؼً. ٚ إرا وبٔذ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ال‬ ‫غ١ش ػبلً ٔغزؼًّ ‪. that‬‬ ‫أِب ‪ whose‬فزغزخذَ ثذي أٞ وٍّخ ِٓ اٌىٍّبد اٌغبثمخ إال إٔٔب ال ٔفعً اعزؼّبٌٙب فٟ‬ ‫جّ١غ اٌجًّ.‬ ‫.‬ ‫ٚ إرا وبٔذ ٌٍٍّى١خ ٔغزؼًّ وٍّخ‬ ‫2- ادزف اٌىٍّخ اٌّزىشسح ِٓ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ ٚظغ االعُ اٌزٞ دزفذ ِضٍٗ فٟ اٌجٍّخ األٌٚٝ.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Relative Pronouns ً‫ػّبئش اٌٛط‬
Who
]ً‫[ٌٍفبػً اٌؼبل‬

ٟ‫اٌزٞ، اٌز‬

.‫ ٌزذً ِذً اٌفبػً اٌؼبلً ٚ طجؼبً ٔؼشف اٌفبػً ثٛجٛدٖ أٚي اٌجٍّخ‬whoَ‫رغزخذ‬ :ٌٟ‫الدظ اٌّضبي اٌزب‬ Here is the man. The man is a doctor. ‫ صُ ٔؼغ اٌجٍّخ‬who‫ ِٓ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ ٚ ٔؼغ ثذالً ِٕٙب‬The man ‫ٔذزف وٍّخ‬ :‫اٌضبٔ١خ ثؼذ اٌىٍّخ اٌزٟ دزفٕب ِضٍٙب فٟ اٌجٍّخ األٌٚٝ فزظجخ‬ Here is the man who is a doctor.

:‫أِضٍخ‬
1) The man came here. The man is a doctor. The man who came here is a doctor 2) My friend swims well. He lives here. My friend who lives here swims well.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Relative Pronouns ً‫ػّبئش اٌٛط‬
Whom
]ً‫[اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ اٌؼبل‬

ٟ‫اٌزٞ، اٌز‬

.ً‫ ٌزذً ِذً اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ اٌؼبلً ٚ طجؼب ٔؼشف اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ثٛجٛدٖ ثؼذ اٌفؼ‬whomًّ‫رغزؼ‬ ً :ٌٟ‫الدظ اٌّضبي اٌزب‬ The man came here. I visited him. ُ‫ أٚي اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ، ٚٔعغ االع‬whom‫ ِٓ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ صُ ٔعغ‬him ‫ٔذزف وٍّخ‬ :‫اٌّٛصٛي ٚ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ ثؼذ اٌىٍّخ اٌزٟ دزفٕب ِضٍٙب (اٌزٟ ٠ؼٛد إٌ١ٙب اٌعّ١ش) فزصجخ‬ The man whom I visited came here.

:‫أِضٍخ‬
1) The man was working with me. I paid him. The man whom I paid was working with me. 2) This is the girl. You gave her a flower. This is the girl whom you gave a flower.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Relative Pronouns ً‫ػّبئش اٌٛط‬
Which
]ٗ‫[ٌٍجّبد اٌفبػً أٚ اٌّفؼٛي ث‬

ٟ‫اٌزٞ، اٌز‬

‫ ٌزذً ِذً اٌفبػً أٚ اٌّفؼٛي اٌغ١ش ػبلً ٚ طجؼبً ٔؼشف اٌفبػً ثٛجٛدٖ أٚي اٌجٍّخ أِب‬which ًّ‫رغزؼ‬ :ٌٟ‫اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ف١ٛجذ ثؼذ اٌفؼً. الدظ اٌّضبي اٌزب‬ He found his book. He lost it yesterday. ‫ فٟ أٚي اٌجٍّخ‬which‫ فٕذزفٙب ٚ ٔعغ ثذالً ِٕٙب‬his book ٍٝ‫ رؼٛد ػ‬him ‫ٔشٜ أْ وٍّخ‬ ‫وٍّخ‬ ‫اٌضبٔ١خ صُ ٔعغ االعُ اٌّٛصٛي ٚ اٌجٍّخ اٌضبٔ١خ ثؼذ اٌىٍّخ اٌزٟ دزفٕب ِضٍٙب (اٌزٟ ٠ؼٛد إٌ١ٙب‬ :‫اٌعّ١ش) فزصجخ‬ He found his book which he lost yesterday.

:‫أِضٍخ‬
1) This is the house. I live in it. This is the house which I live in. 2) This book is cheap. It is very useful. This book which is very useful is cheap.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Relative Pronouns ً‫ػّبئش اٌٛط‬
That
]ٗ‫[ٌٍؼبلً ٚ غ١ش اٌؼبلً اٌفبػً أٚ اٌّفؼٛي ث‬

ٟ‫اٌزٞ، اٌز‬

ٞ‫ ٌزذً ِذً اٌفبػً أٚ اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ اٌؼبلً ٚ غ١ش ػبلً أ‬that ًّ‫رغزؼ‬ :‫رذً ِذً أٞ أداح عجك ششدٙب. الدظ األِضٍخ اٌزبٌ١خ‬ This is the boy. You met her. This is the boy that (whom) you met. I have a bird. It sings. I have a bird that (which) sings.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Relative Pronouns ً‫ػّبئش اٌٛط‬
Whose
]‫[ٌٍٍّى١خ‬

ٟ‫اٌزٞ، اٌز‬

:ٌٟ‫ ٌٍٍّى١خ. الدظ اٌّضبي اٌزب‬whoseًّ‫رغزؼ‬

This is the man. His car hit the boy. This is the man whose car hit the boy.
‫ال‬ ً ‫ فٕذزف ػّ١ش اٌٍّى١خ ٚ ٔؼغ ثذ‬the man ‫ ٍِّٛوخ ٌـ‬car ‫ٕ٘ب ٔجذ أْ وٍّخ‬ . car ‫ صُ ٔؼغ ثؼذ٘ب وٍّخ‬whose ‫ِٕٗ االعُ اٌّٛطٛي‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Making Questions

‫رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬
:‫ٌزذٛ٠ً اٌجٍّخ اٌخجش٠خ ئٌٝ عإاي ٔؼغ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ فٟ اٌجذا٠خ‬ Helping Verbs :ٟ٘ ‫األفؼبي اٌّغبػذح‬ am – is – are – was – were – have – has –  had – will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must – ought to
:‫أِضٍـــــــــخ‬ Are they doctors? They are doctors. Can they help us? Can she help us? Will you go to the market?

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Making Questions‬‬

‫رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬
‫ئرا ٌُ ٠ىٓ ثبٌجٍّخ فؼً ِغبػذ‬
‫1) ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّؼبسع ثذْٚ ‪s‬‬ ‫أِضٍـــــــــخ:‬ ‫?‪They play tennis. Do they play tennis‬‬ ‫?‪I write books. Do you write books‬‬

‫:‬

‫‪do‬‬

‫ٔغزخذَ‬

‫الدظ ئػبدح اٌفؼً ئٌٝ أطٍٗ (اٌزظش٠ف األٚي) ٚ رٌه ٌٛجٛد اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬

‫2) ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّؼبسع اٌزٞ ثٗ ‪ٔ s‬غزخذَ ‪: does‬‬ ‫أِضٍـــــــــخ:‬ ‫ِ ?‪Ahmed plays tennis. Does Ahmed play tennis‬‬ ‫?‪Huda watches TV. Does Huda watch TV‬‬
‫الدظ ئػبدح اٌفؼً ئٌٝ أطٍٗ (اٌزظش٠ف األٚي) ٚ رٌه ٌٛجٛد اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Making Questions‬‬

‫رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬
‫ئرا ٌُ ٠ىٓ ثبٌجٍّخ فؼً ِغبػذ‬
‫3) ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّبػٟ ٔغزخذَ ‪: did‬‬ ‫أِضٍـــــــــخ:‬ ‫‪They watched TV last night. ‬‬ ‫?‪Did they watch TV last night‬‬
‫‪I played football yesterday. ‬‬ ‫?‪Did you play football yesterday‬‬
‫الدظ ئػبدح اٌفؼً ئٌٝ أطٍٗ (اٌزظش٠ف األٚي) ٚ رٌه ٌٛجٛد اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬

‫ِالدظــــــــخ:‬ ‫جّ١غ األعئٍخ اٌغبثمخ رىْٛ ئجبثزٙب ثـ ‪ Yes‬أٚ ‪ ٚ No‬رٌه ألٔٙب ٌُ رجذأ ثأداح عإاي.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Making Questions‬‬

‫رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬
‫إرا وبْ اٌٙذف ِٓ اٌغؤاي إػطبء ِؼٍِٛخ ِؼ١ٕخ ف١جت أْ ٠جذأ ثئدذٜ أدٚاد اٌغؤاي اٌزبٌ١خ ٚ اٌزٟ رغّٝ:‬

‫‪Wh Questions‬‬
‫?‪Where‬‬ ‫?‪When‬‬ ‫?‪Why‬‬ ‫?‪What‬‬ ‫?‪Which‬‬ ‫?‪Who‬‬ ‫?‪Whom‬‬ ‫أ٠ٓ‬ ‫ِزٝ‬ ‫ٌّبرا‬ ‫ِب / ِبرا‬ ‫أٞ‬ ‫ِٓ‬ ‫ِٓ‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌّىبْ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌضِبْ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌغجت‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ شٟء‬ ‫ٌالخز١بس ث١ٓ ش١ئ١ٓ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ فبػً ػبلً‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ ِفؼٛي ثٗ ػبلً‬
‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Making Questions‬‬

‫رىٛ٠ٓ األعئٍخ‬
‫).‪Wh Questions (Cont‬‬
‫?‪Whose‬‬ ‫?‪How‬‬ ‫?‪How many‬‬ ‫?‪How much‬‬ ‫?‪How long‬‬ ‫?‪How old‬‬ ‫?‪How far‬‬ ‫ٌّٓ‬ ‫و١ف‬ ‫وُ ػذد‬ ‫وُ وّ١خ‬ ‫وُ طٛي‬ ‫وُ ػّش‬ ‫وُ ثؼذ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌٍّى١خ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌذبٌخ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌؼذد‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌىّ١خ‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌطٛي‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌؼّش‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌّغبفخ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Steps for Making a Question‬‬

‫خطٛاد رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي‬
‫1) اخزش أداح اٌغإاي إٌّبعجخ ٌٍجضء اٌّشاد اٌغإاي ػٕٗ، ِضً:‬

