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					      UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD




VERB TENSE AS A COHESIVE
   DEVICE IN SELECTED
      ANECDOTES
FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT
          AND
 PROPHET MUHAMMAD’S
      TRADITIONS


             A THESIS
 SUBMITTED TO THE COUNCIL OF THE
    COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IBN-
 RUSHD , UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD , IN


                 vi
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
    FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
                       IN
    ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS


                       BY
       Muhannad Abbas Mit'ib Al-Jubouri


                SUPERVISED BY
 Asst. Prof . Omran Moosa Mahood Al-Zubeidi,Ph.D.




  MAY 2006                   RABI' AL-THANI
1427




                       vii
‫زمن الفعل كأداة رابطة في مختارات‬
          ‫من النجيل وأحاديث النبي‬
                            ‫إ‬
             ‫محمد (صلى هللا عليه وسلم)‬

              ‫رسالة تقدم بها‬
               ‫مهند عباس متعب الجبوري‬


                         ‫إلى‬
‫مجلس كلية التربية - ابن رشد-في‬
  ‫جامعة بغداد كجزء من متطلبات‬
  ‫نيل درجة الماجستير آداب في‬
  ‫اللسانيات واللغة االنكليزية‬


                      ‫بأشراف‬
     ‫االستاذ المساعد الدكتور عمران موسى ماهود الزبيدي‬




                           ‫‪viii‬‬
  ‫ربيع الثاني1427هـ‬
‫آيار6224م‬




       ‫‪ix‬‬
       I certify that this thesis ( Verb Tense As A Cohesive Device In
Selected Anecdotes From The New Testament And Prophet
Muhammad's Traditions ) has been prepared under my supervision at the
University of Baghdad as a partial requirement for the degree of Master of
Arts in English Language and Linguistics.




                  Signature :
                  Supervisor:      Asst. Prof. Omran Moosa Mahood Al-
                                   Zubeidi, Ph. D.
                  Date      :            /     /




     In view of the available recommendations, I forward this thesis for
debate by the Examining Committee.




                                    x
Signature:
Name :            Asst. Prof. Abdul Sattar Awad Ibrahim
                  Al-Ani, Ph. D.
                  Chairman of the Departmental
                  Committee on Graduate Studies in
                  English Language and Linguistics

Date     :               /    /




             iv




                  xi
       We certify that we have read this thesis (Verb Tense As A Cohesive
  Device In Selected Anecdotes From The New Testament And Prophet
  Muhammad's Traditions) and as Examining Committee examined the
  student (Muhannad Abbas Mit'ib) in its content and that, in our opinion,
  it is adequate as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in English
  Language and Linguistics.




Signature:                                 Signature :
Name :       Asst.  Prof.   Abdullah       Name: Asst. Prof. Abdul Karim
             Salman Abbas Ph.D.                     Jamil Al-Jumaily Ph. D.
               Member                                   Member
Date    :                / /               Date      :          / /




Signature:                                 Signature:
Name: Asst. Prof. Omran Moosa              Name: Prof. Abdul Wahid M.
          Mahood Al-Zubeidi, Ph.D.                 Muslat Ph.D.
        Member and Supervisor                         Chairman
Date     :              / /                Date     :           / /




  Approved by the Council of the College of Education Ibn-Rushd.



                                     xii
               Signature:
               Name:      Prof. Tariq Nafi' Al-Hamdani Ph.D.

                         Acting Dean of the College of Education
                         Ibn-Rushd, University of Baghdad
               Date      :                    / /




                              v


To My Parents...

The Everlasting Source of Patience, Support, and
Encouragement.

To My Brothers ...

The Source of Togetherness and Solidarity.

To Whom I Owe The Best I Know...


                             xiii
To My Instructors.

To The Memory of             Dr.

Khalil Ibrahim Al-Hamash…

With Love and Gratitude.




                       xiv
  ‫بسم هللا الرحمن‬
     ‫الرحيم‬
‫وما ُوتيتم َِ‬
‫من‬       ‫أ‬
     ‫عْم إال‬
‫ال ِلِ ّ قليل‬
‫ا‬
‫صدق هللا العظيم‬
‫سورة اإلسراء – من‬
        ‫اآلية (85)‬




            ‫‪xv‬‬
                    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


        Words really stand mute to communicate my sincere thanks and deep
gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Omran Moosa Mahood Al-Zubeidi, for his
invaluable discussions, most useful suggestions and efficient guidance
throughout the preparation of this thesis.
        My special gratitude is also due Dr. Kadhim Haider Al-Jawadi for his
directions which have motivated me to choose this topic.
        Special thanks are due to my instructors in the M.A. courses: Dr.
Abdullatif Al-Jumaily, Dr. Kadhim Al-Jawadi (of College of Arts,
University of Baghdad), Dr. Omran Moosa Mahood Al-Zubeidi, Dr.
Ahmed Mustafa Al-Mousawi, Dr. Siham Abdul Ridha Ken'aan, Dr.
Muayyad Mohammed Sa'eed, Mr. Firas Awad Marouf Al-Obeidi and Mrs.
Lamia' Abdul Hameed Al-'Ani (of College of Education- Ibn Rushd).
        I also thank all my colleagues who shared with me the happy and sad
moments during the M.A. study.
        Finally, I am indebted forever to my family whose love, support,
encouragement, warmth, and patience paved the way to accomplish this
work.




                                     xvi
                               ABSTRACT



       The present study which is entitled “Verb Tense as a Cohesive
Device in Selected Anecdotes from the New Testament and Prophet
Muhammed’s Traditions” deals with the role of verb tense and its
contribution to the cohesion of narrative (anecdotal) texts taken from the
New Testament and Prophet Muhammed’s (PBUH) Traditions. Being a
component of the theory of cohesion, verb tense is considered as an
effective and efficient implement in the textual cohesion and progression
of the temporal reference in the texts understudy. To the best of the
researcher’s knowledge, no work has been carried out regarding the
subject matter of this study which makes it of relative significance.

       The aims of this study are:

(i)    Examining the nature of verb tense role in giving the narrative
       (anecdotal) text a temporal structure.
(ii)   Finding out the other potential roles of verb tense in addition to
       its contribution to the textual cohesion and progression of
       temporal reference of the narrative (anecdotal) text.
       It is hypothesized here that: (i) verb tense as a cohesive device
contributes to the textual cohesion and progression of temporal reference
of the narrative (anecdotal) text with the aid of the subordinators and the
connectives, (ii) maintaining and/ shifting of verb tense affects the
temporal structure of the anecdote.



                                     xvii
      This study falls into four chapters. Chapter one is an “Introduction”.
It sets out the preliminary ideas, concepts and parameters of the thesis
which include the following: the problem, aims, the hypotheses, scope,
procedures, data, significance of the study, and basic definitions.

     Chapter two presents and surveys the “Theoretical Background” of
this study. It studies the key concepts on which the present study is based.

     Chapter three studies “The Analysis of Data”. It includes: the choice
of the quantity and the quality of texts which comprise ten narrative
(anecdotal) texts; five taken from the New Testament and the other five
taken from the Prophetic Traditions; provision of a model for analysis
based on a synthesis of two models by: Givon (1983) and Longacre (1989) .

     Chapter four presents the “Conclusions and Recommendations” of
the study. In the light of these conclusions, a number of suggestions for
further studies and recommendations for EFL curriculum designers,
learners have been proposed.




                                    xviii
                    CONTENTS
                                          Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                           vi
ABSTRACT                                  vii
CONTENTS                                   ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                     xiii
LIST OF FIGURES AND DIAGRAMS              xiv
LIST OF TABLES                             xv
LIST OF SYMBOLS USED IN TRANSLITERATING
ARABIC WRITING SYSTEM                     xvi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1     The Problem                        1
1.2     Purpose of the Study               2
1.3     The Hypotheses                     2
1.4     Scope of the Study                 2
1.5     Procedures of the Study            2
1.6     Data of the Study                  3
1.7     Significance of the Study          3
1.8     Basic Definitions                  4
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.0      Preliminary Notes                 5
2.1      The Notion of Cohesion            5
2.1.1   The Historical Situation           5



                             xix
          Some Models of Cohesion
2.1.2                                                                      8
          Enkvist's Model of Cohesion
2.1.2.1                                                                    9
2.1.2.2   Hendrick's Model of Cohesion                                     9
2.1.2.3   Halliday and Hasan's Model of Cohesion                           11
2.1.2.4   Beaugrande and Dressler's Model of Cohesion                      12
          Crystal's Model of Cohesion
2.1.2.5                                                                    14
2.1.3     The Role of Verb Tense in Cohesion and Coherence                 15
2.1.4     The Relevance of Continuity to Semantic Progression              17
2.1.5     Cohesion, Texture and Continuity                                 20
2.1.6     Temporal Specification                                           23
2.2       Tense in English                                                 26
2.2.1     Definition                                                       26
2.2.2     Tense and Aspect                                                 32
2.2.3     Tense in Arabic                                                  34
2.2.4     The Effect of Narrative Context on the Interpretation of Tense   44
          Weinrich's Modes
2.2.5                                                                      45
          Tense in Narrative
2.3                                                                        46
2.3.1     Past Tense                                                       47
          The Simple Past (Preterite)
2.3.1.1                                                                    48
          The Past Perfect (Pluperfect)
2.3.1.2                                                                    49
          The Present Tense
2.3.2                                                                      50
          The Simple Present
2.3.2.1                                                                    50
          The Present Perfect
2.3.2.2                                                                    53


                                          xx
             The Progressive (Past and Present)
2.3.2.3                                                      55
2.3.3        Tense Switch (Shift or Alternation)             56
             Narrative Text and Narration
2.4                                                          59
             Definition
2.4.1                                                        59
             Narrative Clause
2.4.2                                                        61
             Narrative Event
2.4.3                                                        61
             Structure of Narrative
2.4.4                                                        62
             Temporal Structure of Narrative
2.4.5                                                        63
2.4.6        Foreground Vs. Background                       65
2.4.7        Schema                                          67
             Notes to Chapter Two
                                                             69
CHAPTER THREE: ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

3.0           Preliminary Notes
                                                             70
3.1           The Model for Analysis
                                                             70
3.1.1         The Analysis of New Testament Texts
                                                             73
3.1.2         The Analysis of Prophetic Texts
                                                             112
              Notes to Chapter Three
                                                             129
CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND PEDAGOGICAL
IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

4.0           Preliminary Notes
                                                             131
4.1           Conclusions
                                                             131
4.2
             Recommendations and Pedagogical Implications    134
4.3
             Suggestions for Further Studies                 134
             BIBLIOGRAPHY                                    135


                                            xxi
              APPENDICES
              APPENDIX 1                       145
              APPENDIX 2: (-A-)                154
              APPENDIX 2: (-B-)                157
              ABSTRACT (IN ARABIC)             ‫أ-ب‬



                       LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS




HP.      Historic Present

NT.      New Testament

NV.      Narrative

PBUH .   Peace Be Upon Him

Perf.    Perfect (-ive)

Pret.    Preterite

Pres.    Present

Prog.    Progressive

PT.      Past Tense

PT.      Prophetic Tradition

RSV.     Revised Standard Version




                                    xxii
             LIST OF FIGURES AND DIAGRAMS

                                                      Page
Figure (1)
               The Flow of Continuity in Texts         19
Figure (2)
               Periodicity in English Paragraphs       21
Figure (3)
               Diagram of Temporal Specification of
               Sentence (4)                            24
Figure (4)
               Diagram of Temporal Specification of
               Sentence (5)                            25
Figure (5)
               Longacre's Macrostructure               71




