Mongolia Primer

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					This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolia Primer

http://www.flags.net/MONG.htm http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/index.html Virtual Information Center Answering tomorrow’s questions today!

Prepared by: Virtual Information Center, 808. 477-3361, ext. 2100, 06 July 2004 Updated On: 04 August 2006 1

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolia Primer
Executive Summary 1. Assessment: Recognizing Mongolia’s strategic geographical location, the U.S. has sought to assist Mongolia's movement toward democracy and market-oriented reform and to expand relations with it primarily in the cultural and economic fields. The U.S. provides support for the Mongolian Government's economic reforms through its Economic Policy Support Project that includes a full-time American policy adviser in the prime minister's office. President Nambaryn Enkhbayar and Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold are faced with many challenges, but both appear to be effectively utilizing the development of foreign policy and external economic relations with the West to improve Mongolia’s plight and its standing within the international community. In contrast with its small population, Mongolia has a vast, comparatively well preserved land, rich in natural resources and a unique nomadic civilization, determined to develop politically and economically consistent with current global trends while working through the inherent problems associated with a fledgling democracy. 2. Background: The Mongols arose from obscure origins in the recesses of Inner Asia to unify their immediate nomadic neighbors and then to conquer much of the Eurasian landmass, ruling large parts of it for more than a century. Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. The Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system, with only one party (the communist MPRP) officially permitted to function. After some instability during the first two decades of communist rule, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1989. The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia. The dramatic shift toward reform started in early 1990 when the first organized opposition group surfaced (the Mongolian Democratic Union). In March 1990, in the face of extended street protests and popular demands for faster reform, the politburo of the MPRP resigned. In May, the constitution was amended, legalizing opposition parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the office of president. Mongolia's first multi-party elections for were held on 29 July 1990. The MPRP won 85% of the seats. On 3 September a new president, vice president, prime minister, and 50 members to the Baga Hural (small Hural) were elected. In November 1991, a new constitution was drafted and it was adopted on 12 February. In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH). 3. Discussion: Being landlocked between Russia and China, Mongolia seeks cordial relations with both nations but the same time has sought to advance its regional and global relations. Ties with Japan and South Korea are particularly strong. Japan is the largest bilateral aid donor to Mongolia, a position it has held since 1991. Mongolia has also made efforts to steadily boost ties with European countries. Mongolia’s economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. As part of its aim to establish a more balanced nonaligned foreign policy, Mongolia has sought to take a more active role in the United Nations and other international organizations, and has pursued a more active role in Asian and Northeast Asian affairs. Mongolia is seeking to join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) and became a full participant in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 1998. Mongolia became a full member of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council in April 2000. Mongolia is an observer in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, but has stated it does not intend to seek membership. Relations with China and Russia continue to improve, with regular high-level visits and expanding trade ties. The U.S. has also supported defense reform and an increased capacity by Mongolia’s armed forces to participate in international peacekeeping operations. 4. Prepared by: Virtual Information Center, (808) 477-3661 ext. 2100 on 04 August 2006 2

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolia Primer
Table of Contents 1. Introduction .........................................................................................................................4 Overview ..........................................................................................................................4 History ..............................................................................................................................5 2. Travel Information .............................................................................................................8 A. Orientation.......................................................................................................................8 B. Crime ..............................................................................................................................10 C. Transportation, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions ...............................................11 D. Health .............................................................................................................................14 3. At A Glance .......................................................................................................................21 A. Population ......................................................................................................................21 B. Ethnic Groups, Religions and Languages...................................................................22 C. Climate, Geography, and Topography .......................................................................22 D. Natural Resources .........................................................................................................24 4. Government .......................................................................................................................24 A. Executive Branch ..........................................................................................................24 President Nambariin Enkhbayar ....................................................................................25 Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold .........................................................................26 B. Legislative Branch: .......................................................................................................30 C. Judicial Branch .............................................................................................................31 D. Political Parties..............................................................................................................31 E. Foreign Affairs ..............................................................................................................33 5. International Organization Participation .......................................................................40 6. Diplomatic Representation in the United States ............................................................40 7. U.S. Diplomatic Representation.......................................................................................40 Ambassador to Mongolia – Pamela J. H. Slutz ..............................................................41 8. Economy.............................................................................................................................41 9. Infrastructure ....................................................................................................................47 10. Military ..........................................................................................................................52 A. Leadership .....................................................................................................................52 B. Armed Forces Overview ...............................................................................................52 C. Procurement ..................................................................................................................58 D. Army...............................................................................................................................60 E. Air Force ........................................................................................................................66 11. Security And Foreign Forces .......................................................................................70 12. Defense Production And R & D ...................................................................................72 A. B.

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolia Primer
1. Introduction A. Overview
Country Name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Mongolia local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia local long form: none Capital: Ulaanbaatar Telephone Codes 976, country code; 11, city code for Ulaanbaatar Time Zone 8 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (+8 GMT). Daylight Saving Time is observed from late March to late September Voltage 220 volts Requirements

Country Description Mongolia is a vast country of mountains, lakes, deserts and grasslands. It peacefully abandoned its communist system in 1990 and has successfully made the transition to a parliamentary democracy. Economic reforms continue. The country's development will depend on considerable infrastructure investment, particularly in the energy, transportation, and communication sectors. Travelers to Mongolia should be aware that shortcomings in these areas might have an impact on travel plans. The name 'Mongolia' has always stirred up visions of the untamed - Genghis Khan, camels wandering the Gobi Desert and wild horses galloping across the steppes. Even today, outside of Ulaan Baatar you may get the feeling you've stepped into another century rather than another country. Mongolia's survival as an independent nation is miraculous, sandwiched as it is between the enormous states of Russia and China. The country now has a ruling democratic coalition but independence has cost them dearly. Currently they are suffering from a lack of infrastructure and support. Often referred to as ―Outer Mongolia‖, the country is sparsely populated country slightly smaller than Alaska. About half 4

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

the population lives in the urban areas with over a third living in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990’s, the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1992, Mongolia opened its first stock exchange and adopted a new democratic constitution; the Mongolian People's Revolutionary party (MPRP—the former Communists) overwhelmingly retained control of parliament in elections that year. However, n 1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. The former communists were strong opponents and were successful in stalling additional reforms. In 2000, the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats in the Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. Elections are to be held again in 2004. Source: http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/bhutan.html http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/north_east_asia/mongolia/index.htm B. History

A thirteenth-century Mongol hunter http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+mn0000)

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

In 1206 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan. He and his immediate successors conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent armies as far as central Europe and Southeast Asia. Genghis Khan's grandson Kublai Khan, who conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in Europe through the writings of Marco Polo. Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political power over their conquered territories, their strength declined rapidly after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368. The Manchus, a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the Qing dynasty, were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691 as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of allegiance to the Manchu emperor. The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have rested on this oath. In 1727, Russia and Manchu China concluded the Treaty of Khiakta, delimiting the border between China and Mongolia that exists in large part today. Outer Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911), an autonomous state under Russian protection (1912-19), and again a Chinese province (1919-21). As Manchu authority in China waned, and as Russia and Japan confronted each other, Russia gave arms and diplomatic support to nationalists among the Mongol religious leaders and nobles. The Mongols accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule in 1911, shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus. By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915, the Russian Government forced the new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under continued Chinese control, presumably to discourage other foreign powers from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek support from as many foreign sources as possible. The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia, and Chinese troops were dispatched there in 1919. Following Soviet military victories over White Russian forces in the early 1920s and the occupation of the Mongolian capital Urga in July 1921, Moscow again became the major outside influence on Mongolia. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 25, 1924. Between 1925 and 1928, power under the communist regime was consolidated by the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The MPRP left gradually undermined rightist elements, seizing control of the party and the government. Several factors characterized the country during this period: The society was basically nomadic and illiterate; there was no industrial proletariat; the aristocracy and the religious establishment shared the country's wealth; there was widespread popular obedience to traditional authorities; the party lacked grassroots support; and the government had little organization or experience. In an effort at swift socioeconomic reform, the leftist government applied extreme measures that attacked the two most dominant institutions in the country--the aristocracy and the religious establishment. Between 1932 and 1945, their excess zeal, intolerance, and inexperience led to anti-communist uprisings. In the late 1930s, purges directed at the religious institution resulted in the desecration of hundreds of Buddhist institutions and imprisonment of more than 10,000 people. 6

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

During World War II, because of a growing Japanese threat over the Mongolian-Manchurian border, the Soviet Union reversed the course of Mongolian socialism in favor of a new policy of economic gradualism and buildup of the national defense. The Soviet-Mongolian army defeated Japanese forces that had invaded eastern Mongolia in the summer of 1939, and a truce was signed setting up a commission to define the Mongolian-Manchurian border in the autumn of that year. Following the war, the Soviet Union reasserted its influence in Mongolia. Secure in its relations with Moscow, the Mongolian Government shifted to postwar development, focusing on civilian enterprise. International ties were expanded, and Mongolia established relations with North Korea and the new communist governments in Eastern Europe. It also increased its participation in communist-sponsored conferences and international organizations. Mongolia became a member of the United Nations in 1961. In the early 1960s, Mongolia attempted to maintain a neutral position amidst increasingly contentious Sino-Soviet polemics; this orientation changed in the middle of the decade. Mongolia and the Soviet Union signed an agreement in 1966 that introduced large-scale Soviet ground forces as part of Moscow's general buildup along the Sino-Soviet frontier. During the period of Sino-Soviet tensions, relations between Mongolia and China deteriorated. In 1983, Mongolia systematically began expelling some of the 7,000 ethnic Chinese in Mongolia to China. Many of them had lived in Mongolia since the 1950s, when they were sent there to assist in construction projects. Chronology of Mongolian History 1921-Present:  March 13, 1921: Provisional People's Government declares independence of Mongolia.  May 31, 1924: U.S.S.R. signs agreement with Peking government, referring to Outer Mongolia as an "integral part of the Republic of China," whose "sovereignty" therein the Soviet Union promises to respect.  May-September 16, 1939: Large scale fighting takes place between Japanese and Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on Mongolia-Manchuria border, ending in defeat of the Japanese expeditionary force. Truce negotiated between U.S.S.R. and Japan.  October 6, 1949: Newly established People's Republic of China accepts recognition accorded Mongolia and agrees to establish diplomatic relations.  October 1961: Mongolia becomes a member of the United Nations.  January 27, 1987: Diplomatic relations established with the United States.  December 1989: First popular reform demonstrations. Mongolian Democratic Association organized.  January 1990: Large-scale demonstrations demanding democracy held in sub-zero weather.  March 2, 1990: Soviets and Mongolians announce that all Soviet troops will be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.  May 1990: Constitution amended to provide for multi-party system and new elections.  July 29, 1990: First democratic elections held. 7

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

September 3, 1990: First democratically elected People's Great Hural takes office. February 12, 1992: New constitution goes into effect. April 8, 1992: New election law passed. June 28, 1992: Election for the first unicameral legislature (State Great Hural). June 6, 1993: First direct presidential election. June 30, 1996: Election resulted in peaceful transition of power from former communist party to coalition of democratic parties. From 1998-2000, four prime ministers and a series of cabinet changes. In early 2000, Democratic Coalition dissolved.  July 2, 2000: Election resulted in victory for the former communist Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP); first-past-the-post electoral system enabled MPRP, with 52% of the popular vote, to win 95% of the parliamentary seats; formation of new government by Prime Minister N. Enkhbayar.  June 27, 2004: Motherland-Democracy Coalition formed in early 2004 to contest the parliamentary election. Election resulted in roughly 50/50 split of parliamentary seats between former communist party and democratic opposition and formation of new government by Prime Minister T. Elbegdorj (Democratic Party).  January 2006: MPRP ministers resigned from the government, and the government dissolved. A new coalition government, led by the MPRP with the participation of four smaller parties, formed. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm 2. Travel Information

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A. Orientation General The world of the Mongols may have shrunk a bit since Genghis Khan and his hordes overran most of Asia, but when you're in Mongolia nowadays, you may think its vistas are boundless. From steppe to desert, the empty landscape seems to stretch into infinity. It's the most sparsely populated country in the world. Far from being bleak and grim, however, Mongolia's scenic emptiness can be quite a tonic for those looking to get away from it all. It has pristine lakes, rugged mountains, hospitable people -- and lots of wide-open spaces for trekking. All but the most resourceful travelers will want to take a tour. Mongolia's rudimentary transport system is designed to move locals between their workplaces and the capital, and getting anywhere worthwhile can be a real effort. Shortages of fuel are common -- one of the hard bumps Mongolia has experienced since the collapse of communism in the early 1990s. It makes travel particularly arduous in the winter. In recent years, the government has been trying to open up the country to tourism, mainly by cutting a lot of red tape. And fortunately, a number of independent tour companies have been springing up in Ulaanbaatar, the capital, so that you no longer have to deal exclusively with the cumbersome bureaucracy of Juulchin, the national travel agency. There are some excellent tour companies based in the U.S. and elsewhere that work with those local companies to design itineraries to give you the real flavor of the country. (Because Mongolia is still a country of nomads, visitors should be wary of trying to design itineraries based around cities, as

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolian "cities" have usually sprung up around a 20th-century mine or factory, with no attractions for the visitor at all.) Source: http://travel.yahoo.com/p-travelguide-502051-mongolia_introduction-i Entry/Exit Requirements A valid passport is required for American visitors. No visa is required for Americans visiting for fewer than 90 days; however, visitors planning to stay in Mongolia for more than 30 days are required to register with the Immigration, Naturalization and Foreign Citizens Agency in Ulaanbaatar within the first seven days of arrival. American visitors who fail to register and who stay longer than 30 days, even for reasons beyond their control, will be stopped at departure, denied exit, and fined. It is recommended that if there is any possibility that a visitor will be in Mongolia beyond 30 days that they register with the Immigration, Naturalization and Foreign Citizens Agency within the first seven days of their arrival. Americans planning to work or study in Mongolia should apply for a visa at a Mongolian Embassy or Consulate overseas. Failure to do so may result in authorities denying registration, levying a fine, and requiring that the visitor leave the country. Travelers arriving or departing Mongolia through China or Russia should be aware of Chinese and Russian visa regulations. American citizens are not permitted to transit through China or Russia without a visa. For more information on these requirements see the Consular Information Sheets for these countries visit the Bureau of Consular Affairs web page. Travelers planning travel to Russia should get visas prior to arriving in Mongolia, as they are difficult to get at the Russian Embassy in Mongolia. There is an exit tax payable either in USD or tugrugs collected on departures from individuals without Mongolian visas. This amount may or may not be included with the price of the airline ticket; travelers are advised to confirm when they purchase their airline ticket. In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child’s travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian if not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Mongolia and other countries. Visit the Embassy of Mongolia web site at http://www.mongolianembassy.us for the most current visa information. Travelers can also contact the Embassy of Mongolia at 2833 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007, telephone (202) 333-7117 for the most current visa information. See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction. Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations. Customs Regulations: Mongolian customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning import and export of items such as firearms, ammunition and antiquities. Import of firearms or ammunition requires prior approval from the Government of Mongolia. Export of antiquities 9

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

requires a special customs clearance certificate issued by authorized antique shops at the time of purchase. For additional information contact the Embassy of Mongolia at 2833 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20402, tel: (202) 333-7117. Special Circumstances: Traveler's checks denominated in dollars are accepted at some hotels and may be converted to dollars or Tugriks at several banks. Credit cards can be used at a variety of hotels, restaurants, and shops in Ulaanbaatar. Outside of the capital, travelers should have cash. Cash advances against credit cards are available at commercial banks such as Trade and Development Bank and Golomt Bank. International bank wire transfers are also possible. There is a handful of ATM machines in Ulaanbaatar, but none outside the capital. Source: http://travel.state.gov/mongolia.html Holidays
New Year's Day Sollal (3 days) Women's Day Day of Children and Mothers Independence Day (Naadam - 3 days) Mongolia's Proclamation 1 January 22 January 8 March 1 June 11 July 28 November

Source: http://www.southtravels.com/asia/mongolia/holidays.html B. Crime CRIME: Over the past few years there has been a significant rise in street crime in Mongolia, particularly in Ulaanbaatar, the capital. Violent crime is increasing, and it is not advisable to walk alone through the city after dark. The most common crimes against foreigners are pick pocketing and bag snatching. There are reports of organized groups in open areas usually after dark surrounding, grabbing and choking an individual in order to search a victim’s pockets. U.S. citizens who detect pick pocket attempts should not confront the thieves, as they may become violent. Caution is advised when using public transportation and in crowded public areas, such as open-air markets, the Central Post Office and the Gandan Monastery. Crime sharply rises before, during and after the Naadam Summer Festival in July and throughout the summer tourist season. Travelers should be extremely cautious at these specific locations: Chinggis Khan International Airport in Ulaanbaatar: tourists arriving and departing from this airport are frequently targeted for robbery and pick pocketing by organized groups. The State Department Store: tourists are targeted by organized pick pocket gangs at the entries/exits/elevators and the area surrounding the store. Naran Tuul Covered Market (formerly known as the Black Market): Organized criminal groups look for and target foreigners for robbery and pick pocketing. There have been several reports of organized groups surrounding, grabbing and choking foreigners into unconsciousness to search the victim’s pockets.