‫‪When, Where, Why………..etc‬‬
‫(ئْ ٚجذ) لجً اٌفبػً أٞ ثؼذ أداح اٌغإاي ِجبششح.‬ ‫2) ػغ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬ ‫3) ئرا ٌُ ٠ىٓ ثبٌجٍّخ فؼً ِغبػذ اعزخذَ:‬ ‫* ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّؼبسع ثذْٚ ‪ٔ s‬غزخذَ ‪do‬‬ ‫* ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّؼبسع اٌزٞ ثٗ ‪ٔ s‬غزخذَ ‪does‬‬ ‫* ِغ اٌفؼً اٌّبػٟ ٔغزخذَ‬ ‫‪did‬‬ ‫4) ػغ اٌفبػً ثؼذ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ عٛاء اٌّٛجٛد ثبٌجٍّخ أطالً أٚاٌزٟ اعزخذِٕب٘ب ِٓ ػٕذٔب ِغ‬ ‫ِالدظخ ئػبدح اٌفؼً ئٌٝ أطٍٗ أٞ رظش٠فٗ األٚي.‬ ‫5) ادزف اٌجضء اٌّشاد اٌغإاي ػٕٗ ألٔٗ جٛاة اٌغإاي.‬
‫‪helping verb‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Steps for Making a Question‬‬

‫خطٛاد رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي‬
‫:‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬

‫.‪They are going to eat meat‬‬ ‫?‪What are they going to eat‬‬
‫* الدظ إٔٔب لذِٕب‪ are‬ػٍٝ ‪ they‬ألٔٙب ٟ٘ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ صُ دزفٕب وٍّخ‪ meat‬ألٔٙب اٌجٛاة ػٍٝ اٌغؤاي.‬

‫* الدظ إٔٔب اعزخذِٕب ‪ٌ did‬ؼذَ ٚجٛد فؼً ِغبػذ ٚ ألْ اٌفؼً فٟ اٌّبظٟ. ٚ الدظ أ٠ع ً دزف ‪ِٓ ed‬‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اٌفؼً إلػبدرٗ أٌٝ أصٍٗ. ٚ الدظ إٔٔب دزفٕب ‪ at school‬ألٔٙب اٌجٛاة ػٍٝ اٌغؤاي.‬

‫.‪They played tennis at school‬‬ ‫?‪Where did they play tennis‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Steps for Making a Question‬‬

‫خطٛاد رىٛ٠ٓ اٌغإاي‬
‫ِالدظخ:‬ ‫الدظ رغ١١ش ثؼغ اٌؼّبئش ٌىٟ رزٕبعت ِغ اٌّؼٕٝ ِضً:‬ ‫‪ you‬رظجخ ‪I‬‬ ‫‪ I‬رظجخ ‪you‬‬ ‫‪ my‬رظجخ ‪we‬‬ ‫‪ your‬رظجخ ‪you‬‬ ‫ئرا وبْ اٌغإاي ػٓ اٌفبػً ال ٔغزخذَ فؼالً ِغبػذً ِٓ ػٕذٔب ثً ٔؼغ أداح اٌغإاي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫‪ who‬ئرا وبْ اٌفبػً ػبلالً ٚ ‪ what‬ئرا وبْ اٌفؼً غ١ش ػبل ً.‬ ‫ال‬ ‫أِضٍخ:‬
‫?‪Who broke the window‬‬ ‫?‪What describes accidents‬‬ ‫.‪Ahmed broke the window‬‬ ‫.‪The book describes accidents‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اعزؼّبالد‬ How
He was very pleased when he met his friend. How was he when he met his friend? Thirty boys are in this class. How many boys are in this class?

‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌذبٌخ‬ ‫أٚ اٌى١ف١خ‬

How

‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌؼذد‬

How many

I am twenty years old. How old are you?
You paid five pounds for this coat. How much did you pay for this coat?

‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌؼّش‬

How old
How much

‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ اٌىّ١خ‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫اعزؼّبالد‬ How
It is 450 KM from Dammam to Riyadh. How far is it from Dammam to Riyadh? This rope is two meters long. How long is this rope? This fence is four meters high. How high is this fence? Sami is one meter and a half tall. How tall is Sami?

ٓ‫ٌٍغإاي ػ‬ ‫اٌّغبفبد‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ األطٛاي‬

How far

How long How high How tall

ٓ‫ٌٍغإاي ػ‬ ‫اإلسرفبػبد‬ ‫ٌٍغإاي ػٓ أطٛاي‬ ‫األشخبص‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٞ‫ثؼغ / أ‬ some / any
.‫ ٚ أخٛارٙب فٟ اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ ٚ ٌ١غذ إٌّف١خ أٚ اٌغؤاي‬some َ‫رغزخذ‬

1) We have some books. 2) Somebody was there. 3) He is somewhere.
.ٟ‫ٚ أخٛارٙب ِغ اٌغؤاي ٚ إٌف‬

any َ‫ٚرغزخذ‬
:‫ِغ اٌغؤاي‬

1) Do you have any books? 2) Is anybody at home? 3) Is he anywhere?

:ٟ‫ِغ إٌف‬
1) We do not have any books. 2) I did not see anybody. 3) He is not anywhere.
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Making Negative ٟ‫رىٛ٠ٓ إٌف‬
:‫ ثؼذ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬not ‫ٌزذٛ٠ً اٌجٍّخ اٌخجش٠خ ئٌٝ ٔفٟ ٔؼغ وٍّخ‬

Helping Verbs are: :ٟ٘ ‫األفؼبي اٌّغبػذح‬ am – is – are – was – were – have – has – had – will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must – ought to
:‫أِضٍـــــــــخ‬ They are happy. They are not happy. He can help us. He can not help us.

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Making Negative ٟ‫رىٛ٠ٓ إٌف‬
Long forms & Short forms of Verb to be
(Affirmative) ‫فٟ اإلصجبد‬
Long Forms
(written)

(Negative) ٟ‫فٟ إٌف‬
Long Forms
(written)

Short Forms
(spoken)

Short Forms
(spoken)

I am He is She is It is You are We are They are

I’m He’s She’s It’s You’re We’re They’re
‫اٌغبثك‬

I am not

I’m not

He is not
She is not It is not You are not

He’s not
She’s not It’s not You’re not

We are not
They are not
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

We’re not
They’re not

‫‪Making Negative‬‬ ‫رىٛ٠ٓ إٌفٟ‬
‫ئرا ٌُ ٠ىٓ فٟ اٌجٍّخ فؼً ِغبػذ فٕأرٟ ثفؼً ِغبػذ ِٓ ػٕذٔب.‬ ‫ٚ٘زٖ األفؼبي اٌّغبػذح ٟ٘: )‪ (do, does, did‬صُ ٔؼغ‬ ‫‪not‬‬ ‫ِالدظخ ئػبدح اٌفؼً ئٌٝ أطٍٗ أٞ اٌزظش٠ف األٚي.‬
‫ٔفٟ ‪Negative‬‬
‫‪no, any‬‬ ‫‪neither………….nor‬‬ ‫‪neither………….nor‬‬ ‫‪never‬‬ ‫‪not so…………..as‬‬ ‫‪not all‬‬ ‫‪no, not every‬‬
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫ثؼذٖ ِغ‬

‫ِالدظخ: إرا وبٔذ إدذٜ اٌىٍّبد ا٢ر١خ فٟ اٌجٍّخ فٕٕفٟ اٌجٍّخ ثٕفٟ اٌىٍّخ وّب فٟ اٌجذٚي اٌزبٌٟ:‬

‫اصجبد ‪Affirmative‬‬
‫‪some‬‬ ‫‪both……and‬‬ ‫‪sometimes‬‬ ‫‪all‬‬ ‫‪every‬‬ ‫وً‬ ‫وً‬
‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ثؼط‬ ‫وً ِٓ....ٚ‬ ‫أد١بٔبً‬

‫إِب......أٚ ‪either…..or‬‬ ‫ِضٍٗ.......ِضً ‪as………as‬‬

‫األصِٕخ ‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪1. Present Simple Tense‬‬

‫اٌّعبسع اٌجغ١ط‬

‫)?‪(What always happens‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ اٌؼبداد ٚ اٌزمبٌ١ذ ٚ اٌمذساد ٚ اٌذمبئك.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ اٌزظش٠ف األٚي ٌٍفؼً أٞ اٌفؼً اٌّجشد.‬ ‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً:‬ ‫‪every‬‬ ‫وً‬ ‫دائًّ ‪always‬‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ػبدح ‪usually‬‬

‫‪generally‬‬

‫ػّٛ ًب‬ ‫ِ‬

‫غبٌجً ‪often‬‬ ‫ب‬
‫أثذً ‪never‬‬ ‫ا‬

‫أد١بًٔ ‪sometimes‬‬ ‫ب‬
‫‪from time to time‬‬ ‫ِٓ د١ٓ ٢خش‬
‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫ٔبدسا ‪rarely‬‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

TENSES
1. Present Simple Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّعبسع اٌجغ١ط‬

(What always happens?)

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I go to school everyday. They usually sleep at 11.00 p.m. We often drink coffee in the morning. She is never late to school. .ً‫ ص٠بدح ٌٍفؼ‬s ‫ِالدظخ: ئرا وبْ اٌفبػً ِفشد غبئت ٔؼ١ف‬ Ali drinks milk every morning. A cow gives us milk.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫‪2. Past Simple Tense‬‬ ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬ ‫)?‪(What happened yesterday‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس ٚلغ فٟ اٌّبػٟ.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٟٔ ٌٍفؼً أٞ ئػبفخ ‪ِ ed‬غ ِالدظخ‬ ‫األفؼبي اٌغ١ش ِٕزظّخ ‪Irregular verbs‬‬ ‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً:‬
‫أِظ ‪yesterday‬‬ ‫‪last‬‬ ‫اٌّبظٟ‬ ‫ِعٝ ‪ago‬‬

‫أٚ أٞ ربس٠خ فٟ اٌّبظٟ ِضً :‪in 1988 AD, in 1415 AH‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES ‫األصِٕخ‬
2.
(What happened yesterday, last night…?)

Past Simple Tense ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬

was were

I, He, She, it They, We, You

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I watched television last night. They visited their uncle yesterday. We went to Makkah two months ago.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪3. Future Simple Tense‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط‬
‫‪(What‬‬

‫)?‪will happen tomorrow, next week, in the future‬‬

‫.3‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس ِزٛلغ دذٚصٗ فٟ اٌّغزمجً.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ ‪ will‬اٚ ‪ shall‬صُ اٌزصش٠ف األٚي ٌٍفؼً.‬ ‫رأرٟ‪ِ shall‬غ ظّ١ش اٌّزىٍُ ‪ weٚ I‬أِب ‪ will‬فزأرٟ ِغ ثبلٟ اٌعّبئش.‬ ‫ٌٚىٓ ‪ٔ shall‬ذس اعزخذاِٙب فٟ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ اٌذذ٠ضخ ٚلذ دٍذ وٍّخ ‪ will‬ثذٌٙب ِغ جّ١غ‬ ‫اٌعّبئش.‬ ‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً:‬ ‫‪tomorrow‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫غذً‬ ‫‪next‬‬ ‫اٌمبدَ‬ ‫‪in the future‬‬ ‫فٟ اٌّغزمجً‬

‫أٚ أٞ ربس٠خ فٟ اٌّبظٟ ِضً : ‪in 2010 AD, in 1430 AH‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES
3. Future Simple Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫( اٌّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط‬What will

happen tomorrow, next week, in the future?)