                               xxiii
                        LIST OF TABLES
                                                                    Page
Table (1)
            Comparison of Halliday and Hasan's,
            and Crystal's Taxonomy of Cohesion                       15
Table (2)
            Tense and Aspect System                                  33
Table (3)   Bu-Khilkhaal's Schematization of AlBasra and Al-Kufa
            Schools' Time Division                                   37
Table (4)   Labov's and Longacre's Comparison of the Structure of
            Narrative                                                63
LIST OF SYMBOLS USED IN TRANSLITERATING
          ARABIC WRITING SYSTEM
a- Consonants:
i. Plosives:
‫/ ب‬b/              a voiced bilabial plosive, as in /bajt/ (home)

‫/ ت‬t/              a voiceless denti-alveolar plosive, as in /tamr/ (dates)

‫/ د‬d/              a voiced denti-alveolar plosive, as in /diin/ (religion)

‫/ ط‬t/              a voiced velarized denti-alveolar plosive, as in/tajr/ (bird)

‫/ض‬d/               a voiced velarized alveolar plosive,as in/dajf/ (guest)

‫/ ك‬k/              a voiceless velar plosive, as in /kitaab/ (book)

‫/ ق‬q/              a voiceless uvular plosive, as in /qawl/ (saying)

‫/?/ ء‬              a voiceless glottal plosive, as in /?aw/ (or)



ii. Fricatives:

‫/ ف‬f/              a voiceless labio-dental fricative, as in /famm/ (mouth)

‫/ث‬   /             a voiceless dental fricative, as in / awb/ (dress)

‫/ذ‬   /             a voiced dental fricative, as in / ahab/ (gold)

‫/ظ‬       /         a voiced velarized dental fricative, as in/ ill/ (shade/shadow)

‫/س‬s/               a voiceless denti-alveolar fricative, as in/sajf/ (sword)

‫/ ص‬s/        a voiceless velarized dental-alveolar fricative, as in /sajf/ (summer)

‫/ ز‬z/              a voiced denti-alveolar fricative, as in /zaad/ (food)

‫/ش‬    /            a voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, as in / arr / (evil)

‫/ خ‬x/              a voiceless velar fricative, as in /xawx/ (peach)

‫/غ‬   /             a voiced velar fricative, as in / adaa?/ (lunch)
‫/ح‬   /            a voiceless pharyngeal fricative, as in / all/ (solution)

‫/؟/ ع‬             a voiced pharyngeal fricative, as in/‫؟‬ajn/ (eye)

‫/هـ‬h/             a voiceless glottal fricative, as in/hunaa/ (here)



iii. Liquids:

‫/ م‬m/             a voiced bilabial nasal, as in /man/ (who)

‫/ ن‬n/             a voiced alveolar nasal, as in /nisr/ (eagle)

‫/ ي‬j/             a voiced palatal semi-vowel, as in /jawm/ (day)

‫/ و‬w/             a voiced labio-velar semi-vowel, as in /ward/ (flowers)

‫/ ل‬l/             a voiced alveolar lateral, as in /lawz/ (almonds)

‫/ ر‬r/             a voiced alveolar approximant, as in /rabb/ (Lord)



iv. Affricates:

‫/ ج‬d3/     a voiced palato-alveolar affricate, as in /d3abal/ (mountain)



b- Vowels:
i. Monophthongs:

‫/ كسرة‬i/          a short close front spread vowel, as in /min/ (from)

~‫/ ي‬ii/           a long close front spread vowel, as in /tiin/ (mud)

‫/ فتحة‬a/          a short half- open front spread vowel, as in /sadd/ (dam)

‫/ آ‬aa/            a long open front neutral vowel, as in /baab/ (door)

‫/ ضمة‬u/           a short half-close back rounded vowel, as in /?umm/ (mother)

~‫/ و‬uu/           a long close back rounded vowel, as in /tuul / (length)
ii.      Diphthongs :
         ‫/ أيـ‬aj/ as in /?ajn/ (where)

         ‫/ أو‬aw/        as in / awb/ (dress)




         Notes on Transliteration:

      1. The transliteration system adopted in this study is intended to give
         the Arabic examples and texts a reading form. The list above shows
         the system which is followed in transliterating Arabic writing system.
      2. The definite article is represented as (?al), and the assimilation of /l/
         of the article preceding the “sun letters” are not marked.
      3. A long consonant and/ or vowel is marked by doubling the symbol.
      4. Words are represented with their case – endings when they are used
         in a context. When used in isolation, words are deprived of their
         inflections.
                       CHAPTER ONE
                     INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Problem

       Like the other cohesive devices such as; reference, ellipsis,…, etc.,
verb tense which is primarily a grammatical category, is also considered a
cohesive device by a number of discourse analysts and grammarians. In
their comprehensive model, Halliday and Hasan (1976: 184ff.) treat verb
tense as a part of “ellipsis” which is one of the four components that form
the grammatical cohesion. Beaugrande and Dressler (1981:69) state that
“Cohesion is further supported by Tense and Aspect”. Quirk et al. (1985:
1454) state that “verb tense contributes to the textual cohesion and
progression of temporal reference of a narrative text” i.e.(the anecdote)
       Sacks (1971:4) suggests that “the use of a past tense format for
stories is a perfectly natural, if not canonical form to stories, yet the
changing and arranging of verb tense within a story or an event helps a
great deal in the textual cohesion and progression of temporal reference
of a narrative text”.Verb tense role as a cohesive device is supported by
the use of subordinators and connectives. They help verb tense to
achieve both intra-and intersentential cohesion. Shifting of verb tense
affects temporal structure of the narrative text viz., (the anecdote).
Narrators make use of the shifting of tense, for instance (from past to
present) which is a regular mode of switching reference from the ‘then’
of the narrative reference to the ‘now’ of both the narrator and the
hearer/reader. The following is an illustrative example that shows such a
shift:

              1-   As a child, I lived in Singapore. It’s very hot
           there, you know, and I never owned an overcoat. I
           remember being puzzled at picture books showing
           European children wrapped up in heavy coats and
           scarves. I believe I thought it all as exotic as
           children here think about spacemen’s clothing,
           you see.
                                                 (Quirk et al., 1985: 1454)

  Thus, the use of verb tense as a cohesive device in anecdotal context,
represents a good area of study.
  To the best knowledge of the researcher no work has been conducted
on such a topic.

  1.2 Purpose of the Study

  The study aims at:

  1) Examining the role played by verb tense in giving the
narrative/anecdotal text a temporal structure.
  2) Finding out the other potential roles of verb tense in addition
to its contribution to the textual cohesion and progression of
temporal reference.



  1.3 Hypotheses

  It is hypothesized that:

  1) Verb tense as a cohesive device contributes to the textual
cohesion and progression of temporal reference of a narrative/an
anecdotal text with the aid of the subordinators and the connectives.
  2) Maintaining and/shifting of verb tense affects the temporal
structure of the anecdote.

  1.4 Scope of the Study
  The study is confined to the investigation of verb tense as a cohesive
device in selected anecdotal texts taken from the New Testament and
Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) Traditions.




  1.5 Procedures of the Study

  The procedures followed in the study are:

  1) Presenting a general discussion of the notion of ‘cohesion’
with some of its models.
  2) Defining the fundamental features of narrative discourse with
regard to verb tense.
  3) Developing and introducing a model with regard to verb tense.
  4) Collecting a selected corpus of English narrative texts taken
from the New Testament and Arabic narrative texts taken from
Prophet Muhammad’s Traditions.
  5) Identifying the verb tenses used in both texts.



  1.6 Data of the Study

  The study is based on a corpus of selected narrative texts which
comprise ten texts. The corpus must consist of complete texts of the
anecdotes taken from the New Testament and Prophet Muhammad’s
Traditions. Texts are chosen on the basis of being narrative, i.e., they
display the characteristics of narration. Besides, they are selected on
their own, i.e., as they appear in the references.
   1.7 Significance of the Study

   The significance of the study can be summarized in the following:

   1) The study will shed some light on the language of religious
texts and help in their interpretation.
   2) The study highlights the status of verb tense being a cohesive
device used in narrative/anecdotal texts. This will enrich the linguistic
knowledge.
   3) The study offers some insight into the way in which the
temporal structure of narrative/anecdotal text is constructed.
   4) The practical value of the study lies in offering some
recommendations for EFL curriculum designers, learners, i.e., readers
and hearers based on the conclusions arrived at.



   1.8 Basic Definitions



Anecdote:   (1) It is defined by Hornby (1974: 30) as “a short, usually
             amusing, story about some real person or event”. (2)
             According to the present study, it is defined as “a short
             account/ story (written/spoken); mainly written in this study,
             about some real person or event to illustrate a point or to
             teach a lesson”.




Tradition (Hadith- verbal transmission):   It means, literally, (a story, a narration,
            or a report), as we know it, being a unit of that discipline which
bears the same name, is narrative, usually very short,
purporting to give information about what the Prophet (PBUH)
said, did, or approved or disapproved, or of similar information
about his companions, especially the senior Companions and
more especially the first four Caliphs. Each Tradition (Hadith)
falls into two parts, the text (matn) of the Hadith itself and the
transmissional chain or (isnad), giving the names of the
narrators, which supports the text.(Fazlur Rahman,1966: 53-54).
                          CHAPTER TWO
          THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


2.0 Preliminary Notes

         This chapter aims at establishing a theoretical base and
framework for the present study. The researcher tries to achieve a four-
fold objective simultaneously: presenting a general survey of the
concept Cohesion and outlining some of its models; surveying Tense in
English and Arabic; outlining the organization of Verb Tense in narrative;
and presenting Narrative and its attributes that have relevance to this
study.




  2.1 The Notion of Cohesion

  2.1.1 The Historical Situation

         Historically speaking, the notion of a literary text as a unified
whole of language matrix is commonplace in the literary critical thought
since Plato (427-347B.C.), Aristotle (384-321B.C.), Quintilian (35-95
A.D.), and Longinus (213-273 A.D.). But the present situation is
completely different in the field of language study since most
grammarians, traditional as well as modern, show a strong tendency to
consider the sentence as the suitable and ultimate goal of linguistic
investigation. For example, Allen (1975: 22) points out that:
               The sentence is traditionally regarded as the
             longest structural unit of which a full grammatical
             analysis is possible, since it is only within a sentence
             that the interrelations of the elements are completely
             describable in terms of grammatical rules.
      The same attitude has been adopted by de Saussure, Bloomfield,
Chomsky and others (cf. Lyons 1968: 172-6); yet the importance of
studying stretches of linguistic material longer than the sentence has
been perceived as early as the nineteenth century. For example, Henri
Weil, the philologist 1844-1557) has: “… detected that another principle
besides grammar: the relations of ‘thoughts’ to each other evidently
affect the arrangement of words in sentences”(cf.Beaugrande and
Dressler 1981:20)

     The theoretical assumption on which text linguistics is based is
explained by Merrel (1985:7):




             The degree of organization and complexity
          increases while structural simplicity decreases during
          progression from lower to higher levels, … the laws
          defining the order and organization of lower, less
          complex systems are not necessarily equivalent to
          the laws governing more complex systems.




      The need to describe organization beyond the sentence level
necessitates the introduction of terminology that can cope with the
demands of the relevant linguistic tasks. One of these terms is
‘Cohesion’ which has often been used to refer to the resources that are
available in the language for signalling various types of relations
between sentences and larger stretches of text.

  Traugott and Pratt (1980: 21) point out that:




               The idea of Cohesion was first developed in detail
          by     Roman     Jakobson,   …   In   1960   Jakobson
          characterised, with reference to poetry, a notion
          basic to the analysis of literary texts: that they have
          cohesion or internal patterning and repetition for
          exceeding that of the most non-literary texts.