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. See our information on Victims of Crime. C. Transportation, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions Travel And Business Information The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides Consular Information Sheets, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements. Consular Information Sheets exist for all countries and include information on entry requirements, currency regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term conditions overseas that pose significant risks to the security of American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202647-5225 or via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov. Consular Affairs Tips for Travelers publication series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are on the Internet and hard copies can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250. Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-4000. The National Passport Information Center (NPIC) is the U.S. Department of State's single, centralized public contact center for U.S. passport information. Telephone: 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778). Customer service representatives and operators for TDD/TTY are available Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time, excluding federal holidays. Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and a web site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication). U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas are encouraged to register their travel via the State Department’s travel registration web site at https://travelregistration.state.gov or at the Consular section of the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country by filling out a short form and sending in a copy of their passports. This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency. Further Electronic Information Department of State Web Site. Available on the Internet at http://www.state.gov, the Department of State web site provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy information, including Background Notes and daily press briefings along with the directory of key officers of Foreign Service posts and more. Export.gov provides a portal to all export-related assistance and market information offered by the federal government and provides trade leads, free export counseling, help with the export process, and more. STAT-USA/Internet, a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic, business, and international trade information from the Federal government. The site includes current and historical trade-related releases, international market research, trade opportunities, and country analysis and provides access to the National Trade Data Bank. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm Traffic Safety And Road Conditions While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mongolia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. Driving in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar can be extremely difficult due to poorly maintained streets, malfunctioning traffic lights, inadequate street lighting, undisciplined pedestrians, and a shortage of traffic signs. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of vehicles on the roads in recent years, but the knowledge and skills of the driving population have not kept pace with the growth of automobiles. There are many metered taxis in Ulaanbaatar. There is one car rental company operating in Ulaanbaatar, but safety and maintenance standards are uncertain and should be utilized with caution. Another alternative is to hire a car and driver from local tourist companies. Public transportation within the capital is extensive, cheap, and generally reliable, but it is also extremely crowded (see Information on crime above) with the result that pickpockets often victimize foreigners. There are few paved roads outside of the capital, and driving can be hazardous, particularly after dark. For specific information concerning Mongolian drivers permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, 12

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

contact the Embassy of Mongolia at 2833 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007, telephone (202) 333-7117. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.mongolianembassy.us/default.php. Aviation Safety Oversight As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Mongolia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mongolia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa/. The U.S. Embassy prohibits U.S. government personnel use of the domestic services of MIAT and all services of Hangard and Trans-Ulgii airlines for official travel because of uncertainties regarding service and maintenance schedules, aircraft certification and insurance status. This prohibition does not extend to MIAT’s international flights. Special Circumstances Hotel and room space during Summer 2006 at all price levels in Ulaanbaatar and other tourist sites will be extremely limited due to the 800th Anniversary Celebration of the Founding of the Mongolian Empire. Both domestic and international airline seats will also be at a premium. Travelers are urged to book and reconfirm their housing and air reservations in advance of their arrival, and after arriving for their departure flights. Traveler’s checks denominated in dollars are accepted at some hotels and may be converted to dollars or tugrugs at several banks. Credit cards can be used at a variety of hotels, restaurants, and shops in Ulaanbaatar. Outside of the capital, travelers should have cash. Cash advances against credit cards are available at commercial banks such as Trade and Development Bank and Golomt Bank. International bank wire transfers are also possible. There are a handful of VISA only ATM machines in Ulaanbaatar, but that they do not always function and are not reliable. ATM machines do not exist outside the capital. American citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and citizenship are readily available. U.S. consular officers may not always receive timely notification of the detention or arrest of a U.S. citizen, particularly outside of Ulaanbaatar. Severe fuel shortages and problems with central heating and electrical systems may cause seriously reduced heating levels and power outages in Ulaanbaatar and other cities during the winter. Smaller towns in the countryside may have no heat or electricity at all. The Embassy advises all American residents in Mongolia to be prepared to depart if there is a complete energy failure. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http: //www.fema.gov/. Mongolian customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning import and export of items such as firearms, ammunition and antiquities. Import of firearms or ammunition requires prior 13

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

approval from the Government of Mongolia. Export of antiquities requires a special customs clearance certificate issued by authorized antique shops at the time of purchase. For additional information contact the Embassy of Mongolia at 2833 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20402, telephone: (202) 333-7117. Please see our information on customs regulations. Criminal Penalties While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Police officials will often require a visitor to remain in Mongolia for an indefinite period of time pending resolution of a filed complaint. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mongolian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mongolia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States . Please see out information on Criminal Penalties. Children's Issues For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website. Registration / Embassy Location Americans living or traveling in Mongolia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Mongolia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, Ulaanbaatar. The telephone number is (976) 11-329-095, the Consular Section fax number is (976) 11-353788, the Embassy web site is http://ulaanbaatar.usembassy.gov. The Consular Section can be emailed directly at cons@usembassy.mn. The Consular Section is open for American Citizens Services Monday and Thursday from 1-3 p.m., except on U.S. and Mongolian holidays. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_973.html D. Health Medical Facilities And Health Information Medical facilities in Mongolia are very limited and do not meet most Western standards, especially for emergency health care requirements. Many brand-name western medicines are unavailable. Ulaanbaatar, the capital, has the majority of medical facilities; outside of Ulaanbaatar medical facilities and treatment are extremely limited or non-existent. Specialized emergency care for infants and the elderly is not available. Infectious diseases, such as plague, meningococcal meningitis, and tuberculosis, are present at various times of the year. Serious 14

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars; see section on Medical Insurance below. Doctors and hospitals usually expect immediate payment in cash for health services. A June 2005 medical evacuation from Ulaanbaatar just to Seoul, Korea cost the patient $87,000. Medevac companies will not initiate an evacuation without a fee guarantee beforehand and in full. Please see the U.S. State Department’s compiled list of worldwide air ambulance services for people needing medical evacuation. Local hospitals generally do not contact the Embassy about ill or injured Americans in their care; hospitalized American citizens who need Consular assistance from the Embassy will need to specifically request the doctor or hospital to contact the Embassy in Ulaanbaatar. For more information, please contact the U.S. Embassy in Ulaanbaatar, which has a list of medical facilities available to foreigners (also available on the Embassy website, http://ulaanbaatar.usembassy.gov) or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s international travelers hotline (see below). Sanitation in some restaurants is inadequate, particularly outside of Ulaanbaatar. Stomach illnesses are frequent. Bottled water and other routine precautions are advisable. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith. Medical Insurance The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. (See Medical Facilities and Health Information) Please see our information on medical insurance overseas. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_973.html

Travelers' Health

Travelers' Health Home > Destinations > East Asia Health Information for Travelers to Countries in East Asia

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

On This Page Vaccines for Your Protection Diseases Found in East Asia Other Health Risks What You Need To Bring With You Staying Healthy During Your Trip After You Return Home For More Information

Travel Notices in Effect Avian Influenza: Current Situation Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Interim Guidance about Avian Influenza A (H5N1) for U.S. Citizens Living Abroad U.S. Department of State See all Traveler's Health travel notices

Vaccines for Your Protection: East Asia Routine Vaccinations Before travel, be sure you and your children are up to date on all routine immunizations according to schedules approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP). See the schedule for adults and the schedule for infants and children. Some schedules can be accelerated for travel. See your doctor at least 4–6 weeks before your trip to allow time for shots to take effect. If it is less than 4 weeks before you leave, you should still see your doctor. It might not be too late to get your shots or medications as well as other information about how to protect yourself from illness and injury while traveling.

Check with your healthcare provider: you and your family may need routine as well as recommended vaccinations.

Recommended Vaccinations and Preventive Medications The following vaccines may be recommended for your travel to East Asia. Discuss your travel plans and personal health with a health-care provider to determine which vaccines you will need. Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG). Transmission of hepatitis A virus can occur through direct person-toperson contact; through exposure to contaminated water, ice, or shellfish harvested in contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked and that were contaminated during harvesting or subsequent handling. Hepatitis B, especially if you might be exposed to blood or body fluids (for example, health-care workers), have sexual contact with the local population, or be exposed through medical treatment. Hepatitis B vaccine is now recommended for all infants and for children ages 11–12 years who did not receive the series as infants. 16

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Japanese encephalitis, if you plan to visit rural farming areas and under special circumstances, such as a known outbreak of Japanese encephalitis. Malaria: if you are traveling to a malaria-risk area in this region, see your health care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug. For details concerning risk and preventive medications, see Malaria Information for Travelers to East Asia. Rabies, if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas, such as might occur during camping, hiking, or bicycling, or engaging in certain occupational activities. Typhoid, particularly if you are visiting developing countries in this region. Typhoid fever can be contracted through contaminated drinking water or food, or by eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected. Large outbreaks are most often related to fecal contamination of water supplies or foods sold by street vendors As needed, booster doses for tetanus-diphtheria and measles. Required Vaccinations None. Diseases found in East Asia (risk can vary by country and region within a country; quality of incountry surveillance also varies) The preventive measures you need to take while traveling in East Asia depend on the areas you visit and the length of time you stay. You should observe the precautions listed in this document in most areas of this region. However, in highly developed areas of Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, you should observe health precautions similar to those that would apply while traveling in the United States. Malaria Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. Humans get malaria from the bite of a mosquito infected with the parasite. Prevent this serious disease by seeing your health care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug and by protecting yourself against mosquito bites. Travelers to some areas in China, North Korea, and South Korea may be at risk for malaria. Travelers to malaria-risk areas in China, North Korea, and South Korea should take an antimalarial drug. For additional information on malaria risk and prevention, see Malaria Information for Travelers to East Asia. There is no risk of malaria in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong S.A.R. An Anopheles freeborni (China), Macau S.A.R. (China), and Mongolia. mosquito takes a blood meal. Yellow Fever There is no risk for yellow fever in East Asia. A certificate of yellow fever vaccination may be required for entry into certain of these countries if you are coming from countries in South America or sub-Saharan Africa. For detailed information, see Comprehensive Yellow Fever Vaccination Requirements. Also, find the nearest authorized U.S. yellow fever vaccine center. Food and Waterborne Diseases

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Make sure your food and drinking water are safe. Food and waterborne diseases are the primary cause of illness in travelers. Travelers’ diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, which are found throughout East Asia and can contaminate food or water. Infections may cause diarrhea and vomiting (E. coli, Salmonella, cholera, and parasites), fever (typhoid fever and toxoplasmosis), or liver damage ( hepatitis). Additional information: see the Safe Food and Water page for a list of links. Other Disease Risks Dengue, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, leishmaniasis, and plague are diseases carried by insects that also occur in this region. Protecting yourself against insect bites (see below) will help to prevent these diseases. Avian influenza is also present in China. Outbreaks of severe acute pulmonary syndrome (SARS) occurred in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan in 2003. Avian influenza is present in the region. If you visit the Himalayan Mountains, ascend gradually to allow time for your body to adjust to the high altitude, which can cause insomnia, headaches, nausea, and altitude sickness. In addition, use sun block rated at least SPF 15, because the risk of sunburn is greater at high altitudes. Other Health Risks Injuries Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury among travelers. Protect yourself from motor vehicle injuries: avoid drinking and driving; wear your safety belt and place children in age-appropriate restraints in the back seat; follow the local customs and laws regarding pedestrian safety and vehicle speed; obey the rules of the road; and use helmets on bikes, motorcycles, and motor bikes. Avoid boarding an overloaded bus or mini-bus. Where possible, hire a local driver. What You Need To Bring With You Long-sleeved shirt, long pants, and a hat to wear whenever possible while outside, to prevent illnesses carried by insects (e.g., malaria, Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis). Insect repellent containing DEET. Bed nets treated with permethrin. For use and purchasing information, see Insecticide Treated Bednets on the CDC malaria site. Overseas, permethrin or another insecticide, deltamethrin, may be purchased to treat bed nets and clothes. Flying-insect spray to help clear rooms of mosquitoes. The product should contain a pyrethroid insecticide; these insecticides quickly kill flying insects, including mosquitoes. Iodine tablets and portable water filters to purify water if bottled water is not available. See Preventing Cryptosporidiosis: A Guide to Water Filters and Bottled Water for more detailed information. Sun block, sunglasses, and a hat for protection from harmful effects of UV sun rays. See Skin Cancer Questions and Answers for more information. Prescription medications: make sure you have enough to last during your trip, as well as a copy of the prescription(s) or letter from your health-care provider on office stationery explaining that the medication has been prescribed for you. Always carry medications in their original containers, in your carry-on luggage. 18 Avoid buying food or drink from street vendors, because it is relatively easy for such food to become contaminated.

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Be sure to bring along over-the-counter antidiarrheal medication (e.g., bismuth subsalicylate, loperamide) and an antibiotic prescribed by your doctor to self-treat moderate to severe diarrhea. See suggested overthe-counter medications and first aid items for a travel kit. Staying Healthy During Your Trip Travelers should take the following precautions To stay healthy, do... Wash your hands often with soap and water or, if hands are not visibly soiled, use a waterless, alcohol-based hand rub to remove potentially infectious materials from your skin and help prevent disease transmission. In developing countries, drink only bottled or boiled water, or carbonated (bubbly) drinks in cans or bottles. Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes. If this is not possible, learn how to make water safer to drink. Take your malaria prevention medication before, during, and after travel, as directed. (See your health care provider for a prescription.) When using repellent on a To prevent fungal and parasitic infections, keep feet clean and child, apply it to your own dry, and do not go barefoot, even on beaches. hands and then rub them on Always use latex condoms to reduce the risk of HIV and other your child. Avoid children's sexually transmitted diseases. eyes and mouth and use it Protect yourself from mosquito insect bites: sparingly around their ears. Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats when outdoors. Use insect repellents that contain DEET (N, Ndiethylmethyltoluamide). For more information about insect repellents and correct use, see What You Need to Know about Mosquito Repellent on the CDC West Nile Virus site. If no screening or air conditioning is available: use a pyrethroid-containing spray in living and sleeping areas during evening and night-time hours; sleep under bed nets, preferably insecticide-treated ones. If you are visiting friends and relatives in your home country, see additional special information about malaria prevention in Recent Immigrants to the U.S. from Malarious Countries Returning 'Home' to Visit Friends and Relatives on the CDC Malaria site. Do not:  Do not eat food purchased from street vendors or food that is not well cooked to reduce risk of infection (i.e., hepatitis A and typhoid fever).  Do not drink beverages with ice.  Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.  Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis. (For more information, please see Swimming and Recreational Water Precautions.)  Do not handle animals, especially monkeys, dogs, and cats, to avoid bites and serious diseases (including rabies and plague). Consider pre-exposure rabies vaccination if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas. For more information, please see AnimalAssociated Hazards. 19

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

 

Do not share needles for tattoos, body piercing or injections to prevent infections such as HIV and hepatitis B. Avoid poultry farms, bird markets, and other places where live poultry is raised or kept.

