Elements of Music by yanyanliu123


									                                       Elements of Music

Rhythm – the pattern of long and short note values in music

Riff, straight, shuffle, jazz, swing, latin, describe note values within a phrase, short rhythmic
patterns, call and response, ostinatos, off beat, notation, time signatures, mixed metres,
polyrhythms, dotted rhythms, syncopation, even, tacet, duration, note values, pulse, regular,
irregular, repetitive, hemiola, isometric

Articulation –the degree to which notes are separated or connected

Legato            Smooth
Portato           Halfway between Legato and Staccato
Tenuto            Hold the note for full value
Marcato           Marked – stressed or accented note
Staccato          Detached – short, separated notes
Staccatissimo Very short and separated

Mezzo staccato, accents, slides, bends, hammer ons, pull offs, dampining, double stop,
pizzicato, mute, slurred, tongues, double/triple tongue

Dynamics – the degrees of loudness or softness

ppp       pianississimo very very soft...softest you can play
pp        pianissimo     very soft
p         piano          soft
mp        mezzo piano moderately soft
mf        mezzo forte moderately loud
f         forte          loud
ff        fortissimo     very loud
fff       fortississimo very very loud...loudest you can play

crescendo – getting louder              decrescendo – getting softer
sfz – sforzando                         diminuendo – getting softer
Melody – An organised sequence of single notes.
             The main tune or vocal line or line (instrumental).

Ascending, descending, repetitive, short or long notes, small or wide range of notes, stepwise
motion, jumpy, jagged, smooth, high or low notes, based on a scale, based on a triad, made
up of phrases, uses sequences, modal, contour, upbeat, catchy, anacrusis, angular contour,
leaps, motive, riff, register, unison, chromaticism

Tempo –the pace of a piece of music

Grave                   Very slow
Largo, Lento            Slow
Larghetto               A little faster than Largo
Adagio                  Moderately slow
Andante                 "Walking" tempo
Andantino               A little faster than Andante
Allegretto              A little slower than Allegro
Allegro                 Fast
Vivace                  Lively
Presto                  Very fast
Prestissimo             Very very fast

Moderato                Moderately
Molto                   Very

Accel. Accelerando      Gradually becoming faster
Rit. Ritardano          Gradually becoming slower

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