     Jakobson’s definition of cohesion is rather implicit. In one of his
famous statements he defines cohesion as:

      “The poetic function projects the principles of equivalences from
the axis of selection into the axis of combination” (Jakobson: 1960).

      The textual function, being poetic in Jakobson’s definition, should
be understood as a dominating feature which affects not only the
sentential relations but also intersentential ones. Therefore, cohesion is
not used exclusively to describe textual relations. Crystal (1987: 67)
argues that cohesion can be applied to different levels of linguistic
analysis such as phonological, morphological, syntactic, and textual.

      In 1976, Halliday and Hasan present the first comprehensive study
of “Cohesion in English”. This monumental work heralds a distinctive
stage in the study of textual organization. The concept and model
introduced in this work have motivated a great movement towards
studying this phenomenon in different types of texts and for different
types of discourse (See Galperin, 1971; Halliday, 1971; Enkvist, 1973;
Hendricks, 1973, 1976; Leech and Short, 1981; Stankiewics, 1984; and
Merrel, 1958). Scholars have widely discussed the notion of ‘Cohesion’,
its status and role in text linguistics. For example, Bernhart (1980: 47)
states that: “ ‘Cohesion in English’ provides an important new look for
linguistic analysis by delineating these semantic resources of the
language, which tie the idea to create texts.”

     A similar attitude has been noticed in Traugott and Pratt’s mutual
work (1980: 23). They have examined the notion of cohesion as applied
to literature, stating that: “The phenomenon of cohesion in literature
obviously has everything to do with the fact that literature is art, that
literary texts are constructed to produce in us the kinds of experience
we speak of as ‘aesthetic’.”




     Here, the two scholars go beyond the textual features to the
reactions towards the literary texts.

     An opposite stance is introduced by Mosenthal and Tierney (1984:
241) who question whether cohesion analysis is simply what Halliday
and Hasan claim to be, a type of linguistic description of texts, or they
invited the readers to assume that their linguistic description will serve
as a psychological model of comprehension completes with predictive
powers.
      This suspicion is based on their assumption that:

      “… the cohesion concept alone is inadequate as a description of a
text’s unity.” (Ibid.:243) [emphasis added].

      However, this suspicion can be eliminated if cohesion is
supplemented by either the other standards of textuality proposed by
Beaugrande and Dressler (1981), or by types of formal features of literary
text as suggested by Halliday and Hasan (1976: 328-332). The latter can
be justified because, as Halliday et al. (1964: 248) state: “… the literary
text is, as it were, the product of linguistic form and literary form. The
latter can be regarded as imposing restrictions, either statistical or
absolute on the selection made within the former” [emphasis added].



  This stance includes the reciprocal interrelationships of both the
literary form and the linguistic form and therefore it will be adopted in
this study.

  2.1.2 Some Models of Cohesion

      Different scholars, having different linguistic backgrounds and
orientations, have produced a number of different treatments of
‘cohesion’. The purpose of this section is to survey and outline briefly
some of the well-known models of ‘cohesion’ before adopting or
developing one of them. The discussion will be chronologically ordered.



  4.7.4.7 Enkvist’s Model of Cohesion

       Enkvist (1973: 122) suggests a model of cohesion, which consists
of two main categories:
a) Contextual Cohesion: this category keeps together passages
   occurring in the same matrix of contextual features. For instance, a
   piece of dialogue in a novel has a contextual matrix different from a
   descriptive passage in the same novel; in a play, stage directions have
   a contextual matrix different from that of the dialogue; and so on.
   Sentences having the same contextual matrix are felt to belong
   together.
b) Lexical Cohesion: this category implies that: “… Coherent texts often
   have homogeneous vocabulary, which contributes to their unity.”
     These two main categories of cohesion have not been discussed in
   detail so as to see whether they have some further subcategories or not.
   Moreover, they have not been used to achieve any textual analysis in
   the book itself to show their effectiveness in the study of literary texts.



   4.7.4.4 Hendricks’s Model of Cohesion


          This is another dichotomous model of cohesion, which includes
   two main categories different from those suggested by Enkvist.
   According to Hendricks (1976: 37) there are two types of cohesion:




     a) Global Cohesion:



                   … is an important part of the cohesion of all types of
               discourse, not just literary texts. Views to the contrary
               reflect the naïve assumption that non-literary discourse
            is totally ‘natural’, i.e., lacking the artifice of literary
            discourse. All discourse, however, is controlled by an
            underlying ‘plan’, loosely comparable to an abstract or
            resume of an article containing no sentences of the text,
            which manifests or realizes the underlying plan.
            [emphasis added].



       The Global Cohesion can be compared with “the poetic function”
which Jakobson has proposed in 1960. The only difference between
these two concepts is that “the poetic function” is exclusively used to
describe cohesion in literary texts, whereas the “Global Cohesion” is
used to describe all types of cohesion in literary and non-literary texts.




      b) Local Cohesion: Hendricks states that “The constituent
         sentences of the manifested text exhibit Local Cohesion, a
         matter of connectivity of successive sentences of the text …”
         [emphasis added].



       According to Hendricks (1976: 37-9) global cohesion is treated as
an equivalent concept to the concept of coherence, while local cohesion
is related to textual cohesion.




2.1.2.3 Halliday and Hasan’s Model of Cohesion
      Halliday and Hasan’s work (1965) is a development of an earlier
model suggested in a paper presented to the Ninth Conference of
Linguistics in 1962. This early version was further developed by Hasan in
1968 and was later produced in its comprehensive form in 1976. It is the
most elaborated and rigorous study of the concept of ‘cohesion’. In their
mutual work, they define cohesion as “a semantic relation between an
element that is crucial to the interpretation of it. This other element is
also to be found in the text”. (1976: 5). Here, cohesion is considered a
text-centered phenomenon. This is possible if the term ‘interpretation’ is
understood as seeking the semantic meaning of a given text which
differs considerably from the other overlapping term of ‘hermeneutics’.
Hermeneutics, according to Vollmer (1958: 4), “concerned itself with the
idea of the author as creator and of the work of art as an expression of
his creative self.” This conception of hermeneutics is rather pretextual.
Yet it puts some sort of emphasis on the textual features since it
considers a work of art as an expression, which enables the investigator
to make use of some textual features to formulate the writer’s outlook
of Man, the society, and universe.

      Halliday and Hasan (1976: 3-4) assert that cohesion is realized by
‘cohesive ties’. A cohesive tie is a “term for one occurrence of a pair of
cohesively related items. And cohesive ties are classified into two major
categories: ‘grammatical’ and ‘lexical’. Grammatical cohesion is further
classified into: reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction, whereas
lexical cohesion has two subcategories: reiterational and collocational.

      The only critique against Halliday and Hasan’s model of cohesion
is that they have not mentioned any word about the other related
  concept viz. ‘coherence’; so their views on the difference between these
  two terms is still obscure.

            According to Halliday and Hasan the concept of cohesion is both
  sentential, i.e, it occurs within the sentence, and intersentential. But the
  sentential cohesion does not play an essential role in tying up the
  components of the sentence since these components are tied up by the
  structural relations. Intersentential cohesion, on the other hand, unifies
  the sentences which realize the text so that the final result of linear
  ordering of these sentences produces the effect of a unified and not a
  heap of unrelated sentences.

            To discuss the concept of intersentential cohesion, it is necessary
  to give definitions of the most important terms, i.e., ‘text’, ‘texture’, and
  ‘ties’.

(i) Text: It is “ … a semantic unit: a unit not of form but of meaning
  … [it] does not CONSIST OF sentences; it is REALISED BY, or
  encoded in, sentences”. A text has no structural integration
  among its components, i.e., the sentences which encode it are
  not like that of the sentential immediate constituents or clausal
  constituents because “ … the unity of a text is a unity of a
  different kind.”(Halliday and Hasan,1976: 2).
(ii) Texture: It is “the property of ‘being a text’. It functions with
  respect to its linguistic environment. The texture of a given text is
  realized by the cohesive ties” (ibid.: 2).
(iii) Ties: A tie is used to refer to “one occurrence of cohesively
  related items. It makes the analysis of a text in terms of its
cohesive properties possible. This analysis will help giving a
systematic account of texture.” (ibid.: 4).
  4.7.4.2 Beaugrande and Dressler’s Model of Cohesion

      Beaugrande and Dressler (1981) confirm that the prime
characteristic of texts is their occurrence in communication. In order to
be communicative, a text should meet seven standards of textuality.
These standards function as constitutive principles controlled by a set of
regulative principles (ibid.: 11).

      Two of these standards, namely; cohesion and coherence are ‘text-
centred notions designating operations directed at the text material’
(ibid.:7). The other five standards, namely; intentionality, acceptability,
informitivity, situationality and intertextuality, are ‘user-centred notions
which are brought to bear on the activity of textual communication at
large, both by producers and by receivers’ (ibid.).

      Beaugrande and Dressler (ibid.: 3) assume that cohesion mainly
concerns the ways in which the components of the surface text, i.e., the
actual words we hear or see, are mutually connected within a sequence.
It rests upon grammatical dependencies in the surface text which
represent major signals for sorting out meaning and uses. But the non-
determinant nature of the surface text necessitates an interaction
between cohesion and other standards of textuality to meet
communication requirements. Text cohesion in its broader sense is used
to emphasize the functions of syntax in communication. However, it
should not be understood as ‘text syntax’. These functions reflect certain
cognitive factors (for more details see Beaugrande, 1980).
     Beaugrande and Dressler (ibid.) talk also about the surface texts
and divide them into two types:

  a- Short range stretches which are closely-knit patterns of various
size and complexity into which current material can be fit. These
units are referred to as macro states which represent the main
categories in an actualized network of grammar states (see
Beaugrande, 1980: Ch.11).
  b- Long range stretches which can be handled by re-utilizing
previous elements or patterns in order to achieve stability and
economy.
     The study goes on to associate continuity with text stability.
Beaugrande and Dressler (ibid.: 45) state that “the stability of the text is
upheld via a continuity of occurrences”. This argument is based on the
assumption that the various occurrences in the text and their situation
of utilization are related to each other. To take only one example, an
element such as ‘reference’ recurs to maintain continuity of the same
entity in an operation called ‘recurrence’. Yet, when the recurrent item
has a quite different reference, the resultant sequence will definitely be
discontinuous and unstable. Therefore, arranging these occurrences in a
working order entails ‘sequencing’ of operations in a temporal
progression.

      The standard of cohesion of the surface text “rests upon the
presupposed coherence of the textual world” (ibid.: 71). What this
means-in cognitive terms-is that expressions of the surface text provide
certain signals indicating a combination of text-presented knowledge
and people’s stored knowledge to be implemented at a certain stage of
the communicative interaction. Here the configuration of concepts and
relations, which together comprise the textual world, is activated
(directly or indirectly) by expressions of the surface. Beaugrande (1980:
75) confirms that the text functions “via the activation of concepts and
relations signaled by expressions”.




  4.7.4.5 Crystal’s Model of Cohesion

       David Crystal (1987: 119) presents a seven-category model of
cohesion. The seven categories are: conjunctive relations, coreference,
substitution, ellipsis, repeated forms, lexical relations, and comparison.
The analysis of the seven components of Crystal’s model of cohesion,
and of the components of Halliday and Hasan’s model of cohesion will
show similarities and pseudo differences between the two, as shown in
the following Table:

                                        Table (1)

        Comparison of Halliday and Hasan’s, and Crystal’s Taxonomy of Cohesion

Halliday and Hasan’s Model                     Crystal’s Model

  1- Reference                                 1- Coreference

  2- Substitution                              2- Substitution

  3- Ellipsis                                  3- Ellipsis

  4- Conjunction                               4- Conjunction

  5- Reiteration                               5- Lexical relationships

  6- Collocation                               6- Comparison
                                         7- Repeated forms



     It is obvious that the first five components in, Crystal’s models are
identical to Halliday and Hasan’s model. Furthermore the last two
components of Crystal’s model, i.e., comparison and repeated forms,
can be understood as follows: comparison is a subcategory of reference
which is designated by Halliday and Hasan as ‘comparative reference’
(cf. Halliday and Hasan’s, 1976: 76-87). The repeated forms make a
subcategory of reiteration which is part of lexical cohesion in Halliday
and Hasan’s model.