After You Return Home If you have visited a malaria-risk area, continue taking your antimalarial drug for 4 weeks (mefloquine or doxycycline) or seven days (atovaquone/proguanil) after leaving the risk area. Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. If you become ill with a fever or flu-like illness either while traveling in a malaria-risk area or after you return home (for up to1 year), you should seek immediate medical attention and should tell the physician your travel history. For More Information For more information about these and other diseases, please check the Diseases page and CDC Health Topics A-Z Diseases carried by insects Dengue: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=dengue.htm Japanese encephalitis: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=jenceph.htm: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=lyme.htm Malaria information for Travelers to East Asia : http://www.cdc.gov/travel/regionalmalaria/eastasia.htm Malaria Frequently asked questions: http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/faq.htm Malaria Prescription Drugs: http://www.cdc.gov/travel/malariadrugs.htm: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/index.htm Plague: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=plague.htm: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=yellowfever.htm Diseases carried in food or water: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=madcow.htm Cholera: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=cholera.htm Escherichia coli diarrhea: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/escherichiacoli_g.htm Hepatitis A: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=hav.htm Schistosomiasis: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=schisto.htm Typhoid fever: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=typhoid.htm Diseases from person-to-person contact Hepatitis B: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=hbv.htm HIV/AIDS prevention: http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=hivaids.htm HIV-infected travelers (in The Immunocompromised Traveler): http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=special&obj=hivtrav.htm&cssNav=browseoyb

Important: This document is not a complete medical guide for travelers to this region. Consult with your doctor for specific information related to your needs and your medical history; recommendations may differ for pregnant women, young children, and persons who have chronic medical conditions.

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

3.

At A Glance

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html A. Population
Population: 2,832,224 (July 2006 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.9% (male 402,448/female 387,059) 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 967,546/female 969,389) 65 years and over: 3.7% (male 45,859/female 59,923) (2006 est.) Median age: total: 24.6 years male: 24.3 years female: 25 years (2006 est.) Population growth 1.46% (2006 est.) rate: Birth rate: 21.59 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) Death rate: 6.95 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.) Infant mortality total: 52.12 deaths/1,000 live births rate: male: 55.51 deaths/1,000 live births female: 48.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.) Life expectancy at total population: 64.89 years birth: male: 62.64 years female: 67.25 years (2006 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2006 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult less than 0.1% (2003 est.) prevalence rate: HIV/AIDS - people less than 500 (2003 est) living with HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 200 (2003 est.)

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has recently become more urbanized. Nearly half of the people live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and in other provincial centers. Semi-nomadic life still predominates in the countryside, but settled agricultural communities are becoming more common. Mongolia's birth rate is estimated at 21.59 births/1000 people (2006). About twothirds of the total population is under age 30, 27.9% of whom are under 14. Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongol language. Mongol is an Altaic language--from the Altaic Mountains of Central Asia, a language family comprising the Turkic, Tungusic, and Mongolic subfamilies--and is related to Turkic (Uzbek, Turkish, and Kazakh), Korean, and, possibly, Japanese. The Khalkha make up 90% of the ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 10% include Durbet Mongols and others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic speakers (Kazakhs, Turvins, and Khotans) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, and the rest are Tungusic-speakers, Chinese, and Russians. Most Russians left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism was the predominant religion. However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence. About 4 million Mongols live outside Mongolia; about 3.4 million live in China, mainly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and some 500,000 live in Russia, primarily in Buryatia and Kalmykia. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm B. Ethnic Groups, Religions and Languages
Ethnic groups: Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000) Religions: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004) Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html C. Climate, Geography, and Topography
Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia Geographic 46 00 N, 105 00 E coordinates: Map references: Asia Area: total: 1,564,116 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska Land boundaries: total: 8,220 km border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges) Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron Land use: arable land: 0.76% permanent crops: 0% other: 99.24% (2005) Irrigated land: 840 sq km (2003) Natural hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions Environment - limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist current issues: regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment Environment - party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, international Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, agreements: Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/north_east_asia/mongolia/environment.htm Mongolia is a huge, landlocked country squashed between China and Russia. Until the 20th century Mongolia was twice its present size and included a large chunk of Siberia and Inner Mongolia (now controlled by China). Mongolia is one of the highest countries in the world, with an average elevation of 1580m (5180ft). Its highest mountains are in the far west. The Mongol Altai Nuruu are permanently snowcapped, and their highest peak, Tavanbogd Uul (4370m/14,350ft), has a magnificent glacier that towers over Mongolia, Russia, and China. Between the peaks are stark deserts where rain almost never falls. Elsewhere, Mongolia has numerous saltwater and freshwater lakes, the largest of which is the Khövsgöl Nuur, which contains two per cent of the world's fresh water. The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert. Although barren looking, it has enough grass to support scattered herds of sheep, goats and camels. Much of the rest of Mongolia is grassland, home to Mongolia's famed takhi horses, which Genghis Khan used so successfully in his wars of conquest. Although it boasts over 260 sunny days a year and is known as the 'Land of Blue Sky', Mongolia's climate is extreme. Long sub arctic winters are the norm and you can see snow in the Gobi Desert as late as April; some lakes remain frozen until June. There's a short rainy season from mid-July to September, but showers tend to be brief and gentle. Because of the 23

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

high altitude, evenings are cool even in summer. In Ulaan Baatar, the winter (October to April) is long and cold, with temperatures dropping to -30°C (-22°F) in January and February. Horrific dust storms kick up during the short spring (May to June). http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/north_east_asia/mongolia/environment.htm D. Natural Resources 4. Government
Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Mongolia local long form: none local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia Government type: mixed parliamentary/presidential Capital: Ulaanbaatar Administrative 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, divisions: Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China) National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921) Constitution: 12 February 1992 Legal system: blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html A. Executive Branch
Executive branch: chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 25 January 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006) cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament) elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. 10 Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html President: Prime Minister: Minister of Construction and Urban Development: Minister of Defense: Nambariin Enkhbayar Miyeegombo Enkhbold Janlavyn Narantsatsralt M. Sonompli

Minister of Education, Culture Olziysayhany Enkhtovshin and Science: Minister of Finance and Economy: Minister of Food and Agriculture: Minister of Foreign Affairs: Minister of Fuel and Energy: Minister of Health: Minister of Industry and Commerce: Minister of Justice and Home Affairs: Minister of Nature and the Environment: Minister of Roads, Transportation and Tourism: Minister for Social Welfare and Labor: Chief of Government Secretariat: Nadmidyn Bayartsaikhan Dendeviyn Terbishdagva Nyamaagiyn Enkhbold Badarchiyn Erdenebat Lamjavyn Gundalai Bazarsadyn Jargalsaikhan D. Odbayar Ichinhorloogiyn Erdenebaatar Ts Tsengel Luvsangiyn Odonchimed Sunduyn Batbold

President Nambariin Enkhbayar Nambariin Enkhbayar was born in June 1958 in the capital Ulaanbaatar. Enkhbayar graduated from a special secondary school in Ulaanbaatar in 1975. He then studied at the Literature Institute in Moscow and graduated in 1980. He later studied English Literature and Language at Leeds University in the UK. Enkhbayar worked as a translator and writer during the 1980s. From 1990 to 1992 he was vice-chairman of the Culture and Art Development Committee under the Government of Mongolia. In 1992 he became Minister of Culture and occupied that post until 1996. He became the leader of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, or MPRP, in 1997 and led the party to victory in the 2000 parliamentary elections. He was elected president in May 2005, receiving 53.4 per cent of the vote. 25

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold Miyeegombo Enkhbold was born in 1964 in the capital Ulaanbaatar. He graduated as an economic planner from the Mongolian National University in 1987, and went to work as an economist in the services office under the executive administration of the Khural until 1989. Between 1989 and 1991 he worked as a specialist in the Planning and Service Mechanism department of the Public Services Ministry until moving on to become the deputy governor of the Chingeltei District of Ulaanbaatar in 1991. In 1997 Enkhbold was appointed the mayor of Ulaanbaatar until he became chairman of the MPRP Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and a member of parliament in 2005. Miyeegombo Enkhbold became prime minister in January 2006 following a period of political unrest in the country. As chairman of the MPRP, Enkhbold led his party in a withdrawal from the coalition government it had previously formed with the Mongolian Democratic Party. This led to the collapse of the ruling government and the downfall of the former prime minister and Democratic Party leader Tsakhia Elbgdor. Enkhbold came to power enjoying the support of parliament and the major parties, and stated that he would focus on speeding up the country's economic development, reducing poverty and eradicating corruption. Source: Jane’s Information Group Political System Mongolia is a unitary state. It is divided administratively into 22 units, the capital, Ulaanbaatar and 21 aimags, or provinces. Aimags and Ulaanbaatar are governed by Khurals, or locally elected bodies. Each aimag has up to 27 soums, including the aimag capital, and soums are divided into baghs. There are 331 soums and 1,550 baghs in Mongolia. The highest organ of state power is the Ikh Khural, or parliament, which is vested with supreme legislative power. It is a unicameral, 76-seat parliament, elected by the citizens qualified to vote on the basis of universal, free, direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of four years. The last multi-party elections were held in June 2004 when the opposition Motherland Democratic Coalition won 35 seats. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, which has 72 seats after the 2000 election, saw that vast majority reduced to 37 seats. The MPRP profited just months after elections from a dispute among the Motherland Democratic Coalition partners that split the coalition. Some of the coalition's members defected to, or at least sided with, the MPRP. Constitution Mongolia adopted a new constitution in 1992. It establishes Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and formally changed the name of the country from the Mongolian People's Republic to simply Mongolia. For nearly 70 years, until 1990, Mongolia was firmly under the influence of the Soviet Union. The first pro-democracy group, the Mongolian Democratic 26

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Union, appeared in December 1989. The politburo resigned in March 1990 and in May the constitution was amended creating the office of president, a legislative body and legalizing opposition parties. Previous references to the MPRP as the guiding force in the country were removed. The first multi-party elections to parliament were held that year and in September 1991 the Ikh Khural met for the first time and started discussions on a new constitution that was adopted on 13 January 1992. The new constitution lays out that "the fundamental purpose of state activity is to ensure democracy, justice, freedom, equality, and national unity and respect of law." The constitution also stated the president would be elected by popular vote instead of by the legislature as was previously the case. Legislature The country's unicameral parliament, the Ikh Khural, consists of 76 deputies, elected for fouryear terms by universal suffrage under a secret ballot. The parliament has exclusive competence to enact laws or make amendments to them, to determine the basis of the domestic and foreign policies of the state, to pass a law recognizing the full powers of the president after his or her election or to relieve or remove the president, to appoint, replace or remove the prime minister and members of the government, and to define the state's financial, credit, tax and monetary policies. There are six standing committees in parliament Executive The president is the head of state and enjoys such prerogative rights as the capability to veto, partially or wholly, laws and other decisions adopted by the parliament. The veto may be overridden by the vote of two-thirds of members present and voting. The president proposes to parliament the candidature of the prime minister in consultation with the majority party or parties in the parliament, and can propose to parliament that government be dissolved. The president heads the National Security Council of Mongolia and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The government, headed by the prime minister, is the highest executive body of the state. It is called upon to organize and ensure nationwide implementation of the constitution and other laws, to promote efficient leadership of central state administrative bodies and to direct activities of local administrations, to elaborate guidelines for the economic and social development of the state and to organize their implementation, to strengthen the country's defense capabilities and to ensure national security. The inability to reach agreement on whether elected members of parliament could serve as ministers was one of the reasons for the constitutional crises of the 1990s. The National Security Council of Mongolia is the highest state consultative body, called upon to elaborate and coordinate activities aimed at ensuring national security. In its activities the Council is guided by the National Security Concept of Mongolia, adopted by parliament on 30 June 1994.

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

According to this concept, Mongolia's vital national interests are defined as the existence of the Mongolian people and their civilization, the country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, inviolability of state frontiers, relative economic independence, sustainable ecological development and national unity. The members of the Council are the president (chairman), the speaker of parliament and the prime minister. Judiciary The judiciary system consists of a Supreme Court, aimag, provincial courts and city courts, and also soum courts. Judges are independent and subject only to the law. A General Council of Courts was established to ensure the independence of the judiciary. The nine-member Constitutional Court exercises supreme supervision over the implementation of the constitution, making judgment on the violation of its provisions and resolving constitutional disputes. In aimags, the capital city, soums, baghs and other territorial divisions, the respective governors exercise state power. Local self-governing bodies, besides making independent decisions on matters of socio-economic life of the respective territory, organize the participation of the population in solving the problems of national scale and those larger territorial divisions. Civil Society The number of non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, increased from 410 in 1997 to 3,200 by 2003. Some of these groups organize protests and publicly criticize some actions of government and business, but generally NGOs still do not have a large influence in the country. Some NGOs have been active in organizing rallies and demonstrations against government policies and corruption. Mongolia also has a number of trade unions and legal reforms have given them more leverage in bargaining with the government over salaries, pensions and working conditions. Trade unions have also organized demonstrations to press their demands. The country has more than 150 newspapers, more than 20 television stations and more than 30 radio stations. Human Rights Human rights violations have not been much of an issue in Mongolia. The political system is sufficiently liberal to allow for a wide range of opinions to be expressed and elections have demonstrated that the electorate can change the government through democratic means. The constitution provides for an independent judiciary and there have been no significant complaints of discrimination against any group or hints that politically motivated decisions were ever taken. Any person accused of a crime is guaranteed due process, access to an attorney and a public trial. However, Mongolia has an extreme shortage of attorneys. Closed trials are permitted only in a very few and specific cases such as those involving state secrets. The UN complained in June 2005 that there were rights violations including use of torture. A special UN reporter on torture said law enforcement officials tortured detainees in police 28

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

stations and pre-trial detention facilities and that there were "deplorable conditions on death row." The UN reporter noted though that the ordinary prison regime was basically in compliance with international standards. Mongolia does have the death penalty and has been criticized for carrying out executions without notifying relatives. Historical Background
Date 1989 1990 1992 1996 1997 1998 Event First opposition party founded. First multi-party elections held. New constitution adopted. Opposition Democratic Union Coalition win in parliamentary elections ending 75 years of MPRP rule. Bagabandi defeats Ochirat in presidential elections. Prime Minister Enkhsaikhan and his cabinet resigned (April). Dismissal of Elbegdori's government in a vote of noconfidence (July). Murder of opposition democratic leader Sanjaasuregiin Zorig (October). Janlaviin Narantsatsralt elected prime minister (9 December). Narantsatsralt elected president of the Mongolian National Democratic Party (April). Rinchinnyamin Amarjargal appointed new prime minister (July). MPRP wins 72 of 76 seats in parliamentary elections. Nambariin Enkhbayar appointed prime minister (July). Ikh Khural unanimously accepted nine constitutional amendments and overruled presidential veto powers. Five parties merged to create the Democratic Party. President Bagabandi re-elected with 58 per cent of the vote. S Tumur-Ochir became Speaker of the Great Hural after the sudden death of L Enebish. Opposition demands special rights to speak at opening of parliament. Democratic Party criticizes the decision of government to lend its support to the US-led military campaign in Iraq. Urgent public health measures undertaken to fight SARS. Motherland Democratic Coalition wins a surprising 35 of 76 seats in parliament, MPRP with 37 seats, forced to form coalition government, Tsakhia Elbegdorj becomes prime minister (August).

1999

2000

2001

2003

2004

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. Motherland Democratic Coalition breaks up (December). 2005 2006 Nambariin Enkhbayar elected president (May) Ten MPRP ministers resign, leading parliament to dissolve the government and prime minister Tsakhia Elbegdorj to resign. Miyeemgombo Enkhbold, the MPRP chairman, is appointed in his place (January).

