ROOM NO. 109 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 10:45 - 12:15: Theory of Cyber Law I (chair: dr. Radim Polčák) Qian Tao: Privacy protection under the freedom Privacy is one of the biggest concerns with the development of information technology in cyberspace. It has been classified by of expression in cyberspace in China modern scholars into different categories. One of the classifications is decisional privacy, informational privacy and spatial privacy. In the online world, informational privacy faces the inevitable threat, since the dissemination of information becomes much easy and uncontrollable. I’m trying to introduce the rules for online privacy protection including the Tort Law which takes force on July 1st, 2010, and cases in China with the greatest number of internet users in the world.For the purpose of analyzing, I prefer to dividing privacy in cyberspace into two categories: the privacy of internet users and the privacy disclosed by internet users or ISPs. When some countries are trying to carry on measures such as real name verification, content control and filter, to avoid the disclosure of privacy, much pressure is from the advocates of freedom of expression of internet users. ... Alžběta Krausová: Human and Superhuman: The technology of brain-computer interfaces poses many new challenges. Some of them directly interfere with the very nature of Principle of Equality in Danger? a human being, such as providing new physical and mental abilities to humans. Enhancing intelligence and memory or increasing number of senses can truly make one a superhuman. But what if not everybody can be a superhuman? The aim of this article is to explore in this regard the impacts of the brain-computer interfaces on the principle of equality. First of all, one will learn about the technological state of the art and its applications. Next, the concept and principles of equality in the society will be introduced. The impact of the technology on the principle of equality will be then examined from both philosophical and legal point of view. The paper will conclude with the identification of possible threats to the principle of equality. Tomas Scerba: Electronic contracts in day to day The purpose of the paper shall be to provide the auditorium with treatise on various types of electronic contracts currently practice existing in cyberspace. Several problematic aspects of electronic contracts along with brief note reagarding landmark court decisions shall be delivered as well. 13:15 - 14:45: Theory of Cyber Law II (chair: dr. Radim Polčák) Dariusz Kloza: On Web 2.0, intermediary service Web 2.0 - the highly interactive Internet - made it easier, faster and cheaper to participate actively or passively in the cyberspace, providers and some fundamental rights in particular express oneself therein or benefit from its vast resources. Certain jurisdictions even consider Internet access as a human right (e.g. France). Furthermore, Iceland recently strengthened its protection of journalism and freedom of expression. Concurrently, these developments created new possibilities of illicit conduct on a mass scale, e.g. cybercrime, intellectual property rights (IPR) infringement or defamation. This formed demand for new solutions to protect diverse rights and interests in the on-line world. E.g. the intermediary service providers (ISPs) are often required to comply with various protective measures. These might include content filtering, disclosure of the subscriber’s personal data or “three strikes.” This new wave of technological advancements raised some questions about the regulatory framework for the ISPs. Freedom of expression and the right to access to information - the core of the information society - are confronted with protection of decency, reputation and IPR, among others. Some privacy and fair trial concerns are involved as well. Is it possible to balance these considerations? A tentative conclusion might be that reconciliation is feasible when the proportionality test is satisfied. These issues will be addressed from the perspective of fundamental rights in Europe, focusing on the roles of the ISPs. Eva Fialová: RFID and Consumers´ Privacy In a competitive environment it is advantageous for various subjects to possess information about consumer’s behaviour and Protection preferences. This information can be generated from data stored and transmitted by means of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) incorporated, for example, in product packaging and in customer loyatity cards. The data can refer to the consumer, to purchased products or to a frequency and time of shopping. In databases, the data are the subject of profiling, datamining and datasharing. Information about the consumer and his/her private life provide an efficient tool for direct and event driven marketing, and other means to directly influence consumer’s choices. Futhermore, the RFID technology even allows tracking of a consumer in a specific area. Therefore, RFID represents a threat to consumers´ privacy. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether the current European legislation gives sufficient guarantees to the consumer´s right to privacy in connection with the RFID usage. The paper will also sketch out possible solution in this field to the future. Jeanne Pia Mifsud Bonnici (presented by Joseph In June 2010, the Icelandic Parliament, by unanimous vote, gave a mandate to the so-called "Icelandic Modern Media Initiative" A. Cannataci): Iceland: a freedom of information (IMMI) to propose what are intended to be the world's most stringent laws preserving free speech and a free press online. This paradise for netizens? move has solicited reactions from at least two camps: pro-Internet free speech and journalism freedom activists hail Iceland as “a place where people can freely host content without necessarily worrying about threats and challenges legally from their domestic government”. Others are sceptical about the reach of alleged protection brought by the IMMI changes. This paper reviews the IMMI examining the possible implications and limitations of the proposals towards an increased freedom of information online. It analyses whether the careful attention to issues of jurisdiction (modelled on experiences in the United States and other states) and applicable law given in the initiative is enough to encourage courts around the world to restrain from applying a parochial approach to the resolution of freedom of expression claims, preferring their own jurisdiction and own national law over the Icelandic approach. In conclusion, the author argues that as long as Iceland acts alone on this initiative, it is difficult to see beyond the symbolic value of the Icelandic move to register any actual improvement to freedom of expression and information 15:00 - 16:30: Intellectual Property I (chair: prof. Andreas Wiebe) Minhu Ma, Lili Zhao: Dilemma and Approaches As a new type of economic and social development model ，integration of the industrialization and informatization (The of Intellectual Property Rights in the Integration Integration) has given rise to broad attention in China. China has formulated a development strategy for the integration, that is of industrialization and informatization in China “Developing modern industry system, vigorously promoting the integration of the information technology and industrialization”. However, we may ask: what’s the integration? At the moment there’s no general consensus on this topic in the theoretic fields in China. We observe that the current focuses are mainly zoomed in the macro-aspect in exploring the path of the integration, its feasibility and other related issues. In our view, and we are afraid that this macro approach may lose sight of the problems of property rights in the integration process. In fact, the industrialization and the informatization have their own unique attributes, and they form different property rights structures. This thesis focuses on the property rights structure, and then explores the IP dilemmas in the integration process in China. Finally,we propose some specific approaches to resolve issues arisen from the process, such as the establishment of legal mechanisms of property rights, innovation and licensing mechanisms, information security mechanisms, etc. Wojciech Nazarek: Does culture flat rate have a Today, in the era of digitalisation and globalisation, the intellectual property law appears to have been almost forgotten by the future? young generations of the new open society. Moreover, the intellectual property law sometimes seems to have entirely vanished within modern technologies and vast desires of a common Internet user and the free flow of data and information has overruled the contemporary world. Therefore the authors, the consumers, the stakeholders, as well as the policy-makers and the politicians are forced to find a new and adequate approach of securing theirs rights, incomes and believes. This paper presents an alternative way of satisfying the most diverse needs of the authors, the entrepreneurs, and the judiciary by one of the alternative compensation systems, namely the culture flat rate. The first part of the paper explains the concept of the culture flat rate and describes the global and, in case of Germany, the local development of this idea. The second part discusses its advantages and disadvantages with regard to economical, social and legal levels. The third part shows the spectrum of selected legal problems that have to be considered with regard to the culture flat rate (inter alia of constitutional and civil law backgrounds). Balazs Szemes: License v. Sale: a Central Furthermore, the discussion is going to follow of new channels of distribution for intellectual works. While even now Finally, way In the last decade we have witnessed the rise the global, the European and the German dimensions of this concept. the main European Perspective of distributing such works – i.e. music, software, books, movies – is selling copies on physical media, digital distribution – making available for use through the internet – is rising fast; it is poised to become the biggest channel of selling music by the end of this year in the U.S. An even newer trend is using these works without copying, transferring them at all. Web-based services are replacing more and more software every day, both for personal use and for work. World of Warcraft and Google Docs are stepping stones in this transformation. The ultimate virtualization is eliminating hardware absolutely – by moving all code execution to the cloud. This changes the legal situation profoundly. As selling copies of works were – and are – covered by general rules put into law throughout the world, often not even requiring any additional license terms for a contract, these new uses are governed not by copyright but solely by license contracts. And these contracts do not use the framework the law provides for copyright licenses. Can markets resolve the issues of these new types of services without legislation? Can markets – through competition – create a ‘fair use’ for web-based services? And if regulation is needed – is there any chance to effectively regulate these by a Central European state? 16:45 - 18:15: Intellectual Property I (chair: prof. Andreas Wiebe) Krisztian Andras Tivadar: Is There a Future for Although Digital Rigths Management (hereinafter: „DRM”) does not yet have a legal definition in Hungarian law, it is undoubtably Digital Rigths Management? part of the complex regulating system including not only legal, but also business, political and cultural elements. DRM seems to impose restrictions on the users of copyright works well exceeding those provided by „traditional” copyright law. There has been surprisingly little debate in Hungary regarding the manner and extent of implementing the relevant European provisions. It still seems to be an open question whether DRM is a solution to the underlying issues and whether or not the advantages of DRM (for its beneficiaries) outweighs the hindrances caused to the users and to the original aim of copyright. At the same time, the world (of Intellectual Property) is flooded by the arguments for and against DRM. The various stakeholders wish to be heard and fiercely battle each other. Much can be learned from them in order to fine-tune the local system. This paper attempts to give an overview of the Hungarian legal provisions regarding DRM and its environment. It also wishes to show the advantages and disadvantages of the DRM-system based on the arguments of the various parties within Hungary, as well as on the arguments made abroad. Furthermore, it looks at the current alternatives offered beside DRM, as well as the potential directions of development. Michal Koscik: IP and Antitrust - why does it get The topic of my paper is much discussed conflict of Intellectual property and antitrust provisions, especially in relation to so complicated compulsory licensing. It is a common cliche that the root of this conflict vests in an obvios antinomy of the fundamental objectives of both bodies of law. The IP alledgedly creates monopolies that antitrust strives to break. This perception of intersection between these two bodies of law is however flawed. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate, that the antitrust rules, if applied correctly help the IP regulation to achieve its main objectives. Leonhard Reis: Geo-blocking and copyright Geo-Blocking has become standard practice among broadcasters, that use technologies to identify the likely location of an Internet user in real-time and block the content in some circumstances. It is used to prevent Internet Protocol (IP) address specified regions from viewing web content or websites, in particular live streaming video. At the moment Geo-Blocking is mainly used by traditional broadcast companies who are moving their television, radio and music content online. Because of the principle of territorial exploitation and consequent distribution contracts with the producers of these programmes many broadcast web sites limit access to persons within their own country. The aim of the paper is to investigate geo-blocking measures from intellecutal property point of view, especially with regard to the question, whether Geo-Blocking is an (effective) technical protection measure in the sense of European copyright. ROOM NO. 133 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 9:00 - 10:30: Legal Informatics (chair: Jaromír Šavelka) Anton Geist: Teaching Legal Research to the Legal research has always been a complicated subject. Today, however, teaching legal research to university students has become particularly Google Generation at a University Library challenging. This presentation will describe the current situation at the Vienna University of Economics and Business, and describe the current approach to teaching legal information literacy to law and business students. Contemporary university students expect (computer-assisted) legal research to be as simple as the Google searches that they perform every day. Given their experiences up to entering law (or business) school, they might in fact have every reason to do so. While their research needs have so far been easily fulfilled by free Web resources, and exhaustive (“high-recall”) searches have never been necessary, computer-assisted legal research now confronts them with much more complex research scenarios. Constantly adapting teaching approaches not only to students’ previous knowledge, but above all to their (potential) misconceptions, requires a lot of flexibility and planning, especially from librarians. Evidence from the Vienna University of Economics and Business shows, however, that the work truly pays off. Alžběta Krausová: European Legal Information Legal comparativists and also legal practitioners need access to information about foreign law. In this contribution there will be introduced both Systems commercial and freely available legal information systems from several countries that are commonly linguistically accessible. Special attention will be paid to the information systems of French speaking countries, namely those of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg. Matěj Myška - Jaromír Šavelka: Open Access in In the past it was necessary to pay a substantial amount of money in order to get to a high quality information. Nowadays it seems like the Academic Publishing: A New Way to Say Hooray! information are more and more being made available for free. The phenomenon is often called as "open access" and the aim of the paper is to introduce its various aspects in the field of legal academic publishing. Special attention is paid to situations in which publishing academic work in the "open access" regime gives rise to serious legal issues. Different approaches to address the issues are introduced using actual exaples. 10:45 - 12:15: Data Protection (chair: prof. Zsolt Balogh) Zsuzsanna Bodogh: Internet search engines: Do Nowadays we use the internet as our main source of information and the search engines such as the Google to lead us through the labyrinth of they really pose threat to our privacy? websites in order to find the certain piece of information we are looking for. And because we can find almost everything we want and because asking a computer - believing that we remain unidentifiable - is sometimes easier than asking a real person, we venture into this labyrinth more and more bravely and deeply. Our search queries, which are systematically logged and stored by the search engines, show the wide range of our interests, intentions, desires often kept secret even from the closest friends and relatives. If the data stored by the search engines operators about the searches conducted by us made us identifiable, the pieces of our search history would be considered to be personal data, even sensitive personal data and should be treated as such. ... Szymon Gołębiowski: To disclose or not to An infringement of the copyright entitles the right-holder to bring an action before the court against the infringer in order to seek damages. disclose – that is the question Although, the personal data of the tortfeasor is also protected by law the right-holder needs them in order to name the defendant and commence a lawsuit. What can be done if the controller of the data refuses to transfer them? In Promusicae case (C-275/06), the ECJ left this question without an answer. The only guarantee constitutes a hint that an establishment of an obligation to disclose the personal data for the purposes of civil proceedings should be viewed from the perspective of inter alia ECHR, TRIPS and the e-commerce Directive. The Provincial Administrative Court in Warsaw delivered several judgements in similar cases and set forth that there is an obligation to disclose the personal data. Still, there is a loophole in Polish legislation. Perhaps the mentioned verdicts are going to influence the relevant legislation and legal practice. The crucial problem which courts and administrative bodies have to face is a balance which has to be struck between the right of access to the court and the right to protection of personal data. The purpose of this presentation shall be to critically analyse the Polish legislation and case-law concerning data protection and possibility of their disclosure for purposes of civil proceedings. Stefan Kopsell - Petr Svenda: Challenges for The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of implementing secure, privacy respecting and systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. These systems alter the source IP-addresses of users and these alterations have to be lawful data retention logged and accessible on request from legal authorities - at least in some countries (e.g., Germany). Completely new security risks arise from the fact that the logged data is used for law enforcement. Both the end users of the anonymity system and the operators of the anonymity server are affected by the existence and necessity to store sensitive data (retained logs), which were not existing/present before the directive introduction. We have analysed security risks and proposed a secure logging scheme, which utilises cryptographic smart cards, trusted timestamping servers and distributed storage to mitigate these risks. A practical implementation of the proposed scheme was performed for the AN.ON anonymity service and scheme can be used for other services as well. We also discuss the practical experience from process of response to legal authorities’ requests both before and after the data retention directive was implemented. Moreover we give a general description of the legal obligations and the usefulness of the retained data is also provided. Derived from these obligations we give arguments reflecting challenges and obstacles for a secure and privacy respecting implementation of data retention. Joseph A. Cannataci: Converging Technologies & In a world where technologies increasingly converge, cyberspace and real space are also blending into each other and perhaps nowhere more so Surveillance trends in 2010: the impact on than in the sectors of privacy and surveillance. 2010 has been a vintage year for such developments. In June 2010 the Council of Europe moved privacy closer to adopting a new Recommendation on profiling of individuals while in July 2010 the EU and the United States arrived at an interim agreement on access to SWIFT data. August 2010 was characterized by leading technology providers Research in Motion having to discuss or agree monitoring mechanisms for their BlackBerry devices in India, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Germany. Whereas a pilot scheme for smart utilities metering was launched in France in March 2010, in September 2010 residents in various parts of Malta found that their pilot scheme to install “smart” water and electricity meters had gone nation-wide with each household’s use of water and electricity now being measurable remotely in an IBM-backed system. By October 2010 in France a new system of CCTV cameras monitoring of 600 cameras in one city alone seemed to be more intent on making money through parking tickets than detecting crime. In November 2010 it was confirmed that UK police officers would be receiving training on how to use Facebook to catch criminals and the Information Commissioner’s Office presented an up-dated report to Parliament in Westminster. This paper categorizes a number of technologies designed for or incidental to surveillance as 13:15 - 14:45: International Internet Law (chair: prof. Dan Svantesson) Michael Bogdan: Jurisdiction over Internet- On 18 May, 2010, Advocate General Verica Trstenjak submitted her opinion in the cases of Hotel Alpenhof (case C-144/09) and Peter Pammer related Consumer Disputes in View of the Cases (case C-585/08). Both cases, presently pending at the EU Court of Justice, concern the interpretation of Article 15(1)(c) of the Brussels I of Pammer and Alpenhof Regulation, in particular the meaning, in the context of the Internet, of the prerequisite that the consumer's counterpart directs, by any means, his commercial or professional activities to the Member State of the consumer's domicile. The paper will discuss this issue, hopefully on the basis of the forthcoming judgments in the two cases. Ulf Maunsbach: Use of trademarks and place of March 23rd 2010 came the much awaited ECJ decision in the Google-case (Case C-236/08 to C-238/08). The case concerns the use of trademarks damage in relation to Internet-related on the Internet or more specific the practice of “keyword advertising”. This is an area of law that is and will be of immediate relevance due to infringements – highlighted by recent ECJ- the fact that is puts focus on legal questions that appears in relation to new technology and new social patterns. The Google-case is not the only case underlining this development. In the near future there will be several decisions from the ECJ in this field. At the moment there are four decisions cases pending before the ECJ (C-558/08, C-91/09, C-323/09 and C-324/09) all of which in different ways relates to questions concerning the use of trademarks on the Internet. ... Lenka Karbanova: Lex loci damni infecti – Submitted paper deals with the recent European private international law regulation – Rome II which concerns non-contractual obligations. It applicability on B2B e-contracts focuses on the applicability of the basic Rome II conflict of laws rule – lex loci damni infecti – on the electronic business to business contracts. First part of the paper identifies the position of the above-mentioned rule in the system of Rome II Regulation and its relation to other conflict of law rules. Then the paper treats main problems which might occur when applying the lex loci damni infecti rule on electronic contracts. We mention the recent judgements of European (mainly French) courts concerning this theme (e.g. e-Bay cause, 2007) and practice of courts relating to lex loci delicti rule which may help while applying the basic Rome II rule on electronic contracts. In the end the paper tries to provide other conflict of law rules to non-contractual obligations which might be more appropriate to application on electronic contracts. 