      None of the models surveyed above is felt to be adequate enough
to cover all aspects of analysis in this work if taken separately. Thus, the
need calls for a model that suits the requirements of the present study.
This model will be presented in the following chapter.




2.1.3 The Role of Verb Tense in Cohesion and
Coherence

      Time reference in general is made clear in any text by the use of
either time adverbs or verb tense, or by both together. However, the
contribution of tense to cohesion and coherence in different models, is
discussed here.

      Halliday and Hasan (1976) deal with tense-aspect categories as
parts of ELLIPSIS, which is a part of four, that form the Grammatical
Cohesion, which together with Lexical Cohesion build Cohesion. Thus,
cohesively, tense is a part of a part of a part of this model. This gives the
impression that the effect of ‘tense’ on cohesion is minimal.

      Beaugrande and Dressler’s model (1951) considers ‘tense and
aspect’ as one category (among other categories) of cohesive relations.
They state that “Cohesion is further supported by tense and aspect” and
that they are means to distinguish:

  (a) past, present, and future times;
  (b) continuity vs. single events;
  (c) antecedent vs. subsequent;
  (d) finished vs. unfinished (1981: 69).
      Al- Jaff (1998: 129) advises that “a further category of cohesive
devices needs to be included. It concerns temporal specification and is
particularly related to continuity established through tense and aspect”.
This continuity requires the proper location of each action on the time
dimension. This action should be differentiated in terms of completion
or incompletion.

      Givon (1983: 8) gives more emphasis to tense when he maintains
that the ACTION CONTINUITY concerns both temporal sequentiality and
temporal adjacency within thematic paragraph in which, most
commonly, actions are given in their natural sequential order (i.e. in
which they actually occurred) and there might be a small gap between
one action and the next. Grammatically, action continuity receives its
expression strongly and universally by the tense-aspect-modality sub-
system which, in English, is attached to the verb phrase.
      Quirk et al. (1985: 1454) state that since all finite clauses carry a
discrete indication of tense and aspect, they contribute to the textual
cohesion and progression, and of course, they cannot be absent. They go
on saying that “textual cohesion and congruity of reference are
maintained by careful consistency of tense and aspect usage” (ibid.:
1457).

      As for the effect of tense on coherence, Beaugarde and Dressler
(1951: 6) say that “the simple juxtaposition of events and situation in a
text will activate operations which recover or create coherence
relations”. Defining coherence as “the ordering of the constituent
sentences in the paragraph in such a way that the ideas carried by these
sentences interlink to make the total meaning of the paragraph lucid”
(Al-Bazi, 1982: 40).

      We can say that ‘coherence’ in a narrative text (henceforth; N.V.)
is based on the chronologically interrelated ordered events.

      Pinto (1989: 54) also proves that the temporal interpretability of a
text is a function of coherence that underlies the organization of event-
depicting propositions. In other words, for a text to be interpretable it
should be made in a way that the sentences that depict N.V. events
manifest constraints that rule out unacceptable constructions and that
the ordering of these sentences also manifest the same constraints.




  2.1.4 The Relevance of Continuity to Semantic
Progression
        In a normal course of everyday social interaction, a text is
produced via simultaneous and successive choices of meaning. It is
usually selected from the options that constitute the meaning potential.
The meaning is coded by lexico-grammatical structure in a social context
or situation type, which represents a semiotic construct. This semiotic
construct is structured in terms of three situational variables: field, tenor
and mode. These in turn are related respectively to ideational,
interpersonal and textual components of language (Halliday and Hasan,
1989: 23-4).

  More specifically, the semantic structure of a certain situation type
can be thought of as: “resonating in the semantic system and so
activating certain networks of semantic options, typically options from
within the corresponding semantic components. This process specifies a
range of meaning potential or register.” (Halliday, 1975: 123).




        Continuity, as will be discussed later, is perceived as a higher level
relation in comparison to other relations that contribute to cohesion. It
also seems a pervasive notion in Halliday’s and in Hasan’s treatment of
text or textual matters in their other works. For instance, Halliday (1978:
122) defines text as “a continuous progression of meanings”. Text here is
a sociosemiotic process, through which meanings are exchanged; by
these    meanings,     reality   is   created.   Meanings   are   essentially
indeterminate and unbounded and hence the emphasis of the theory is
on “the dynamic wave- like aspect of reality, its constant restructuring,
its periodicity without recurrence, its continuity in time and space”
(ibid.: 123; emphasis is mine).
      Halliday and Hasan (1976) confirm that a reader/ hearer usually
reacts to a coherent text in his judgement of texture. A text is coherent
in two regards: “it is coherent with respect to the context of situation
and therefore consistent in register.” (ibid.: 23). Likewise, it is coherent
with respect to itself and therefore cohesive. These two factors
contribute to the continuity of meanings.

      In real communication, texture is a matter of degree. Halliday and
Hasan assert that sometimes we cannot adopt a deterministic view of
what a text or a non-text is. For instance, in a conversational form of
interaction a partial shift in the context of situation is likely to affect
texture but it may not destroy continuity of discourse. Continuity of
subject matter is not all what we need in order to create texture: “it is
simply one of the factors that enters into the picture” (ibid.: 28). We
need other cohesive relations to complete the picture. A text is
therefore ‘a continuum of meaning-in-context constructed around the
semantic relations of cohesion” (ibid.).

      From the above discussion, we conclude that the flow of
continuity in texts involves consistency of a particular situational-
semantic configuration or register and that continuity is revealed by
cohesive relations. Continuity, in the first, is a particular characteristic of
text in relation to its genre; in the second, it distinguishes text from non-
text, i.e., it is a general characteristic of texts of all types. The following
figure illustrates these two interrelated aspects.
                                                         Continuity revealed by linguistic features

                                                             associated with a certain ‘register’ or

                                                                                           ‘genre’.
                           particular
Flow of Continuity

                                                       Continuity revealed by semantic
                           general                     relations that contribute to the
                                                       creation of texts of all kinds.




                       (Fig.1) The Flow of Continuity in Texts

                                                ( Halliday and Hasan, 1976:25 )




  2.1.5 Cohesion, Texture and Continuity

     Halliday and Hasan (1976:295) believe that discontinuities in texts
may resemble the beginning of a new text or a sub-text but this does not
indicate a transition of some kind between different stages in a complex
transaction. Furthermore, they argue that language users “constantly
have to do with forms of interaction which lie on the borderline
between textual continuity and discontinuity”. Thus, the frequent shift
between narrative and verse in the data that Halliday and Hasan (ibid.)
use provides an excellent illustration of this kind of transition between
sub-texts within a text.
      This characteristic is considered ‘a feature of texts of all kinds”. It
indicates that textuality is “not a matter of all or nothing, of dense
clusters of cohesive ties or else none at all” (ibid.: 296). When texture
has very few cohesive ties, it is referred to as loose texture and if it
displays dense clusters of cohesive ties, it is called tight texture. The
alteration between tight and loose texture “gives a very definite flavour
to the whole” (ibid.: 296). Halliday and Hasan also insist that this
alteration is ‘typical of texts of many kinds” (ibid.). The periodicity is
revealed via such devices as the paragraph in written texts and the
periodic pattern is found in a great number of English paragraphs. One
version of periodicity is illustrated in a form of a figure modified after
Halliday and Hasan (ibid.: 297).
                                        (Fig.2) Periodicity in English Paragraphs

                                                                       ( Halliday and Hasan, 1976:297 )

   In the figure, the flow of continuity is represented by a wavy line; within it, the connected line indicated
   condensed cohesive ties, i.e., tight texture. The dotted line represents loose texture. The vertical lines refer to the
                                                                                         boundaries of English paragraphs.

             Here, several questions concerning what has been so far
   postulated by Halliday and Hasan may be raised:

a- In what way does the transition of continuity vs. discontinuity differ
   in patterns higher than the paragraph such as the section, the
   chapter, the story, etc.?
b- Is there any difference in the flow of continuity in relation to genre or
   register? More specifically, how does the transition of ‘continuity vs.
   discontinuity’ correspond to generic structure potential of texts?
c- What are the types of cohesive relations that are mostly associated
   with closely-knit or tight texture and what are the cohesive relations
   that persist even in loose texture?
         A ready and rational answer can hardly be found in an overall
   treatment of cohesive relations as that made by Halliday and Hasan,
   despite the details with which the taxonomy of cohesive relations are
   discussed and exemplified. To answer such questions we need to turn to
   specific research with particular objectives aiming at examining the
   relevant phenomenon and offering possible answers based on intensive
   analysis of a corpus of texts.

         It is necessary to point out that continuity provided by cohesion
   consists of “the points of contact with what has gone before” (ibid.:
   299). At each stage in discourse, these points may have the form of
   “some entity or some circumstance, some relevant feature or some
   thread of argument [that] persists from one moment to another in the
   semantic process, as the meanings unfold” (ibid.). It enables the reader
   to “supply all the missing parts or elements which are not present in the
   text but are necessary to its interpretation” (ibid.). Readers and/or
   hearers try to assign meanings whenever needed to interpret texts. To
   put it differently, participants themselves try to supply a great deal of
   the interpretation when they go through texts. Continuity with what has
   gone before is considered an essential component in the systematic
   relation between text and its environment. Continuity is therefore
   mainly recovered via cohesive ties. Halliday and Hasan (ibid.: 303) argue
   that cohesion “provides for text, which is a semantic unit, the sort of
   continuity which is achieved in units at the grammatical level- the
   sentence, the clause and so on- by grammatical structure.” They also
make explicit that the concept of continuity (progression) is a semantic
one, stating that “cohesive relations themselves are relations in
meaning, and the continuity which they bring about is a semantic
continuity” (ibid.).




  2.1.6 Temporal Specification

      Textual structure requires firm orientation in respect to time. This
orientation is signalled by tense/aspect forms and by other lexical time
relators such as the adjectives ‘previous, earlier, former’, the adverbs
such as ‘simultaneously’ or phrases such as ‘before January’, ‘for a
month’, ‘all year’, etc. These expressions of temporal specification
provide connections and transitions within textual structure and thus
contribute to cohesion. The use of the same tense often implies
temporal and even causal connection. In other words, the juxtaposition
of two sentences having related temporal specification is seen as iconic
of connected sequence. For example, as two real world events, a person
dropping a mirror and that mirror breaking into pieces, follow each
other in time, so asyndetic narration of these events will preserve the
sequence.




    2- The optician dropped the mirror. It broke into a thousand pieces.




  In this example juxtaposition as well as the use of tense as time
relator contribute to the cohesion of the two sentences. As a further
indication of the importance of temporal specification in sustaining
cohesion, all finite clauses (and many non-finite ones) carry a discrete
indication of tense and aspect and contribute to the textual cohesion
and progression. For example:




  3- She told me all about the operation on her hip.

  It seemed to have been a success [1].

  It seems to have been a success [2]

  (Quick et al., 1985: 1454).