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I will go to school tomorrow. They will play football next Friday. He will join the army in the future. :َ‫ٕ٘بن رىٛ٠ٓ أخش ٌٍّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط ثبعزخذا‬ am , is , are going to

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

TENSES

‫األصِٕخ‬

4. Present Continuous Tense ‫اٌّعبسع اٌّغزّش‬ (What is happening now?) . ‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس ٠مغ ا٢ْ فمط‬ : ِٓ ِٓ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌض‬

am / is / are + ً‫ + فؼ‬ing

I am + verb + ing He, she, it is + verb + ing They, we, you are + verb + ing : ً‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِض‬
now ْ٢‫ا‬ at the moment ‫فٟ ٘زٖ اٌٍذظخ‬ look listen ‫اعزّغ‬ ‫أظش‬

at the present time ‫فٟ اٌٛلذ اٌذبظش‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

TENSES

‫األصِٕخ‬

4. Present Continuous Tense (What is happening at the moment?) ‫اٌّعبسع اٌّغزّش‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I am reading at the moment. They are watching television now. Look! The bus is coming.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪4. Present Continuous Tense‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّعبسع اٌّغزّش‬

‫ثؼغ األفؼبي ال ٠ّىٓ أْ رمغ فٟ االعزّشاس عٛاء اٌّؼبسع اٌّغزّش أٚ اٌّبػٟ اٌّغزّش ٚ٘زٖ األفؼبي‬ ‫رؼجش ػٓ اٌشؼٛس ٚاألرٜ ٚاإلدغبط ِٚٓ ٘زٖ األفؼبي :‬
‫‪like‬‬ ‫‪wish‬‬ ‫‪hope‬‬ ‫٠ذت‬ ‫٠زّٕٝ‬ ‫٠أًِ‬ ‫‪love‬‬ ‫‪hate‬‬ ‫‪hear‬‬ ‫‪fear‬‬ ‫٠ذت‬ ‫٠ىشٖ‬ ‫٠غّغ‬ ‫٠خشٝ‬ ‫‪want‬‬ ‫٠ش٠ذ‬ ‫٠فعً ‪prefer‬‬ ‫٠شؼش ‪feel‬‬ ‫٠جذٚ ‪seem‬‬ ‫٠ٕبعت‬ ‫‪fit‬‬

‫٠ىشٖ ‪dislike‬‬ ‫٠ؼزمذ ‪think‬‬ ‫‪consider‬‬ ‫٠ؼزجش‬

‫٠ظٙش ‪appear‬‬ ‫‪believe‬‬ ‫٠صذق‬

‫٠ضك ‪trust‬‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫‪understand‬‬
‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫٠فُٙ‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّبظٟ اٌّغزّش ‪5. Past Continuous Tense‬‬ ‫)…?‪(What was happening‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ فؼً ٚلغ فٟ اٌّبػٟ أصٕبء ٚلٛع فؼً أخش .‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ :‬ ‫‪ + ing‬فؼً+ ‪was / were‬‬ ‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬ ‫‪when‬‬ ‫ػٕذِب‬ ‫ث١ّٕب ‪while‬‬ ‫‪as‬‬ ‫د١ش أْ‬ ‫‪because‬‬ ‫ألْ‬

‫ٍِذٛظخ:‬ ‫٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِب ٠أرٟ ِؼٗ صِٓ اٌّبػٟ اٌجغ١ط ٚ اٌزٞ رخًٍ اٌّبػٟ اٌّغزّش أٞ‬ ‫اٌزٞ ٚلغ أصٕبء دذٚصٗ.‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫.5‬ ‫‪Past Continuous Tense‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّبظٟ اٌّغزّش‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
‫.‪While I was sleeping, a thief entered my room‬‬
‫ِبػٟ ِغزّش‬

‫ِبػٟ ثغ١ط‬

‫(ث١ّٕب وٕذ ٔبئًّ ، دخً ٌض غشفزٟ) ٘زٖ اٌجٍّخ رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ دذص١ٓ أدذّ٘ب ِبػٟ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ِغزّش ٚ٘ٛ إٌَٛ ٚا٢خش دخٛي اٌٍض اٌغشفخ اٌزٞ دظً أصٕبء إٌَٛ .‬ ‫.‪When we were eating, my father came‬‬
‫ِبػٟ ِغزّش‬ ‫ِبػٟ ثغ١ط‬

‫( ث١ّٕب وٕب ٔأوً ، جبء ٚاٌذٞ) ٘زٖ اٌجٍّخ رذزٛٞ ػٍٝ دذص١ٓ أدذّ٘ب ِبػٟ ِغزّش ٚ٘ٛ‬ ‫األوً ٚا٢خش ِجٟء ٚاٌذٞ اٌزٞ دظً أصٕبء األوً .‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪5. Past Continuous Tense‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّبظٟ اٌّغزّش‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
‫ِالدظخ: ٠ّىٓ ٚػغ أداح اٌشثط ٚعط اٌجٍّخ دْٚ أْ ٠زغ١ش اٌّؼٕٝ فزظجخ‬ ‫اٌجٍّزبْ اٌغبثمخ وّب ٠ٍٟ :‬

‫. ‪A thief entered while I was sleeping‬‬
‫ِبػٟ ثغ١ط‬ ‫ِبػٟ ِغزّش‬

‫ب‬ ‫دخً ٌض غشفزٟ ث١ّٕب وٕذ ٔبئًّ‬ ‫. ‪My father came when we were eating‬‬
‫ِبػٟ ثغ١ط‬ ‫ِبػٟ ِغزّش‬

‫جبء ٚاٌذٞ ث١ّٕب وٕب ٔأوً‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪5. Past Continuous Tense‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّبظٟ اٌّغزّش‬

‫ِالدظخ:‬ ‫رىزت اٌفبطٍخ ئرا ثذأد اٌجٍّخ ثىٍّخ ‪ٚ while‬رذزف ئرا ٚلؼذ فٟ‬ ‫ِٕزظف اٌجٍّخ األٌٚٝ .‬ ‫رزوش دائّب أْ لبػذح ‪ while‬ثٙب فؼالْ األٚي طٛ٠ً ِغزّش ٚ ا٢خش‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ِفبجئ ٚ٘ٛ ِبػٟ ثغ١ط.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّغزمجً اٌّغزّش ‪6. Future Continuous Tense‬‬
‫)?‪(What will be happening‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ شٟء ِزٛلغ دذٚصٗ فٟ اٌّغزمجً ٚ٠غزّش ٌفزشح .‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ :‬

‫) ‪ + ing‬فؼً+ ‪( will + be‬‬

‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬

‫‪at‬‬

‫ػٕذ ٌٍضِٓ‬

‫ثذٍٛي ‪by‬‬ ‫وً ،جّ١غ‬

‫فٟ غؼْٛ ‪in‬‬ ‫‪after‬‬ ‫ثؼذ‬

‫‪from…to‬‬

‫‪..ِٓ all‬ئٌٝ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES
6. Future Continuous Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّغزمجً اٌّغزّش‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
By 7.30 tomorrow, I will be flying to Cairo.
They will be waiting for you at 5 o'clock .

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬
‫‪Past participle‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ ‪7. Present Perfect Tense‬‬ ‫)?‪(What has happened‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس دصً فٟ اٌّبظٟ ٚ أزٙٝ لجً ٌذظبد أٚ أزٙٝ فٟ‬ ‫اٌّبظٟ ٚ الصاٌذ آصبسٖ ِٛجٛدح دزٝ ا٢ْ.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ:‬

‫‪I‬‬ ‫اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼً ‪has / have + past participle‬‬

‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬ ‫‪since‬‬ ‫‪yet‬‬ ‫ِٕز‬ ‫دزٝ ا٢ْ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫دذ٠ض ً‬ ‫‪for‬‬ ‫ٌّذح‬ ‫‪just‬‬ ‫‪never‬‬ ‫فٟ اٌزٛ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أثذً‬

‫فٟ األثذ ‪ever‬‬ ‫‪already‬‬ ‫ب‬ ‫رّبِ ً‬

‫‪recently‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES
7. Present Perfect Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
َ‫اٌّعبسع اٌزب‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I have lived in Riyadh for six years. I have not visited him since 1995. Ahmed has already finished his homework. She has written three letters just now.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

TENSES
Since & For

‫األصِٕخ‬
•

Since means “from some definite point or period n the past up to now”

.ْ٢‫رؼٕٟ وٍّخ ”ِٕز“ اػزجبسا ِٓ ٔمطخ أٚ فزشح ِذذدح فٟ اٌّبظٟ ٚ دزٝ ا‬ ً
For means “a definite period of time”
•

.‫رؼٕٟ وٍّخ ”ٌّذح“ ػٍٝ فزشح صِٕ١خ‬ since
2 o’clock Monday yesterday last night last week/ last month/ last year 1996

‫ِٕز‬

for

‫ٌّذح‬

a moment 3 minutes an hour many hours 3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months a year

last century
he came…………

10 years
a century

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّبظٟ اٌزبَ ‪8. Past Perfect Tense‬‬
‫)?‪(What had happened‬‬
‫‪Past participle‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس دصً ٚ أزٙٝ فٟ ٌذظخ ِب فٟ صِٓ اٌّبظٟ.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ:‬

‫‪I‬‬ ‫اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼً ‪had +past participle‬‬

‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬

‫‪after‬‬ ‫‪when‬‬

‫‪before‬‬ ‫‪as soon as‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES
8. Past Perfect Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
َ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌزب‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I had washed before I prayed. They went home after they had finished their work. Ahmed had done his homework before he went to school. As soon as they had bought a car, they drove to Makkah. .َ‫الدظ أْ ٘زا اٌضِٓ غبٌجً ِب ٠أرٟ ِؼٗ صِٓ اٌّبػٟ اٌجغ١ط اٌزٞ دذس ثؼذ أزٙبء اٌّبػٟ اٌزب‬ ‫ب‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّغزمجً اٌزبَ ‪9. Future Perfect Tense‬‬
‫)?…‪(What will have happened by‬‬
‫‪Past paticiple‬‬

‫‪ I‬اٌضبٌش ٌٍفؼً ‪will + have + past participle‬‬ ‫اٌزظش٠ف‬ ‫‪by‬‬ ‫ثذٍٛي‬ ‫‪at‬‬ ‫ػٕذ‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس ِزٛلغ دذٚصٗ ٚ أزٙبؤٖ فٟ صِٓ ِب فٟ اٌّغزمجً.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ:‬ ‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES
9. Future Perfect Tense