15:00 - 16:30: International Internet Law (chair: prof. Dan Svantesson) Tereza Kyselovská: Online Defamation – Current Violation of privacy and rights relating to personality are undoubtedly one of the most interesting non-contractual obligations (torts) committed Issues through Internet. This paper focuses mostly on-online defamation and the current issues of the legal framework, namely choice-of-law rules and jurisdiction of courts. In the field of European conflicts legislation the above mentioned cyber torts including defamation are excluded from the scope of the EU Regulation on the Law Applicable to Non-Contractual Obligations (Regulation Rome II) which causes many problems. The recent EC Working Study on the unification of Member State laws on non-contractual obligations arising out of violations of privacy and personality rights has commenced a debate on the uniform choice-of-law rules taking into account the fundamental human rights concerning the respect for private life and freedom of expression. The jurisdiction rules on defamation are laid down by the Brussels Regulation, but they need to be adapted to torts committed via the Internet (e.g. the rules of jurisdiction based on the place of damage). These provisions can lead to libel tourism, which is now recognized as serious problem. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the current legal framework and case-law and to propose solutions to these problems. Slavomir Halla: On-line arbitration from the Accessibility of data via Internet allowed for an immense growth of international commerce. Millions of transactions are done every year by conflicts of law point of view means of electronic communication. Customers no longer need to go to solid shops; merchants no longer need to sign solid copies of orders and contracts. Virtual reality has stepped in. Not everything has changed – disputes do still arise, and they are solved in front of national courts (by definition solid institutions) or by alternative means. A great deal of disputes in international commerce is settled through arbitration proceeding. Arbitration is (again by definition) more informal and flexible mean of dispute settlement. Therefore, it is not surprising that the arbitration community is closely following the latest trends, and that recently on-line arbitration has come to an existence. However, once again, we might encounter problems peculiar to cyberspace. Legal framework for arbitration, on international level, was created before the digital society emerged. Thus, on-line arbitration is encountering problems of its own. To name a few: How should a written form requirement of arbitration agreement be interpreted? What is the seat of arbitration in on-line arbitration? Is an award enforceable? And of course are we still speaking about arbitration? This article will try to point several of these difficulties out, and if possible, to suggest solutions. Zbynek Loebl: What should be principles of a What should be principles of a new global system of cross-border e-commerce ODR? new global system of cross-border e-commerce In other words, what the new system should bring to the key players, on-line providers and consumers? I try to summarize below several issues ODR? for discussion, based on existing initiatives and feedback received during our two meetings in Vienna and Buenos Aires: 1. The new system should be global; i.e. our ambition should be that the new system is to be implemented anywhere in the world. Internet is global and e-commerce is becoming more and more global as well. ... 16:45 - 18:15: International Internet Law (chair: prof. Dan Svantesson) Nadina Foggetti: Rome II and the law applicable Transnational computer crimes, such as an illegal access to computer system with the purpose of theft of marketing data, they raise some issues to obligations arising out of transnational regarding the law applicable to non contractual obligation them related. cybercrime: a question to be defined ? Rome II introduces the general rule of the locus damni for the definition of applicable law to the non contractual obligation arising out of a delict. It shall be the law of the country in which the damage occurs irrespective of the country in which the event occurred. Rome II not includes in this scope non-contractual obligations arising out of violations of privacy and rights relating to personality. New uniform rules on conflict at EU level provide the resolution of uncertainties caused by the application of the principle of locus commissi delicti. While Rome II opens new problems arising from different legal classification of goods protected in Member States. ... Martin Janak: Selected legal aspects of domain EN | Subject of this paper are some of selected legal aspects related to internet domain names, as for that matter results from the paper’s title. names Attention and interest of public about domains keep continue, although since registration of first internet’s domain passed magical 25 years. Domain names are permanently not only as object of lawsuit, but also as object of issues and disputable questions in the field of law. With regard to numerousness of top level domains (TLD), this paper is focused especially to domains “.cz“ and “.eu“ in top level domain in view of Czech and European law. Contents of the paper itself are specific and partial legal themes connected to domains as for example: (i) domain names legal regulations and their legal nature, (ii) domain names registration, and (iii) generally, domain names as object of legal relations. Reflection of significant domain names disputes and court’s decisions including possible ways of domain names protection, do not stand apart. Erich Schweighofer: Accountability of ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) calls itself the most transparent and accountable international organization, deeply committed to the multi-stakeholder process. In this contribution I will access the efforts of ICANN to comply with these aims. Whereas achievements are significant and important, some lacunas remain that should be given particular focus in the next years. The experiment of a multi-stakeholder process with all cyber citizens deserves strong attention as it may solve existing accountability problems of other public or private international organizations. Marketa Selucka: The Blue Button: the New The European Council at Tampere in October 1999 requested the Commission to study the need to harmonize legislation in the area of Concept for Internet Business in EU. substantive civil law. This year the Commission set up a group of experts in the area of civil law, and in particular contract law, and to define its tasks and its structure. Now the experts group prepares Optional Instrument which exclusively applies to cross-border contracts of sale (perhaps including some digital services). It is still open, whether this Optional Instrument will be applicable just to B2C contracts or also to B2B contracts, eventually also to P2P contracts. The Optional Instrument will bring a new possibility in internet market in EU. The Acquis Group try to draft a model Optional Instrument applicable solely to electronic contracts concluded in an E-shop (alternative: all cases of distance selling), but applicable to – in principle – all types of contract, irrespective of their geographic application, (cross-border or domestic) or of the contract parties involved (B2C, B2B or P2P). The Optional Instrument with such a scope may better serve the internal market because it would enable E-shops to organize their activities under just one regime. ... ROOM NO. 208 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 9:00 - 10:30: Philosophy I (prof. Herbert Hrachovec) Chrysanthos Voutounos: The Ontology of Under the patronage of Christian Orthodox church, Byzantine art matured as a mystical imagery of a unique aesthetic structure synthesizing Byzantine art in Cyberspace aesthetics and theology, absorbing artistic and cultural influences in the spirit of united church and tradition. This paper investigates the breakthrough in tradition where Byzantine art and more specifically Byzantine iconography is visualised in Cyberspace and most notably the World Wide Web. Whether in usual web pages or virtual 3d environments the existence of cyber ontologies of Byzantine artifacts raises fundamental philosophical questions on the digital reproduction of Byzantine art and its aesthetic contemplation on non-physical mediums. The work on a virtual museum design which is based on the real Byzantine museum Agios Ioannis Lambadistis in Cyprus revealed special design problems that relate to these fundamental questions. Documenting the convergence of two philosophies, the Aesthetics of Byzantine art and the Ontology of the Virtual constitutes the basic argumentative logic for presenting special design guidelines. Both philosophies share similar metaphysical questions and a common history. Based on the research for the convergence of these philosophies the design of a virtual museum aims to protect the loss of the “aura” of physical artifacts in non-physical virtual environments, proposing design guidelines that might also apply in other application domains involving religious art. Stefano Cavagnetto and Bruce Gahir: Multiple What does it mean to be you? How drastically can a person change and still remain, in the eyes of either themselves or their peers, the same Selves and the Proteus Effect in Collaborative person? Until recently, these questions were typically asked in the context of philosophy, psychoanalysis, or science fiction. However, the Virtual Environments increasingly common use of avatars during computer- mediated communication, collaborative virtual environments (CVE’s) in particular, are quickly changing these once abstract questions into practical quandaries that are fascinating, thought-provoking, potentially paradigm shifting for those who study social interaction, and potentially devastating to the traditional concept of human communication. Given the advent of collaborative virtual reality (CVR) technology, researchers have begun to systematically explore the phenomena of Transformed Social Interaction (TSI). The Proteus effect is a particular application of TSI in which a user’s self-representation is modified in a meaningful way that is often dissimilar to the physical self. When the user then interacts with another person, the user’s behaviour conforms to the modified self-representation regardless of the true physical self or the others impressions . In an earlier introductory paper we detailed a conceptual framework that illustrated the idea of the self as composed of information in multiple cyberworlds, this tentative framework was utilised to explain a “layering” feedback process that may occur as a result of the self interacting in a CVE, in addition we expanded this framework to integrate an anthropological viewpoint of the self . Angeliki Malakasioti: Diagnosis of the virtual - This paper attempts to investigate the nature of cyberspace, through the experience of a digitally projected human being, an internet user. Mental phenomena of cyberspatial Focusing on the consideration of cyberspace as a vast space of mental activity, the research develops a series of conceptual analogies, as far as the noetic state of the individual and characteristics of his digital experience are concerned. More specifically, this is attempted through the study of special or ‘altered’ mental phenomena that resemble internet experience - dissociation, derealization, depersonalization, parasomnia, hysteria’s phantasmatic anatomy, somatoform disorders, pathology of personal time perception (e.g. hypermnesia, paramnesia, narcissist’s time), schizophrenia as well as melancholy self-opacity and others. These are approached as differentiated states of consciousness and perception. Thus, they are dealt as fruitful correspondences of cyberspatial experience. The process is similar to a kind of ‘diagnosis’ of the mental state of the internet user through the aforementioned phenomena. Their theoretical development attempts to contribute to cyberspace research, posing questions on the conceptual configuration of the virtual bodies inhabiting it. 10:45 - 12:15: Philosophy II (prof. Herbert Hrachovec) Jakub Štogr: Limits of the Internet : From The overall understanding of the Internet as an information highway we drive fast collides with the vision of billions of irrelevant but accessible Quantity to Quality, From Boom to Structures data-sets we - as an Internet-users - need to filter to be able to find a relevant information we really wanted to seek. The problem is the basic idea of the Internet as an indestructible network of replaceable computers, cloud-computing principle as we call it now-days, together with the wrong attitude that there is something like "anonymity online". In the early stage of the Internet no-one cares about either the content inside the network or semantic belongings between objects and subjects. The very basic mechanism that tries to make