     The past tense links the second part to the first, as though both
parts derive their authority from the woman concerned. The present
tense disjoins the second part and implies an orientation to the ‘I’
narrator: ‘It seems to me …’, ‘I’m of the opinion …’. Alternation of the
past and present in this way is a regular mode of switching reference
from the “then” of the temporal reference to the ‘now’ of both the text
producer and the receiver (ibid.). for example:




  4- As a child I lived in Singapore. It’s very hot there, you know, and I
never owned an overcoat.
The verbs ‘lived’ and ‘owned’ refer back to a stretch of time during
which these events were true: (as shown in the diagram below, which is
borrowed from Quirk et al., 1985: 1454).
       Then                                                       now




       lived                                                       is

  [never] owned                                                   know

                    (Fig.3) Diagram of Temporal Specification of Sentence (4)

                                                              ( Quirk et.al., 1985:1454 )

However, verbs in the past tense need not be referentially identical, i.e.,
they need not refer to the same time or stretch of time. Verbs in the
past


tense that refer to discrete action may iconically represent a sequence
of events. For example:




    5- Do you know about the incident last night? I woke up at three,
  came downstairs to the kitchen and found the door of the fridge open.
                      Then I heard a strange noise in the sitting room…



We now have a different diagram from the one above.




       last night                                                 now
   wc f h                                           Do you

   a a oe                                           know?



   kmua

   e e nr

   u      dd


   p




         (Fig.4) Diagram of Temporal Specification of Sentence (5)

                                                        (Al-Jaff, 1995:51 )




While a sequence of past tenses implies sequential events if the lexical
meaning of the verb makes this plausible as in:




                6- I worked in my study. The children played a video game.
A sequence of past verbs with progressive aspect can imply simultaneity,
as in:




   7- I was working in my study. The children were playing a video game.
  A different arrangement can imply the occurrence of event during
another longer event. In this case, tense and aspect can be supported by
the use of the subordinators ‘while’, ‘when’, or ‘as’. For example:


  8- While I was working in my study, the children played a video game.


  According to Quirk et al. (1985: 1455ff), texts comprise much greater
time-reference complexity than what has been suggested. They have a
mixture of state verbs and discrete-action verbs. A narrative, for
instance, weaves backwards and forwards. A mixture of tenses and
aspects of finite and non-finite clauses enable the narrator to depart
from the linear sequence of historical order so as to vary the
presentation and to achieve different effects. Textual cohesion and
continuity of reference are maintained by careful consistency of tense
and aspect usage.




  2.2 Tense in English

     Before defining tense, we should emphasize the notion that time
and tense are not the same. TIME is a universal notion that is
independent of language and which is divided into: past, present, and
future. To express these relations of time, we use the linguistic category
of TENSE which is a property of verbs. In other words, time is an element
of our experience of reality, while tense is a pure grammatical notion.



  2.2.1 Definition
      Sweet (1591: 97) states that “tense is primarily the grammatical
expression of distinctions of time”, that the only tense expressed by
inflection in English is the ‘preterite’ (simple past), that the absence of
preterite inflection constitutes the present tense, and that the other
‘tenses’ are formed by the use of auxiliaries.

      Jesperson (1931: 1) says that tense is “the linguistic expression of
time-relations” indicated in verb forms. He says that in English there are
two tenses proper: present and preterite, and there are two tense-
phrases: perfect (present perfect) and pluperfect (past perfect) and
beside these ‘tenses’ and tense-phrases’ we have the EXPANDED:
Present, am writing; Preterite, was writing; Perfect, have been writing;
Pluperfect, had been writing. Hockett (1985: 237) says that “tenses
typically show different locations of an event in time.” For example:




  9- A- I am eating supper.

     B- I was eating supper.

      Close (1962: 98) says that “these tenses are … verbal forms and
constructions which express aspects of activity combined with aspects of
time”. Strang (1962: 126) offers a somewhat similar definition when she
defines tense as “any of the forms in the conjugation of a verb which
serve to indicate the different times at which the ‘action’ is viewed as
happening or existing.” [emphasis added].
      Joose (1964: 120) defines tense as the “category in which a finite
verb … is either marked with-D or lacks that marker”. Then there can be
only two tenses.
  Potter (1965: 213) defines tense as a “verbal form indicating whether
the action or state is viewed by the speaker as past, present or future”.

     Sweet (1968: 98) makes another tense distinction based on
morphological considerations. He introduces the term ‘compound
tenses’ when he talks about tenses other than the simple ones. The
present, the preterite and the future are considered ‘simple tenses’; the
perfect, the pluperfect and the future perfect as ‘compound tenses’ (see
also Curme, 1966: 55).

  Lyons (1970: 304) states that “tense has to do with time-relations,”
and adds that: … the essential characteristic of the category of tense is
that it relates the time of the action, event, or state of affairs referred to
in the sentence to the time of utterance (the time of utterance being
‘now’).

     Casparis (1978: 36) states that “the meaning of a tense-form
cannot … be analysed detached from its verb in context”. One cannot
subtract the tense-form (tense inflection) and see how much meaning is
left because what is left is another tense-form. This is put differently by
Hornstein (1990: 6) saying that “syntactically, the representation of
tense structure does not, by itself, suffice to yield a temporal
interpretation, though it contributes to this end.” Therefore, the syntax
of tense, serves two functions. It filters out ill-formed tense
configurations, and that the well-formed structures it outputs are used
as input to the rules of semantic interpretations.

     Harris (1982: 265) agrees with Hockett on the view of a two-tense
system in English, one of which is the ‘past’ which he considers a “clear-
   cut tense”. But he disagrees with him in considering the ‘future’ and not
   the ‘present’ as the second tense; Harris (ibid.: 12) stresses the idea that
   the present “has various non-time meanings.” Thus, he disagrees with
   Hockett in this respect. The following are examples which illustrate the
   above-mentioned phenomenon:

     10- A- The earth rotates on its axis.
          B- Two and two is four.

          C- Barking dogs don’t bite.

                                              (Gleason, 1974: 235)

        Comrie (1958: 9) defines tense as “the grammaticalisation of
   location in time” indicated on the verb.

     Dahl (1985: 24) argues that there are a number of properties typical
   to tense categories in different languages, they are:

1- Tenses are expressed by choosing one of several possible
   morphological forms of the finite verb or the auxiliary.
2- Semantically, tenses depend on the relation between the time that ‘is
   talked of’ in the sentence (i.e.; reference time) and the time of the
   speech act (i.e., speech time).
3- The choice of tense form has to be made whether or not there is an
   explicit time indicator such as an adverbial in the sentence.
         Aziz (1959: 39) defines tense as “a grammatical device used by a
   language to refer to time by means of contrast in verb forms”.
      According to T.G.G., English has only a two-tense system which is
in contrast with traditional grammarians who usually speak about ‘three’
tenses as a result of the Latin influence upon English.

      Thus, traditional concepts of relating tense to time or vice versa
have been proved fallacious by T.G. grammarians. (see Liles, 1971: 27;
Lehmann, 1976: 139), Lester (1971: 52), Roberts (1964: 350), Jacobs and
Rosenbaum (1968: 121) and Liles (1971: 23) agree that tense does not
mean time.

      Some transformationalists propose two lables for English tense
forms, since future tense inflection is absent in English, present and past
as illustrated in the following PSR:

             Present

  Tense 

             Past

      Tense in Chomsky’s description always appears initially in the
deep structure of verbal phrases. He also points out that ‘tense’ is
obligatory with every verbal phrase and that tense can either be ‘past’ or
‘present’.




      Huddleston (1969: 781) also talks about what he calls ‘deep’ and
‘surface’ tenses due to some facts of non-correspondence of time/tense
as shown in example (11) in which each has two tenses:

  11- A- You needn’t have bothered.
   B- Layla could speak five languages.

   C- Sami may have gone.

       The suggestion presented by Huddleston in sentences (A), (B) and
(C) are sentences where each contains two verbs, each of which has a
tense feature associated with it. Huddleston shows the relations
between deep and surface tenses and admits that they are quite
complex. Huddleston (ibid.: 777, and 1971: 295-296) studies the above-
mentioned tense phenomenon and assigns the terms ‘surface tense’ to
surface structure, and ‘deep tense’ to deep structure. Surface tense, he
asserts, is realized by inflections of the verb. Deep tense is realized by
surface tense inflections, conjunctions, temporal specifiers and by the
class of the preceding verb. Huddleston (1971: 295-296) states that
surface tense is a binary system: ‘present’ and ‘past’, while deep tense is
a three-part system, which is the real time divisions: past, ‘present’ and
‘future’. Huddleston (1969: 750) gives the following rule to illustrate the
fact that tense is a property of the verb or the auxiliary:

   Aux  tense + (M)

   The following are some examples on the complex relation between
surface and deep tenses in English (it will contain some surface past
examples):

   12- A- He was in Iraq. (a deep past).

B- George thought the world was flat. (a deep present relative to an axis of orientation
                                                                           that itself past).

   C- Could you come next month? (a deep present represented by
unreal or tentative mood).
  (For further illustration see Huddleston, 1971: 296)

  Roberts (1964): 39) agrees with Chomsky. He puts all verbs on one
side and verb ‘to be’ on the other, and he puts a convincing argument as
in the following: “most of the grammatical rules that apply to verbs do
not apply to ‘be’, most of those that apply to ‘be’ do not apply to verbs.”

The following verbal phrase formula will illustrate this:




             Substantive

      Be

               Ap

VP



      Verbal

                                                    (See Roberts, 1964: 39)

Thomas (1968: 88) classifies tense in terms of ‘present’ and ‘past’. Like
Chomsky and Roberts, Thomas states that ‘to be’ is different from all
other verbs in English.” (ibid.: 31). He (ibid.) also divides all verbs into
‘main verbs’, MV, and “auxiliary verbs’. Thomas (ibid.: 130) sets the
number of tenses in English as ‘sixteen active tenses’, and he gives the
following formula to describe ‘all the sixteen active tenses in English’:

  Tense (modal) (have+en) (be+ing) MV
  Koutsoudas (1966: 37) gives almost the same basic treatment of tense
that can be found in Chomsky’s works and those of others, tense is
analysed by Koutsoudas in terms of ‘past’ and ‘present’. Example (13)
can demonstrate this:

  13- Hassan hit the table.

  as:

  Hassan + Past + hit + the + table

  Crystal (1997: 489) defines tense as “a category used in the
Grammatical description of verbs… referring primarily to the way the
grammar marks the time at which the action denoted by the verb took
place”.




  2.2.2 Tense and Aspect

        In addition to the verb forms which a linguist regards as tenses,
there are some other forms in English that are made with auxiliaries.
These forms include what a grammarian would call ASPECT. It is an
important category used in the grammatical description of verbs, and is
therefore important to the temporal specification along with tense.

        The term ASPECT refers to “a grammatical category which reflects
the way in which the verb action is regarded or experienced with respect
to time.” (Quirk et al., 1958: 155, their emphasis). In English, the
PERFECTIVE and the PROGRESSIVE aspects are considered the basic
contrast of aspect: between the action viewed as complete (perfective)
and the action viewed as incomplete (whether imperfective or
progressive). These two aspects may combine in one verb phrase (i.e.,
perfect progressive) (ibid.: 189).

     Aspect is so closely connected in meaning with tense, that
distinction between them is a little more than terminology (ibid.: 189).

     However, there are many viewpoints through which the distinction
between tense and aspect is obvious. For example, tense is typically a
deictic category, in that it relates time point to the moment of speech,
while aspect is non-deictic.

     Crystal states that “Unlike tense, aspect is not relative to the time of
utterance.” (1980: 34)
     Pure tense forms are used to give what the speaker sees as the
‘Bald Facts’ of the situation, while the different forms of aspect give the
speaker the opportunity to interpret the temporal nature of the action
(Lewis, 1986: 51).

     For the choice of a certain aspect rather than another, Hirtle (1975:
50) argues that there is greater freedom in choosing an aspect in the
past tense than in the ‘non-past’ tense. Hirtle’s justification is that in
using the past tense, the mind is free to choose any instant based on its
point of reference in universe time, whether this instant is within or
beyond the event, because time-sphere is made up of memorial time.