Political restrictions in the Soviet Union were easing under leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost reforms and this period of relative liberalism spilled over into Mongolia also. The first political opposition in Mongolia appeared in 1989 and later that year the Mongolian Democratic Party was formed. The party led demonstrations calling for the politburo to resign which it did in March 1990. The constitution was changed breaking the MPRP's monopoly on power by providing for other political parties and movements to register and operate. This was followed by the holding of the first multi-party elections to parliament in 70 years and though the Communists in the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party won easily they did have legitimate competition for the first time. An entirely new constitution with democratic concepts, market economy, freedom of speech and neutrality in foreign affairs was adopted in February 1992, but in parliamentary elections that year the MPRP won a resounding victory. In 1996, several opposition groups formed the Democratic Union Coalition and defeated the MPRP in parliamentary ending more than 70 years of MPRP rule in Mongolia. In 1997, Natsagiin Baganbandi of the MPRP became president and battles between the parliament and the president started. In 1998, a constitutional crisis developed. In July, Prime Minister Tsakhia Elbegdorj resigned along with his entire cabinet amid charges that the government had allegedly sold off a bankrupt state bank to cover up corrupt dealings. The executive and legislative branches could not agree on a suitable replacement until December and during that time Sanjaasuregiin Zorig, a leader in democratic movements in Mongolia and a potential compromise nominee for the post of prime minister, was killed in his apartment in Ulaanbaatar. The man appointed prime minister in December 1998, Janlaviin Narantsatsralt, was replaced shortly after and in July 1999, parliament elected Rinchinnyamiin Amarjargal as new prime minister. The MPRP won 72 of parliament's 76 seats in the 2000 election. Natsagiin Baganbandi won a second term as president in 2001 but in 2004 the new Motherland Democratic Coalition, or MDC, took a surprising 35 seats in parliamentary elections and forced the MPRP to form a coalition government. Tsakhia Elbegdorj returned as prime minister but by the end of 2004 the MDC had split and many of its representatives in parliament defected to the MPRP or at least chose to support it in parliament. In the May 2005 presidential elections the leader of the MPRP Nambariin Enkhbayar won outright in the first round with 53.4 per cent of the vote. Source: Jane’s Information Group B. Legislative Branch:

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election MDC collapsed; as of 1 December 2005 composition of legislature was MPRP 38, DP 25, M-MNSDP 6, CWRP 2, MRP 1, PP 1, independents 3

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html C. Judicial Branch
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html D. Political Parties There are four main political parties in Mongolia all of whom say they support democracy and free market reform. The largest, and by far the oldest, of the four is the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, or MPRP. The three other parties - the Democratic Party, the Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party and the Civil Will Republican Party -- represent the opposition to the MPRP. They have on various occasions joined forces to oppose the MPRP, then fought among themselves and split their coalition. The MPRP was founded in 1920 to help promote national independence, which was achieved with the help of the Soviet Union in 1921. The party ruled Mongolia from 1921 to 1990 with substantial assistance and influence from Moscow. The first opposition groups appeared in 1989 and by 1990 five opposition parties were registered. This number grew to 12 by 1995 but the MPRP always was, and remains, the largest political party with some 120,000 members. The Democratic Party is the next largest party claiming some 92,000 members, followed by the Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party and the Civil Will Republican Party. There are smaller parties with narrow agendas such as the Green Coalition and the Religious Party. Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, or MPRP, is the heir to the Communist Party that ruled Mongolia from 1921 to 1990 and was the first-ever political party in Mongolia. The MPRP is still the largest political party in Mongolia, claiming some 120,000 members. During elections the party generally can count on the support of the elderly who identify with the party that ruled the country most or all of their lives. However, at the end of 2002 nearly 40 per cent of Mongolia's population was under 16 years of age. 31

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

In its public campaigns, the MPRP reminds people that when it came to power in 1921 Mongolia was one of the most backward countries in the world and that by 1990 the population had grown four times, the average life expectancy had doubled and the literacy rate was 98 per cent. At the 22nd MPRP Congress in February 1997, the MPRP formalized a democratic socialist concept as its ideological platform and presently claims it irreversibly adheres to basic principles and concepts of democracy and free market economy. The MPRP has a majority in parliament, the Ikh Khural, owing to defections after the opposition Motherland Democratic Coalition broke up in December 2004. MPRP leader Nambariin Enkhbayar was elected president in May 2005, winning outright with 53.4 per cent of the vote. In January 2006 the MPRP further cemented its hold on power when the prime minister, and Democratic Party member, Tsakhia Elbegdorj, resigned following the resignation of ten MPRP ministers. This allowed MPRP party chairman Miyeegombo Enkhbold to take over the role of Prime Minister. Democratic Party Five parties - the Mongolian Democratic Renewal Party, the Mongolian Social Democratic Party, the Mongolian Democratic Party, the Mongolian Religious Democratic Party, and the Mongolian National Democratic Party - united on 6 December 2000 to form the Democratic Party. It is the second largest political party in the country after the MPRP. Mendsaikhani Enkhsaikhan was named party chairman in 2003. Enkhsaikhan lost in the 2005 presidential elections after receiving 20 per cent of the votes, finishing second in a field of four, to MPRP candidate Nambariin Enkhbayar, who received 53.4 per cent. The party was among those that made up the Motherland Democratic Coalition for parliamentary elections in 2004 and subsequently made up the smaller party in a government coalition with the MPRP. Mongolian New Democratic Socialist Party (MNSD) The Mongolian New Democratic Socialist Party was formed on 10 December 1998. The party claims to have 65,000 members. The party was among those that made up the Motherland Democratic Coalition for parliamentary elections in 2004. Civil Will-Republican Party The Civil Will Republican Party is led by Sanjaasurengiin Oyun, the sister of assassinated democratic movement leader Sanjaasuregiin Zorig. The party has opposed government proposals for land privatization and organized demonstrations against it saying the ensuing redistribution of land would benefit only a small number of wealthy people. The party was among those that made up the Motherland Democratic Coalition for parliamentary elections in 2004. Source: Jane’s Information Group 32

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

E. Foreign Affairs

Foreign Policy Overview The Kremlin so dominated Mongolia's politics during the Communist years of the 20th century that Ulaanbaatar's only allies were The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, East Germany, Cuba after 1972 and Vietnam from 1978). Since Moscow was Mongolia's patron, Ulaanbaatar's relations with Beijing suffered as Soviet-Chinese relations worsened in the 1960s, and these bad ties between Mongolia and China continued into the mid-1980s. The Soviet Union kept some 55,000 troops stationed in Mongolia during this period. Mongolia was at first kept out of the UN due to Chinese territorial claims but finally joined in 1961 though its role there was mainly as supporter of Soviet foreign policy. The collapse of the Soviet Union meant the loss of the Soviet subsidies that accounted for up to 30 per cent of Mongolia's GDP. Out of necessity, Mongolia therefore sought better ties with China. Mongolia's greatest need now is to invigorate its economy, particularly to exploit its mining of mineral resources, and the government is courting better relations with a number of countries, particularly Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and the US. The European Union has also helped Mongolia and is continuing to support Ulaanbaatar in its efforts at reform. EU officials have pointed out that an even better basis for ties between Mongolia and Europe exists since the entry of several former COMECON countries into the EU. Mongolia was granted preferential access to European Union markets in 1991. Poor import and export routes leading into the heart of Asia continue to hamper Mongolia's efforts at international trade, except with neighboring Russia and China, although in regards to China this has led to concerns about Mongolia's level of dependence on Chinese imports such as food. More than 150 countries have diplomatic relations with Mongolia and Ulaanbaatar has been active in seeking entry into international and regional organizations. Relations with the European Union The EU has provided Mongolia with aid and supported Ulaanbaatar's entry into a number of international and regional organizations. Diplomatic relations between the EU and Mongolia were established in 1989 and in 1994 Mongolian became eligible for aid under the TACIS programme for economies in transition. The indicative budget allocation for assistance to Mongolia is EUR9 million for the period 2004-2006. As of 2004, with the TACIS programme being phased out, Mongolia has been receiving aid under the EU's programme for Asian and Latin American developing countries (ALA). EU and Mongolian officials have pointed out that some of Mongolia's Communist-era allies are now EU members or candidate members, concluding this can help Ulaanbaatar build stronger ties to Europe. The EU is one of Mongolia's key trading partners. 33

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Alliances and Alignments The post-communist era has presented Mongolia with challenges and opportunities. Ulaanbaatar has dealt independently with China in order to profit from the latter's thriving economy, whilst it has also opened up relations with Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Canada and the US. Mongolia is a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum since 1998 and is seeking membership in APEC. In Central Asia, Mongolia and Kazakhstan have enjoyed strong ties since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Mongolia has also expressed the desire to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) that groups China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The SCO was formed as a confidence building measure for military reductions and the withdrawal of units along the CIS-Chinese border, but it has evolved into an economic cooperation organization with a more recent priority of fighting terrorism, extremism and separatism. Mongolia has observer status in the SCO since June 2004 and newly elected President Nambariin Enkhbayar attended the SCO summit in Astana in early July 2005. Ties with Europe are progressing more slowly. Mongolian defense officials have visited NATO headquarters in Brussels for talks on cooperation but so far Mongolia is not a participant in the alliance's Partnership for Peace programme. On 18 June 2005, the Commander of the Armed Forces of Mongolia General Ts. Togoo visited Brussels and agreed with Belgian military officials to send five Mongolian officers to Kosovo in 2006 to participate in the Belgian peacekeeping unit there. Mongolia sent a small contingent of troops as its contribution to the US-led military campaign in Iraq. More than 130 troops have served in the Polish-led multinational unit at Al-Hillah, in southern Iraq. Mongolia has also sent 62 trainers to Afghanistan to help prepare the Afghan National Army. Relations with China Mongolia's relationship with China is Ulaanbaatar's most complicated diplomatic task. Mongols and Chinese have historically had antagonistic relations and the numerous advantages China now has in its economy, its military and its population are cause for great unease in Mongolia. China's rise in regional stature comes as Mongolia's traditional ally, Russia, is still seeking to regain its strength, particularly in Asia, that it lost when the Soviet Union collapsed. A consequence of this has been Mongolia's increasing economic dependence upon China and Beijing’s subsequent dominance over Mongolia. At the moment, a number of factors underpin closer ties between Mongolia and China. China is Mongolia's largest trading partner, buying 46 per cent of Mongolia's exports in 2003. China is also the largest investor in Mongolia, accounting for 40 per cent of Mongolia's total FDI. In November 2005 Ulaanbaatar and Beijing agreed to jointly develop Mongolia's coal fields. In return for help in developing the fields, China will receive preferential access to the coal being produced to help meet its burgeoning industrial demands. 34

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

In 2002, then Prime Minister Nambariin Enkhbayar held discussions on boosting trade and economic cooperation with Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji. In June 2003 President Hu Jintao visited Mongolia. In July 2005, President Enkhbayar met with Chinese President Hu Jintao on the sidelines of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit in Astana, Kazakhstan. China has pledged aid in constructing new railway lines, roads and power-transmission systems that would better connect the two countries. On 25 August 2005 agreement was reached between Mongolia, China and Russia on measures to help improve the transit of goods and trade between the three countries. This primarily focused on rail links and improved border crossing points. Mongolia is in an important transit location between Russia and China particularly relating to the flow of oil from Russia to China, which both countries are keen to develop. Relations with India Ulaanbaatar sees in India an ally to help counter China's dominance in Asia. Former President Ochirbat courted good ties with India, so did his successor Bagabandi and so likely will President Nambariin Enkhbayar. With China between them opportunities for improving Mongolian-Indian trade relations seem limited. Mongolian officials have highlighted the fact that both Asian countries have a multi-party democracy and a free-market economy. Ulaanbaatar has expressed its support for India to have a permanent seat in an expanded UN Security Council. Relations with Japan About eight per cent of Mongolia's imports come from Japan. Japan is a major international donor particularly to countries the Japanese government sees as potential regions of influence. Japan is the leading international donor to Mongolia, a sign that Japan intends to pursue closer ties to Mongolia. Relations with Kazakhstan If Mongolia has a true natural ally in Central Asia it is Kazakhstan. Mongolian and Kazakh languages are substantially different, but culturally the two peoples are very similar and can trace their origins back to the same sources. There are ethnic Mongols living in Kazakhstan and ethnic Kazakh living in Mongolia. Links between Kazakhs and Mongols were not broken in the 20th century since Kazakhstan was a Soviet republic and Mongolia was the most loyal of Moscow's allies. Backed by its new oil wealth and with the promise of much more to come, Kazakhstan is starting to be a small player in the regional battle for influence in Central Asia. Kazakh investment features ever more prominently in the economy of neighboring Kyrgyzstan. Kazakhstan and Mongolia are separated by Russia's Gorny-Altai region, which is populated by many Kazakhs and Mongols.

Relations with the Russian Federation

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Russian presence in Mongolia was drastically reduced after the Soviet Union collapsed in August 1991, including subsidies from Moscow that at one time accounted for one-third of Mongolia's GDP. Russia and Mongolia remained allies but the economic problems besetting Russia in the 1990s prevented Moscow from paying much attention to Ulaanbaatar's problems. However, Russia and Mongolia signed a Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement in 1991 and in 1993 signed a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation establishing Moscow and Ulaanbaatar's new relationship. Russian business was active during this time and bought stakes in several Mongolian factories and mining operations. Russia, until recently, provided 80 per cent of Mongolia's petroleum products and a substantial amount of its electricity needs. That figure has been reduced due to oil imports from Kazakhstan, but Russian energy shipments to Mongolia remain vital. Russian companies have invested in Mongolia's major mining and industrial facilities and the Mongolian government sold some of its stakes in major companies to Russia to offset its debt. The Russian government owns 49 per cent of the Erdenet Copper Corp., one of Mongolia's premier enterprises. An August 2005 joint agreement between Mongolia, Russia and China put forward proposals to improve the flow of goods between the three states, especially in relation to the flow of oil from Russia to China. Under President Vladimir Putin the Kremlin has put a new emphasis on old ties and sought to reassert influence where possible. The 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration signed between Putin and Bagabandi in late 2000 pledged to renew trade relations and reaffirmed military ties. Putin met with President Enkhbayar at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit in Astana, Kazakhstan in July 2005. Enkhbayar studied literature in Moscow from 1975 to 1980. The Russian-Mongolian border is not well secured, seemingly by mutual consent. There is petty smuggling along this border - alcohol, cigarettes and some narcotics - but there have been very few incidents reported along the two countries' frontier. Russians and Mongolians living along this common border seem to get along well with one another. Relations with the U.S. Mongolia would like stronger ties with the US, as a trading partner and a potential political ally. The US is Mongolia's third largest trading partner, behind China and Russia. In 2004, Mongolian exports to the US totaled USD267 million. The US is also the third largest investor in Mongolia, trailing China and Canada. Ulaanbaatar favors a large US presence in northeast Asia to balance Chinese power in the region. Good ties between Ulaanbaatar and Washington would give Mongolia extra leverage in bargaining with Beijing. Washington in turn has held up Mongolia's evolution from a communist to democratic state as an example for other Asian countries. US Ambassador to Mongolia Pamela J. Slutz said in a speech in April 2005 that Mongolia had often been cited as a role model for other Asian countries. She said Mongolia's "peaceful transformation from an authoritarian to a democratic form of governance in less than a decade is remarkable and virtually unmatched in the world." Ambassador Slutz illustrated this by pointing to "multiple peaceful elections for parliament and for the presidency" noting power had been transferred peacefully from one party to another on three occasions. 36