data useful was DNS - system of human-readable domain names. But still the most exciting parameter of the Internet was a "boom", creation of network, adding new nodes and spread of communication capacities. Problems like information seeking and (online) data overload were compensated by both mass online- content harvesting and filtering algorithms used during searching. The natural reaction to the environment full of interconnected but anonymous mess was attempt to personalize and semantically anchor the context both at the side of user (ability to have a unique view or access) and content itself (ability to "own" some content). As an example of large-scale personalized online environments can be seen social network applications like f.e. Facebook. The question is what is going to be the next stage when both quantity of nodes and structural quality Michael Luger: Can we organize philosophy projects like open source software projects? This contribution will focus on two aspects. The first is patterns of interaction. In open source software projects, groups of people with different roles work together on one piece of work. How could the corresponding patterns be adapted for philosophy projects and what would be the reasons to do so? The second is that open source projects meet certain needs, they create something that people can use. How is that with philosophy? Can e.g. works on logic, pragmatism and paradigm shift lead to new moves in resolving real-world arguments and in how people and projects self-organize? Project wiki: http://wikidrift.org/philo- something Odin Kroeger: Why are Software Patents so Software patents are commonly criticised for being fuzzy, context-sensitive, and often granted for trivial inventions. More often than not, these Elusive? A Platonic Answer shortcomings are said to be caused by the abstract nature of software—with little further analysis offered, leaving us with a fruitless all-or- nothing approach to the objectifiability of software patents. Drawing on Plato’s Parmenides, this paper will thus outline a more nuanced approach. The Parmenides comprises not only paradoxes that obtain when abstractions are treated as objects, but also suggestions on how knowledge of abstractions should hence be conceptualised. By applying these paradoxes and suggestions to software patents, this paper argues (1) that the reason why software patents appear to be so elusive is that courts relate to them as objects and (2) that the Platonic distinctions categorial/objective predication and know-how/know-that are useful not only for conceptualising knowledge of algorithms, but also for describing the limits of software patent regimes. From a theoretical perspective, the findings of this paper imply that the relation between algorithms and software is similar to the one between a genus and its species and that knowledge of these relations takes the form of know-how rather than know-that. From a practical perspective, this indicates that courts are ill-equipped to handle software patents, for their modus operandi can be described as transforming evidence into knowledge of that which is the case—where the knowledge they would need is how 13:15 - 14:45: Philosophy III (prof. Herbert Hrachovec) Roland Spitzlinger: On the idea of owning ideas. The concept of property has a long tradition and it is widely accepted as a regulation scheme to allocate tangible scarce resources. Arguments in What would John Locke say? favor of extending property rights to non-material goods tend to be based on property theories from the 17th and 18th century, as proposed mainly by Locke, Hegel and Rousseau. Focusing on John Locke, we shall explore whether his labor appropriation theory as presented in his Second Treatise of Government can indeed be extended to non-material goods. The investigation shows that despite the fact that labor provides a strong connection between individuals and resources, Locke‘s theory (widely) fails to justify the appropriation of non-material goods. In particular strong Lockean property rights in intellectual goods must be refuted, since strong rights in the full liberal sense would severely limit civil liberties (e.g. free speech), which Locke himself found extremely important. However, even partial appropriation of individual contributions to the evolution of ideas are problematic. The main reason is that Locke based his argumentation mainly on efficiency. While it can be argued that private ownership is a precondition for (most) forms of material production, in the intellectual non-material sphere it can not. Herbert Hrachovec: To Have an Idea Common use of the phrase „intellectual property“ implies that there is „property“ and that it can pertain to „intellectual“ goods. The surface grammar of this expression is similar to „available property“ or „inherited property“. In addition to mobile and immobile assets one may, consequently, be in possession of the results of cognitive activities, in short: of ideas. The standard account of what property amounts to refers to the right to dispose of a given object or accumulation of objects. It is not easy to see how this translates into the intellectual realm and it is even more difficult to explain how it applies to a certain class of products made possible by Internet cooperation. So what are ideas and how can they possibly be „posessed“? Leaving aside legal definitions they are undoubtedly a crucial feature of traditional philosophical talk. Philosophy should be able to comment on whether they can (and/or should) be appropriated. 15:00 - 16:30: Religion I (Vít Šisler) Jana Kristoforyova: Promoting Reform in Islam - The paper will introduce the IMAN network – the new website created after the IMAN network conference called Critical Thinkers for Islamic Reform held in Oxford in 2010. The conference joined together individuals and organization´s representatives who promote the reform in Muslim world. One of the main objectives was critical debate of political, cultural, economic, psychological conditions of Muslim societies and their interaction with other groups. The paper will analyse the question – what kind of instruments are used within the IMAN network? Tools such as articles offering new interpretations of Quran, discussion forums, facebook websites, youtube videos and other platforms for interaction with internet community will be considered. What kind of reform in Islam is presented within the network members and which solutions are proposed for living as Muslims in contemporary anti-Islamic Western societies? These topics will be finally discussed. Babak Rahimi: Shi‘i Islam and Democratic The 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq which toppled the Baathist regime brought a major shift in the balance of power in the Middle East. While Reform in Cyberspace dominated by Sunni Arabs for centuries, the proliferation of Shi‘i political parties and participation in the electoral process has led to the “revival” of Shi‘ism in Iraq and the greater Middle East. Such revival is identified by a number of analysts in terms of the crystallization of a transnational network of Shi‘ism that stretches from East Asia to North America. Amid the expansion of global Sunni fundamentalism, such revival is also described in putting forward a new Islamic vision of representative government put in power by free elections and led by elected officials making government accountable to the citizens. With figures like Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, the most senior Shi‘i cleric who helped the transition of democracy in post-Baathist Iraq, and lay intellectuals like Abdul Karim Soroush, the new Shi‘i transnational current has developed into a new network society that promotes a more democratic conception of politics, with a view of religion playing a predominant role in public life. In many ways, such democratic-minded “public Islam” has also emerged to challenge the more authoritarian Shi‘i ideology of velayat-e faqih (guardianship of the jurist), which is currently institutionalized in Iran and continues to compete for domination over the Shi‘i Islamic world Nadja Thoma: "Such a song strenghtens the 0 Iman" 16:45 - 18:15: Religion II (chair: Vít Šisler) Tomas Gal: Online Religion as a Reaction to Theoreticians of online religion use to have problems with its frame. Considerable amount of religious expressions in cyberspace may be treated Desecularization as a burlesque of religion, even if those use over-elaborated rituals, iconography, rules or sacred texts. In my presentation I will show, that those expressions should be understood as an answer on wider social activities and trends and have a purpose of social change. The main examples, I will provide, will be Church of Discordia, Church of Invisible Pink Unicorn and the Church of Flying Spaghetti Monster. Nelu Vasilica: Aesthetics and usability online in The article endeavors to analyse how different religious institutions express themselves through the most powerful tool of communication, the Catholicism and Orthodoxy Internet. The architecture and the decorative style of the religious buildings reflect the affiliation to a certain denomination based on their doctrine, traditions and cultural aspects. This article aims to determine if religious identity and tradition is transposed into its online representation. The emphasis is placed on the aesthetic dimension of religious websites, aiming to fill the gap which exists in this research area. The focus will be on Catholicism and Orthodoxy, highlighting the visual expression of religion on the Internet. The overview of the Orthodox and Catholic institutions websites chosen from Europe will establish the specific web patterns for each denomination. Also, it has been revealed that aesthetics and usability represent the two essential factors in designing a website and when merging aesthetics with usability requirements, scholars have contrasting opinions. It remains to be proven how these two denominations encompass usability and aesthetics criteria and how their online presence is influenced by their doctrine and traditions. The article involves quantitative and qualitative analysis, with the emphasis on doctrinal, cultural and sociological aspects. An insight of this complex issue is established by visual analysis, questionnaires and usability benchmarking. ROOM NO. 209 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 9:00 - 10:30: eFinance (Libor Kyncl) Libor Kyncl: Cross-border Cashless Payments and The goal of this paper will be the explanation of contemporary problems in cross-border cashless payments having the form of bank transfers. Law of eFinance These payments shall be taken into account inside the European Union and specifically as the part of the Law of eFinance regulation using the comparison with other forms. Positives, negatives and challenges existing in this area will be concluded along with possible risks and recommendations de lege ferenda. Otakar Schlossberger: Conclusive evidence of On 1st November 2009, the Payment Systems Act no. 284/2009 Coll. came into operation. This new act recodified the former, historically first hended information rule governing payment systems and services since 2003. New legal regulation reflects especially the Directive of European Parliament and Council of the European Union no. 2007/94/EC, about payment services in the internal market. The new law describes some new terms and concepts, e.g. payment service, payment institution, payment account, electronic money institution and the others. If payment services are now being provided, there is a necessity that mutual contractual relation between a payment service provider and their clients must be concluded either according to Basic Contract, or, if occasional transfer made, based on Single Payment Transaction Agreement. The act also very strong reflects the provider’s obligation to fulfill final customers with all the information. In order to this information transparency to be legally regulated, the Act implemented two basic forms of presenting this information, i.e. be obliged to provide this information or make this information available. Payment services are such bank products that are expected to be provided electronically. Thus, any electronic banking system could better contribute to the fact that all the information have been evidently provided or made accessible by the payment services provider. Zdeněk Kučera: Cross Border Internet Banking in Commercial banks keep searching for the easiest way to retain new customers in foreign states without having to establish a new entity. the EU Race-to-the-Bottom or Race-to-the-Top? Since a significant number of banking customers communicate with banks only through internet banking, this institute seems to be one of the key instruments for attracting new customers. Does legislation in the EU enable easy provision of cross-border internet banking? Are restrictions provided by such legislation justified? Or is it time for a change? Michaela Moždiáková: MoneyWeb Lite Client – The aim of this paper is to analyze and describe the software application called MoneyWeb Lite Client. The main purpose of the application the easy way how to report the suspicious MoneyWeb Lite Client is to provide reporting (obliged) entities an easy and complete means of notification of the suspicious transactions transaction? towards the Czech Financial Intelligence Unit in the scope of the Act No. 253/2008 Coll., on some measures against legalization of proceeds of crime and financing terrorism, as amended. The MoneyWeb Lite Client is further able to be used for educational purposes by compliance staff or special departments, which have competence in the issue of money laundering. 