     In the non-past tense, on the other hand, the point of reference is
often an instant of actual consciousness; the instant which is imposed on
the mind as the place of its own existence in time.
     No doubt, tense and aspect are intimately related, i.e., they
combine freely in the complex verb group and this yields the following
system of contrasts.

                                   Table (2)

                            Tense and Aspect System

  Symbol                    Name                                Example


Type B      Present perfective (simple)               He has examined

            Past perfective (simple)                  He had examined

Type C      Present progressive (simple)              He is examining

            Past progressive (simple)                 He was examining

Type BC     Present perfective progressive            He has been examining

            Past perfective progressive               He has been examining




      For further discussion on the syntactic and semantic features of
aspect in English, see Quirk et al., ‘detailed treatment (ibid., especially
pp: 188-213) and Palmer’s (1974) discussion’.

      However, we will assume that tense and aspect form separate
modules rather than a single inclusive system. Tenses locate the events
that the sentences represent in time, in contrast to the internal
‘temporal contour’ of the event, specified within the aspect system.




  2.2.3 Tense in Arabic
      Languages have distinct codes and rules regulating their
construction of grammatical stretches. Unlike traditional English
grammarians, traditional Arab grammarians seem to be more interested
in the form of the verb rather than in the semantic value of its tenses
(see Al-Makhzumi, 1986: 74).

      Cantarino (1974: 2) states that “Arabic has never required the use
of a verb as a necessary constituent of the sentence.” For example:

  14- ‫حياة الفالح جميلة‬

  /hajaatul fallaahi dzamiilatun/

  The farmer’s life is beautiful.

  Cantarino (ibid.) demonstrates the most elementary classification of
the Arabic sentence structure as follows:

  A- Nominal sentences: They are those sentences which include
only nominal elements such as nouns, adjectives, pronouns, etc. as in
sentence 14.
  B- Verbal sentences: They are those sentences which include a
verb as a constituent. For example:
  15- ‫كتب أحمد الرسالة‬

  /kataba ?ahmadun nirrisaalata/

  Ahmed wrote the letter.

  Al-Rajihi (1975: 77) also classifies Arabic sentences into nominal and

  verbal. He (ibid.) confirms that the Arabic nominal sentences must

  originally begin with a subject (substantive or noun) called/ mubtada?/

  which requires a predicate named /xabar/ that completes its meaning.

  For example:




   16- ‫أخوك طالب‬

   /?axuuka taalibun/

   Your brother is a student.

   Wright (1977: 283), on the other hand, states that: “When the
subject is placed first these are nominal sentences; but when the
predicate precedes it, their nature is doubtful, most grammarians hold
them to be transposed nominal sentences.”

   He (ibid.) further demonstrates the same idea by giving the following
example:

   17- ‫دَين‬     َ
              ّ‫علي‬


   /‫؟‬alajja dajnun/

   I have a debt.
     Wright says that /‫؟‬alajja/ is a predicate placed in front, and that
/dajnun/ is a subject placed behind. Wright (1977: 253) stresses, that
other Arabists regard such sentences as verbal sentences with a verb;
suppressed. Thus, /‫؟‬alajja/, according to them, is equivalent to   ‫/يستترر علتي‬

jastaqirru ‫؟‬alajja/ and that/ dajnun/ is the subject of this suppressed
verb, (see also Al-Mansury, 1984: 33-38; and Aziz, 1989: 21-29, 99-107).

     Seebawayhi is regarded the first Arab grammarian who tried to
present the syntactic structures of Arabic in a systematic manner.
Despite his excellent knowledge of grammar in general and of tense in
particular and his familiarity with the peculiarities and subtleties of the
structure of Arabic in its standard form, Seebawayhi may have not
discussed the category of tense clearly enough as we understand it
nowadays. Seebawayhi (1966: 12) says that verbs in Arabic denote
actions which are either ‘perfect’ or ‘imperfect’. He calls the perfect
form /maadii/ ‘past’ and the imperfect form /mudaari‫‘ /؟‬present’ or
‘future’. The following are examples of each of the two forms of verbs:

   18- ‫خالد الى الررية‬   َ‫ذهب‬


   / ahaba xaalidun ?ilal qarjati/

   Khalid went to the village.

   19- ‫يذهب الولد الى المدرسة‬

   /ja habul waladu ?ilal madrasati/

   The boy goes to school.
    Seebawayhi (ibid.) considers other forms such as the imperative like
/i hab/ ‘go’ as well as the present participle like /daaribun/ ‘hitting’ and
/qaatilun/ ‘killing’ as having future time reference. For example:

    20- ‫هذا ضارب زيدا‬

    /haa aa daaribun zajdan/




    This (man) is hitting Zayd (tomorrow).

   Bu-Khilkhaal (1985: 34) sets Table (3) of the correlation between verb form and time

                                                                      expressions as follows:

                                           Table (3)

        Bu-Khilkhaal’s Schematization of Al-Basra and Al-Kufa Schools’ Time Division


  Verb forms             ‫؟‬
                        fa ala                         ‫؟‬
                                                   jaf alu                     ‫؟‬
                                                                              if al (imperative)


                                                                                   Futurity
                    Absolute                                 Future
                                        Present                                 (request to
    Time                Past                               (expected
                                      (imperfect)                              perform the
                     (perfect)                               event)
                                                                                   action)




      Al-Shartouny (1963) defines both the perfect and the imperfect
forms of the verb in Arabic by saying that the perfect form /maadii/
“indicates a state or an event which took place before the time you are
in”; whereas the imperfect form /mudaari‫“ /؟‬indicates a state or an
event that takes place now or in the future.”
    Seebawayhi’s attitude is reiterated by Anees (1966: 184) who believes that most

Semitic languages use relatively few tenses to indicate the various divisions of time. He adds

  that the verb in the Semitic languages, of which Arabic is one, refers to completion versus

 incompletion of actions rather than to the time of occurrence of these actions, (see also Al-

                                                                         Nahhaas, 1979: 37).


    Furayha (1988: 125) supports Anees’s view in this respect. He
believes that Arabic is still less temporally definite and precise than
English, French or German, (see also Vendrayes, 1950: 135).

    Bu-Khilkhal (1958: 23) confirms that “every language has its own
system in expressing the intended meanings which either coincide or
differ from the means of other languages. But no language lacks some
means of expression.”

      In his analysis of tense in Arabic, Al-Makhzumi (1964: 119) classifies
verbs into: ‘past’, ‘present’, and ‘permansive’. For the past and present,
Al-Makhzumi gives the representative verbal forms /fa‫؟‬ala/ and /jaf‫؟‬alu/,
respectively. And for the permansive variety of verbs, he gives the forms
/faa‫؟‬il/ and /maf‫؟‬uul/. Al-Makhzumi (ibid.: 114) criticizes the
‘philosophical’ or the ‘logical’ approaches applied by traditional Arab
grammarians to the study of tense in Arabic. Instead, he suggests a
descriptive approach based on: (1) classifying verbs according to their
different forms; (2) assigning temporal values for all different verbal
forms by observing their various linguistic functions.

    Al-Makhzumi (ibid.), in his discussion of tense in Arabic, cites only
four out of the seven primary verbal forms:

    a- /fa‫؟‬ala/                                 b- /kaana fa‫؟‬ala/
   c- /jaf‫؟‬alu/                        d- /sajaf‫؟‬alu/

   He (ibid.) mentions only two secondary verbal forms:

   a- /kaana jaf‫؟‬alu/            b- /kaana faa‫؟‬ilan/

                                        (see also Al-Samara’i, 1966: 29, 32)

     It is clear that traditional Arab grammarians’ attitude is also held by
other non-Arab grammarians who have studied Arabic grammar. Wright
(1977: 81), for instance, adopts Seebawayhi’s attitude and follows the
same procedure of the Arab scholars in classifying the verb forms into
two temporal forms: The temporal forms of the Arabic verb are but two
in number, the one expressing the finished act one that is done and
completed in relation to other acts (the perfect); the other one
unfinished act, one that is just commencing or in progress (the
imperfect).

   Wright (1977: 81) also claims that ‘a Semitic perfect or imperfect
has, in and of itself, no reference to the speaker (thinker or writer) …”.

   Wright’s attitude is reiterated by O’Leary (1923: 234) who says that
Semitic tenses are two in number and adds that these “are called ‘past’
and ‘future’ … but have been generally known as ‘perfect’ and
‘imperfect’.” He adds that Semitic tenses are not concerned with time
but with action as time is expressed adverbially.

   Comrie (1976: 80) also seems to be interested in the above-
mentioned scholar’s attitude towards tense in Arabic. He analyses the
perfect and the imperfect forms of the Arabic verb of Wright’s book and
concludes that: “The perfective indicates both perfective meaning and
relative past time reference while the imperfective indicates everything
else (either imperfective meaning or relative non-past time).”

   As has been mentioned earlier, traditional and modern scholars
confuse tense and aspect in Arabic due to the fact that these two
concepts are closely interrelated. Aziz (1989: 60) supports this concept
by stating that: “In Arabic the same verb forms which are used to
express tense are also used to express aspect. This is the reason why it is
often asked: which is more basic to Arabic grammar, the tense or the
aspect?”

       Comrie (1976: 80) believes that the Arabic opposition
imperfective/ perfective incorporates both aspect and relative tense.
Most Arabic verbs, in fact, carry both aspectual and tense markers. Al-
Khafaji                              (1972:                           472),
 for instance, suggests that when tense and aspect are found, only one is
temporally significant. In a verb phrase like /kaana jaf‫؟‬alu/, for example,
the auxiliry /kaana/ is significantly marked for tense (past); while
/jaf‫؟‬alu/ is significantly marked for aspect (imperfect).


     The distinction between time and tense in Arabic is so vague that
most traditional as well as modern Arab grammarians do not distinguish
between them. Hassaan (1973: 240), for instance, tries to distinguish
clearly between time and tense, using /?azzamaan/ to refer to ‘time’ and
/?azzaman/ to refer to ‘tense’, but he (ibid: 241) confuses /?azzamanul
maadii/ to refer to past time, (for further illustration see Al-Muttalibi,
1984: 10-18).

      It has been stressed by Arab and non-Arab scholars who studied
Arabic grammar that future time reference is one of the principal
functions of the Arabic imperfect /jaf‫؟‬al/. Aziz 1967: 79) points out that
modern writers of Arabic grammar often seem to be unaware of the
capacity of the imperfect in Arabic on its own to indicate the future, and
that the imperfect /jaf‫؟‬al/ has resulted from the use of the /siin/ and
/sawfa/ to indicate the future events. For example:

    21- ‫يصل الوفد الفرنسي الى بغداد غدا‬

    /jasilul wafdul faransijju ?ilaa baxdaada xadan/

    The French delegation arrives at Baghdad tomorrow.

      Aziz (ibid.) contradicts himself when he considers the development
of the imperfect into the /siin/ and /sawfa/ as an imitation of the future
tense in the European languages by the Arab writers.

      In addition to the future time expressed by the imperfect /jaf‫؟‬al/,
the prefix /siin/, which expresses the near future in Arabic (imperfect
+/siin/= near future), and the particle /sawfa/, which expresses the

remote future in Arabic (imperfect + /sawfa/ = remote future), express
futurity just like the two modals ‘will’ and ‘shall’ in English.

    22- ‫سوف يذهب الولد الى المدرسة‬

    /sawfa ja habul waladu ?ilal madrasati/

    The boy will go to school.