‫األصِٕخ‬
َ‫اٌّغزمجً اٌزب‬

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
By 2.00 this afternoon, I will have finished my work.
At 10.00 tonight, she will have written five letters.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪TENSES‬‬

‫األصِٕخ‬

‫اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش ‪10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense‬‬
‫)?‪(What has been happening‬‬

‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دذس ٚلغ جضء ِٕٗ ٚ رُ فٟ اٌّبظٟ ٚ ٌىٕٗ ِغزّش دزٝ ا٢ْ.‬ ‫٠زىْٛ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ِٓ:‬

‫‪+ ing‬فؼً+ ‪has / have + been‬‬ ‫‪for‬‬ ‫ٌّذح‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫٠أرٟ ٘زا اٌضِٓ ػبدح ِغ وٍّبد ِضً :‬

‫‪since‬‬

‫ِٕز‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

TENSES

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش‬

10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
I have been studying English for six years.
She has been sleeping since 2 o’clock.
(I am still studying English)

(She is still sleeping)

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

TENSES

‫األصِٕخ‬
‫اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش‬

10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

‫ ٚ اٌّؼبسع‬Present Perfect Cont. ‫ٌىٟ ٔفشق ث١ٓ اٌّؼبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش‬ :‫ الدظ األِضٍخ اٌزبٌ١خ‬Present Perfect
Maha started making cakes three hours ago. There are now one hundred cakes on the table. :ّْ ‫ِٓ ٘زٖ اٌجٍّز١ٓ ٔى‬ ٛ
‫ اٌّعبسع اٌزبَ اٌّغزّش‬Present Perfect Continuous Tense

She has been making cakes for three hours. She has made 100 cakes..
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

َ‫ اٌّعبسع اٌزب‬Present Perfect Tense

Imperatives

‫ط١غخ األِش‬

Imperatives are verbs used at the beginning of sentences either in the affirmative or negative to indicate instructions, invitations, signs and notices or telling someone what to do.
ٓ‫ط١غخ األِش ٟ٘ أفؼبي رغزخذَ فٟ ثذا٠خ اٌجًّ أِب رىْٛ فٟ اإلصجبد ٌزؼجش ػ‬ .ً‫اٌزؼٍ١ّبد، اٌذػٜٛ، اإلشبساد ٚ اٌّالدظبد أٚ ئخجبس شخض ِبرا ٠فؼ‬ The Imperatives uses the simple form of the • verb such as: walk, read, open,….etc. .‫رغزخذَ ط١غخ األِش اٌظ١غخ اٌجغ١طخ ٌٍفؼً أٞ اٌزظش٠ف األٚي‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Imperatives ‫ط١غخ األِش‬ ‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬
Give Instructions ‫إػطبء رؼٍ١ّبد‬ Mix the flour and the sugar. (Affirmative) ‫إصجبد‬ Take two tablets every four hours. (Affirmative) ‫إصجبد‬ Make Invitations ٜٛ‫ص١غخ اٌذػ‬ Come in; make yourselves at home. (Affirmative) ‫إصجبد‬ Please start; do not wait (Negative) f or me. ٟ‫ٔف‬ Tell someone what to do open your book. ٍٗ‫إخجبس شخص ِب ع١فؼ‬ (Affirmative) ‫إصجبد‬ (Negative) ٟ‫ٔف‬ Do not forget to post the letter.

‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Imperatives ‫ط١غخ األِش‬
‫أِضٍــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬ Give Warnings ‫ئػطبء رذز٠شاد‬ ‫( ئصجبد‬Affirmative) Keep out! Danger. Make Signs & Notices ‫رىٛ٠ٓ ئشبساد ٚ ِالدظبد‬ ‫ئصجبد‬ (Affirmative) Push. ‫( ئصجبد‬Affirmative) Insert 2 X 50 SR. ‫( ئصجبد‬Affirmative) Keep off the grass.. Make Requests ‫رىٛ٠ٓ اٌطٍت‬ Please open the door (Affirmative)

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
A modal has only one form of the verb for all persons, but it can have several meanings and time frames, depending on the context in which it is used. ‫اٌفؼً إٌبلض ٌٗ ط١غخ ٚادذح ِغ جّ١غ األشخبص ٌٚىٓ ٌٗ ػذح ِؼبٟٔ ٚ أشىبي صِٕ١خ دغت‬
.ٗ١‫اٌّذزٜٛ اٌزٞ رغزخذَ ف‬ Form ‫اٌص١غخ‬ shall, should, will would, may, might, can, could, ought to + )ً‫(اٌزصش٠ف األٚي ٌٍفؼ‬

must,

Modals have no infinitives or past participles. .‫ٌ١ظ ٌٍفؼً إٌبلص ِصذس أٚ رصش٠ف صبٌش‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
Modals ‫األفؼبي‬
‫المساعده‬

Expresses: :ٓ‫رؼجش ػ‬ Promise ‫ٚػذ‬ ُ١ّ‫رص‬

Example ‫ِضبي‬ You shall take a reward. He does not want to obey me: but he shall. You shall be punished if you come late.

shall

Determination Threat

‫رٙذ٠ذ‬

should

Duty

‫اٌٛاجت‬

You should obey your teachers.
You should stop smoking. He will visit us tomorrow. I will travel when I like. We will do as you wish.

Advice or opinion ٞ‫إٌص١ذخ أٚ اٌشأ‬

will

The simple future tense. ‫ص١غخ اٌّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط‬ Determination or promise ‫اٌزصّ١ُ أٚ اٌٛػذ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
Modals
‫األفؼبي المساعده‬ might

Expresses: :ٓ‫رؼجش ػ‬
Possibility ‫اإلِىبٔ١خ‬ Ability ‫اٌّمذسح‬ Ability in the future ً‫اٌّمذسح ػٍٝ اٌّغزمج‬ Past, present or future possibility / ‫اإلِىبٔ١خ فٟ اٌّبظٟ/ اٌّعبسع‬ ً‫اٌّغزمج‬ Necessity ‫اٌعشٚسح‬ The past form of must: past necessity ٟ‫اٌعشٚسح فٟ اٌّبظ‬
‫اٌغبثك‬

Example ‫ِضبي‬
I hoped that I might succeed. I thought that the weather might change He can do it carefully. He is able to solve the problem. I shall be able to help you. Fahad could drive his car a year ago. Ali is not in class today. He could be sick. Do not leave now. It could rain now. You must listen to your teachers. Faisal could not come to our dinner party. He had to stay home to study.

can, am/is/are able to shall be able, will be able could

must had to

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬

Expresses: :ٓ‫رؼجش ػ‬ Advice ‫إٌظ١ذخ‬ Actions that were advisable in the past ٓ‫أدذاس وبْ ِٓ اٌّغزذغ‬ ٟ‫ػٍّٙب فٟ اٌّبػ‬

Example ‫ِضبي‬ You ought to help the poor.

ought to + infinitive ought to have + past participle

You ought to have studied. (You did not. That was a mistake)

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Modals
Affirmative Negative

‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
Question Short Answers

‫إصجبد‬

ٟ‫ٔف‬

‫إصجبد‬

‫إجبثبد ِخزصشح‬
Affirmative

Negative
No, they should not. No, he will not. No, he would not.

They should eat now. He will leave. He would succeed. I might succeed. I may sleep.

They should not eat now. He will not leave. He would not succeed. I might not succeed. I may not sleep.

Should they eat now? Will he leave? Would he leave?

Yes, they should. Yes, he will. Yes, he would.

Might I succeed?

May I sleep?

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Modals ‫األفؼبي المساعده‬
Affirmative ‫إصجبد‬ Negative ٟ‫ٔف‬ Question ‫إصجبد‬ Short Answers ‫إجبثبد ِخزصشح‬
Affirmative Negative

I can do it. He could talk. We could have a test tomorrow.

I cannot do it. He could not talk. We could not have a test tomorrow. You must not go now. You ought not to help them.

Can I do it? Could he talk? Could we have a test tomorrow? Must you go now? Ought you to help them?

Yes, you can. Yes, he could. Yes, you could.

No, you can not. No, he could not. No, he could not.

You must go now. You ought to help them.

Yes, I must. Yes, I ought to.

No, I must not. No, I ought not.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Comparing Adjectives ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌظفبد‬
1. Comparing Short Adjectives ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد اٌمص١شح‬

than

‫اٌمص١شح صُ وٍّخ‬

er

:ٓ١‫1. اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ ش١ئ١ٓ أٚ شخظ‬
‫ألغٍت اٌصفبد‬ ‫فٟ ٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ اٌّمبسٔخ ٔالدظ إظبفخ اٌالدمخ‬
• •

Ali is older than Ahmed. My Car is faster than yours. .‫ فمط‬r ‫فإٔٔب ٔع١ف‬ safer than safe simpler than simple .‫وبٌؼبدح‬

e

‫إرا أزٙذ اٌصفخ ثذشف‬
• •

er

‫صُ ٔع١ف‬

i

ٌٝ‫إ‬

y

‫فإٔٔب ٔمٍت اي‬ easy heavy

y

‫إرا أزٙذ اٌصفخ ثذشف‬
• •

easier than heavier than
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Comparing Adjectives‬‬ ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌظفبد‬
‫‪1. Comparing Short Adjectives‬‬ ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد اٌمص١شح‬

‫٘زٖ اٌّشح.‬

‫‪est‬‬

‫ٔالدظ ٕ٘ب أّ٘١خ وٍّخ ‪ the‬اٌزٟ رغجك اٌصفخ اٌّمبسٔخ ٚ ٠الدظ إظبفخ‬ ‫.‪Everest is the highest mountain‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫.‪This is the biggest building in Riyadh‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫فإٔٔب ال ٔع١ف ‪ e‬جذ٠ذح.‬ ‫‪the safest safe‬‬

‫2. اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ أوضش ِٓ ش١ئ١ٓ أٚ شخص١ٓ:‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫إرا أزٙذ اٌصفخ ثذشف‬
‫•‬

‫وبٌؼبدح.‬

‫‪est‬‬

‫صُ ٔع١ف‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫إٌٝ‬

‫‪y‬‬

‫فإٔٔب ٔمٍت اي‬ ‫‪easy‬‬

‫إرا أزٙذ اٌصفخ ثذشف ‪y‬‬
‫•‬

‫‪the easiest‬‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Comparing Adjectives ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌظفبد‬
2. Comparing Long Adjectives

‫ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد اٌطٛ٠ٍخ‬
:ٓ١‫1. اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ ش١ئ١ٓ أٚ شخص‬

.ٓ٠‫ٕ٘ب رزىْٛ اٌصفخ ِٓ أوضش ِٓ ِمطغ، وً ِمطغ ٠ذزٛٞ ػٍٝ أوضش ِٓ دشف١ٓ ِزذشو١ٓ ِزجبػذ‬

beautiful

ً١ّ‫ج‬

difficult correct fluent
.est ‫ٚ ال‬

‫صؼت‬ ‫صذ١خ‬ ‫فص١خ‬

dangerous ‫خطش‬ important ُِٙ

er

ً‫٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ اٌصفبد ال ٠مج‬

than

‫صُ وٍّخ‬

more

‫ففٟ دبٌخ اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ ش١ئ١ٓ رغجك ٘زٖ اٌصفبد وٍّخ‬