10:45 - 12:15: eGovernment/eJustice (prof. Ludwig Gramlich) Cláudio Simão de Lucena Neto: Access to Justice The history of lawsuits in Brazil is one of patience, paper and time. The country has a tradition of written, excessively formal and solemn legal in the Information Society: e-lawsuits in Brazil procedures, some of which end up compromising effectiveness, and the reasonable expectation of the citizen – which, in Brazil, has achieved the status of a constitutional right – that the intervention of a Judge, playing the role of the State, will actually find and dictate a solution for his problem. This way of understanding a lawsuit has transformed it in an aim, an objective, rather than in a tool to achieve a greater goal, which should always be the solution of social conflicts and controversies, with only the formalities that are essential to keep the integrity and stability of the procedural system. Brazilian society has always lived with lawsuits which were excessively formal and lasted excessively long. A lawsuit that disregards essential, legal material issues to dedicate itself to procedures, or that lasts indefinitely in time is of little or of no use at all as long as effective justice is concerned. Finally, as courts get closer to the public, and the citizen finds more democratic tools to access the Judiciary system, the number of lawsuits grows, and an objective, operational problem of storage of these records also arises. Recent years, though, have brought new perspectives in the efforts to find a solution to the aforementioned problems. Software and integrated systems which Aleš Pekárek: Public Sector Information: In 2009, European Commission awarded the survey in some of member states of the EU, in order to identify potential Exclusive Agreements, in Identification of Exclusive Agreements in Czech terms of the PSI Directive. This paper describes the course and the results of the survey in Czech Republic, which led to the identification of two Republic potential Exclusive Agreements. It was very interesting to delve in public sector bodies as all the survey was made with the highest transparency with using of the FOIA requests. 13:15 - 14:45: Cybercrime I (chair: dr. Ales Zavrsnik) Matthias C. Kettemann: Crimes without Victims? Images depicting children engaged in sexual acts without any exploitative element? Crimes without victims? Or, rather, children who are A Dignitarian Approach to Prosecuting Sexting victimized by prosecutors relying on laws meant to protect them? The legal and jurisprudential issues raised by “sexting” – the sending of sexually suggestive nude or nearly-nude photo or video of oneself to someone via a mobile phone – force us to rethink the legal approach to prosecuting the production, possession and transmission of images which seem, prima facie, child pornography. I would like to compare and contrast the deeply problematic US prosecutorial practice with the current European approach: complete negation. Arguing that traditional laws against child pornography are should not be applied to most sexting scenarios, I will nevertheless suggest that (and on which basis), two representative European countries – Austria and Germany – should start to prosecute sexters and which changes would have to be made to their criminal laws. My argument, however, is a broader one. I will suggest that anti-sexting legislation must be based on a dignitarian approach that transcends the perpetrator/victim dichotomy of traditional laws against child pornography. Concluding that Europe should start to take sexting seriously I will propose that it can legitimately do so based on new legislation aimed at protecting the human dignity of sexters. Michaela Poborilova: Virtual child pornography Child pornography is a serious negative social phenomenon and countries are trying to fight against it effectively. Virtual child pornography constitutes a subset of child pornography. It is a new phenomenon with many unresolved questions and problems. This paper firstly defines key terms which child pornography generally involves. Furthermore, it contains the definition of virtual child pornography from the perspective of Czech law and international law (especialy from the perspective of the European Union). This paper including a solution to various issues as the subject of virtual child pornography, status of virtual persons from the legal point of view, determination of their age and criminal punishment in law. Finally three case studies, reflecting current position of selected countries on the matter, are stated. These studies show how virtual child pornography is dealt with in practice. Virtual world is becoming a daily part of life and increasingly penetrating into the real world, and for this reason there is also an expanding number of society´s moral values requiring protection. Malgorzata Skorzewska-Amberg: Pornography in The wide-spread global computer networks generates also illegal content, which can reach practically an unlimited amount of recipients. cyberspace – European regulations Utilizing global networks for dissemination or presenting child pornography is increasing in an avalanche-like way. Documents adopted in reaction to this phenomenon require EU member states, as well as countries belonging to the Council of Europe, to take measures enabling prosecution of i.a. producing, making available, possessing and distributing child pornography by use of information systems. Problematic is so-called artificially generated or simulated imagery pornography. Blocking or withdrawing of illegal content from networks remains a debatable issue. Liability is often avoided due to the variety of legal systems applied by different countries. Hence, continuous international cooperation in analyzing the situation and coordinating measures in combating child pornography and other forms of sexual abuse on the Internet is of vital importance. Latest efforts of the European Union (e.g. the proposed new Council framework decision concerning combating sexual exploitation and abuse of children for sexual purposes, child pornography as well as the Declaration 29) strive for the adoption of harmonized regulations in combating this phenomenen in different countries. 15:00 - 16:30: Cybercrime I (chair: dr. Ales Zavrsnik) Malgorzata Skorzewska-Amberg: Protection of The danger of uncontrolled use of computer and global computer network advantages has begun to be noticed in Poland in the last few years. digital information in Polish criminal law To translate the language used by modern technology into legal language and catching behaviour seemingly unimportant or of minor consequence, but in reality causing major damage, turned out to be most difficult. It is hence of great significance to adopt laws covering as much as possible of cyberspace behaviour. Liability for illegal content disseminated in global networks is defined by general legislation, mainly in penal and civil law. The penal code regulates issues concerning the dissemination of illegal material in networks, as well as questions with regard to the protection of information kept in computer systems. Inadequate definition harmonization still causes problems. Polish legislation still lacks clearly and precisely formulated regulations penalizing activities aiming at gaining accession to computer systems by breaking security measures, deceitful by-passing of security, interception of access codes or taking advantage of security flaws, disregarding if the object is a single computer or a network. It is so in spite of the fact that Poland is high on the list of countries most affected by attacks on computers connected to the Internet, in relation to the amount of users. The EU directive regarding retention of data and blocking of internet sites gives rise to lively debate. Ales Zavrsnik: Cyberbullying: the quest for the Cyberbullying usually refers to bullying and harassment of others by means of new electronic technologies, primarily mobile phones and the extension of criminal law Internet. There are two types of criminological research that can shed light on cyberbullying: researches on traditional forms of bullying and researches on cybercrime. The paper departs from both types of research and examines the existing legal framework in a selected number of European countries. Firstly, it presents the widespread use of the Internet among youngsters that shows the necessity to foster legal framework regarding cyberbullying. In Slovenia, 88% of minors aged between 6 and 17, 73% of minors aged between 6 and 10, and 70% of minors aged between 5 and 9 use the Internet. Secondly, the paper presents the results of an on-line victimization survey and a self-report study about cyberbullying that was conducted among students in several Slovene faculties. Thirdly, it identifies actors that can be held legally liable for an act of cyberbullying: schools that are authorised to conduct disciplinary proceedings against bullies, parents that can be held civil liable for the damages caused by their children and minors that can also be held criminally responsible and civil liable for damages. Finally, the paper maps possibilities of how to apply the existing legal framework in a case of cyberbullying, without the need to foster the repressive power of the state. 16:45 - 18:15: Cybersecurity (dr. Petr Soukup) Petr Soukup: Czech Cybersecurity My presentation is based on many sociological researches about cyberspace carried out mainly in the Czech Republic in 2007-2010. I use data from World Internet Project, Flash Eurobarometr 248 and other smaller national studies focused especially on young people. I mainly focus on the situation in the Czech Republic, on the role of school and parents in "cybersocialization" of children in the sphere of cybersecurity. I will present result of new study about privacy of personal data on Czech cyberspace. Manel Mastouri, Bel G Raggad: Planning A business can be disrupted in many different ways. Depending on the criticality of the business components that have been hit, the losses can Business Continuity: A Guide for Public and be of any size. While some business components are fully recovered, others may be only partially recovered or may be lost for good. Also while Private Agencies some corrective and recovery activities can be easy, quick, and inexpensive, other such activities can be very difficult, slow, and very costly. If we invest in security that is because we want our business to continue undisrupted. Yet even with all the security policies and strategies we have in place, business continuity is a on its own a chief enterprise that need to be planned and budgeted cautiously and adequately. We propose a simple guide on how to plan, test and implement business continuity. A very important part of business continuity is disaster recovery planning for IT services. We present how to develop, test, and implement a disaster recovery plan. As for any other business continuity component, the scope, business impact analysis, policy review and risk analysis are considered the main steps in business continuity. David Adeyeye: The frost over the right of states The increased threat of terrorism has forced air carriers and states to devise and implement elaborate and stringent security precautions , to shoot down an international civilian aircraft however these measures may not be adequate in certain circumstances. One of such circumstances that may arise is a situation, where a terrorist(s) on board a given international civilian aircraft, intend(s) to carry out an act of terrorism through the aircraft over the airspace of another state. Given that (a) there are communication difficulties in negotiating with the terrorist(s); (b) that the aims of the terrorist(s) is or (are) clear; (c) that both military and ICAO’s instruction manual on interception has been