    23- ‫سيأكل الرط الفأر‬

    /saja?kulul qittul fa?ra/

    The cat will eat the mouse.
     Ibn Hisham (1985: 185), on the other hand, remarks that when the
/siin/ is used in sentences that express promises or threats, it
emphasizes these meanings and indicates that these promises and
threats will certainly be fulfilled. Consider examples (25) and (26):

   24- ‫سأنترم منك‬

   /sa?antaqimu minka/


   I shall have revenge upon you.

   25- ‫سأجتاز االمتحان بنجاح‬

   /sa?adztaazul ?imtihaana binadzaahin/

   I shall pass the examination successfully.

   In examples (24) and (25), the prefix /siin/ emphasizes the threat
declared in (24), and the promise expressed by (25). The two examples
also indicate the fulfilment of the threat and the promise is taken for
granted.

     Several scholars agree on the idea that there are only few remarks
that can be found on the subject of modality in Arabic and that these
remarks are scattered in the books of traditional grammar of Arabic. Aziz
(1992: 102) maintains that: “The main reason for this scarcity of
information is probably the fact that Arabic does not possess a distinct
set of modal forms having special syntactic and semantic properties, as
in the case of English modals.”

     Modality in Arabic, like tense, is essentially lexicalized, i.e., there is
no grammatical category as such in Arabic. Aziz (ibid.: 103, 114) stresses
the idea that modality in Arabic is represented by verbal and non-verbal
items. He adds that the verbal forms are marginal and that they do not
constitute a distinct group in that they are less frequently used.
Generally, Aziz (ibid.: 104) classifies the forms representing modality in
Arabic as follows:

   A. Verbs which include:

   /juhtamalu/, /juradzdzahu/, /jadzuuzu/ and /jumkinu/. For example:

                   ُ
   26- ‫يمكنها حراسة الموقع جيدا‬

   /jumkinuhaa hiraasatul mawqi‫؟‬i dzajjidan/

   She can guard the position well.

   B. Prepositional phrases which include: the preposition /min/+an
adjective derived from the verbs in group (A), such as: /minal
muhtamali/, /minal muradzdzahi/, etc. For example:

   27- ‫من المرجح هطول المطر غدا‬

   /minal muradzdzahi hutuulul matari xadan/

   It may rain tomorrow.

   C. Particles assimilated to the verb: /la‫؟‬alla/. /rubbamaa/. For
example:

   28- ‫لعله يصل اآلن‬
            ُ   ُ

   /la‫؟‬allahu jasilul ?aana/

   He may arrive now.
   D.Negative nominal expressions which include: /laa budda/, /laa
rajba/, /laa akka/, /laa mahaalata/, /duuna rajbin/, /duuna akkin/. For
example:

   29- ‫الشك في ذلك‬
              َ

   /laa akka fii aalika/

   There is no doubt.

   E. Comparative expressions including: /?axlabu             anni/, /‫؟‬alaa
?al?ardzahi/, (see example (27)).

   F. Particles which include: /qad/ preceding the imperfect form of a
verb. For example:

   30- ‫قد يشارك مدرب الفريق في مباراة الغد‬

   /qad ju aariku mudarribul fariiqi fii mubaaraatil xadi/

   The team’s coach may/might participate in the match tomorrow.

     It is clear that Aziz (1992: 104) includes some of the ‘sisters
of/kaana/’ as well as other verb forms that can represent modality in
Arabic as compared to English. These defective verbs could be stated as
follows: /kaana/, /saara/, /?amsaa/, /?asbaha/, / alla/, /baata/, /adhaa/,
/maadaama/, /maazaala/, /manfakka/, /maafati?a/, /maabariha/, /lajsa/
and what could be derived from them (Ibn Al-Khashab, 1972: 124).

      Beeston (1975: 191), on the other hand, maintains that the
difference between the Arabic auxiliaries ‘/kaana/ and its ‘sisters’’, i.e.,
members of the same group, and the European ones lies in the fact that
the ‘sisters’ cover a wider semantic range of temporal and modal
modification than the European ones do. The ‘sisters’, Beeston (ibid.)
stresses, may convey meanings that are conveyed in a European
language by adverbials. For example:



            ُ
   31- ‫كدت أموت‬

   /kidtu ?amuutu/

   I almost died.

   32- ‫مازال يبكي‬

   /maa zaala jabkii/

   He is still crying.

   (For further details on the Arabic defective verbs, see Ibn Jinny,
1988: 37-40).




2.2.4 The Effect of Narrative Context on the
      Interpretation of Tense

     Casparis (1975: 34) raises the point that the meaning and function
of a tense form, in a single sentence, differs from its appearance in a n.v.
context. Furthermore, the same difference appears in a short context
and in a long detailed one. For example, the sentence:

   33- The sun rises in the east.
       represents a universal fact and it has the kind of present tense that
is known as ‘timeless’ present or of ‘eternal truth’. The sentence is so
acceptable, grammatically and semantically, that it has nothing
particular or new to add to our knowledge. But placing it in a minimal
N.V. context like:

    34- … It all happened so suddenly. The sun rises in the east, over the
hill from which the enemy opens fire. Run for our lives, was all we could
do …

       The context changed the verb ‘rise’ from a ‘timeless’ present to a
pure ‘historic present’ tense with no reference to the sun that rises
everyday. Scientifically, the sun in this text, did nothing extraordinary
but it is the N.V. particularity which makes it that sun, on that morning,
at the place, behind that hill, playing that part.

Context, Casparis goes on, “is the essential tool for anyone describing tense usage”. It is

    to the tense-analyst what a dictionary to a semanticist. For a semanticist one sentence is

    often enough to determine the lexical meaning of its constituent words (whether nouns,

 verbs, … etc.) whereas the tense analyst may have to consider a whole novel or short story

                    in order to derive the function and meaning of an individual tense-form.


    The more we enlarge the given context, literally the surrounding
text, the more we can say about the function of the tense form in that
one sentence.




    4.4.5 Weinrich’s Modes
     Weinrich (1964)(1) advises that it is the COMMUNICATIVE
SITUATION that should be analyzed. Thus, it does not matter whether a
fact is situated in a moment previous to the present time, but in the way
the speaker looks back to it.

     Weinrich argues that each single tense form can sufficiently be
described according to three distinguished categories:

   1- The discourse mode, in which the speaker advises the hearer
to choose the desirable line to understand the message. There are
two kinds of communicative situations that the speaker can choose
when signalling his/her attitude towards the message:
   (a)       The NARRATIVE MODE, and (b) the REPORTING or
DISCURSIVE MODE. The narrative mode is signalled by the tenses
that mark this particular ‘subjective’ attitude, i.e., the simple past,
the pluperfect, and the conditionals; the reporting or discursive
mode is signaled through the use of the simple present, present
perfect, and the futures.
     So, according to Weinrich, the narrator could view the picture-
book narration task as a ‘narrative’ type of communicative situation, and
accordingly he could use tense forms that are anchored in a past-
oriented tense-group, or the narrator could classify the type of
communicative situation as a ‘reporting’ discourse mode and ground
his/her tense choice in a present-anchored tense-group.

   2- The discourse perspective, in which the speaker advises the
hearer to know how to relate the message with regard to the
situation being described.
   3- The discourse grounding, in which the speaker advises the
hearer to be aware of how the statements and utterances should be
interpreted meaningfully in relation to each other. That is, the
contrastive uses of tenses mark parts of a narrative as ‘foreground’
and others as ‘background’.(2)


   2.3 Tense in Narrative

        Some languages use special tense/aspect categories in N.V.
contexts. Clear examples are found in the Niger-Congo phylum where
special N.V. forms seem to be particularly common in the Bantu family
where a N.V. discourse typically starts with a verb in some non- N.V. past
form and all the subsequent verbs then obtain N.V. (Dahl, 1985: 113-
114).

        However, in English the past tense (simple), in that it deals with
past events, is the natural form of the verb to employ in N.V., whether
the events narrated are true historical events or fictional events of a
novel (Leech, 1971: 18); while Prince (1982: 28) argues that tenses used
in narrating a series of events do not necessarily correspond to the time
of the narrated in relation to that of the narration; for example, the
present tense can be used in the middle of a series of past tenses. Quirk
et al. sum it up saying that



                  The   narrative   will   weave   backwards    and
              forwards, a mixture of tenses and aspects, of finite
              and non-finite clauses enabling the narrator to
              depart from the linear sequence of historical order so
              as both to vary representation and to achieve
              different … effects (1958: 1488).




      The past and present tenses can occur in N.V. in different aspects,
most commonly used in their simple form. In addition, the progressive,
the perfect, and the historic present is used too. These will be discussed
as follows.



   2.3.1 Past Tense

     The meaning of the past tense is the location in time prior to the
present moment, without saying anything about whether it continues to
the present or into the future or not (Comrie, 1985: 41).

     The past tense is generally taught as having a completive sense,
while a more general meaning and discourse conditions on its use go
unrecognized. The fact that the past tense lacks a sense of completion is,
generally, overlooked (Riddle, 1986: 1-2). In other words, the past tense
refers to the past time as well as the present and future time, e.g.




   35- Shina started teaching last year. (past time reference)

   36- Did you want to see me? (present time reference)

   37- It’s time we left. (future time reference)

      Other than those with present and future time reference, the past
tense has three meanings:
   1- The past tense referring to past time.
   2- Hypothetical past tense (conditions).
   3- Attitudinal past tense (occurs in independent clauses
expressing a question, a request, a suggestion, … etc.) (van Ek and
Robat, 1986: 221). Quirk et al. add a fourth meaning:
   4- In indirect speech (reporting verbs in past tense).
   Riddle (1986: 3-4) states the specific reasons why a speaker/ writer
would adopt a past point of view. They fall into two major categories:

   1- Past Association: The fact or nature of a person’s association
with a particular situation in the past is more relevant to the purpose
in speaking than to the objective current existence of that situation.
This category comes into play when a personal past experience of a
situation is presented as the motivation for a past action.
   2- Background Information: The information considered to be
background to other information whose present existence is to be
emphasized. Here the past tense functions as discourse-organizing
device which backgrounds information.



   2.3.1.1 The Simple Past (Preterite)

      The simple past tense is the most common and natural N.V. tense.
Fleischman (1991: 79) maintains that the (simple) past tense in N.V.
language is “specifically the PERFECTIVE ‘event’ past” which is the
‘unmarked’ tense of N.V. She adopts the viewpoint that the prototypical
past tense N.V. is concerned with events, rather than static description.
Moreover, the completion of one event is implied by the inception of
the event that follows, a fact which may give rise to an interpretation of
  aspectual perfectivity for the past tense, where no other aspectual value
  is specifically indicated (ibid.: 81).

          Quirk et al. (1985: 183) give the meanings of the past tense with
  reference to past time, as most commonly used. They combine two
  features:

1- The event/state must have taken place in the past, with a gap
  between its completion and the present moment (i.e. perfective), e.g.


       38- I stayed in Africa for months. (I am no longer in Africa)



  2-      The writer must have in mind a definite time at which the
  event/state took place, e.g.
  39- Freda started school                last year

                                          in 1950



  2.3.1.2 The Past Perfect (Pluperfect)


       The meaning of the past perfect, Comrie (1985: 65) argues, is that
  there is a reference point in the past; the situation in question is located
  prior to the reference point, i.e., ‘past in the past’. The establishment of
  this reference point is done by the context.

       The past perfect (Quirk et al., 1985:195) can be regarded as an
  anterior version either of the present perfect or of the simple past, e.g.



       40- The goalkeeper has injured his leg, and couldn’t play.
    Casparis (1978: 85) argues that ‘past preterite’ narration typically
portrays a world that is surveyed from a distance however temporally
unspecified. This distance makes possible the selection of what is
relevant to the coherence of a logical sequence of experience of the
world of the past. But Turner (1973: 90) states the use of the pluperfect
is a device that is used by novelists, science fictionists, or other authors,
to fill in background information as they locate a scene at a particular
time. Grimes (1975: 77) also holds this opinion saying that the past
perfect regularly indicates displacement out of the main time line of a
discourse into a subsidiary time line or into a disconnected section of a
single time line.