Jeddah is more beautiful than Riyadh. French is more difficult than English.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Comparing Adjectives ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌظفبد‬
2. Comparing Long Adjectives

‫ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد اٌطٛ٠ٍخ‬
:ٓ١‫شخص‬

ٚ‫. اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ أوضش ِٓ ش١ئ١ٓ أ‬

the most ‫فٟ دبٌخ اٌّمبسٔخ ث١ٓ أوضش ِٓ ش١ئ١ٓ رغجك ٘زٖ اٌظفبد وٍّخ‬ Amal is the most beautiful girl in her class. This is the most important subject in this book.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Comparing Adjectives ‫ِمبسٔخ اٌظفبد‬
2. Comparing Long Adjectives
ٕٝ‫اٌّؼ‬ ‫ج١ذ‬ ‫اٌصفخ‬ good ٓ١ٕ‫ِمبسٔخ ث١ٓ أص‬ better than

‫ِمبسٔخ اٌصفبد اٌطٛ٠ٍخ‬
ٓ١ٕ‫ِمبسٔخ ث١ٓ أوضش ِٓ أص‬ the best
:

‫ع١ئ‬
)‫وض١ش (ٌٍّؼذٚد‬ ‫وض١ش (ٌغ١ش‬ )‫اٌّؼذٚد‬ ‫لٍ١ً (ٌغ١ش‬ )‫اٌّؼذٚد‬ ‫ثؼ١ذ‬

bad
many much little far

worse than
more than

the worst
the most

less than farther than

the least the farthest

Adel is better than his brother at school. This girl is the worst one in her class.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

)‫ِضٍٗ ِضً (ثبٌؼجط‬ ً‫ٌ١ظ ِضٍٗ ِض‬
as……..as

as……..as not as….as
)‫ِضٍٗ ِضً (ثبٌعجط‬

.ٓ١‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا االططالح د١ٓ ٚجٛد ِغبٚاح ث١ٓ طفز‬ Ali is as tall as his brother. This bag is as big as my bag.
not as……..as ً‫ٌ١ظ ِضٍٗ ِض‬

.ٓ١‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا االططالح فٟ دبٌخ ػذَ ٚجٛد ِغبٚاح ث١ٓ طفز‬ Ali is not as tall as his brother. This bag is not as big as my bag.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Adverbs

] ‫اٌظشٚف [ األدٛاي‬

An Adverb always modifies a verb. ‫ب‬ ً ّ‫اٌظشف ٠ظف اٌفؼً دائ‬
Most adverbs are formed by adding adjectives. .‫ٌٍظفخ‬

ly to the

ly

‫ِؼظُ اٌظشٚف رى ّْ ثاػبفخ‬ ٛ

nice

nicely slow happy careful
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

carefully
ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

slowly happily

] ‫ اٌظشٚف [ األدٛاي‬Adverbs
There are many kinds of adverbs: :‫ٕ٘بن ػذح أٔٛاع ِٓ اٌظشٚف‬ Adverbs of manner: express how an action was done. .‫اٌظشٚف اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغٍٛن :اٌظشٚف اٌزٟ رؼجش ػٓ و١ف١خ ٚلٛع اٌذذس‬ I closed the window carefully. The soldier fought bravely. Adverbs of time express the time when an action is or was done. : .ً‫ظشٚف اٌضِبْ :اٌظشٚف اٌزٟ رؼجش ػٓ و١ف١خ صِٓ دذٚس اٌفؼ‬ I’m going to leave for Cairo tomorrow. What’s going to happen next?

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbs

]‫اٌظشٚف [األدٛاي‬

Adverbs of place: express when an action is done. .‫ظشٚف اٌّىبْ :اٌظشٚف اٌزٟ رؼجش ػٓ ِىبْ ٚلٛع اٌذذس‬ I shall stand here. I’ve looked everywhere for my lost pen.
Some words that end in ly can be both adjectives or adverbs. Most of them refer to time. :ً‫ ِٓ اٌّّىٓ أْ رىْٛ ظشٚف أٚ صفبد. ِؼظُ ٘زٖ اٌىٍّبد رذي ػٍٝ اٌٛلذ. ِض‬ly ‫ثؼط اٌىٍّبد اٌزٟ رٕزٟٙ ثـ‬

‫٠ِٛ١ب‬ ً ‫شٙش٠ب‬ ً

daily monthly

‫أعجٛػ١ب‬ ً ‫عٕٛ٠ب‬ ً

weekly yearly

A daily newspaper is published daily. We get up early to catch an early train.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbs

]‫اٌظشٚف [األدٛاي‬

Adverbs of frequency tell how often we do something : :‫اٌظشٚف اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌزىشاس :اٌزٟ رخجشٔب ػٓ ػذد ِشاد دذٚس اٌشٟء. ِٚٓ ٘زٖ اٌظشٚف‬
always usually seldom never ‫ب‬ ًّ‫دائ‬ ‫ػبدح‬ ‫ا‬ ً‫ٔبدس‬ ‫ا‬ ً‫أثذ‬ often sometimes rarely ‫ب‬ ً‫غبٌج‬ ‫ب‬ ًٔ‫أد١ب‬

‫ا‬ ً‫ٔبدساً جذ‬

occasionally ‫ِٓ دٟ ٢خش‬

Verb to BE: ‫فؼً ٠ىْٛ: ٠أرٟ ظشف اٌزىشاس ثؼذ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ‬ Ali is always on time. Other Verbs: ٞ‫األفؼبي األخشٜ: ٠أرٟ ظشف اٌزىشاس لجً اٌفؼً اٌؼبد‬ Ali sometimes reads a book.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Time ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌٛلذ‬
Conjunctions ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬
when, whenever, as, as soon as, while, after, before, until, since
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of time with the main sentence.

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌٛلذ ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

:‫ِضبي‬ I found a watch. I was walking in the street. I found a watch while I was walking in the street.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Place ْ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىب‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬
where, wherever
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of place with the main sentence. .‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىبْ ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ :‫ِضبي‬ Wherever he goes his brother follows him.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Cause ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغجت‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬

because, since, as
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of cause with the main sentence.
•

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغجت ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

:‫ِضبي‬
I stayed at home yesterday because it was raining.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Manner ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغٍٛن‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬

As, as if, as though
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of manner with the main sentence.
•

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغٍٛن ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ as if .ٟ‫ِبظٟ غ١ش دم١م‬ ‫دائّب ٠أرٟ ثؼذ‬ ً

:‫ِضبي‬
He speaks as if he were a king.
.‫ألٔٙب غ١ش دم١م١خ ٚ ِجشد خ١بي‬ was ِٓ ً ‫ ثذ‬were َ‫الدظ اعزخذا‬ ‫ال‬ would َ‫الدظ اعزخذا‬

It looks as if it would rain. .‫ ٚ٘ٛ ِبظٟ غ١ش دم١مٟ ٚ أٔٙب ِجشد رٛلغ‬will ِٓ ً ‫ثذ‬ ‫ال‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Purpose ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغشع‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬ that, so that, in order that These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of purpose with the main sentence. .‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌغشض ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬
a) We use (may + infinitive) when the main verb is in the present or future.

.ً‫ٔغزخذَ (سثّب+اٌّصذس) ػٕذِب ٠ىْٛ اٌفؼً اٌشئ١غٟ فٟ اٌّعبسع أٚ اٌّغزمج‬ :‫ِضبي‬ He works hard. He wishes to succeed. He works hard so that (that or in order that) he may succeed.
b) We use (might + infinitive) when the main verb is in the simple past.

.‫ٔغزخذَ (سثّب+اٌّصذس) ػٕذِب ٠ىْٛ اٌفؼً اٌشئ١غٟ فٟ اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬ :‫ِضبي‬ He was walking quickly in order that he might not be late.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Result ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ إٌز١جخ‬
We use: to link the main sentence with the adverbial clause of result. so + adjective or adverb + that such + noun+ that

.‫رغزخذَ ٘زٖ اٌص١غبد ٌشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ إٌز١جخ ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

:‫ِضبي‬
The man is so weak that he cannot walk. The student walked so slowly that he reached school late. He wrote such good answers that he got he marks. It was such a good performance that everybody applauded.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Contrast ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌزٕبلغ‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬
though, although
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence.

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌزٕبلط ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

:‫ِضبي‬
He is poor. He is happy. Although (though) he is poor, he is happy.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Contrast ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّمبسٔخ‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬
as….as, so……as
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence.
•

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّمبسٔخ ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

:‫ِضبي‬
Nabeel is as clever as his father. Sami is not so strong as his brother.
• •

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Adverbial Clause of Condition ‫اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌذبٌخ‬
Conjunctions: ‫أدٚاد اٌشثط‬

if, unless (if not)
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of condition with the main sentence.

.‫أدٚاد اٌشثط ٘زٖ رشثط اٌجًّ اٌظشف١خ اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌذبٌخ ِغ اٌجٍّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ :‫أِضٍخ‬ If we are ill, we go to bed. (conditional if type 1) If we work hard, we will succeed. (conditional if type 1) If we worked hard, we would succeed. (conditional if type 2) If he had fallen, he would have hurt himself. (conditional if type 3) Unless the rain falls, the crops will not grow. (conditional if type 1)

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

] ‫ِضٍٗ ِضً [ثبٌؼجط‬ ً‫ٌ١ظ ِضٍٗ ِض‬
as……..as

as……..as not as….as
] ‫ِضٍٗ ِضً [ثبٌعجط‬

.ٓ١ٌ‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا االططالح د١ٓ ٚجٛد ِغبٚاح ث١ٓ دب‬ Ahmed drives as dangerously as his brother.
not as……..as ً‫ٌ١ظ ِضٍٗ ِض‬

.ٓ١ٌ‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا االططالح فٟ دبٌخ ػذَ ٚجٛد ِغبٚاح ث١ٓ دب‬ Hamad does not drive as dangerously as his brother.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫‪Active & Passive‬‬ ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
‫٠مصذ ثبٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٘ٛ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ ٠ىْٛ فبػٍٙب ِؼٍِٛ ً.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫٠مصذ ثبٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي ٘ٛ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ ٠ىْٛ فبػٍٙب غ١ش ِؼٍَٛ‬ ‫أٚ لٍ١ً األّ٘١خ.‬ ‫ٕ٘بن ػذح أٔٛاع ِٓ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي:‬ ‫‪Statements‬‬ ‫‪Questions‬‬ ‫‪Command‬‬ ‫اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ‬ ‫األعئٍـــــــــــخ‬ ‫األِـــــــــــــش‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
A. Statements ‫اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ‬