followed and all other measures failed; (d) that the time for action is very short;) may of course necessitate the shooting down this aircraft for national security by the targeted states’ security authorities. However the shooting down of such aircraft present a plethora of complexities and issues around the “legality” of shooting the aircraft, liability and compensation issues for the injury or death of the different innocent foreign citizens or victims of the aircraft within the reach of aviation law on one hand and the international law on the other hand. This essay attempt to examine the jurisprudential basis of state’s right to shoot down an international civilian aircraft within the international conventions of aviation law, and as well evaluate the argument defence of such action within international laws. Also, this essay would attempt to provide the liability contexts within the provisions of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) and the Warsaw Convention system- the international convention which regulates liability for international carriage of persons, ROOM NO. 211 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 9:00 - 10:30: Young Internet Users: Risks and Opportunities - EU Kids Online I (chair: prof. Veronika Kalmus) Uwe Hasebrink: Different cyberspaces across Young people’s online and offline practices are closely interwoven parts of their everyday lives. In as much as the social, cultural and individual Europe? Towards a typology of young people’s contexts of young people – across Europe and within single European countries – differ, it may be assumed that they will develop different online practices online practices. Thus “cyberspace” cannot be conceived as an external pre-existing space, which young people “enter” when they use the internet. In developing specific online practices the users create different “cyberspaces”. This paper sets out to identify patterns of young people’s online practices. The conceptual and empirical basis is the work of the EU Kids Online II network. The network investigates issues of internet related risk and safety in 25 European countries. In each country the network has organised a standardised survey among young people from 9 to 16 years who use the internet. Using these data the paper will present analyses on the correlation between different indicators for online practices, e.g. the general frequency and duration of online use, the use of particular services as well as the frequency of some risky online practices. Based on these correlations patterns of online practices will be identified and interpreted as user types. These analyses will be done for each country as well as for the whole sample. The user types will be discussed with regard to the likelihood to experience particular opportunities or risks while using the internet. Monica Barbovschi: Kids’ dissimulation online – In the words of Goffman (1959), the presentation of self is consciously and purposely performed across various stages of new media platforms. risks or opportunity As shown by previous research, many adolescents take the opportunity to experiment with different identities online (Gross, 2004; Huffaker & Calvert, 2005; Lenhart & Madden, 2007; Pearson, 2009; Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006; Turkle, 1995; Valkenburg, Schouten, & Peter, 2005), experimentations that are highly beneficial. For example, Valkenburg and Peter (2008) found out that adolescents who experimented more often with their identity on the Internet communicated also more often online with people of different ages and cultural backgrounds, with positive effects on their social competence. Children’s dissimulation practices entail both a dimension of identity exploration and a more ludic component. This paper aims to explore children’s dissimulation practices online in relation to sensation seeking, looking up for new friends on the Internet and meeting strangers, but also psychosocial factors, with separate consideration for younger (9-10) and older (11-16) children. The analyses will be based on the data collected by the by research network EU Kids Online in 25 European countries. The paper will discuss the implications in terms of both opportunities and risks associated with dissimulation online. Ellen Helsper: Explanations of limited There is increasing awareness that not all children are equally online but the processes that lead to disengagement amongst some young people engagement by young European internet users are not well understood. This presentation examines inequalities in access and use of the Internet across Europe and US by using EU Kids Online and PEW American Life and the Internet data. The availability of the EU kids Online and PEW datasets means that it will be possible to compare the influence of a child's socio-economic background with that of national diffusion and policy characteristics and examine whether these relationships are consistent across Europe and the US. Explanations for cross-national differences in the relationship between social exclusion and digital disengagement are sought at the child level as well as the national level. The presentation will provide classification of countries in terms of individual and national level inequalities is provided to show the link between national inclusion policies and individual child experiences. 10:45 - 12:15: Children Online: Parental Mediations and Sexual Exposure - EU Kids Online II (chair: prof. Uwe Hasebrink) Andrea Duerager: Measuring parental mediation About three quarters (?) of European children aged nine to 16 are using the internet (Livingstone et al. forthcoming). The internet offers children of their child’s internet use – Testing the opportunities, but at the same time it can comprise risks as well. Hence, parents play an important role in their child’s development of internet reliability of a translated scale considering the literacy, ability to use opportunities and prevention of risks. Parental mediation contains different factors; moreover, it varies in dependence of the kind of media. According to Valkenburg et al. (1999), parent’s as well as the child’s points of view Livingstone and Helsper (2008) developed four subscales for parental mediation of their children’s internet use: active co-use, interaction restrictions, monitoring and technical restrictions. Within the cross European survey of EU Kids Online II, the items for measuring parental mediation resulted from this study, but implying some modifications. Mediation was measured through five subscales: co-use (whereas co-use is part of active mediation and therefore labelled through active mediation of use), active mediation (of safety), restrictive mediation, monitoring and technical restrictions (Livingstone et al. forthcoming). ... Veronika Kalmus: Competing or Complementary In his presentation, the author deals with the genealogy of subpolitical concepts of the Internet as a new kind of space invading traditional Agents of Socialisation? Constructing Indexes system of nation state institutions and its relation to the intellectual property rights and the system of appropriation of information. Describing and Types of Parental, Teacher and Peer the development of the cyberspace politics discourse, the author points out that the contemporary emergence of political parties focused on defending the social novelty of this space is the logical consequence of this development. Mediation of EU Kids’ Internet Use Anna Ševčíková, David Šmahel: Exposure to Adolescents grow up surrounded by media, bringing them several risks, such as exposure to sexually explicit materials (Flood, 2007; Peter & Sexually Explicit Materials among Czech Early Valkenburg, 2006). Prior research has shown that exposure at a young age is related to sensation-seeking, problem behaviour (Brown & L’Engle, Adolescents: Comparison with European Youth 2009; Peter & Valkenburg, 2006), problematic family relations (Mesch, 2009), and emotional problems (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005). At the same time, it has been documented that the high rates of sexual exposure appear in older adolescence when youth become more interested in sexuality (Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2007). ... 13:15 - 14:45: Cyberbullying, sexual abuse and online relationships (chair: prof. Gustavo Mesch) Katalin Parti: Online sexual abuse of children - Our empirical research conducted in the first half of 2010 focuses on the online activities and behaviour of teenagers studying in Budapest’s What kind of role victims, partners, family and schools. One of the striking outcomes of the research is that a significant proportion of teenagers who had had already sexual relationship school play in the victimization? communicated the affair in depictions online. On the palette of risky behaviours there are chatting with strangers online, talking sex with strangers online, and meeting online acquainted strangers offline as well. Offline meeting with strangers often sailed into a prompt sexual intercourse. The research showed nevertheless, that the phenomenon called double moral standard (Michelet, 2003) responsible for the person’s danger-awareness during online communications is more palpable among Hungarian pupils than among their Western-European peers. (Michelet, 2003; Mitchell et al., 2001; Mitchell et al., 2003) Hungarian children tend to accept more when the stranger they meet online lies about his/her age and aims. The presentation will include the most important data on Hungarian youngsters’ manners in using internet, especially when it comes to the point of sexual talk (‘sexting’). We also will discuss what kind of a role family, peers and school play in awareness raising and/or encouraging youngsters for talking openly online. Mario Lehenbauer, Birgit U. Stetina, Lena Objectives: Loneliness is defined as perceived social isolation and not based on the number of people in a person’s social network. Coping is the Tellinge: Coping with stress online: Loneliness process of solving personal and interpersonal stress to minimize or reduce stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the (online) coping and perceived Social Support styles and the intensity of the perceived social support online. Methods: 638 Internet users, recruited online, were examined using online-questionnaires including an especially developed coping inventory (Stetina et al., in prep.) and a self-developed questionnaire concerning perceived social support offline and online (Stetina, Piffl, Lehenbauer & Kothgassner, 2009). Results: Female users reported more emotion-oriented (z(33399)=-6.1, p<.001) and avoidant-oriented (z(37707.5)=-4,2, p<.001) coping styles than male participants. There are significant differences between younger (13-30 years) and older (>30 years) users concerning emotion- oriented (F(5,585)=61, p<.001) and task-oriented (F(5,583)=3.5, p=.004) coping styles. 90% preferred online social support because they can talk to friends faster and easier. The more the Internet is used, the less social support in offline relationships is reported. In general, social contacts were maintained basically personally or by e-mail. Conclusions: The results indicate three groups of coping styles and differences in age and gender between the single groups. Further studies are needed to implement these results into recent models of internet behaviour. 