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

President Bagabandi visited Washington in 2004 and on 15 July met with President George Bush. In 2004 and 2005 the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Richard Myers, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage and Comptroller General David Walker visited Mongolia. In November 2005 George W Bush became the first US president to visit Mongolia. During his short visit he praised Mongolia's contribution to the war on terror and held them up as a model of democracy and reform in the region. The US is also training and equipping Mongolian peacekeeping units since 1999. Mongolia has sent its peace-keepers and military advisors to Iraq and Afghanistan and has agreed to send a unit to Kosovo for peacekeeping duty in 2006. Trade and External Assistance Mongolia's main exports are copper, gold, garments, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar and other non-ferrous metals. Higher world copper prices and new gold production are helping Mongolia rebound from natural disasters in 2000 and 2001. When the World Trade Organization ( WTO), conducted a review of Mongolia's trade policy in March 2005 it concluded that the country's still narrow production base made it vulnerable to external shocks. The WTO recommended Mongolia to continue market-oriented reforms with the aim of increasing competition. Mongolia is active in seeking new trade partners and increasingly good ties with the industrialized states in Asia and Europe, and with the US. Mongolia's geographic location, landlocked and in the heart of the Asian continent, presents major obstacles to these ties as there are few roads or railways linking the country to foreign port cities. Mongolia exports mainly raw materials and it major imports are machinery, equipment, fuel and food. Mongolia receives substantial amounts of foreign assistance. From 1991 to 2002, aid commitments totaled more than USD2.3 billion. That makes Mongolia one of the bestendowed aid recipients in the world on a per capita basis, but the country is also among the least efficient in terms of return. Exports Trade partner Exports, per cent of total (2003) China 46.2 US 23.2 Russia 6.7 Singapore 5.7 Others 18.2 Imports Trade partner Imports, per cent of total (2003) Russia 33.1 China 21.5 South Korea 8.4 37

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Japan 7.9 Others 29.1 Historical Background
Date 1911 1912-17 1921 1924 1945 1946 1948 1949 1961 1990 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 Event Mongolian independence declared on collapse of Manchu Qing dynasty. Mongolia existed as an autonomous state under Russian protection. Provisional government established; declared independence. Mongolia constituted a People's Republic. War declared on Japan. Independence of Mongolia recognized by China under Nationalist Guomindang. Diplomatic relations established with North Korea. People's Republic of China recognized. Mongolia admitted to the UN. First multi-party elections held. Last Soviet forces withdrew. China and Mongolia concluded a treaty of friendship and co-operation during Premier Li Peng's visit. Prime Minister Jasrai led the highest-level Mongolian delegation to visit Russia since 1990. Chinese-Mongolian agreement of defense co-operation. Delegation of Mongolian members of parliament and businessmen visit North Korea. Mongolian foreign minister visit Pyongyang agreeing with officials there to keep open the North Korean embassy in Ulaanbaatar. President Bagabandi visits China (December). Chinese President Jiang Zemin visits Mongolia (July). Mongolia hosted a UN regional disarmament conference for the first time (August). UN General Assembly votes to confirm non-nuclear status on Mongolia. Russian President Vladimir Putin visits Mongolia, first by a Russian head in 26 years. President Bagabandi held summit with President Kim Dae Jung of South Korea. (February). Mongolian Prime Minister N Enhbayar visited China and announced that Mongolia considered Taiwan a part of China. Russian Premier M Kasyanov visited Mongolia to discuss trade, co-operation and Mongolian debt reduction. Hazara of Afghanistan appealed for aid from Mongolia. World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn visited

1999

2000

2001 2002

38

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. Ulaanbaatar to hold talks with Mongolian Prime Minister Enhbayar and Minister of Finance and of the Economy Ch. Ulaan. Ahmed Hejdet Sezer, the President of the Republic of Turkey, visited Mongolia. Visit of Japanese Crown Prince Akishinonomiya to Mongolia. President Akayev of Kyrgyzstan visits Mongolia. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan visits Mongolia. Dalai Lama visits Mongolia in his sixth visit. 2003 Prime Minister Enhbayar and Foreign Minister L Erdenechuluun participate in the 13th summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Kuala Lumpur. President Bagabandi visits Washington, DC. President Kuchma of the Ukraine visits Mongolia. 173 troops sent to Iraq as part of the Polish-led multinational reconstruction force (July). Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage visits Mongolia. President Bagabandi visits Washington and signs Trade and Investment Agreement with US. Mongolia given observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Kazakhstan becomes main supplier of oil to Mongolia after Russian company Yukos faces charges of tax evasion and can no longer export oil to Mongolia. Mongolia agrees with NATO to send a unit of peacekeepers to Kosovo in 2006. President Enkhbayar attends SCO summit in Astana along with presidents of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (July). Russia, China and Mongolia sign agreement on improved trade and transit between the three nations (August). George W Bush becomes the first US president to visit Mongolia (November). Mongolia agrees to jointly develop their substantial coal fields with China (November).

2004

2005

The Mongolia most people in the world know is that of Chingiz Khan. The Mongols are the descendants of the "barbarian" peoples who plagued Chinese emperors for centuries. Known to the ancient Chinese as the "Hsiung-Nu," these mounted horsemen roamed the steppe land north of the Chinese empires raiding and plundering at will and vanishing into the vast grasslands where large Chinese armies found it difficult to follow. As a defense against these raiders the Chinese constructed a series of fortifications that were eventually linked to make the Great Wall. The wall was not 100 per cent effective at stopping the raids but the divisions among the clans and tribes within these barbarian horse raiders of the north were often enough to mitigate their threat to China, a fact many Chinese emperors appreciated and tried to exploit. In the late 12th century a man named Temujin united many of the tribes and started a military campaign that would last far beyond his death. In 1206, a group of Mongol tribes (taking their name from the word "Mong" or "brave") bestowed on Temujin the title Chingiz Khan (Great Khan or Ruler of All Men). Chingiz Khan took his armies on campaigns outside their 39

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

traditional homes and his ancestors would eventually reach Eastern Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land and China, carving out short-lived empires of their own - the Great Horde, the Ilkhanate and Yuan dynasties. The Russians, Chinese, Persians and Arabs of today regard this invasion and these dynasties as representing among the worst of times in their histories. The Mongol tribes were split again and in the early 17th century those in what is now Inner Mongolia were conquered by the Chinese. By the end of the 17th century the Mongols in Outer Mongolia were also part of China and would remain so until the Nationalist Revolution in 1911. With Russia's help Mongolia maintained its independence after 1911 but later became involved in fighting in the Bolshevik Revolution when White troops took up bases, and homes, in Mongolia. This drew in Red Army troops who eventually chased out the Whites and stayed on to help Mongolia's communists set up a government. For the next seven decades Mongolia's main partner was the Soviet Union. In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and Soviet subsidies that at times accounted for one-third of Mongolia's GDP disappeared overnight. Not much later the last Soviet troops, who once numbered 55,000 in Mongolia, left the country as well. Mongolia charted a new economic and political course, forming new relations with countries that previously were off limits, as they were deemed capitalist and corrupt under communism. Relations with China, already thawing since the mid-1980s, grew quickly also. Source: Jane’s Information Group 5. International Organization Participation
International ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, organization IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, participation: MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html 6. Diplomatic Representation in the United States
Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD representation in the chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 US: consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html 7. U.S. Diplomatic Representation
Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ representation from embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13 the US: mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [976] (11) 329095 FAX: [976] (11) 320776

40

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html
Ambassador to Mongolia – Pamela J. H. Slutz

Ambassador Pamela J. H. Slutz, a career Foreign Service Officer, was sworn in as the U.S. Ambassador to Mongolia on July 18, 2003 and presented her credentials in Ulaanbaatar on September 4, 2003. Ambassador Slutz joined the U.S. Department of State in 1981 and was tenured and commissioned as a Foreign Service Officer in 1984. Her previous overseas assignments include: Kinshasa, Zaire (1982-84); Jakarta, Indonesia (1984-87 and 1999-2001); Shanghai, China (1991-94); and the American Institute in Taiwan (2001-03). Her domestic assignments (in Washington) in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs include: the Office of Korea Affairs (1981-82); the Office of China and Mongolia Affairs (1995-97); and the Office of East Asian and Pacific Regional Security and Policy Planning (1997-99). She also served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Nuclear and Space Talks with the USSR (in Geneva, 1987-89). A resident of Texas, she is married to a retired Foreign Service Officer who served as the Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Ulaanbaatar from 1997-99. They have two sons and two granddaughters. Ambassador Slutz is a graduate of Hollins University (B.A., Politics) and the University of Hawaii (M.A., Asian Studies), where she was also an East-West Center Fellow. She speaks French, Indonesian, and Mandarin. Consular Access: American citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and citizenship are readily available. U.S. consular officers may not always receive timely notification of the detention or arrest of a U.S. citizen. U.S. citizens who are detained or arrested in Mongolia should request contact with the U.S. Embassy and visitation by a U.S. consular officer. Registration/Embassy Location: Americans living in or visiting Mongolia are encouraged to register with the Consular Section of the American Embassy in Mongolia and obtain updated information on travel and security within Mongolia. The Embassy is located in Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, Ulaanbaatar. The telephone number is (976)-11-329-095, and the Embassy web site is http://us-mongolia.com/home/index.shtml/. 8. Economy
Economy - Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. overview: Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height onethird of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004 and 5.5% in 2005, largely because of high

41

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former's actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizeable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes. GDP (purchasing $5.242 billion (2005 est.) power parity): GDP (official $1.4 billion (2005 est.) exchange rate): GDP - real growth 6.2% according to official estimate (2005 est.) rate: GDP - per capita $1,900 (2005 est.) (PPP): GDP - composition agriculture: 20.6% by sector: industry: 21.4% services: 58% (2003 est.) Labor force: 1.488 million (2003) Labor force - by herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public occupation: sector 5% (2003) Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2003) Population below 36.1% (2004 est.) poverty line: Household income lowest 10%: 2.1% or consumption by highest 10%: 37% (1995) percentage share: Distribution of 44 (1998) family income - Gini index: Inflation rate 9.5% (2005 est.) (consumer prices): Budget: revenues: $702 million expenditures: $651 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.) Agriculture - wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses products: Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing Industrial 4.1% (2002 est.) production growth rate: Electricity - 3.24 billion kWh (2005 est.)

42

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. production: Electricity - 3.37 billion kWh (2005 est.) consumption: Electricity - exports: 18 million kWh (2005 est.) Electricity - imports: 130 million kWh (2005 est.) Oil - production: 548.8 bbl/day (2005 est.) Oil - consumption: 11,220 bbl/day (2005 est.) Oil - exports: 515 bbl/day (2005 est.) Oil - imports: 11,210 bbl/day (2005 est.) Natural gas - 0 cu m (2003 est.) production: Natural gas - 0 cu m (2003 est.) consumption: Exports: $852 million f.o.b. (2004 est.) Exports - copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other commodities: nonferrous metals Exports - partners: China 54.4%, US 14.3%, Canada 13.5%, UK 4.7% (2005) Imports: $1.011 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.) Imports - machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, commodities: chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea Imports - partners: Russia 33.4%, China 26.6%, Japan 6.6%, South Korea 5.9%, Germany 4.3% (2005) Debt - external: $1.36 billion (2004) Economic aid - $215 million (2003) recipient: Currency (code): togrog/tugrik (MNT) Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,187.17 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001) Fiscal year: calendar year

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html Assessment After the collapse of the command economies, which were Mongolia's biggest trading partners during the Cold War, and the sudden loss of Soviet subsidies that had made up as much as 30 per cent of Mongolia's GDP, the country underwent a period of considerable economic hardship. A rapid decline in foreign trade ensued, which was largely reduced to barter transactions by the shortage of convertible currencies. Because of food shortages, urban rationing was introduced. The Mongolian economy turned a corner when it stabilized in 1993. Prices were liberalized and inflation reduced; the government also cut expenditure and implemented a new exchange rate mechanism. In 1994 Mongolia reversed its economic decline, which had started at the beginning of 1990, and achieved an average annual rate of 3 per cent GDP growth over the 43

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

next few years. It launched a medium-term economic restructuring programme in 1999 to accelerate economic development. In recent years Mongolia has achieved impressive economic growth rates, with GDP increases of 5.6 per cent in 2003, and 10.6 per cent in 2004, mainly thanks to favorable weather conditions which helped boost livestock numbers and greater production of its main industrial products such as gold and copper. Mongolia still needs to deal with what is essentially an energy monopoly in Russia, as high oil prices have a significant adverse effect on the Mongolian economy, although rising domestic production of oil is creating the possibility of energy independence at some time in the near future. Despite this impressive growth Mongolia's economy remains vulnerable to external shocks. The droughts of 2000 and 2001 decimated livestock populations, severely reducing a traditionally large section of the economy, and forcing Mongolia to rely on China for food imports. The fluctuations in world commodity prices are also a major influence on Mongolia's economy which is dependent upon the export of natural resources such as copper and gold. The decrease of copper and cashmere prices between 1995 and 2001 had a major negative impact upon Mongolia's economic performance. A significant future concern for Mongolia is the emergence of cheap textile industries in India and China which threaten to undercut Mongolia's own textile industry. This sector makes up the country's second largest source of export revenue, and it simply cannot compete with the modern factories, rail links and access to ports the competition can claim. Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Prospects for development away from reliance on nomadic, livestock-based agriculture has been limited by Mongolia's landlocked location and lack of basic infrastructure. Mongolia's best hope for accelerated growth is to attract more foreign investment by further liberalizing the economy and expanding trade with nontraditional partners. A foreign investment law designed to provide increased incentive to investors was enacted in mid-1993. Mongolia, above all, needs to use foreign investment to improve infrastructure and permit its rich mineral resources to reach market more easily and in greater abundance. Initially, there was some concern in the West that the government was incapable of carrying out the economic reforms necessary to create an independent economy which would attract European, US, Japanese or the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' (ASEAN) investment. However, Mongolia's economic performance has shown a significant improvement in the years after 1994. Inflation has been halved, exports have risen rapidly and GDP growth has been impressive. Nonetheless, unemployment and poverty have not been adequately dealt with and crime and institutional abuse are still causing problems. International institutions and donor countries have begun pouring more aid per capita into Mongolia than into any other country in Asia. At 25 per cent of GDP, Mongolia is one of the world's most aid dependent nations. In the past the Soviet bloc was the principal source of aid and credit (Mongolia's estimated debt to the former Soviet Union in 1992 was more than USD10 billion in transferable rubles with debt reduction still remaining to be negotiated). Considerable technical assistance also came from East European countries. Mongolia is seeking foreign assistance and investment from the West and international financial institutions 44

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

to promote the development of a market economy, but Mongolia remains one of the most debtburdened countries in the world with debt equivalent to 84 per cent of Mongolia's GDP. In January 2004, Russia announced that it would forgive a substantial part of the USD10 billion in Soviet-era debt owed to it by Mongolia. The Mongolian government then announced that it will pay Russia approximately USD300 million, which it will partly finance through the issue of new treasury bills. Mongolia's huge potential as a major exporter of minerals is attracting interest from many foreign companies involved in the mining industry. This, coupled with the revision of national legislation to encourage foreign investment, bodes well for Mongolia's economic future in the minerals industry. The August 2005 deal with China to allow Beijing to develop Mongolia's coal fields was a major step towards the exploitation of this potentially very valuable resource. Oil production has begun again after a hiatus of many years and exploration for new reserves continues. Although Mongolia exports the oil it produces, as production builds up, Mongolia could find itself in the position of being able to fill all of its petroleum needs from domestic resources and exporting a large surplus too. In the mean time, it imports large amounts of petroleum products a year, a major burden. During 2002, mining provided 9 per cent of Mongolia's GDP and 50 per cent of its gross industrial product. Within the processing industry, Erdenet alone produced 13.5 per cent of Mongolia's GPD, 35 per cent of its industrial product and 40 per cent of the Mongolian export product. For all of 2002, the total industrial product was estimated at USD247 million. Policy Mongolia's present economic policy is based upon its natural resources, primarily minerals and the expectation of oil and gas discoveries. As a consequence of the country's isolation and its landlocked boundaries, it did not participate in the world market or have access to modern technology to develop its natural resources adequately for most of the 20th century. Moves towards democratic change and commitments to an 'open-door' policy to attract foreign investment began with Mongolia enacting a Foreign Investment Law on 1 May 1990. Until the formation of Mongolia's new government in 1990, the Former Soviet Union (FSU) accounted for over 80 per cent of trade with Mongolia and underwrote as much as 30 per cent of the state budget. This dependency on the FSU, particularly for oil supply, led to the Mongolian government having to raise hard currency to pay for oil imports. Mongolia is again an oil producer, but currently only for export. To facilitate the development of its oil and gas resources, the Mongol Petroleum Company, a state-owned oil company, was formed in May 1990. Since its formation, the company has actively promoted the country's oil and gas potential in the international arena, negotiating and awarding acreage in the southeastern area of the country in the vicinity of the Zuunbayan and Tsagaan Els oilfields. The first company to sign an agreement was the Snyder Oil Corporation (SOCO), followed by NESCOR Energy and Medallion Oil of Houston - all small US independents - over the period 1992 to date. The Mongol Petroleum Company has sought a range of international, independent, small and large oil companies to provide risk capital for exploring and developing Mongolia's undiscovered oil and gas resources, to develop Mongolia's petroleum industry infrastructure and to assist in educating and training 45