Ahmed broke the window yesterday. . Ahmed ٛ٘ٚ ٍَٛ‫ ٚرٌه ألْ اٌفبػً ف١ٙب ِؼ‬Active ٍَٛ‫٘زٖ اٌجٍّخ ِجٕٟ ٌٍّؼ‬ ___________________________________________ The window was broken yesterday. The window was broken (by Ahmed) yesterday. Ahmed ٛ٘ٚ ٍَٛ‫ ٚرٌه ألْ اٌفبػً ف١ٙب غ١ش ِؼ‬Passive ‫٘زٖ اٌجٍّخ ِجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ ‫ وّب فٟ اٌجٍّخ‬by ‫وّب فٟ اٌجٍّخ األٌٚٝ أٚ ٚػغ ِىبْ اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ِغجٛلً ثــ‬ ‫ب‬ .‫اٌضبٔ١خ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Active & Passive‬‬ ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
‫‪A. Statements‬‬ ‫اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ‬

‫ٌٍزذٛ٠ً ِٓ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ‪ Active‬ئٌٝ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي ‪ Passive‬فٟ‬ ‫دبٌخ اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ ٔزجغ اٌخطٛاد اٌزبٌ١خ:‬
‫1. اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ٠ظجخ فبػ ً. (٠ؼشف اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ثٛجٛدٖ ثؼذ اٌفؼً ِجبششح)‬ ‫ال‬ ‫2. ٔؼغ فؼً ‪ to be‬فٟ ٔفظ صِٓ اٌجٍّخ ِٕبعجً ٌٍّفؼٛي ثٗ.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫3. ػغ اٌفؼً األطٍٟ فٟ اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٌش.)‪(Past participle‬‬ ‫4. ٔؼغ اٌفبػً ِغجٛلب ثــ ‪ٚ by‬لذ ٠شطت ئرا وبْ ػّ١شً.‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫5. أٞ ص٠بدح فٟ اٌجٍّخ ٠ٛػغ وّب ٘ٛ فٟ ٔٙب٠خ اٌجٍّخ دْٚ رغ١١ش.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
A. Statements
Active ٍَٛ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّؼ‬ Ali writes letters. Huda wrote the lesson. Saleh will buy a car. Khaled is helping Ahmed. She has eaten the apple.

‫اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ‬

:‫أِضٍـــــــــــــــــــخ‬
Passive ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ Letters are written (by Ali). The lesson was written (by Huda). A car will be bought (by Saleh). Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). The apple has been eaten (by her).

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
A. Statements ‫اٌجًّ اٌخجش٠خ‬
:ٍٟ٠ ‫ِغ األصِٕخ اٌّخزٍفخ وّب‬
am, is, are was, were shall be, will be

to be

ً‫٠ظشف فؼ‬

‫اٌّعبسع اٌجغ١ط‬ ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬ ‫اٌّغزمجً اٌجغ١ط‬

am being, is being, are being
was being, were being has been, have been had been can be, could be, may be, might be, must be, ought to be

‫اٌّعبسع اٌّغزّش‬
‫اٌّبظٟ اٌّغزّش‬ َ‫اٌّعبسع اٌزب‬ َ‫اٌّبظٟ اٌزب‬

‫وً فؼً ِغبػذ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Active & Passive‬‬ ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
‫‪B. Questions‬‬ ‫األعئٍخ‬

‫ٌٍزذٛ٠ً ِٓ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ‪ Active‬ئٌٝ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي ‪ Passive‬فٟ‬ ‫دبٌخ األعئٍخ ٔزجغ اٌخطٛاد اٌزبٌ١خ :‬
‫1. اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ٠ظجخ فبػ ً. (٠ؼشف اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ثٛجٛدٖ ثؼذ اٌفؼً ِجبششح)‬ ‫ال‬ ‫2. ٔؼغ فؼً ‪ to be‬فٟ ٔفظ صِٓ اٌغإاي.‬ ‫3. ػغ اٌفؼً األطٍٟ فٟ اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٌش.‬ ‫4. ٔؼغ اٌفبػً ِغجٛلب ثــ ‪ٚ by‬لذ ٠شطت ئرا وبْ ػّ١شً.‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ً‬ ‫5. أٞ ص٠بدح فٟ اٌجٍّخ ٠ٛػغ وّب ٘ٛ فٟ ٔٙب٠خ اٌجٍّخ دْٚ رغ١١ش.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
B. Questions ‫األعئٍخ‬

:‫أِضٍـــــــــــــــــــخ‬
Active ٍَٛ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّؼ‬ Does Ahmed write letters? Did he eat the cake?. Will Ali buy a new car? Why is he using a pen? Who broke the window? Passive ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ Are letters written (by Ali)? Was the cake eaten (by him)? Will a new car be bought (by Ali)? Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). By whom the window was broken?

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Active & Passive‬‬ ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
‫‪C. Command‬‬ ‫األِش‬

‫ٌٍزذٛ٠ً ِٓ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ‪ Active‬ئٌٝ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي ‪ Passive‬فٟ‬ ‫دبٌخ األِش ٔزجغ اٌخطٛاد اٌزبٌ١خ :‬ ‫1. ػغ وٍّخ ‪ let‬فٟ أٚي اٌجٍّخ.‬ ‫2. اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ٠ظجخ فبػ ً. (٠ؼشف اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ثٛجٛدٖ ثؼذ اٌفؼً ِجبششح)‬ ‫ال‬ ‫3. ػغ فؼً ‪ to be‬فٟ ٔفظ اٌضِٓ أٞ األِش ف١ىْٛ ‪. be‬‬ ‫4. ػغ اٌفؼً األطٍٟ فٟ اٌزظش٠ف اٌضبٌش.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
C. Command ‫األِش‬

:‫أِضٍـــــــــــــــــــخ‬
Active ٍَٛ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّؼ‬ Passive ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬

Do the work.

Let the work be done.

Open the door.

Let the door be opened.

Send this letter to your friend.

Let this letter be sent to your friend.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Active & Passive ‫اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّؼٍَٛ ٚ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬
‫ِالدظـــــــــــــــــــــــخ‬

‫لذ رىْٛ اٌجٍّخ اٌّشاد رذٛ٠ٍٙب إٌٝ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي ِٕف١خ أٚ عؤاال ِز٠ ً ٌزا ٠جت‬ ‫ً ال‬ .‫اٌّذبفظخ ػٍٝ ص١غخ ٘زا اٌغؤاي أٚ اٌزز٠١ً ػٕذ اٌزذٛ٠ً إٌٝ اٌّجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ ‫أِضٍـــــــــــــــــــخ‬
Active ٍَٛ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّؼ‬ Ali does not write letters Dickens wrote those novels, didn’t he? Dickens didn’t write that play, did he? Passive ‫ِجٕٟ ٌٍّجٙٛي‬ Letters are not written (by Ali). Those novels were written by Dickens, weren’t they? That play wasn’t written by Dickens, was it?

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫‪Prepositions‬‬ ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬
‫دشٚف اٌجش وض١شح ٚ ِزشبثىخ، فمذ ٠ىْٛ ٌٍذشف اٌٛادذ أوضش ِٓ‬ ‫ِؼٕٝ ٚرٌه دغت ِٛلؼٗ فٟ اٌجٍّخ. ٚ اٌطش٠مخ اٌّضٍٝ ٌزؼٍُ دشٚف‬ ‫اٌجش ٟ٘ اٌزذسة ػٍ١ٙب ِٓ خالي جًّ ٚ ٌ١غذ وذشٚف ِٕفصٍخ.‬
‫‪A preposition shows the relation between the‬‬ ‫‪subject and the object. There are also prepositions‬‬ ‫.‪of time and prepositions of place‬‬

‫رذي دشٚف اٌجش ػٍٝ اٌؼاللخ ث١ٓ اٌفبػً ٚ اٌّفؼٛي ثٗ ٚ ٠ٛجذ أ٠ع ً دشٚف جش داٌخ ػٍٝ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اٌضِٓ ٚ دشٚف جش داٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىبْ.‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

Use َ‫االعزخذا‬

Example ‫ِضبي‬

on

Days

َ‫األ٠ب‬

On Monday
On Friday morning My birthday is on June 10. I will travel on the National Day. The tea is on the table.

Day + morning, night ‫األ٠بَ + اٌفزشح‬ Afternoon, evening, date ‫اٌزبس٠خ‬ Special days ‫أ٠بَ خبطخ‬ To mean above ‫ثّؼٕٝ فٛق‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions

‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

Use

َ‫االعزخذا‬

Example ‫ِضبي‬ The trees grow in spring. I was born in 1968. The test is in May. I go to work in the morning. I go home in the evening He is in the masjid.

in

Season ً‫فظ‬ Year ‫عٕخ‬ Month ‫شٙش‬ The morning ‫اٌظجبح‬ The evening ‫اٌغّبء‬ To mean inside ً‫فٟ اٌذاخ‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬ Use َ‫االعزخذا‬ Example ‫ِضبي‬

at

Time
Festival

‫اٌٛلذ‬

I will come back at 2 o’clock.
I will meat you at the school festival. I will talk to my father at lunch. We will travel at the weekend. We pray at noon everyday. We sleep at night. ْ‫ٌٍّىب‬ He is at the grocer’s.
ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫األػ١بد ٚ االدزفبالد‬ ‫أٚلبد اٌٛججبد‬

Meal times

The weekend ‫ٔٙب٠خ األعجٛع‬ Noon Night ‫اٌظٙش‬ ً١ٌٍ‫ا‬

To mean place
‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬ Use َ‫االعزخذا‬

ْ‫دشٚف اٌجش اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىب‬
Example ‫ِضبي‬

at

at an exact ‫فٟ ِىبْ ِذذد‬ place at work at the table ًّ‫فٟ اٌؼ‬ ‫ػٍٝ اٌطبٌٚخ‬

He lives at number 5, King Fahad Street. Ahmed is at work. They are standing at the dinner table The cat is under the table. The teacher is in front of the class. I go to school everyday.

under in front of to

‫ثّؼٕٝ رذذ‬ َ‫ثّؼٕٝ أِب‬ ٖ‫ِىبْ/ارجب‬ direction/place
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬ Use َ‫االعزخذا‬
To mean inside ً‫ثّؼٕٝ داخ‬ ‫فٟ ثٍذ‬

ْ‫دشٚف اٌجش اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىب‬
Example ‫ِضبي‬
Put this book in the box. I live in Saudi Arabia. I live in Al-Madina. The baby is in bed. You were in the club last night. Ali is sitting in his chair.
ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

in

In a country

In a ‫فٟ ِذ٠ٕخ/ فٟ شبسع‬ town/street in bed ‫فٟ اٌفشاػ‬ In a ‫فٟ ِجٕٝ أٚ ِٕطمخ‬ building or area In a chair ٟ‫ػٍٝ اٌىشع‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬ Use َ‫االعزخذا‬

ْ‫دشٚف اٌجش اٌذاٌخ ػٍٝ اٌّىب‬
Example ‫ِضبي‬

with from behind between

‫ثّؼٕٝ ثـ‬ ِٓ ٕٝ‫ثّؼ‬ ‫ثّؼٕٝ خٍف‬ ٓ١‫ثّؼٕٝ ث‬

I write with a pen. I am from Riyadh. The wall is behind the class. Samah is sitting between Fatma and Salwa.

on

ْٛ٠‫ ػٍٝ شبشخ اٌزٍفض‬Ali watches football on TV every TV Saturday.