15:00 - 16:30: Online Gaming and Social Networking (chair: prof. Alexander Voiskounsky) Birgit U. Stetina, Oswald D. Kothgassner: Aim: The presented study addresses often discussed fundamental questions regarding depression and problematic internet use concerning Shadows over Azeroth: Problematic Internet Use several types of online games. in the World of Online Gaming Method: 330 participants were surveyed using an online-questionnaire consisting of an adapted version of the ISS-20 (Hahn&Jerusalem,2001) in order to measure problematic Internet use (PIU), the FDD for DSM-IV (Kühner,1997), to examine depressive symptoms, and the MSWS (Schütz,2006) to assess self-esteem. Statistical analysis included ANOVAs and the calculation of effect sizes for specific insights into main issues. Results: Most relevant: Over 80% of the participating online-gamers show neither depressive symptoms nor any aspects of PIU. Regarding problematic cognitions and behaviors: MMORPG users show higher tendency toward depressive symptoms (F(2,327)=5.505;p<.001;d=.31) and PIU (F(2,327)=12.359;p<.001;d=.48) than Ego-Shooters or users of Real-Time-Strategy Games. Additionally, users of MMORPGs have a lower self- esteem (F(2,327)=6.121;p<.001;d=.33) and spend more time (F(2,327)=10.032;p<.001;d=.43) in-game. Discussion: Prejudices regarding psychopathological well-being of online-gamers seem to be nearly arbitrary. Only less than 20% of the surveyed gamers show relevant symptoms regarding depression or PIU. But, reflecting these findings MMORPGs seem to be more problematic than conventional online games. Futur Jessica Moorman: The University Facebook The present study examined the relationship between online social networking usage, quality of interpersonal relationships and psychological Experience: The Role of Social Networking on well-being. Specifically, this study aimed to explore how social relationships function in online and offline contexts and for whom social the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships interactions are potentially enhanced (or impeded) through online interactions. This study also examined the psychological well-being, including levels of self-esteem and depression, of individuals as a mediating function of their relationship quality. A sample of 541 undergraduate students completed a collection of questionnaires focused on determining background characteristics, Facebook usage trends and purposes for online use. A subset of the participant pool, consisting of 284 participants, were then categorized based on their self-reported daily Facebook usage and asked to complete a second set of questionnaires designed to assess whether the quality of offline (face to face) relationships are potentially affected by time spent in online interaction and how this impacts general psychological well-being. Preliminary results suggest that high Facebook usage students were more likely to feel that Facebook allows them to find out things about their current romantic partner or friend, communicate more readily with their friends, and feel it is an acceptable medium for telling someone something difficult. Furthermore, results suggest a significant relationship between feelings of loneliness and using Facebook to communicate with friends and new 16:45 - 18:15: Ethic, human intellect enhancement and online communities (chair: prof. Herbert Hrachovec) Anna Felnhofer, Birgit U. Stetina, Oswald D. Whom does psychological online research serve and who does it potentially harm? It lies in the nature of Cyberspace not only to convert Kothgassner, Ilse Kryspin-Exner: grounding aspects of human existence such as identity and language but also to create tension between online existence and the real body existence (Capurro & Pingel, 2002). Naturally this fact pertains to online research in general, yet it challenges cyberpsychological research in Cyberpsychological Research: friend or foe? An particular and shall therefore be discussed in the light of recent ethical considerations. ethical debate. Unquestionably psychological online research bears manifold advantages for the researcher, including the possibility to observe rare psychological phenomena, to identify risky behavior and to get hold of population that wouldn’t have been reached in conventional settings (Kraut, 2004). Yet, at the same time the researcher is confronted with the impossibility to reliably identify the subject’s identity and thus, to react adequately to distressing information (Stern, 2003). Participants in turn may find it easier to disclose confidential information or to withdraw from participation since the researcher is not physically present. However, psychological methods inquiring delicate information or evoking emotions bear the risk of harming the participants (Holmes, 2009). All of the above highlight the need to redefine the boundaries of the researcher’s ethical responsibility on the basis of the four central ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. Eva Zackova: Man-computer symbiosis as a way The questions of what computers could do someday in serving to a man have been provoking us since the age of Alan Turing and von Neumann. of human intellect enhancement From the very beginning, the conception of symbiotic relation between man and computer has been bounded to this question. When a computer graphic interface was developed, creating a space (cyberspace) suited for cooperation of man and computer, the sympathy for computer technology spread out. This virtual environment could be shared with other people and other computers; at present, it could be experienced as three-dimensional as well, not only visually but also by a taction. Such technological evolution required changes in our conception and perception of reality; now it can be called augmented, mixed, virtual or simulated reality. These are environments friendly to human intellect enhancement because of their simulated naturalness. The conception of intelligence amplification has its origin in the 1960th and is still being considered today. The purpose of the paper is to compare the conception of man-computer symbiosis in the 1960's and today's vision of human cognitive enhancement by computers. Turkle’s psychological and sociological reflection of the man-computer relation will be introduced as well. According to Turkle, today's computer simulation engages our mind and body so strongly that a very strange and intimate relation is built between man and virtual world or objects, a relation similar to the relationship with transitional objects described by English psychoanalyst Winnicott. Rayfield a. Waller The collapsing of distance affected by cyberspace (when we understand cyberspace to be the most profound and powerful amplification of epistemological and phenomenological need since the invention of Guttenberg's press) has recently begun to coalesce as so-called 'social networking'. It is not the practicality, vibrancy, and efficacy of social networking that his paper addresses, but rather the underlying assumption of 'community' that arises from the development of enriched practices of communication, self representation, and communal activity that cyberspace networking has created. ... ROOM NO. 208 Full name: Title of the paper Abstract 9:00 - 10:30: Participation in online communities and media convergence (chair: dr. Francesca Seganti) Qin Guo: Internet and Political Participation in The population of internet users in China has experienced rapid development in recent years. According to China Internet Network Information China Centre, the number of Chinese internet users has reached 338 million in June 2009 (CNNIC, 2009). While the internet is ubiquitous in people’s life, the Chinese government has been keen to promote online political participation. This article explored the role of internet in fulfilment of Habermas’ ideal of public sphere in the Chinese context. The research drew on secondary data analysis on CNNIC’s 24th Statistical Report on Internet Development in China, content analysis on online discussion and forum on the Chinese People Network, observation of provincial government official websites, and a questionnaire survey of residents in a rural area in north of Guangdong. The author observed that the sustained rapid development of internet application in recent years and the Chinese government’s effort in promoting political participation presented a positive prospect for political democracy in China. Meanwhile, the author also identified obstacles that might hinder internet’s efficient functioning for political participation in China. Zoe Davey, Ornella Corazza, Fabrizio Schifano, In the last 12 months so-called ‘legal highs’ and synthetic ‘research chemicals’ have become increasingly common features of the recreational Paolo Deluca drug market. The emergence of these new drug trends have brought various challenges with regards to harm reduction, prevention, policy and research, particular given that there is often very little, if any, evidenced-based literature or scientific knowledge available. The European Commission funded Psychonaut Web Mapping Project (2008-2009) identified the Internet as an important tool for identifying and categorising new and emerging substances, and for providing a credible source of technical and pharmacological knowledge not yet available via more ‘traditional’ channels. Drug-related Internet forums and online communities emerged as particularly useful sources of information, and a qualitative analysis of 8 English-language drug forums was also carried out within the framework of the multilingual Psychonaut Web Mapping project. This presentation will discuss the methodology and results of the Psychonaut Web Mapping project, placing a particular focus on the key features of drug-related Internet forums and the drug forum communities. Issues of anonymity and confidentiality, stability and accessibility, in- and out- group dynamics, and language will be examined, together with potential implications for future research, drug education, and harm reduction. 10:45 - 12:15: Workshop: Organization, Work & ICT (chair: dr. Ragnhild Mogren) Ragnhild Mogren: The role of mobile ICT in The role of mobile ICT is often discussed in terms of individual use, with focus on for instance its impact on individual autonomy. Recent organizational context – a comparative study research also shows some interest in the social implications of mobile ICT use, such as the development of new forms of social networks. The aim of this paper is to further explore and discuss the social role of mobile ICT, namely in the forming of mutual activities in organizations. The paper is based on a study of two micro organizations with a longitudinal and comparative design. The first organization is a small IT-company, with three owners, the second a four person rockband. The studies are based on self-observations in form of diaries, analyzed as time- geographical notion systems, and individual interviews. The organizations are studied as action nets and the forming of the organizations is analyzed as communities of practice. The questions raised in the paper are: How is mobile ICT integrated in the organizing of the organizations? What are the similarities and differences between the organizations in their mobile ICT integration? The result indicates that, in the rockband, mobile ICT is used as tools for coordinating mutual activities, but also as tools for coordinating individual projects related to the organizational project. In the IT-company, mobile ICT is embedded in the daily activities and used as shared tools integrated in the daily practices of the actors where individual and company projects seem to be more integrated. Karol Wolski: Personal Web Usage in the Personal web usage in the workplace (PWU) is widespread among employees of modern companies. This social and economic phenomenon Workplace - Polish Perspective causes diverse organizational problems including data security risks, financial losses, legal issues and undermining employees’ morale. Employers are forced to adopt variety of coping strategies to decrease PWU. These strategies should be based on the results of scientific research and psychological knowledge about PWU and human behaviour in the workplace. In the present paper a holistic model of personal web usage in the workplace is proposed. It is based on the theory of planned behaviour formulated by Ajzen (1998) and the technology acceptance model by Davis (1986). The present model was developed on the base of literature review and the results of author's original research project Internet at Work - First National Research on Employees. Empirical study was conducted among 432 Polish employees using internet at work. Structural equation modeling approach was adopted to develop the holistic model of PWU. Results are discussed in the context of theory and practice of the PWU and online research methodology. Cristina Vasilica: Persuasive web site design in E- Research suggests destination websites can influence the travel intention of Internet users and nation branding was confirmed to be a valuable country branding concept to most countries that strive to become competitive online destination brands. The subjectivity of destination branding makes this concept very difficult to measure but, at the same time, it proves to be crucial when discussing tourists’ preferences of psychological nature. The paper addresses the country image as a brand used by Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) in order to promote national tourism online. Particularly, the aim of the article is to evaluate how the Romanian Official Tourism website took advantage of the online destination promotion on the Internet influencing travel motivation. The evaluation of the Romanian Official Tourism website’s effectiveness is performed confronting it to the best country brands websites of the moment, from the web design and content point of view. The study employs a combined research method: factor checklist evaluation, an experimental instrument for data collection and experts` views. The results highlight the online strategies utilised by the best country brands in the world and delivered a set of recommendations for improving the design of the Romanian Official Tourism website. This final part of the research paper comes as an answer to the multitude of critics and beliefs that DMO websites are lacking in persuasive design and tourist expectations. 