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Mongolians. So far it has been successful in this Endeavour and domestic oil production and refining capacity continue to grow. The agreement with China to develop Mongolia's coal fields in August 2005 was a major step towards utilizing the economic potential coal gives Mongolia. As part of future economic planning, the Economic Standing Committee of the Great Hural has developed a proposal for the zonal development of Mongolia, with each zone specialized economically. Planned zones will include a Western zone centered on Hovd, a Hangai Zone, centering on Harhorin, a Central Zone centering on Zuunmod, and an Eastern Zone with Choibalsan as the primary centre. A major goal of this plan would be to reduce migration to the capital and to achieve a regional economic balance. Sector Analysis The linchpins of the Mongolian economy are agriculture (animal husbandry), light industry, mining, mineral processing, and extraction, including a rapidly growing oil industry. Of potential future significance is tourism, with 192,087 tourists visiting Mongolian during 2002, up 16 per cent over 2001. As of the end of 2005, Mongolia had about 2 million horses, 252,000 camels, 1.9 million head of cattle (including yaks and hybrids), 12.7 million head of sheep and 13.1 million goats. This figure of just over 30 million head of livestock represent a high point over the last six years, although it is still low compared to previous years (a total of 33.6 million livestock in 1999) as a result of the heavy losses in recent years (4.8 million animals in 2001, 3.5 million in 2000) due to severe winter conditions and drought. Horses are used for riding and hauling, for meat, and fermented mare's milk, or airag, the national drink. Camels produce meat, fermented camel's milk and camel wool. Mongolia's cattle are used to produce meat, milk, and hides, and sheep primarily for meat, milk, and sheep hides. Goats are raised for meat and milk, but especially for cashmere and goatskin. Agriculture, almost entirely animal husbandry since there were only 217,600 ha of sown areas in Mongolia at the end of 2001, contributed 20.6 per cent of the Mongolian GDP in 2004. In 2002 some 106,900 tons of wheat were harvested from 234,700 ha of land, despite difficult conditions in some areas. In addition to the wheat, 65,446 tons of potatoes and 24,596 tons of vegetables were also harvested from 5,017 and 3,755 hectares respectively. These figures are still well below Mongolian needs and imports continue. Statistical Overview
2000 GDP (current USD billion) GDP Growth (annual %) GDP per capita ( constant 2000 USD) 0.970 1 428 2001 1.01 1 429 63.0 8 2002 1.26 4 406 77.8 1 2003 1.27 6 424 n/a 5 2004 1.56 11 462 n/a n/a

FDI net inflows (BoP current USD 53.7 million) Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) 12

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. External debt, total (DoD current USD billion) Exports of goods and services (current USD billion) Imports of goods and services (current USD billion) 0.90 0.63 0.79 0.89 0.67 0.83 1.04 0.71 0.95 1.47 0.82 1.08 n/a 1.16 1.49

9. Infrastructure
Airports: 48 (2005) Airports - with total: 14 paved runways: over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2005) Airports - with total: 34 unpaved runways: over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2005) Heliports: 2 (2005) Railways: total: 1,810 km broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004) Roadways: total: 49,250 km paved: 1,724 km unpaved: 47,526 km (2002) Waterways: 580 km note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004) Merchant marine: total: 53 ships (1000 GRT or over) 255,182 GRT/379,234 DWT by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 45, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 39 (China 1, North Korea 3, South Korea 1, Lebanon 1, Marshall Islands 1, Russia 10, Singapore 8, Syria 2, Thailand 1, Ukraine 1, UAE 3, Vietnam 7)

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html
Country China Railways (km) 72,000 Roads (km) 770,265 Waterways (km) 110,000 Main Airport Main Port

Beijing Shanghai Capital International, Shanghai International Narita Kobe International, Tokyo Buyant-Ude Ulaanbaatar None

Japan

25,526

859,000

1,770

Mongolia

1,810

3,523

400

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. North Korea South Korea Taiwan 8,000 3,118 2,363 2,000 63,000 17,000 2,250 1,600 None Pyongyang Sunan Inchon International Nampo Pusan

Chiang Kai- Kaohsiung shek (Taipei International); Kaohsiung

Roads Mongolia had only 3,523 km of improved roads at the end of 2001, including 1,572.7 km of paved road; it also has about 43,000 km of unpaved road. As part of the Millennium Project, sanctioned by the Mongolian cabinet in December 2000, plans call for adding 2,668 km of paved road to that total over the next decade or so to open up isolated regions for development and provide employment for up to 50,000 during construction. Costs will be considerable with much of the funding coming from foreign sources. The areas located along the proposed project include 77 per cent of Mongolia's total population, 72 per cent of its settlements, and 52.9 per cent of its livestock. The Action Plan was created by the State Great Hural in order to outline the governments goals and projects from 2004-2008. The hope is to decrease the remoteness of rural areas by improving conditions of roads and bridges that connect rural and urban areas. Some of the objectives of the Action Plan include: improving the legal environment targeted at increasing funds for roads; to promote and encourage investment for funding and repairing roads and bridges; continued construction on the building of paved roads for the direction of HovdUlaangom-Handgait, Bulgan-Yurant, Erdenet-Bulgan-Unit, and Choir-Sainshand-Zamyn-Uud, Kharkhoin--Tsetserleg-Tosontsengel directions; partially build gravel roads for ArvaiheerBayanhongor-Gobi-Altai-Hovd; continue the paved road building for Baganuur-Undurkhaan and take actions to launch the road and bridge building for Bulgam sum (in Kovd)-Khovd and Undurkhaan-Sumbe; conduct studies to construct international roads, railways and airports, and intensify related negotiations and activities to attract new investment; continue the building of paved road linking Ulaanbaatar-Erdenesant. Bus and trolleybus services are provided in Ulaanbaatar by a municipal undertaking responsible to the Ministry of Transport. Figures for public transport in Mongolia's major urban centers indicate some 120 million passengers are carried annually. Private microbuses have become a significant form of transportation in the capital too, providing better service than the state-run trolley buses. Railways Organization Mongolian Railway's (MTZ) core main line, the Trans-Mongolian Railway, extends 1,111 km from the Russian Federation frontier at Suhbaatar to the Chinese border at Dzamin-Uud, with a line to Erdenet (164 km) and six other short branches, including one to the coal fields at 48

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Darhan. There is also an isolated narrow gauge 349 km line, the Oriental Railway, in the east of the country, which links the Mongolian-Russian Federation border station at Solovyevsk with Choybalsan, and throws off a branch to Erdes. This line used to be longer but part was abandoned after the end of Soviet military build-up in the area and the need to support Russian missiles. The total length of all Mongolian railways was 1,810 km in 2001. The Mongolian Railway authority has recently begun to use a fiber optic cable stretching between Suhbaatar and Zamyn-Udd to manage sales. Passenger operations Mongolia's railways accounted for 1,062.2 million passenger-km in 2001. The 2001 figure was more than half of Mongolia's total passenger-km achievement for all forms of transportation. Since 2000 paved roads have been available from Ulaanbaatar, Sühbaatar, Darhan, Erdenet and Bagaanur, creating an adverse consequence on rail usage with its frequent stops and slower journey times. Despite this, MTZ handles some 30 per cent of the country's passenger traffic. Freight operations A total of 9,158.5 thousand tons of freight were carried by rail in 2000 and 10,147.7 thousand tons in 2001, up substantially over the 7,298.0 thousand tons carried in 1995. In the spring of 2002, the Tuushin Company began offering a rapid container service to Brest-Litovsk through Russia and Belarus, considerably cutting shipping times. Another express container service links Ulaanbaatar to Hong Kong. In August 2005 measures to harmonies and increase the capacity of the Russian, Mongolian and Chinese railway networks were agreed during talks. The primary objective is to modernize border crossing points and implement measures to facilitate an increase in the volume of exports and imports between the three states, especially regarding the transportation of oil from Russia to China. New lines Considerable benefits would accrue from linking the isolated Oriental Railway with the main network, feasibility studies for which were carried out in 1986. This remains a long-term goal, but a new shorter route to China from the Oriental Railway at Choybalsan is much favored as a means of opening up eastern Mongolia and accessing the Tumen river economic zone. Also planned is a line from Erdenet to the Moron region, principally for fertilizer movement. There are better prospects for a line from Airag to tap the huge reserves of coking coal at Tavantolgoi. Pre-feasibility studies were made in the late 1980s, but construction would depend on availability of foreign funding and technical assistance. Waterways Mongolia has about 400 km of significant navigable inland waterway. Proposals were made recently to develop major Mongolian rivers as outlets to the sea for export purposes. 49

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Airports There are 41 usable airports in Mongolia, 12 of which have permanent-surface runways. The Ulaanbaatar airport at Buyant-Ude was modernized and its capacity expanded in 1985. A further USD43.9 million loan has been requested from the Asian Development Bank (AsDB) for the upgrading of systems and terminal capacity expansion. Another project will involve the development of navigation resources, including the installation of GPS equipment in all aircraft. Mountains prevent the lengthening of the existing runway and the authorities are examining the possible development of two former Soviet military bases to the south, to serve as a new airport for Mongolia's capital city. Weather conditions, fog in particular, some of it due to Ulaanbaatar's severe air pollution, are often a severe hindrance to operations at the Ulaanbaatar airport. In May of 2004, talks began between the Government of Mongolia and Liberty Financial Corporation (LFC) on building a new international airport for Ulaanbaatar 54 km away in the Khoshigt Valley. Since 1999, international air traffic to Mongolia has been increasing, and it is expected that the rate will continue to increase at a rapid rate. The construction is expected to take 5 years to complete and would cost USD900 million. The project would receive funding from LFC Fund bank (69 per cent), Merril Lynch (17 per cent), CE Capital (10 per cent), and JP Morgan (4 per cent). The project would also include a 70 km expressway connecting Ulaanbaatar with the airport in Khoshigt Valley. It was decided that LFC would completely fund the construction and the Government of Mongolia would provide the land. By February 2006 no construction had yet begun on this project. The runway of the Moron Sum airport in Huvsgul aymag was recently reconstructed to allow large jets to land and serve as an emergency landing site for the aircraft of foreign airlines flying over Mongolia. Mongolian airspace is administered by its General Department of Civil Aviation headed by M Dagva. This is entirely distinct from MIAT, Mongolian Airlines, which is the national carrier. According to Dagva, some 30,000 aircraft fly through Mongolian airspace each year serving, in addition to Mongolian companies, some 37 foreign passenger and freight companies that regularly use Mongolian airspace and 32 companies that do occasionally. Civil Airlines Mongolian Airlines (MIAT) is a scheduled and charter carrier. Its international scheduled destinations include Almaty, Beijing (40,000 passengers in 2002), Hohhot, Hong Kong, Irkutsk, Moscow, Osaka, Tokyo Berlin, Milan, Seoul and Ulan-Ude. The airline was originally formed in 1956 with technical assistance from Aeroflot. It now flies domestic and international scheduled services as well as undertaking agricultural and air-ambulance operations. The age of Mongolian Airline's fleet has begun to cause concern, An-24 aircraft in particular having only a few more years of service left. Although plans are now advanced to replace the B727-200 aircraft with new and more efficient B737-800 aircraft, Mongolia is finding it more difficult to replace its An-24 fleet since many of the aircraft currently on the market in the same class lack grass-strip landing abilities. There was a serious accident with nine fatalities 50

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during 2001 when an overloaded Mi-8 carrying UN personnel crashed on landing. This was Mongolia's sixth fatal crash since 1990 in which time it has lost three An-26 aircraft, and one Yu-12, as well as the Mi-8. In addition to the fleet listed in the table following, Mongolia has leased an Airbus A310-300 since 1998 and added a leased B737-800 in July, 2002. It has been leased for eight years and will initially serve the Ulaanbaatar-Seoul route. On 22 March 2002 Mongolian Airlines signed an agreement to purchase a B737-800. Mongolia's two remaining B-727 aircraft have been sold for spare parts to South Africa. As a major new addition to the Mongolian domestic air service, Air Mongol has begun operations with two 50-seat Fokker 50 aircraft. In March 2003, a Mongolian delegation visited the French ATR company with an An-24 replacement in mind. The private Tengeriin Ulaach (Sky Coachman) company, which operates 17-seat Czech EL410 aircraft along domestic routes, initially to areas located near to Ulaanbaatar, was set up in 2002. Tengeriin Ulaach and Ecomedia Asia will also offer charter flights for tourists. Current plans call for there to be six private aviation companies, in addition to Mongolian Airlines, operating An-24 and MI-8 aircraft. This is to be achieved in the context of a continuing privatization effort. Other Mongolian commercial airlines currently include Hangard (Garudi), Monmet MMA, Blue Sky Aviation, and Central Mongolian Airways. Fleet details
An-24 An-26 An-30 A-310-300 B-727-200 B-77-800 PZL Mielec (An) 2 ×8 ×3 ×1 ×1 ×2 x1 × 30

Ports Mongolia is landlocked and has no ports worthy of note but Mongolia has begun to operate its own leased vessels operating out of a number of other countries (primarily Singapore). Telecommunications There were a total of 142,300 main line telephones in use in 2004, with a telephone density of 5.4 per 100 inhabitants, the city of Ulaanbaatar having a density of 8.8 per 100, and rural areas having a density as low as 0.8 per 100. The country has access to at least one earth station and a new satellite was launched in 2001. There are currently three mobile phone networks operating, JV MobiCom, Unitel and Skytel. With Unitel, a Mongolian/South Korean/Malaysian consortium, being launched in December 2005.There are currently 457,00 registered cell phone subscribers, a number that is expected to continue rising. Mongolia's first and primary internet service provider is Datacom, which began operations in 1996. In 2004 there were estimated 220,000 internet users in Mongolia. 51

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Source: Jane’s Information Group 10. Military ARMED FORCES SUMMARY
Military branches: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF); there is no navy (2005) Military service age 18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 and obligation: months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers (2004) Manpower available males age 18-49: 736,182 for military service: females age 18-49: 734,679 (2005 est.) Manpower fit for males age 18-49: 570,435 military service: females age 18-49: 607,918 (2005 est.) Manpower reaching males age 18-49: 34,674 military service age females age 18-49: 34,251 (2005 est.) annually: Military $23.1 million (FY02) expenditures - dollar figure: Military 2.2% (FY02) expenditures percent of GDP:

Source: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mg.html A. Leadership

TOTAL STRENGTH 8,300 Defense Minister: Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces: Tserenkhuu Sharavdorj General Major Tsevegsuren Togoo

B. Armed Forces Overview According to existing legislation the Mongolian Army is directly subordinate to the Great Khural, although day-to-day control of the armed forces rests with the minister of defense. In 1996 a major reorganization was begun to bring the border troops under the Ministry of Defense’s control and to separate the air defense force (including all aviation assets) from the land forces (army). Centralized military intelligence and military logistics systems are thought to be semi-autonomous, reporting to the chief of the General Staff. 52

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

The Mongolian armed forces consist of the Mongolian People's Army (MPA) and the Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF). There is no navy. The headquarters of the Mongolian armed forces is organized as a General Staff, based on the old Soviet model. All the Mongolian senior officers received their training in the former Soviet Union, while some junior officers are now being trained in the West. The minister of defense is the highest ranking military post, followed by the first vice minister of defense and the armed forces chief of staff. All three holders of these positions are appointed by the president. The Ministry of Defense’s priorities are:  To boost the efficiency of the MOD's activities by transforming it into a central state administrative agency, the functions of which would be to develop a planning of defense strategies, to provide policy guidance, to conceive programs, to regulate and undertake the monitoring of policy implementation, and to evaluate results; To create the legal basis of an integral national defense system consistent with the specifics of market economy relations; To accord activities of the central and local state administrative agencies and economic entities with the security and defense interests of the country and create the legal basis of its regulation on the part of the state; To reform the structure and organization of the armed forces and to establish military units capable of executing combat and special tasks with their peacetime structure and staff; To strengthen border defense through the institution of a professional border guard service. To expand elite battalions and radar units in Gov'altay and Khovd aimags. To enhance possibilities for the use of aircraft and helicopters in the defense of Mongolia's borders. The supreme objective of the MOD is: "To make the armed forces and the border troops professionally-oriented and capable, and through the establishment of an integral political, economic, social, military and legal defense system, to reliably safeguard the country's independence and territorial integrity."