‫اٌٛلذ اٌّذذد‬ Time
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

He arrives on time.

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
More Examples
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

‫ِض٠ذا ِٓ األِضٍخ‬ ً
Example ‫ِضبي‬

in on at

ٟ‫ف‬ ٍٝ‫ػ‬ ‫ػٕذ، ثبٌمشة‬

The medicine is in the bottle. The knife is on the table. Someone is at the door.

near

ِٓ ‫ثبٌمشة‬
ٓ١‫ث‬ ً‫ِمبث‬ ٟ‫داخً، ف‬ ٍٝ‫ػ‬
‫اٌغبثك‬

Ahmed is sitting near the window.
The house is between the school and the masjid. The bank is opposite to the post office. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. The water is spilling onto the floor.
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

between opposite into onto

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
More Examples
Prepositions

‫ِض٠ذاً ِٓ األِضٍخ‬
Example

‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

‫ِضبي‬

off ٍٝ‫ِٓ ػ‬ out of
‫ِٓ فٛق‬

The man is falling off the chair. The child is falling out of the window. The carpenter cut across the wood. The light is over (above) the table.

across ‫ػجش، خالي‬ over/above ٍٝ‫فٛق، أػ‬
ً‫رذذ، أعف‬

under/below through ‫ػجش، خالي‬ among ‫ٚعط‬
‫اٌغبثك‬

The fire is under (below) the stairs.
The ball is going through the window. The teacher is sitting among the students.
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
More Examples
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

‫ِض٠ذً ِٓ األِضٍخ‬ ‫ا‬
Example ‫ِضبي‬

in on at

ٟ‫ف‬ ٍٝ‫ػ‬ ‫ػٕذ، ثبٌمشة‬

The medicine is in the bottle. The knife is on the table. Someone is at the door.

near

ِٓ ‫ثبٌمشة‬
ٓ١‫ث‬ ً‫ِمبث‬

Ahmed is sitting near the window.
The house is between the school and the mosque. The bank is opposite to the post office. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. The water is spilling onto the floor.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

between opposite into onto

ٟ‫داخً، ف‬ ٍٝ‫ػ‬

Use of Prepositions ‫اعزخذاَ دشٚف اٌجش‬
More Examples
Prepositions ‫دشٚف اٌجش‬

‫ِض٠ذً ِٓ األِضٍخ‬ ‫ا‬
Example ‫ِضبي‬

round ‫دٛي‬ in front of َ‫أِب‬ behind ‫خٍف، ٚساء‬ on top of ٍٝ‫فٛق، ػ‬

The car is going round the tree. The child is sitting in front of the TV. The headmaster is sitting behind the pupils. The sweets are on top of the table.

at the side of ‫ثجبٔت‬
along ‫ػٍٝ طٛي‬ next to ‫ثجٛاس‬

The garage is at the side of the house.
The man is walking along the street. The bank is next to the baker’s.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫‪Question-Tags‬‬ ‫األعئٍخ اٌّز٠ٍخ‬
‫٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ األعئٍخ ٠طٍك ػٍ١ٙب األعئٍخ اٌّز٠ٍخ ٟٚ٘ رؼبدي‬ ‫”أٌ١ظ وزٌه؟“ ثبٌٍغخ اٌؼشث١خ. ٚ٘ٛ ػجبسح ػٓ عؤاي ِخزصش‬ ‫٠زجغ جٍّخ خجش٠خ رغجمٗ ٚ٘زا اٌغؤاي ػبدح ِب ٠خبٌف ٘زٖ اٌجٍّخ‬ ‫ِٓ د١ش اإلصجبد أٚ إٌٔفٟ. فئرا وبٔذ اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ رغجمٗ ِضجزخ‬ ‫٠ىْٛ ٘زا اٌغؤاي فٟ إٌفٟ ٚ إرا وبٔذ ِٕف١خ ٠ىْٛ اٌغؤاي ِضجز ً.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫* أِب جٛاة ٘زا اٌغؤاي ف١زجغ اٌجٍّخ ِٓ د١ش اإلصجبد أٚ إٌفٟ أٞ‬ ‫٠خبٌف اٌغؤاي.‬ ‫* ٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ األعئٍخ ِزذاٚي وض١شاً ػٕذ اٌزذذس ثبٌٍغخ‬ ‫اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ إال أٔٗ ٠مً اعزخذاِٗ فٟ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ اٌّىزٛثخ.‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

‫‪Question-Tags‬‬ ‫األعئٍخ اٌّز٠ٍخ‬
‫”‪Questions that we expect the answer “Yes‬‬ ‫أعئٍخ ٔزٛلغ اإلجبثخ ػٍ١ٙب ثـ“ٔؼُ“‬ ‫أظش ٘زا اٌغؤاي ٚ اإلجبثخ ػٍ١ٗ:‬

‫?‪* There’s a supermarket near here, isn’t there‬‬
‫.‪Yes , there is‬‬

‫*اٌجٍّخ اٌزٟ رمذِذ ٘زا اٌغؤاي جٍّخ ِضجزخ ٌزا جبء اٌغؤاي ػٍ١ٙب (اٌزز٠١ً) ِٕف١ ً. أِب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اٌجٛاة ف١ىْٛ ثبإلصجبد ‪. Yes‬‬
‫ثؼذٖ ٚرٌه ٌٍٕفٟ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫* ٌٚىٟ ٔىْٛ عؤاال ِٓ ٘زا إٌٛع ٔمذَ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ صُ ٔعغ ‪not‬‬ ‫ٚ ا٢ْ أظش اٌّضبي اٌزبٌٟ:‬

‫?‪* You come from the United States, don’t you‬‬

‫.‪Yes, I do‬‬ ‫* فٟ ٘زا اٌّضبي رُ رز٠١ً اٌغؤاي ثبعزخذاَ ‪ٚ do‬رٌه ٌؼذَ ٚجٛد فؼً ِغبػذ.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Question-Tags ‫األعئٍخ اٌّز٠ٍخ‬
Questions that we expect the answer “No” “‫أعئٍخ ٔزٛلغ اإلجبثخ ػٍ١ٙب ثـ“ال‬

1) You don’t come from Saudi Arabia, do you? No, I don’t. 2) It doesn’t take long time by car, does it? No, it doesn’t.
.‫وفؼً ِغبػذ‬

do/does

‫*الدظ ٕ٘ب أْ اٌغؤاي فٟ صِٓ اٌّعبسع اٌجغ١ط ٌزا اعزخذِٕب‬

3) You didn’t travel last year, did you? No, I didn’t.
.‫وفؼً ِغبػذ‬

did

‫*الدظ ٕ٘ب أْ اٌغؤاي فٟ صِٓ اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط ٌزا اعزخذِٕب‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Conditional ”if“ ‫”ٌٛ“ اٌششط١خ‬
1)

if + present ‫ِؼبسع‬

will + ‫رظش٠ف أٚي‬

ٝ‫(إْ رّطش غذاً ، عأثم‬

.ٗ‫٘زا اٌذذس ِّىٓ ٚلٛػ‬ If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. )‫فٟ اٌج١ذ‬ :‫ِضبي‬

If you eat too much, you will become fat.

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫“‪Conditional ”if‬‬ ‫”ٌٛ“ اٌششط١خ‬
‫)2‬ ‫ِبػٟ ‪if + past‬‬ ‫رظش٠ف أٚي + ‪would‬‬

‫٘زا اٌذذس غ١ش ِذزًّ ٚلٛػٗ.‬
‫.‪If Shakespeare lived today, he would use different English‬‬
‫الدظ أْ شىغج١ش ِغزذ١ً أْ ٠ىْٛ د١ب اٌ١َٛ. الدظ أ٠ع ً إٔٔب اعزخذِٕب اٌفؼً اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط ِغ جٍّخ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ٌىٕٗ ال ٠ذي ػٍٝ اٌّبظٟ.‬ ‫ٚ اعزخذِٕب (اٌّصذس + ‪ ) would‬فٟ اٌجضء اٌضبٟٔ ِٓ اٌجٍّخ ٚ٘زٖ ٟ٘ اٌمبػذح:‬ ‫‪if + subject + past‬‬ ‫رظش٠ف أٚي + ‪subject+ would‬‬

‫الدظ أ٠ع ً أْ ‪ be‬رزذٛي إٌٝ ‪ were‬فٟ ٘زٖ اٌمبػذح ٚ ال ٔغزط١غ اعزخذاَ ‪ was‬دزٝ ٌٛ وبْ اٌفبػً‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ِفشدً.‬ ‫ا‬

‫.‪If I were you, I would buy a new car‬‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Conditional ”if“ ‫”ٌٛ“ اٌششط١خ‬
‫٘زا اٌذذس غ١ش ِّىٓ أٚ ِغزذ١ً اْ ٠ىْٛ لذ ٚلغ‬

3)

if + had + ‫رظش٠ف صبٌش‬

would have + ‫رظش٠ف صبٌش‬

If he had lived in Taif, he would have been happy.

If he had visited Makkah, he would have seen the Ka’aba.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Conditional ”if“ ‫”ٌٛ“ اٌششط١خ‬
0) if + present ‫ِؼبسع‬ present ‫ِؼبسع‬

.‫٠غزخذَ ٘زا اٌزشو١ت فٟ اٌذبٌخ اٌزٟ رىْٛ ف١ٙب ٔز١جخ اٌفؼً دم١مخ دائّخ ٚ صبثزخ‬ )ً‫ (ٌٛ إٔٔب غٍ١ٕب اٌّبء، فأٔٗ ٠صجخ ثخبس‬If you boil water, it becomes steam. ‫ا‬ ٟ‫ فٟ اٌّعبسع ٚ ٌ١غذ ف‬becomes ‫ٚ ٘زٖ دم١مخ صبثزخ ٚ ٌ١غذ ِم١ذح ثٛلذ ِؼ١ٓ ٌزا جبءد وٍّخ‬ .ً‫اٌّغزمج‬

0)

if + present ‫ِؼبسع‬

instructions ‫رؼٍ١ّبد‬

If the radio is too loud, turn it off.

Or Turn the radio off if it is too loud.

