Restoration and 18th Century - Reeths-Puffer Schools by zhouwenjuan

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									Restoration and 18th Century
I.    Political Background
      A. Restoration
          1. 1660, Charles II
          2. Landowners decided King lesser evil than the Puritans
      B. Wanted stability
          1. 1685, James II
          2. Thrown out because he was Catholic (Glorious Revolution)
          3. William and Mary, 1689-1702
          4. Queen Anne, 1702-1714, died childless
          5. Stuart line stopped because Catholics appeared in it
             a. James Stuart was next in line
             b. Parliament passed a law that the king had to be Protestant
          6. George I (1714-1727) (Hanovers)
             a. German
             b. Louis XIV of France continued to support James Stuart
             c. English supporters of James called “Jacobites”
          7. George II (1727-1760)
             a. German, poor at English
             b. Parliament gained strong control of govt.
          8. George III (1760-1820)
             a. lost the 13 American colonies
      C. Parliament Supreme
          1. Two-party system
             a. Whigs
                1) merchants, cities & towns
             b. Tories
                1) country squires
                2) favored old tradition
                3) many were Jacobites
             c. Unfair distribution of representatives in Parliament
          2. Riots when people were unhappy with the govt.
      D. Whigs dominated Parliament
          1. Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister (1721-1742)
             a. gave England tranquility
             b. many great writers feared him and sided with the Tory
                minority
             c. Walpole satirized by Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John
                Gay, Samuel Johnson & Henry Fielding
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II.    Restoration England
       A. Imitated France (Louis XIV)
       B. Plague, 1665
       C. Great Fire of London, 1666
       D. Scientific and Rational Age

III.   England in the 18th Century
       A. 5.5 million people, start of 18th cent.
          1. London, ½ million people
          2. nowhere else were there more than 30,000 in one place
          3. urban sprawl in and outside London
          4. also great wealth
       B. Hierarchy according to Daniel Defoe
          1. The Great, who live profusely
          2. The Rich, who live very plentifully
          3. The Middle Sort, who live well
          4. The Working Trades, who labor hard, but feel no want
          5. The Country People, Farmers, etc., who fare indifferently
          6. The Poor, that fare hard
          7. The Miserable, that really pinch and suffer want
             a. Nobility at the top.
             b. Wealthy merchants sought to join nobility by marriage or by
                purchasing titles
             c. Country gentry, landowning squires who controlled
                agriculture and administered local justice
             d. Professions:
                1) church, law, teachers, doctors, military
                2) law most criticized
                    a) crime caused by poverty feared and punished
                    b) many early American colonists were convicts
                       transported to the colonies for minor offenses
       C. Education
          1. Most not educated
          2. Few women educated
          3. only well-to-do males got a good education
       D. Marriage
          1. economic arrangement (unite families & lands)

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      E. Religion
         1. Anglican Church dominated
         2. Dissenters remained outside the official church
         3. Puritans died down
         4. Famous dissenters:
            a. Alexander Pope, Catholic
            b. John Dryden, Catholic
            c. Daniel Defoe, Presbyterian
            d. William Blake, radical Protestant, possibly Baptist
         5. The Wesleyan church was a powerful evangelical religious
            movement that broke away from the Church of England
            a. led by John and Charles Wesley
            b. ministered to the laborers and poor, whom the official
               church tended to neglect
IV.   Age of Elegance (18th cent.)
      A. Upper classes lived well
         1. artificial, far removed from natural appearance
         2. wigs, satin coats trimmed in lace, silk stockings, hooped skirts,
            etc.
      B. Lower classes, the majority, did not live well

V.    The Arts
      A. Not great painting and sculpting
      B. More practical: portraits of real people, familiar landscapes
      C. Music
         1. Cultivated
         2. Not genious
            a. visiting foreign musicians were best:
            b. George Frederick Handel
            c. Franz Joseph Haydn
      D. Drama
         1. Better actors than playwrights
         2. still performing Shakespeare
      E. Arts excelled in everyday life
         1. buildings (Georgian style)
         2. streets and squares
         3. gardens and landscapes
         4. furniture and interior decoration
         5. classical style (meaning Roman style) country mansions (like
            Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello in Virginia)                   3
VI.   The Coffeehouses
      A. Middle Class social center
      B. News gathered and exchanged
         1. business conducted
         2. politics discussed
         3. serious discussion of religion, politics, literature, philosophy,
            gossip
      C. Result: closely knit the middle and upper classes
      D. Low classes still low