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Professional military command of the armed forces is executed by the General Staff of Armed Forces, chiefs and staffs of service branches, commanders and staffs of military units, and military and civil defense staff of provinces, capital city and districts within their respective competence. The General Staff of Armed Forces is a central institution of military command. The chief of the General Staff (CGS) carries his duties under the governance of the commander-in-chief and the minister of defense. Chain of Command

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Doctrine and Strategy The State Great Khural adopted a document entitled 'The Fundamentals of the Military Doctrine of Mongolia' in 1994. This bore great significance in the sense that it formulated the main directions of foreign and domestic policies concerning the establishment of the legal basis for the implementation of military reforms and the guarantee of military security. This new doctrine shifted the military's focus from an offensive reaction capability to a strictly defensive plan for border security, civil defense and nation-building. Other aspects of the new doctrine included the intentions to become a 'non-aligned' nation and to establish civilian control of the military. The document stipulated that: "Mongolia shall develop all-round, friendly relations and cooperation with the countries of the world, particularly with the neighboring states, and work to bring about military trust, refrain from and/or prevent any activity that may adversely affect its vital national interests, thereby eliminating any grounds for and causes of external military threat." This represents a totally new perspective on the principle of ensuring Mongolia's national security. The basic precepts of Mongolia's military doctrine are as follows:  Not to view the use of force or the threat of use as a means of settling any dispute and not to recognize the results of such use of force or aggression;  No first use of its armed forces against another country under any circumstances and not to pose a military threat to others;  Not to participate in wars and conflicts unless Mongolia itself falls victim to foreign aggression. It shall fulfill its UN Charter obligations to support UN activities by way of dispatching observers, offering good offices, mediation and conciliatory services;  Not to form part of any military alliance unless the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia is directly threatened or there is a clear and present danger of such a threat;  To strictly adhere to the policy of not allowing foreign troops to enter, be stationed or pass in transit its territory in the absence of relevant Mongolian legislation. Within Mongolia's military doctrine, the basic issues of military strategy are defined in conformity with the country's new circumstances. Mongolia has declared its territory a nuclear weapon-free zone and has stated its determination to ensure this status by bilateral and multilateral guarantees and to actively participate in policies and activities aimed at banning nuclear testing and reinforcing the nuclear non-proliferation regime. With regard to conventional wars and conflicts, while decisively proposing to cease viewing them as means of settling disputes between countries, Mongolia does not exclude the possibility of such wars and conflicts emerging under certain conditions and being engaged in them for the purpose of defending itself. In such cases, as the military doctrine provides, "Any country that threatens with or undertakes an armed aggression against the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia, and any accomplice to such an aggression shall be regarded as its enemy. Mongolia shall wage an armed struggle and just war to defend itself against foreign 54

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armed incursion and aggression." Military doctrine describes the following circumstances as aggression against Mongolia:    An intrusion into Mongolian territory of the armed forces of any other country; An armed attack on Mongolia from beyond its border; An attack and/or assault upon Mongolian armed forces and other troops, their formations and other units;  A violation of the relevant Mongolian legislation by foreign troops during their stay in or transit through its territory;  The use by a foreign country of land leased to it under Mongolian laws, for a short or a long term, for armed aggression against other countries;  The instigation of disorders, looting, subversive and terrorist activities perpetrated by specially trained and armed people infiltrated into Mongolian territory from another country. The basic principles of using armed forces in war and armed struggle are defined in the military doctrine. Taking into account the impossibility of defending all of its territory evenly, Mongolia hopes to prepare its armed forces for limited local armed conflicts and embraces the theory and practice of military art based thereupon. Such conflicts would include any attempt to seize parts of the territory or armed incursions on the state border. In such a case as the initiation of a large regional conflict in all or a part of the country's territory, and when the threat of becoming involved in it is evident, Mongolia reserves the right to enlist the support and assistance of other countries and international bodies that respect the country's independence and its state and social system. Military doctrine also maintains that Mongolia shall pursue a firm policy of preventing any internal public disorder and armed conflict that would undermine the state and social order established by the constitution and the national unity. Although this does not directly suggest the use of military means for internal purposes, there are provisions in the constitution for the use of the armed forces in the case of a state of emergency or when a state of war is declared because of internal disorder and/or conflict. Apart from defending the country, Mongolia's military doctrine describes the MPA's foremost duty as that of participating in the rebuilding of the nation. The MPA fully supports the government's initiatives to gain access to world markets and much-needed technology. According to a former chief of the General Staff, Major General Rashmaagyn Gavaa, the MPA will work towards developing relations with foreign militaries and will become involved in international political activities to promote co-operation and reduce tension. Reform of the Armed Forces According to the Law on the Defense of Mongolia of 1993, the old structure of the armed forces, which consisted of Mongolian People's Troops and Border and Internal Troops, was changed. The Mongolian armed forces now comprise five components: General Purpose Troops, Air Defense Forces, Construction Corps, Civil Defense Forces and Mobilization Reserves. The Border Troops and Internal Troops were defined as 'other troops' which in a state of war with a foreign country or a state of war would become a part of the armed forces. 55

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

The General Purpose Troops, the core of the armed forces, are the main force intended to defend the country by military means. In peacetime, the General Purpose Troops are to direct their activities at ensuring the mobilization readiness of the Mongolian armed forces, providing military training for the population, forming personnel resources and organizing the maintenance, protection and servicing of military equipment and material reserves. Depending on organizational specifics of military units and organizations, the General Purpose Troops are divided into combat, on-combat-duty, training, training combat, and stockpile and service units. Mobilization reserves consist of reservists and are intended to expand the armed forces by mobilization and replace losses incurred in wartime. Development trends   The primary development trends of the Mongolian armed forces in the near future will be: The further upgrading of the peacetime organizational structure of the armed forces and maintenance of the number of troops at the existing level. This will make defense spending in the state budget transparent, as well as create the possibility for the rational scientific planning and use of manpower resources. The steady implementation of the armed forces' reform policy toward professionallyoriented and capable forces. It is hoped that the armed forces establishment will be modified to bring the structure and organization of military units, personnel replenishment methods, training, service and life conditions, and the supply and guarantees for the military closer to modern professional army standards. This objective can be reached through the formation of a few new units with a specially trained professional staff and through changing the functioning regimes of existing military units, providing them with a relatively constant complement of personnel. The upgrade of Mongolia's present military service rules to world standards. According to the amendments to the Law on Military Duties of Citizens and Legal Status of Military Personnel (October 1997), along with the officer and non-commissioned officers' longterm contractual service and the private and sergeants' fixed-term draft service, the following new forms of military service shall be exercised in the nearest future: Privates' and sergeants' contractual service on a voluntary basis. This is a new form of service for the Mongolian armed forces. The first term of this contractual service for privates and sergeants shall be 24 months, although this could be further prolonged continuously up to the age limit established for the privates' and sergeants' active service. Alternate service. Due to religious or moral reasons, individuals may choose an alternate form of military service. Compensation payment. Citizens who do not serve in the army for the term defined by law as reaching the age limit for privates' and sergeants' service shall make a compensation payment as a form of alternate service. The state policy to have a compact and capable armed force will be continuously observed in the future. It will be implemented, on the one hand, through the decrease of personnel and equipment size, and by increase of combat capability of troops on the other hand. In this connection, a vital objective of the armed forces' development is a further improvement of the military training system. One of the determinative trends of the armed forces' development is a rational, step-by-step modernization of the armed forces' equipment. Due to the defensive nature of the Mongolian armed forces' mission, attention will be paid to the modernization of early 56

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warning systems. Air and satellite surveillance systems and modern capabilities necessary for border protection will be strengthened. The balanced and acceptable location and size of military units will be vital to a sense of confidence-building. At present, 72.7 per cent of total personnel are serving in central areas of the country, located at a distance of 500 or more kilometers from the state's borders. Another important development trend of the Mongolian armed forces is to be the establishment of regular relations with the armed forces of other countries and active participation in common efforts to create a universal and regional security system. Plans to participate in the UN's peacekeeping missions are a reflection of the peaceful intentions of the Mongolian armed forces.

Strategic Weapons Mongolia has no plans to develop or acquire strategic weapons. Declared Policy Mongolia has declared that nuclear weapons are illegal on its soil and there are no published plans to acquire weapons of mass destruction. Ballistic Missiles Mongolia does not possess ballistic missiles. Nuclear Weapons Mongolia does not have nuclear weapons and has declared itself a nuclear-free state going so far as to outlaw such weapons on its territory in February 2000. Mongolia is a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and has allowed visits from inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify that no nuclear activities are being conducted. In December 1998, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 53/77 D, "Mongolia's international security and nuclear-weapon-free status," that also called upon member states, including the nuclearweapon states, to cooperate with Mongolia in ensuring its international security and nuclearfree status. In May 2001, the Mongolian cabinet agreed to sign an additional protocol to the 1972 International Atomic Energy Treaty guaranteeing non-proliferation. In 2002, a nuclear monitoring station was established near the Tavan Tolgoi military camp, with French assistance. Biological Weapons Mongolia has no biological weapons. Chemical Weapons

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

There are no chemical weapons in the operational echelons of the armed forces; the Militia (controlled by the Ministry of Public Security) is thought to have access to anti-riot non persistent chemicals. Assessment of Covert Programs Mongolia does not seek by legal or illegal means to acquire technology to develop or build biological, chemical or nuclear weapons. C. Procurement Defense Equipment Requirements Mongolia is not in a position to make major equipment purchases and since Soviet backing for the country collapsed, the major policy on acquisition has been to acquire spares only. There is also a major rationalization programme underway. In December 2001, Mongolia received its first purchase of Russian military equipment, worth USD270,000. The equipment included MiG-21 spare parts, parachutes for Mongolia's airborne unit, grenade launchers, and ammunition. Follow-up purchases will be dependent upon the availability of funding. Army Procurement Requirements No requirements have been announced. Modernization Rationalization of the main battle tank fleet and improved mobility for existing APC's and field artillery appear to be the chosen priorities. Air Force Procurement Requirements The plan is to keep the MiG-21 interceptor fleet airworthy until replacements can be acquired when the country's financial situation has sufficiently improved but there is no evidence that any aircraft have yet been returned to service from storage. It is understood that the Mi-4 support/utility helicopter squadron will be phased out as soon as suitable Mi-8 replacements can be acquired. MiG-21 spare parts were received in late 2001. Modernization No details are available but it is understood that MAPO/Moscow MiG personnel have visited Ulaanbaatar to discuss upgrading the MiG-21 fleet to MiG-21-93 standard with new avionics and weapon systems. The aim would be to create a dual-purpose interceptor/close air support

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

aircraft. Helicopter upgrading is a possibility and it is understood that Rostvertol has been approached to discuss the improvement of the Mi-24 fleet's capability. Navy Procurement Mongolia, being landlocked, does not have a navy. Assessment Mongolia has a small equipment inventory but there is room for selective, low cost improvements to keep the armed forces' capability credible. There are no signs that the government wishes to increase its military preparedness, aware that it could not match the power of its immediate neighbors, but it wants to keep the equipment sufficiently ready to cope with internal or limited border problems. Procurement History Few details are available and it is understood that little new equipment has been acquired this decade. Main Foreign Suppliers Traditionally, Russia and China have supplied all Mongolia's needs. Turkey begun military assistance to Mongolia at a low level, total aid amounting to about USD500,000. This effort is part of a Turkish initiative throughout Central Asia and is intended to support Mongolian peace-keeping forces. A formal agreement between Turkey and Mongolia was signed on 27 June 2002. Defense Spending Expenditure Summary
Defense Expenditure USD24.7 million (2002) USD10.1 per head of population (2002) USD2,923 per member of armed forces (2002) 2.3 per cent of GDP (2000)

Defense Expenditure
Defense Expenditure (USD billions) 1998 21.7 1999 19.0 2000 n/a 2001 n/a 2002 24.7

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D. Army Summary
STRENGTH 6,850 INFANTRY Brigade × 7 (Motor rifle) Brigade × 2 (Rapid deployment light infantry) ARTILLERY Brigade × 1 (independent) ENGINEER Brigade × 1

Assessment Small and flexible but outclassed in men and material numbers by its neighbors, the Mongolian Army can only hope to contain an invasion for a matter of days until the UN or a friendly power comes to its aid. The forces are gradually improving their operational art and military readiness but many soldiers have been diverted to ceremonial duties to attract tourist dollars rather than undergo training in the defense of the country. Deployments, tasks and operations Role and Deployment The Mongolian armed forces are responsible for territorial defense and national security. Internal security is the role of the Ministry of Public Security. The army is deployed to protect key installations, including those in Ulaanbaatar. Full deployment plans for the seven brigades and their respective battalions have not been released, but it is known that deployment is now spreading to include the defense of the nation in all respects, rather than being positioned only to resist invasion or insurgency from the south. Mongolia also deploys civil defense and construction troops, including in connection with the Millennium Road project, as well as internal security troops. All air defense weapons have been transferred to the control of the air defense force, which is understood to provide all battlefield and other tactical air defense cover.