If you are under 17, don’t drive a car. Or Don’t drive a car if you are under 17.
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
.‫٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ اٌجًّ ٠غّٝ أ٠ع ً اٌىالَ اٌغ١ش ِجبشش‬ ‫ب‬ Indirect Speech There are four kinds of direct and Indirect Speech. :‫ٕ٘بن أسثؼخ أٔٛاع ِٓ اٌىالَ اٌّجبشش ٚ غ١ش اٌّجبشش‬ 1) Statement 2) Question 3) Command 4) Exclamation ‫اٌجٍّخ اٌخجش٠خ‬ ‫اٌغؤاي‬ ‫اٌطٍت‬ ‫اٌزؼجت‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
Statement Direct ‫ِجبشش‬
”I live in Riyadh“ ”We are happy“ She said: "I have not been in the school library recently“. He said to me: "I shall see you tomorrow“.

‫اٌجٍّخ اٌخجش٠خ‬ Indirect ‫غ١ش ِجبشش‬
He said that he lived in Riyadh. They said that they were happy. She said that she had not been to the school library recently. He told me that he would see me the next day.

:‫ٚاٌزٟ رؼٕٟ أظبف‬

:‫إرا وبْ ٕ٘بن (.) ث١ٓ جٍّز١ٓ ٌشخص ِزىٍُ ٚادذ ٔعغ ثذ ً ِٕٙب ػجبسح‬ ‫ال‬
They told him that they would see him the next day and added that they would visit Ahmed.
say, says

They said to him: ”We shall see you tomorrow. We shall visit Ahmed“.
and added that

:‫ِعبسع د١ٕئز ال رغ١ش أصِٕخ اٌجٍّخ إّٔب اٌزغ١١ش ٠ىْٛ فمط فٟ اٌعّبئش‬ She says: ”I will cook the food tomorrow“. We say: ”We are playing football now“.

‫إرا وبٔذ وٍّخ اٌمٛي‬

She says that she will cook the food tomorrow. We say that we are playing football now.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Reported Speech‬‬ ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
‫‪Question‬‬ ‫اٌغؤاي‬

‫إٌٝ والَ ِٕمٛي ‪ٔ Reported‬زجغ اٌخطٛاد‬

‫* ٌزذٛ٠ً عؤاي ِٓ ِجبشش ‪Direct‬‬

‫اٌزبٌ١خ:‬ ‫٠ذذد صِٓ اٌغؤاي ، ٟٚ٘ وّب ٠ٍٟ:‬ ‫‪asked‬‬ ‫1- اٌفؼً‬ ‫ِعبسع ‪Present‬‬ ‫ِبظٟ ‪Past‬‬ ‫ِبظٟ ربَ ‪ِ Past Perfect‬بظٟ ‪Past‬‬ ‫2- إرا وبْ اٌغؤاي ٠ذزٛٞ ػٍٝ أداح عؤاي رغزخذَ ٔفغٙب وأداح سثط.‬ ‫3- ٠زُ رذٛ٠ً اٌغؤاي إٌٝ جٍّخ خجش٠خ ٚ ٘ٛ ثزمذ٠ُ اٌفبػً ػٍٝ اٌفؼً اٌّغبػذ.‬ ‫4- ٠الدظ رغ١١ش ثؼط اٌعّبئش دغت ِؼٕٝ اٌجٍّخ.‬

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
Question
Direct ‫ِجبشش‬

‫اٌغؤاي‬
Indirect ‫غ١ش ِجبشش‬

”What is your name?“ ”Why are you late?“ ”Where is your book?“
”

He asked me what my name was. The teacher asked me why I was late. He asked me where my book was. if He asked me if my school was very large..
do

:‫ وأداح سثط ٌٍغؤاي اٌزٞ ال ٠ذزٛٞ ػٍٝ أداح عؤاي‬if َ‫رغزخذ‬
Is your school very large?“ .‫ادزفٙب ٚ دٛي اٌفؼً إٌٝ صِٓ اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط‬
”

ٚ‫أ‬

doesٍٝ‫ػ‬

ٞٛ‫إرا وبْ اٌغؤاي ٠جذأ أٚ ٠ذز‬

Where do you live?“

He asked me where I lived. I asked him if he went to school.

”Does he go to school?“

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
Question
Direct ‫ِجبشش‬

‫اٌغؤاي‬
Indirect ‫غ١ش ِجبشش‬

‫ ادزفٙب ٚ دٛي اٌفؼً إٌٝ صِٓ اٌّبظٟ اٌجغ١ط (رصش٠ف‬did ٍٝ‫إرا وبْ اٌغؤاي ٠جذأ أٚ ٠ذزٛٞ ػ‬ .) + ‫صبٌش‬ had past participle
”Where did you go yesterday?“ ”Did Ahmed buy a new car?“ Sami asked me where I had gone the day before.

Ali asked me if Ahmed had bought a new car. :‫ ِعبسع د١ٕئز ال رغ١ش أصِٕخ اٌجٍّخ إّٔب اٌزغ١١ش ٠ىْٛ فمط فٟ اٌعّبئش‬ask, asks ‫إرا وبٔذ وٍّخ اٌغؤاي‬ They ask me who my English teacher is. He asks me what my marks are.

”Who is your English teacher?“ ”What are your marks?“

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Reported Speech‬‬ ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
‫‪Command‬‬ ‫اٌطٍت‬

‫‪ Direct‬إٌٝ والَ ِٕمٛي ‪ٔ Reported‬زجغ‬

‫* ٌزذٛ٠ً جٍّخ طٍج١خ ِٓ ِجبشش‬ ‫اٌخطٛاد اٌزبٌ١خ:‬ ‫1- ٔغزخذَ ( أِش ‪ ) ordered‬إرا وبْ اٌىالَ ٠مصذ ثٗ األِش.‬ ‫ٚ ٔغزخذَ ( سجبء ‪ ) begged‬إرا وبْ اٌىالَ ٠مصذ ثٗ اٌشجبء ٚ اٌزٛعً.‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫ٚ ٔغزخذَ ( ٔصخ ‪ ) advised‬إرا وبْ اٌىالَ ٠مصذ ثٗ إٌص١ذخ.‬ ‫‪told‬‬ ‫) إرا وبْ اٌىالَ ِٛجٗ ِٓ شخص إٌٝ شخص‬ ‫ٚ ٔغزخذَ ( أخجش‬ ‫٠غبٚ٠ٗ فٟ اٌّشرجخ.‬ ‫2- ادزف األلٛاط اٌّفزٛدخ ٚ ظغ وٍّخ ‪ to‬لجً اٌفؼً‬ ‫3- ادزف وٍّزٟ ‪ ِٓ Please, do‬اٌجٍّخ إْ ٚجذرب.‬ ‫4- غ١ش ثؼط اٌىٍّبد ٚ اٌعّبئش دغت اٌّؼٕٝ ٚوّب عجك.‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
Command ‫اٌطٍت‬

Direct ‫ِجبشش‬

Indirect ‫غ١ش ِجبشش‬

He said to the servant: ”bring me a glass of water“. The son said to his father: ”please give me some money“. The doctor said to me: ”Drink a lot of water“. He said to me: ”Do not go to the market tonight“.

He ordered the servant to bring him a glass of water. The son begged his father to give him some money. The doctor advised me to drink a lot of water. He told me not to go to the market that night.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ٌٟ‫اٌزب‬

‫‪Reported Speech‬‬ ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
‫‪Exclamation‬‬ ‫اٌزؼجت‬

‫* ٌزذٛ٠ً جٍّخ رؼجت ِٓ ِجبشش ‪ Direct‬إٌٝ والَ ِٕمٛي ‪ٔ Reported‬زجغ اٌخطٛاد اٌزبٌ١خ:‬ ‫1- ادزف وٍّخ اٌزؼجت ٚظغ ثذالً ِٕٙب وٍّخ رذي ػٍ١ٙب ِضً:‬
‫ثٕذَ ‪with regret‬‬ ‫‪with joy‬‬ ‫ثفشح‬ ‫‪with anger‬‬ ‫‪with admiration‬‬ ‫ثذضْ‬ ‫ثغعت‬ ‫ثئػجبة‬

‫‪with sadness‬‬ ‫‪that‬‬

‫ٚرؼشفٙب‬

‫2- ادزف األلٛاط ٚ ظغ وٍّخ‬ ‫3- غ١ش اٌىٍّبد ٚ اٌعّبئش ٚ األفؼبي دغت اٌّؼٕٝ ٚوّب عجك فٟ اٌجٍّخ اٌخجش٠خ.‬ ‫ِالدظخ: وٍّبد اٌزؼجت إِب دشف اعزفٙبَ اعزؼًّ وىٍّخ رؼجت ِضً:‪how, what‬‬ ‫ثٛجٛد ػالِخ رؼجت فٟ ٔٙب٠خ اٌجٍّخ‬ ‫أٚ وٍّخ رؼجت ثزارٙب ِضً: ‪ ٚ Alas, Hurrah, Oh‬رؼشفٙب ثٛجٛد ػالِخ اٌزؼجت !.‬
‫اٌغبثك‬ ‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬ ‫اٌزبٌٟ‬

Reported Speech ‫اٌىالَ إٌّمٛي‬
Exclamation ‫اٌزؼجت‬

Direct ‫ِجبشش‬

Indirect ‫غ١ش ِجبشش‬

He said : ”Alas! I will not find He said with sorrow that he my money“. would not find his money. He said : ”How foolish I have been“. He said with regret that he had been foolish.

‫اٌغبثك‬

‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

Countries and Nationalities ‫اٌجٍذاْ ٚ اٌجٕغ١بد‬
:ً ‫فٟ اٌٍغخ اٌؼشث١خ ػبدح ِب ٔع١ف دشف ”ٞ“ العُ اٌجٍذ ٚ رٌه ٌزىٛ٠ٓ اٌجٕغ١خ فٕمٛي ِض‬ ‫ال‬ ٞ‫عؼٛد‬ : ‫اٌغؼٛد٠خ‬ :ٟ٘ ٚ ‫أِب فٟ اٌٍغخ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ فٕٙبن خّظ دشٚف ِذزٍّخ ٌإلظبفخ‬

i, n, ian, ish, ese
:‫ٚ ٌ١ظ ٕ٘بن لبػذح صبثزخ ٌٙزٖ اٌذشٚف. ٚ٘زٖ ثؼط األِضٍخ‬

Country Saudi Arabia Oman Algeria Libya Palestine

Nationality Saudi Omani Algerian Libyan Palestinian

Country Britain Turkey China

Nationality British Turkish Chinese

Lebanon
France Switzerland

Lebanese
French Swiss

Syria

Syrian
‫ػٛدح ئٌٝ اٌمبئّخ اٌشئ١غ١خ‬

ENGLISH GRAMMAR ‫لٛاػذ اٌٍغــــــــــخ اإلٔجٍ١ض٠خ‬

Prepared by: Rajab`M (2007)  Reference: ”Grammar For All Levels“ by Adnan Naim Edited by: Dr Saif H. Al-Ansari
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