VII. Age of Reason
     A. Middle and Upper classes complacent
        1. no fear of revolution, everyone happy with status quo
        2. strongly patriotic
     B. Complacency due partly to 17th century scientists and philisophers
        1. idolized Newton
        2. he could explain everything
        3. Universe as a well-oiled machine, created by God: Deism
        4. Reason and common sense valued
        5. Understanding of the universe important

VIII. Literary Developments
      A. Charles II reopened theatres
          1. Restoration theatres different than Elizabethan
             a. for upper class only
             b. women played women’s roles
             c. Comedies of manners
      B. Lyric poetry not used much, dealt with personal feelings
      C. Emphasis on Universal human experience instead
          1. problems of society
          2. recurring constants in human behavior
      D. writers largely depended on patronage
          1. received money for their work or
          2. given important high-paying govt. jobs
          3. advantages
             a. they could work comfortably
             b. could confidently address intelligent readers
          4. disadvantages
             a. bitter letter from Samuel Johnson to his former patron
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      E. Middle Class began to learn to read
         1. More books published
         2. many women read books because they did not work
         3. lending libraries bean in shops for a fee
      F. By 1770’s, novel was popular
         1. some novelists wrote to the new reading public
         2. Authors of more weighty material wrote for the nobility
         3. Starving writers had to write on topics assigned by booksellers
         4. Lit. would have been better if original work had been better
            recognized.

IX.   Literature: Restoration-Romantic Age
      A. Restoration
          1. Court (cliquish culture)
          2. traditional values and wit
      B. Age of Pope
          1. satire
          2. moral analysis
      C. Age of Johnson
          1. rise of the novel
          2. Actual life rather than imagination
             a. history, biography, philosophy, political debate
      D. Combined “poetic diction and colloquial language”
      E. Clear prose, plain style, careful writing, clear thinking
      F. Romanticism
          1. Nature
          2. mystery
          3. magic, Gothic tales
          4. fashion
          5. most obvious in poetry

X.    End of an Age
      A. Industrial Revolution, tearing up countryside
      B. French Revolution made people nervous
         1. some supported it, others did not
         2. social order unstable
            a. nobility was giving way to middle class
            b. more sympathy for lower classes
            c. traditional values giving way to ideas of political freedom,
               independence, “natural rights”, etc.             5
XI.   Restoration
      A. Lit. dominated by Charles II’s court
         1. He lived in France during exile
         2. Brought back French fashion, wit, elegance and literary tastes
         3. Writers had to follow strict rules of French classicism
      B. Charles II’s people wanted entertainment, not war
      C. Not very inventive—forced cleverness—trying to get Charles II’s
         favor. People didn’t dare to experiment with literature.

XII. Age of Pope
     A. Criticism and ideals
        1. Spirit of the age
        2. Themes in social, political & moral life
     B. Puritanism
        1. no longer mainstream
        2. inner qualities of people
        3. Defoe, Samuel Richardson
        4. Exception to the rest of literature
     C. Referred to as Augustan or Neoclassical Age
        1. Augustan
           a. after Augustus Caesar (Roman emperor)
           b. stresses humane wisdom, self-control, tranquility
        2. Neoclassical (Pope & Swift)
           a. world collapsing
           b. showing a sad contrast with the classical Roman civ.
           c. ironic tone
              1) traditional values stressed
              2) accusing people of not living up to them
     D. Overall beliefs
        1. People have problems, but can use self-control
        2. Satire used to correct people’s behavior
           a. writers assume good readers will read and decide to change
              society



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XIII. Age of Johnson
      A. 1790’s
      B. Experiments in Poetry
         1. lyric poetry again
         2. not very successful
      C. Successful experimentation with the novel
      D. Most writing success outside of “literature”
         1. Philosophy
         2. Political writers
         3. Biographers
         4. Historians
         5. Literary Critics (Samuel Johnson)



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