Recent and Current Operations As part of the Mongolian government's new defense law, the army formed and trained a separate light force for UN and other peacekeeping duties. It became operational in 1997. Until 1996 the Mongolian forces did not consider contribution to UN operations necessary but the change of attitude reflects the changing international focus of the government, the benefits which working with forces of other nationalities would bring and the possibility of gaining financial assistance as a member of an international peacekeeping force. Both Germany and the 60

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US assisted in the creation of a rapid deployment light infantry battalion for such operations. A second such unit, the special mission 84th Battalion has been created from the former 084 airborne battalion. In addition to assisting in times of national disasters, the 84th Battalion is also involved in intelligence and counter-intelligence activities to prevent domestic subversion. A company-sized force largely of engineers is set to participate in Iraqi reconstruction. As of April 2005, Mongolia had five military observers seconded to two UN missions: three observers with MINURSO in Western Sahara; two observers with MUNOC in the Congo. Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan The Mongolian Army has 173 personnel in Iraq serving as part of the Polish-led multinational division. The contingent includes an infantry company from the army's 150th Peacekeeping Battalion, military engineers and a medical detachment. The infantry company has been involved in security and stability operation tasks at the Al Hillah military base, including patrolling, convoy escort and operating as a rapid reaction force. The engineer platoon is involved in rebuilding infrastructure and is also tasked to enhance force protection, while the medical team is providing medical services to the multinational force and Iraqi civilians. Mongolia deployed a mobile training team to Afghanistan in September 2003 to teach Afghan National Army (ANA) personnel to operate three D-30 122 mm towed howitzer battalions and provide core artillery specialist instruction. The Mongolian team is also charged with inspecting and repairing D-30 howitzers in the ANA inventory. Command and control According to new legislation the Mongolian Army is directly subordinate to the Great Hural, although day-to-day control of the armed forces rests with the minister of defense. In 1996, a major reorganization was begun to bring the Border Troops under Defense Ministry control and to separate the air defense force (including all aviation assets) from the land forces (army). Centralized military intelligence and military logistics systems are thought to be semiautonomous, reporting to the chief of the General Staff. The Mongolian armed forces consist of the Mongolian People's Army (MPA) and the Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF). There is no navy. The headquarters of the Mongolian armed forces is organized as a General Staff, based on the old Soviet model. All the Mongolian senior officers received their training in the former Soviet Union, while some junior officers are now being trained in the West. The minister of defense is the highest-ranking military post, followed by the first vice minister of defense and the armed forces chief of staff. All three of these positions are appointed by the president. Professional military command of the armed forces is executed by the General Staff of Armed Forces, chiefs and staffs of service branches, commanders and staffs of military units, and military and civil defense staff of provinces, capital city and districts within their respective 61

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

competence. The General Staff of Armed Forces is a central institution of military command. The Chief of the General Staff (CGS) carries his duties under the governance of the commander-in-chief and the minister of defense. Command appointments Major-General Gurragchaa Jugderdemid has served as Minister of Defense since 2000. Between 1996-2000 he served as Chief of Staff, Air Defense Force. He was also a cosmonaut who participated in the joint Mongolian and Russian space flight on 24 March 1981. The current State Secretary for Defense is Colonel Surengiin Baasankhuu. Major-General Tsevegsuren Togoo was appointed as Chief of the General Staff (CGS) in October 2002. Gen Togoo retired as a colonel and most recently served as deputy defense minister. "He was among a group of reform-minded military officers active in the early 1990s and this may have caused his early retirement,‖ a Mongolian source told Jane's Defense Weekly. Gen Togoo was promoted to major-general on his recall to active service on 11 October 2002. His main focus as deputy defense minister was to oversee the formulation of a military reform plan covering the period to 2005 and his appointment as CGS appears intended to allow him to guide its implementation. The plan is aimed at enhancing military effectiveness and efficiency, strengthening civilian control, upgrading weapons and improving capabilities in the new areas of international peacekeeping and disaster relief. Army organization The Mongolian People's Army (current strength estimated to be 6,850) comprises: 7 × Motor Rifle Brigades (all probably under strength) 2 × Rapid Deployment Light Infantry Battalions (forming the core of a future Rapid Deployment Brigade) 1 × Artillery Brigade 1 × Engineer Brigade None of the land force formations are at strength and are considered cadre, with the possible exception of Ulaanbaatar's military garrison. Joint battlefield air defense and air support has been separated to an independent command, together with the Border Troops, whose command and control has been passed from the Interior to the Defense Ministry. Mongolia has no army aviation capability. Aviation support for the land forces is provided by the air force. The Border Troops are organized into seven regiments each of which control a number of border posts. Each administrative region on the border has a resident Border Troops regiment. Their responsibilities may include counter-espionage. The Mongolian armed forces are responsible for territorial defense and national security. Internal security is the role of the Ministry of Public Security. 62

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

As part of a continued reorganization of its ground forces, Mongolia has introduced a system of contract professionals in both the regular army and within border forces. Some 2.5 per cent of total ground personnel now comprise such contract soldiers. All serve in border areas. The order of battle has been changed from the division to brigade concept to allow for major units to be deployed across the country, rather than being concentrated on the southern borders facing China. The emphasis is now on peacetime roles including disaster relief, improved border security and the development of UN peacekeeping support. Mongolian Motor Rifle Brigade (Possible Organization)

The structure of these brigade is being reshaped to reflect the new defensive role and most reports suggest that these brigades are operating at about 80 per cent strength with serious problems associated with equipment serviceability. Light Infantry Battalions During January 2002, the Mongolia MoD announced plans to form a second 'elite' army battalion to supplement the first such unit created in 1997. The first unit the 150th Battalion, headquartered in Ulaanbaatar, is a light infantry formation with rapid-reaction capabilities. It can operate independently and its missions include peacekeeping operations. It is considered to be the most elite of the army units. The second unit, the special mission 84th Battalion, will be formed from the army's single airborne battalion, the 084 Battalion. In addition to assisting in times of national disasters, the 84th Battalion is also involved in intelligence and counter-intelligence activities to prevent domestic subversion. Its primary mission centers on combat-related tasks, but it will also be able to undertake peacekeeping missions. Mongolia intends to deploy company-strength units once fully prepared to participate in UN peacekeeping. 63

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Ulaanbaatar had originally planned "several" such light infantry battalions, reflecting its postSoviet doctrinal shift to territorial defense. Operational Art and Tactical Doctrine As part of the Mongolian government's new defense law, the army formed and trained a separate light force for UN and other peacekeeping duties. It became operational in 1997. Both Germany and the US assisted in the creation of a rapid deployment light infantry battalion for such operations. A second such unit is now planned, to be formed from the 084 airborne battalion. Army Bases Ulaanbaatar Choybalsan Altay Hovd Olgiy Ulaangom. Garrisons Ulaanbaatar is the country's only known garrison. Training Training is undertaken in country for conscripts but senior personnel study in institutions in Russia, China, the US, South Korea, Japan, and 15 other countries. Germany has offered to train Mongol middle-ranking military officers and the first batch of two dozen Mongolian Army officers went to Germany for training in 1994. In September 2000, Mongolian military personnel participated in field exercises in Kazakhstan. The nature of the changes in the Mongolian military training system includes the aim of forming a new training system for the regular staff and mobilization reserves of the armed forces. A particularly important task is to create a system of effective training of conscripts (contract servicemen) in a short period of time and intensive re-training of mobilization reserves within their territorial structure. Mongolia pressed the case for hosting an international peacekeeping training centre during the visit by the US Army Chief of Staff, to the Mongolian capital in February 2003. The proposed centre would train personnel for operations in northeast and central Asia, including specialized instruction in horseback patrolling and survival skills. However, UN support and foreign funding are regarded as essential. Mongolia has also taken part in training exercises with other nations. In March 2003, 70 Mongolian troops were joined by 20 Belgian military personnel for a peacekeeping exercise held at the Tavan Tolgoy military training centre. They were also one of 11 observer countries 64

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

at the 'Cobra Gold' exercise in May of 2003. The exercise included some 13,000 Thai, US, and Singaporean forces. Equipment in service Armor Armor
Type T-54/55 T-62 BMP-1 BRDM-2 BTR-40 BTR-60 BTR-152 Note requirements. Role Main Battle Tank Main Battle Tank Infantry Fighting Vehicle Reconnaissance Vehicle Armored Personnel Carrier Armored Personnel Carrier Armored Personnel Carrier Quantity In Service 500 150 400 150 200 50 200 400 150 300 100 100 50 150

Artillery
Type 152 mm M1937 130 mm M-46 122 mm D-30 76 mm unknown 122 mm BM-21 160 mm 120 mm 82 mm Note en reduced since 1991, but these details are unconfirmed. Role Field Howitzer Field Howitzer Field Gun Field Gun Multiple Rocket System Mortar Mortar Mortar Quantity In Service 48 64 120 24 135 30 48 96 24 48 120 24 135 30 48 96

Anti-Tank Weapons
Type 100 mm T-12 Role Anti-Tank Gun Quantity In Service 24 24

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. 85 mm D-44 RPG-7 Note ms may be operational. Anti-Tank Gun Anti-Tank Rocket 60 200 60 200

Infantry Weapons
Type 5.45 mm PSM 7.62 mm Tokarev 9 mm Makarov 5.45 mm AK-74 7.62 mm AKM 7.62 mm Dragunov 5.45 mm AKSU-74 5.45 mm RPK-74 7.62 mm 54 R (PKT) 7.62 mm 54 R (SGMT) Role Pistol Pistol Pistol Assault Rifle Assault Rifle Sniper Rifle Sub-Machine Gun Light Machine Gun Machine Gun 1 Machine Gun 1

Note Mounted on tanks and armored personnel carriers (APCs).

Source: Jane’s Information Group E. Air Force Summary
STRENGTH 800 FIGHTER MiG-21D/F CLOSE SUPPORT Mi-24R/Mi-8C TRANSPORT An-2, An-24, An-26, An-30

Assessment Mongolia's air force is badly under-strength and the readiness of its units is assessed to be minimal. Of the 12 (10 plus two conversion trainers) MiG-21 aircraft available, only six are believed to be operational and all the Mi-24s are assessed to be non-operational. None of the training aircraft, fixed- or rotary-wing, are believed to be in service. The lack of funds available translates into a lack of flying training and only essential military flying, including government-sponsored transport flights, are permitted. Most Mongolian pilots, therefore, have only limited experience and are restricted to daytime fair-weather training. According to a number of sources the air force has not flown an operational MiG-21 sortie in several years. Mongolia's new military cooperation, such as joint exercises or exchange programs, with 66

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

countries such as the US has not included any aircraft training. In 2002, Russia began to supply spare parts again to support Mongolia's MiG-21s. The first purchases were quite small. Deployments, tasks and operations Role and Deployment The primary roles of the air defense forces are to protect the national integrity of the country and to provide the Mongolian land forces with air support. Recent and Current Operations No contributions have been made to UN or other international operations. Command and control The Mongolian Air Force operates under the command of a major general who is directly responsible to the General Staff. The commander oversees three regiments (air defense, close support and transport), two helicopter squadrons and a training unit. Chain of Command

Army Organization The Air Force is a small component of the Armed Forces, containing two squadrons of MiG21D/F 'Fishbed' aircraft and one squadron of Mi-24 'Hind D' attack helicopters, all based at Nalayh airfield. The Air Force also operates a few transports, such as the Tu-154 'Careless'. Personnel strength is estimated at 800, with approximately 100 pilots, mainly employed in Mongolia's civil air fleet. Some estimates put the average annual training time for warplane pilots as low as 22 hours. Air Force units are subordinate to the chief of the General Staff; they 67

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

share military intelligence and logistical support with the land forces. The unit organization follows the Soviet model, with local adaptation for the lack of equipment. Operational Art and Tactical Doctrine Mongolia's operational art and tactical doctrine are based on Soviet models learned during the 1970s and 1980s. The Air Defense Force is gradually coming to terms with its new environment. Russia no longer provides the air defense expertise and tactical doctrine needed to maintain a sustained operational art. Air Force Bases
Choybalsan East (helicopters) 48º 02'N 114º 32'E Choybalsan Northeast Olon Bayshing (helicopters) Ulan Bator Ulan Dzuleg 48º 03'N 114º 30'E Unconfirmed 47º 54'N 106º 52'E Unconfirmed

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

Training There is believed to be a technical training school at Ulaanbaatar and a flight training school nearby. However, the level of training is far from impressive. During the 1980s training for officers and technical warrant officers was provided in the Soviet Union. Ulaanbaatar has in the past sought a similar deal with the US. Training Areas Sparsely populated Mongolia offers a large number of training areas for exercises. Vast areas of the Mongolian and Gobi deserts are available for training and live-firing exercises. The international air charts show no permanent exclusion zones for training but it is understood that the area around Choybalsan is widely used. Equipment in Service Fixed Wing
Type MiG-21U An-2 An-24 An-26 An-30 Note summer/autumn. Role Operational Trainer Light Transport Transport Transport Transport Quantity 8 1 6 6 1 1 In Service None None N/a N/a N/a N/a MiG-21PFM Interceptor

Rotary Wing
Type Mi-24R Mi-8 Mi-4 Mi-2 Role Attack Helicopter Support Helicopter Light Support Helicopter Training Helicopter Quantity 11 12 10 2 In Service N/a N/a 9 None

Air Defense Weapons
Type Strela-2 (SA-7) 57 mm S-60 37 mm M1939 14.5 mm ZPU-4 Quad 23 mm ZSU-23-4 Note defense systems remain operational. Ground-based systems are supported by about 60 radars spread nationwide but they are old Role Manportable SAM Anti-Aircraft Gun Anti-Aircraft Gun Light Anti-Aircraft Gun Self-Propelled AAG Quantity 2220 12 24 64 20 In Service 2220 12 24 64 12

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. and in poor condition, causing international air traffic concern with regard to the safety of civilian flights over-flying Mongolia each day.

11. Security And Foreign Forces Police
TOTAL STRENGTH N/a

Organization The National Police is responsible for basic law and order duties, criminal investigation and other non-military and non-state activities. It is mainly found operating in urban areas, paramilitary forces being responsible for all other law enforcement and security activity. Recent attacks on members of Mongolia's police have led to a demand for improved firearms control in Mongolia. There are 32,000 registered firearms in Ulaanbaatar alone. Non-State Armed Groups
TOTAL STRENGTH None

Organization There are no armed anti-government forces in Mongolia. Customs
TOTAL STRENGTH See Security Forces

Organization Customs control is the responsibility of the security forces. Border Guards
TOTAL STRENGTH 8,000

Organization Border control and security is assigned to the Border Troops organization, control of which passed to the Ministry of Defense from the Ministry of Interior in August 1996. The force is organized into seven regiments, each of which controls a number of border posts, dependent on locations and border terrain. Each aimag, or administrative region, on the border has a resident Border Troops regiment. 70

This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity.

There are currently 8,000 troops in the force. Men between 18 and 28 can opt for 12 months of national service in the Border Troops, rather than the land or air defense forces. Border Troops have been allocated about three An-24 transport aircraft, five Mi-8C support helicopters, a number of BTR-60 armored personnel carriers, motorcycles and trucks. Horses are also widely used for transport. Patrols vary from one to 14 days' duration. Better communications equipment is planned but not yet funded. The border measures 8,162 km (3,485 km with Russia, and 4,677 km with China). The commander, Border Troops, is Major General Suhyn Gurjav. Typical border problems are the smuggling of automobiles, cashmere, narcotics, alcohol and people. Generally, this traffic is supported by organized crime on both sides of the border.

Security Forces

TOTAL STRENGTH 4,500

Organization The approximately 4,500-strong security forces consist of two internal security regiments of 1,000 Internal Security Troops, 800 Civil Defense Troops and 2,700 Construction Troops. Internal Security Troops Under the command of the Ministry of Public Security, the Internal Security Troops are still organized along former Soviet lines. Together with the Border Troops, they have responsibility for national law enforcement, border control, frontier protection, railway security and possibly counter-espionage . General Intelligence Agency The General Intelligence Agency (GIA), formerly known as the State Security Agency, undertakes both intelligence and counter-intelligence duties on behalf of the state (the armed forces maintain their own intelligence service, the Information Research Agency, or IRA). The Great Hural has been seeking tighter regulation of Mongolia's intelligence services, passing a law on intelligence organizations in 1999. This mandated the GIA with the tasks of foreign intelligence collection, counter-intelligence and providing analysis on internal and external issues relating to national security, while tasking the IRA with the collection and analysis of information relating to political/military or strategic/military issues for the military command. The law would have checked IRA activities somewhat but President Bagabandi refused to allow the law. He objected to a clause stating that the GIA chief would be appointed by the prime minister. Inventory: Security Forces
Type Role Quantity

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This is product of the Virtual Information Center (VIC). As such it represents the opinions of the various authors involved and not the opinions, assessments or positions of the DoD or any other government agency or entity. BTR-60 BTR-152 Various Various Various Armored Personnel Carrier Armored Personnel Carrier Trucks Patrol Cars and Jeeps Motorcycles 150 150 500 500 1,000

Foreign Forces
TOTAL STRENGTH N/a

Organization Although Mongolia has a policy of not allowing foreign troops on its soil, the Russian Army maintains a signals and electronic intelligence station in Mongolia. This is primarily involved in monitoring Chinese People's Liberation Army activity. There has been mention that the electronic warfare section of the establishment is part of a tracking station which also monitors Chinese ballistic missile test activity. Source: Jane’s Information Group 12. Defense Production And R & D Defense Production No military production, research or development is undertaken in Mongolia, although during 2001 the first light aircraft (Canadian) ever assembled in Mongolia was put together by personnel of the Mongolian Civil Aviation Administration.

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