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Motivation and Adherence Exercise specialists play an important role in educating the public about why regular physical activity is absolutely essential for good health and how to exercise safely and effectively Adherence Dropouts Of those individuals starting an exercise program, half will drop out within six months. Motivation and Adherence As an exercise specialist, you must help the client develop a positive attitude toward physical activity and make a firm commitment to the exercise program. Adherence To increase adherence, you need to be aware of factors related to attrition. Adherence Adherence to an exercise program is related to biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors. See p 51 in Heyward book. Adherence The most critical factors characterizing the exercise program dropout are: Being overweight Having low self-motivation Having anxiety about exercise Adherence Lack of spousal/family support Inconvenient exercise facility Exercise intensity that is too high No social support during and after exercise. Adherence As the exercise specialist, you should focus particularly on those factors which are under your control such as setting individualized goals for the client, providing social support and reinforcement, and prescribing low-to-moderate exercise intensities. FIT Corbin F = Fun I = Intrinsically motivating Two Cs C = Builds self-competence C = Builds self-confidence Adherence To motivate your clients to exercise on a regular basis, prescribe physical activity that is enjoyable and fun. Adherence Variety is the spice of life In an aerobic exercise program, for example, the participant does not need to do the same thing during every exercise session. Adherence Cross train Other aerobic activities, such as swimming, cross- country skiing, and step aerobics may be substituted as long as the client exercises at the prescribed training intensity. Motivation and Adherence Peer reinforcement Some individuals need the added motivation of exercising with a partner or with a formal group. Adherence Schedule and keep a log Consistency is a critical factor for instilling the exercise habit. Adherence Help change behavior You can use behavior modification techniques to increase program retention Positive reinforcement works best Adherence Extrinsic motivation Sometimes it can be effective to give rewards such as T-shirts, certificates, emblems, and pins to recognize the attainment of specific goals, such as walking a total of 50 miles in one month. Adherence Extrinsic motivation At other times, these incentives may bring about a certain degree of dependence on them. Adherence In the long run, intrinsic motivation is most effective See Whitehead article Adherence Developing intrinsic motivation Help your client set both short-term and long-term goals that are attainable Insure success Adherence You can state goals in performance or physiological terms An example of a short-term performance goal is to complete a 3-mile fun run in less than 33 minutes Adherence A long-term physiological goal might be to increase maximum oxygen uptake (VO2MAX) by 15% in four months Motivation and Adherence Focus on process initially Focus on product in the long-term Adherence Increasing intrinsic motivation Periodically re-evaluate your client’s fitness levels to assess improvement Demonstrates progress Allows for necessary modification Allows to reassessment of goals Adherence Be a leader – actions speak louder than words! The key to increasing exercise program adherence lies in the leadership, education, and motivation which you provide. Adherence Be a positive role model Practice what you preach Adherence Educate your client You must also be knowledgeable, able to educate clients about exercise and fitness, and able to provide motivation and encourage social support. See p. 54 in Heyward book Summary 1. Emphasize enjoyable participation in physical activities that are easily done throughout life. 2. Offer a diverse range of noncompetitive and competitive activities for different ages and abilities. Summary 3. Give people the skills and confidence they need to be physically active. 4. Provide physical and social environments that encourage and enable people to engage in safe and enjoyable physical activity. Prochaska’s Stages of Change Process of health behavior change that can best be represented as a series of stages. Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination Precontemplation Stage of change in which the individual does not intend to take action within 6 months. Contemplation Stage of change begins when the person starts to think seriously about changing in the near future (within 6 months). Preparation Stage of change in which the individual intends to take action within the next 30 days. Action Stage of change in which the individual has made significant effort to change and, more importantly, has achieved some degree of success with that change. Maintenance Stage of change in which the individual continues to implement behavior strategies in an attempt to avoid relapses regarding their behavior. Termination Stage of change in which the former problem behavior presents no threat or temptation.
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