13:15 - 14:45: Workshop: Excessive Online Gaming (chair: prof. David Smahel) Oswald D. Kothgassner, Birgit U. Stetina: The Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the factor of Escapism in a MMORPG sample concerning problematic gaming behavior Broken Gamer: Investigating a New Component (PGB). of Problematic Gaming Behavior Method: 414 MMORPG users were surveyed using an online-questionnaire consisting of an adaption of the ISS-20 (Hahn & Jerusalem, 2001) to describe PGB. Additionally the German version of the UCLA (Russel, 1996; Schwab, 1997) was applied to assess loneliness. Preference for a virtual life (PVL) was measured using the OCS (Davis, 2001) and Caplans’ (2005) items. The motivation to escape from real life was measured using 15 statements regarding aspects such as playing online games to avoid problems or playing them in order to relax. Results: Factor analyses reveal that 2 factors of Escapism can be examined which were considered into further analysis. By using hierarchical linear regression model the indicating items for avoiding real life problems (factor1) accounted for a significant increase of 41% (β=.48; p<.001) and the recreational items (factor2) show an additional increase of 2% (β=.23; p<.001) in explained variance in PGB. Loneliness (β=.16; p<.001) and PVL (β=.07; p<.114) show only a small increase in explained variance in the dependent variable. ... Petra Holcnerová: Self-perception of addiction Addiction to online games belongs with excessive online communication and cybersex activity overload to the group of risky behavior called to online games and motivation to quit or limit Internet addiction. This paper provides results of semi-structured offline and online interviews with online gamers focused on their self- online gaming perception of addiction to online gaming and motivation to quit or limit online gaming. How individuals perceive whether they are addicted to online gaming or not, what meanings they ascribe to this fact and due to which motives they decide to quit or limit online gaming can have important consequences for explaining the process of quitting /limiting online gaming and eventually for seeking treatment. Katerina Lukavska: Time Orientation As A The study which will be presented focused on the causes of playing MMORPGs (Mass Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games). We investigated Predictor Of MMORPG Playing link between playing these games and the concept of time orientation by Philip G. Zimbardo. We collected 154 MMORPGs players and revealed that they differed from the regular population of appropriate age in the past negative time orientation – they were more negatively orientated toward their own past than was usual in population. Moreover, we detected some differences in orientation toward present and future within players' sample, which partially explained the differences in the time intensity of playing (measured by the amount of hours spent by playing per week and the amount of hours spent in one session). To sum up, we showed that time orientation had an impact on MMORPG playing. We consider our findings as highly relevant especially in intervention of excessive playing, because time orientation is relatively stable personality trait but can be influenced by targeted intervention. 15:00 - 16:30: Workshop: Content Creation & Participation Online (chair: dr. Francesca Seganti) Fritz Kohle, Arleen Cuevas: Harnessing Web 2.0 The widespread use of social media and web 2.0 technologies of the net generation of students in their social lives poses a question on how technologies in higher education: A case study in social media can be harnessed and used for enhancing learning in schools today. The public nature, no-cost and low access barrier of these social using youtube and facebook as social media media make it very accessible for students to use and learn. Even with this pervasiveness, many learning institutions in the world are reluctant to embrace these technologies, as some are even banning tools In enhancing student centered learning social media websites in schools and unable to understand how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance the academic experience not only for and engagement. students but also for faculty members. This case study examines the use of social media such as youtube and facebook in enhancing student centred learning techniques for media production courses at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences in Breda, Netherlands. 131 2nd year media undergraduate students on a 4 year course developed, produced and delivered a 27 60-90 second short films in a cross disciplinary, multi-cultural environment. ... Asta Zelenkauskaite, Paolo Massa, Marco Despite the fact that concept of Wikipedia evolves around content creation, it is the process of collaboration that recently became a focal area Frassoni, Davide Setti: Genesis and development of scholarly attention (Beschastnikh et al., 2008; Kittur et al., 2007; Viegas et al., 2007). This study longitudinally analyzed the development of of Wikipedia community: A longitudinal social the Wikipedia community through social network analysis of messages left on user talk pages (UTP). Content analysis was also conducted by manually coding messages to reveal socialization patterns among users. The corpus consists of all network and content-based study of online messages left on Wikipedia in Venetian language since its beginning in 2005 up to 2009. Census sample comprised users N=952, with messages collaboration and socialization N=1702. Longitudinal network analysis revealed that users are more likely to contribute actively for just one year while a core of users contributed continuously. Furthermore, users at top of hierarchy (sysops and bureaucrats) tended to be in a central position over time suggesting that formal user role is related with network centrality of users. As for content, the results showed that UTPs were used predominantly for coordination activities, high presence of personal messages including thanking and welcome messages – this pattern was consistent over time. We argue that socialization process that occurs in UTPs exemplifies a way to integrate newbies. This process is especially relevant for Wikipedia environment considering a constantly changing user flux as suggested Doris Weber, Oswald D. Kothgassner, Birgit U. Aim: Elderly people are the fastest growing segment of the Internet population. Aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Enjoyment (E) Stetina, Claudia Oppenauer-Meerskraut, Ilse on the Attitude towards the Internet use (AU) of elderly. Kryspin-Exner: Riding a Steam Machine to Methods: 130 elderly participants were surveyed using a questionnaire which consists of adapted items from prior research used by Davis (1989) and Yi and Davis (2001) for technology acceptance model including perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). E was Cyberspace: The Impact of Enjoyment on the measured by 4 items regarding the enrichment in life and the extent to which the activity of using the internet is perceived to be personally Attitude towards Internet Use of Elderly enjoyable aside from a functional determinant. AU was measured with 9 items concerning the experience of using new technologies and the attributed functionality. Results: Using hierarchical linear regression model the indicating items for PEOU (β=.45; p<.001) accounted for a significant increase of 25%, E (β=.32; p<.006) showed an additional significant increase of 8%. PU (β=.24; p<.238) showed only a small increase in explained variance in AU. The variables of the final model explained 34% of the variance in participants’ scores. Additionally regression analysis showed that AU is highly linked to the time people spent online. ... 16:45 - 18:15: Workshop: Self-disclosure and Virtual Worlds (chair: prof. Alexander T. Vazsonyi) Michel Walrave, Wannes Heirman: Predicting Aims: Many teenagers, like other age groups in society, have embraced Social Network Sites (SNS) as making part of their daily life. Social Teenagers' Self-disclosure in Social Network network sites are therefore receiving increasing attention by scholarly researchers. In this paper we will examine the amount of data teenagers Sites. disclose in SNS, which types of personal information are more readily provided access to, and whether some explanatory variables, derived from literature, perform as determinants of data accessibility management in SNS. Method: The data from the present study were derived from an online survey conducted among 991 10-19 year-olds in April 2010. Results: Factor analysis performed on 16 types of personal data revealed 4 categories of data: identity data (e.g. name, gender), general profile data (e.g. school, degree), sensitive profile data (e.g. relationship status, political views) and contact data (e.g. e-mail address, MSN account). Hierarchical multiple regression was applied to the survey data to examine the determinants of SNS data accessibility management. Gender, SNS experience and trust in other users help explain the variance of accessibility of identity data. Also the accessibility of contact data is partially determined by trust in other users. The accessibility of general profile data is partially determined by the peer informative and peer normative influences. Mixed results were found for parental mediation. Accessibility of sensitive profile data is affected by gender and the importance of SNS in teenagers' lives. Ayoub Zareie , Ong Beng Kok: Emancipator : The Internet is now becoming a part of everyday routine life. While it is true that not all people could get access to the internet, it has created a Exploring the implications and consequences of great deal of space for many people, particularly women, to express themselves easily. This study tries to show how internet, in particular, blog weblog writing among Iranian female blogger writings, has opened out more opportunities for women to articulate and present themselves easily and effectively, of which the women find difficult to have in their normal public life. This self presentation is referred to as self-expression or the social identity construction by humanistic sociologists and the social psychologists. Therefore, women have now largely depended on the internet to share and discuss about their identity, lived experiences, senses etc. This paper focuses on Iranian female bloggers’ involvement in the formation of new meanings in their own social sphere and their understanding of themselves and their lives in their diaries on the internet. It will show how blogosphere does create a new chance for women to discover and develop their abilities, reveal hidden talents, confidence-building, personal autonomy, product of meaning, challenge traditional/cultural/gender stereotypes and break social/sexual taboos/barriers. Terhi Tuukkanen, Ahmer Iqbal, Marja Virtual worlds attract especially children who go to virtual worlds to seek sociability and to spend their free time in another, supernatural world. Kankaanranta: Children’s participatory practices Virtual worlds such as Habbo, goSupermodel and Club Penguin are like small societies which provide their citizens with possibility to create their in virtual worlds own unique space and to participate in common activities as members of a virtual community. In virtual worlds, it is also possible for children to do and practice things that they would not do in real life, for example take another role quickly or participate in many activities such as clubs and demonstrations. Virtual worlds include many participatory practices which may help children for example to construct their real civic identities but which are not extensively researched so far. The aim of our research is to develop a framework for participation in virtual worlds and to explore current participatory practices in virtual worlds. In this paper, we present results of interviews which were conducted with participants who are currently using virtual worlds to get deeper understanding of the nature of activities that children perform there. Thus we try to understand different perceived and unperceived affordances for participation in virtual worlds. Based on the results, we also present an extended version of the framework which initially consists of two main viewpoints: virtual participation as a social activity and as a process of influencing.
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