    2.3.2 The Present Tense

      The present tense, invariably locates a situation at the present
moment, and does not say that the same situation does not continue
beyond the present moment, nor that it did not hold in the past (Comrie,
1958: 35). Describing this, Leech (1971: 1) speaks of ‘basic association’,
which exists in all the uses of the present tense, with the present
moment. This association can be explained as follows: “The state or
event has psychological being at the present moment”. This element of
meaning does not exclude the possibility of its having actual being at a
time other than the present.
   The present tense, often called non-past, is essentially imperfective
(Comrie, 1985: 66). Even though, the present tense refers to past and
future time as well, e.g.




   41- I go to school everyday. (present time reference)

   42- They have seen Jack this morning. (past time reference)

   43- I’m travelling to Los Angeles next week. (future time reference)



   2.3.2.1 The Simple Present

   The simple present is a source of much confusion for its
characteristic that expresses the speaker’s/writer’s view of the event as
a timeless fact. On the contrary, not only the present simple is not about
present time, but it is not about time at all. The essential characteristics
of an event described by a simple present verb form are:

1- The event is seen as a single, total entity; temporal references are
irrelevant.
2- The event is seen as a matter of fact.
3- The event is seen as immediate, rather than remote (Lewis, 1986:
66).
The simple present may refer to past and future time as well as the
present time, as follows:

1- The simple present with present time reference may have these
meanings:
a- ‘State present’ or ‘eternal truth’ (timeless present),
44- The earth moves round the sun.

45- The Nile is the longest river in Africa.


b-    Habitual present,


46- Bill drinks heavily.



c-    Instantaneous present, including:


1-    Commentaries.


47- Black passes the ball to Fernandez… Fernandez shoots!


2-    Demonstrations and other self-commentaries.


48- I pick up the fruit with a skewer, dip it into the batter, and lower it
into the hot fat.



3-    Special exclamatory sentences.


49- Here comes the winner! Up you go.




4-    Performatives.

                             50- I advise you to withdraw (Quirk et al., 1985: 179-181).
        Fleischman (1991: 85) agrees that the descriptive capacity of the
   present simple (an implication of its imperfectivity) together with its
   optional non-sequential feature, motivates using this tense form to
   isolate or detach situations from the main line for a ‘close-up’ view,
   while the ability of the present to interrupt or suspend the N.V. time
   makes possible the suspense that typically accompanies peaks of N.V.
   tension, which in natural narration are frequently reported in the simple
   present tense.

        Finally, the stylistic effects that listeners or readers commonly
   perceive in N.V. and that make use of the ‘marked’ present, derive from
   meanings which the present does not share with the preterite.

 2-   The simple present referring to future time,
       51- The plane leaves for Ankara at eight o’clock tonight. (Quirk et al.,
   1985: 182-3).

3- The simple present referring to past time (or Historical Present). This
   form of the present tense has equivalents in other languages such as
   Greek, Latin, French, Georgian and Bulgarian (Comrie, 1967: 73-8).
         Many linguists (Jespersen, 1931: 73; Joos, 1964: 125; Leech, 1971:
   7) state that it is a stylistic device used to narrate past events intended
   to be vivid and exciting (also sudden, unexpected, important, odd and
   immediate). They suggest that the historic present increases the
   dramatic impact of the story by making the hearers/readers feel as if
   they were seeing the actual experience for themselves; or the speaker
   becomes so involved in telling the story to the degree that he narrates
   events as if he was living them or as if they were occurring
   simultaneously with their telling.
       These are assumptions that the historic present (henceforth HP)
makes the past more vivid because it moves past events out of the story
time-line and places them in the time of utterance, e.g.




          52- I was sitting there talking to Mark when Dick
              walked in. He looked furious … then suddenly, up
              he comes shouting at me, picks up my drink and
              throws it all over me. I had no idea what was going
              on.

    Here the speaker/writer could have said … up he came…, picked up
my drink, and threw it all over me … but when the referential meaning is
the same, the immediacy (indicated by the HP) is lost (Lewis, 1986: 69).

    Moreover, Quirk et al. (1985: 183) and Leech (1971: 12) distinguish
between the simple present tense used in real N.V. and the one used in
fictional N.V. The first is called ‘historic present’ and the second ‘fictional
historic present’.

    There are two minor uses of the historical present:

    1- In photographic captions, e.g.

    53- Father O’Brien gives his first blessing.


    2- In historical summaries, tables of dates, etc.

    54- 1876- Brahms finishes his first symphony.

    2.3.2.2 The Present Perfect:
   Jespersen states that:




                 The perfect… is itself a kind of present tense and
             serves to connect the present time with the past.
             This is done in two ways: first the perfect is
             retrospective present, which looks upon the present
             state as a result of what has happened in the past;
             and second the perfect is an inclusive present, which
             speaks of a state that is continued from the past into
             the present time (1931: 47).




   The types of the present perfect (perfect for short), and their
meanings are put by Comrie (1976: 56-60) as follows:

   1- Perfect of Result; where a present state is referred to as being
the result of some past situation, e.g.
   55- John has married.

   which indicates persistence of the result of John’s marriage, i.e., that
he is married now.

   2- Experiential Perfect; which indicates that a given situation has
held at least once during some time in the past leading up to the
present, as in
   56- Bill has been to America.


   3- Perfect of Persistent Situation; which describes a situation that

started in the past but continues (persists) into the present, as in
    57- We’ve lived here for ten years.


    4- Perfect of Recent Past; which may be used where the present
relevance of the past situation referred to is simply one of temporal
closeness, i.e., the past situation is very recent.



    58- She has just finished her homework.




      Most grammarians discuss the perfect in contrast with the simple
past tense (i.e., preterite). The most important difference between the
two is that of perfectivity: The preterite is perfective and the perfect is
imperfective. This implies that the perfect is more immediate than the
preterite which is less immediate or ‘remote’. The sentences:




    59- (a) Did you see Jack this morning?

    (b) Have you seen Jack this morning?
      refer to the same past time; the choice of any construction
depends on the speaker/writer’s interpretation of the situation: (S)he
chooses the first if he sees the event as complete at the moment of
speech, and he chooses the second when the prospect of meeting still
remains (Lewis, 1986: 70).

      In N.V., the English perfect almost always functions to signal some
kind of casual or consequential relation or some logical consequences or
prediction from the speaker’s/writer’s subjective viewpoint (Bamberg,
1987: 114).
    2.3.2.3 The Progressive (Past and Present):

    The meaning of the progressive aspect is divided into three
components, they are:

1- The happening has duration (distinctive for single events).
60- Joan is singing well.

2- The happening has limited duration (distinctive for state and
habits).
61- Joan was singing well.

3- The happening is not necessarily complete (distinctive for dynamic
conclusive verbs).
62- I was reading a novel yesterday evening. (Quirk et al., 1985: 197-8).


      In N.V., the choice of progressive forms (present or past) depends
on how the speaker/writer looks at events, and how he interprets them.
However, the progressive is most frequently used in background
information (in contrast to the simple forms used in foreground)
(Couper-Kuhlen, 1989 and Bardovi-Harling, 1995).

      The progressive highlights and evaluates an event by aligning it
with other events which occur at the same time (Labov, 1972: 387). This
idea is discussed by Leech under the notion ‘temporal frame’ whose
effect is not an independent feature of the meaning of the progressive.
(1971: 17-18). Whenever a point event takes place simultaneously with a
happening of duration, it is natural that the durational happening
overlaps the durationless event in both directions (i.e, a temporal frame
is set up). This is true in both past and present tense N.Vs., the
progressive often forms a temporal frame around another event
denoted by a non-progressive form. In this case, if the relationship of
meaning is between two neighbouring simple forms it is usually one of
time-sequence; and if this relationship is between a progressive and a
simple form, it is one of time-inclusive (i.e., temporal frame).




    2.3.3 Tense Switch (Shift or Alternation)

      It is obvious that arbitrary changes in the tense sequence are not
permissible and if made, may produce an ungrammatical piece of
discourse. In other words, when a tense or time has been established in
a discourse, this tense must be maintained unless:

    1- A simple present tense form temporally suspends the
requirements to continue the use of the same tense, or
    2- A new explicit time marker is introduced into the discourse
which terminates the old tense and replaces it with another (Celce-
Murcia and Larsen- Freeman, 1983: 69).
    However, in N.V. texts, this is not always the case, a pre-established
tense may switch or alternate with another, e.g. past with present or
vice versa, as in

                63- I was on the Merritt Parkway just south of
            New Haven. I was driving along, half asleep, my
            mind miles away, and suddenly there was a
            screeching of breaks and I catch sight of a car that
            had been overtaking me apparently. Well, he
             doesn’t. he pulls in behind me instead, and it’s then
             that I notice a police car parked on the side. (Quirk
             et al., 1985: 1456)



   Schiffrin (1981: 51) argues that most of the HP-past variation is one in which the

    complicating action begins with preterite forms, switches after a few clauses to the HP,

possibly switches between the HP and the past a few more times, and finally concludes with

       preterite verb forms. Sequences of verbs with rapid alternation between the HP and

                                                                   preterite are not typical.


       There seems to be few reasons behind such tense-switching
(alternation of HP and past (simple)). Of these reasons is to switch
reference from the ‘then’ of the N.V. reference time to the ‘now’ of the
narrator and reader (cf.: examples 1 and 4).




      Another reason for this switch is the notion of ‘vividness’ a
characteristic of the HP; events become more dramatic and more
immediate when narrated with the HP; that they become present in
front of the eyes of the audience or that the speaker/writer is reporting
them as if he was reliving them (see the discussion of the HP above).

      A third reason for the switch is the use of ‘free direct speech’.
Quirk et al. (1985: 1032-3) mention that this grammatical form is used in
N.V. to represent a person’s stream of thoughts. The free direct speech
differs from ‘direct speech’ in that it appears without a reporting clause
or quotation marks, and where the present tense of the original speech
seems to alternate with the preterite in the free direct speech, e.g.
                 64- I sat on the grass staring at the passers-
             by. Every body seemed in a hurry. Why can’t I
             have something to rush to? A fly kept buzzing
             around, occasionally trying to settle on me. I
             brushed it off. It came back. Keep calm! Wait
             until it feels safe. There! Got it. On my hand was
             a disgusting flattened fly, oozing blood. I wiped
             my hand on the grass. Now I can relax.

     A fourth reason for using the switch of tenses in N.V., is that it
“serves to partition off episodes in the story from each other and thus
gives organization to the N.V.” (Wolfson, 1951: 227). This coincides with
Wolfram’s discussion that several of the shifts, in tense marking, in the
series do occur at or close to episode boundaries (1985: 249). Schiffrin
(1981: 56) proves that it is only when tense switches from HP to PT that
it separates events in the N.V.

     Wolfson (1981: 227) argues that the preterite is more often used
than HP and that HP is not obligatory, but when it does occur it is always
in alternation with the preterite. She finds that “not one single text has
been found in which HP is used for all the verbs where it could have
occurred” and that “it is the switch itself that is the significant feature”.

     In contrast to ‘tense-switching’, Schiffrin (1951: 81-2) claims that
there is a tendency for verbs in one tense to cluster together, and it is
given a functional discourse-level explanation: Maintenance of one
tense groups (v.) events into one scene or episode while switching
separates events from one another. The extreme end of this clustering
tendency is a N.V. told entirely in one tense. N.Vs. told entirely in the HP
are rare: They are usually brief, with reference time clearly established
as prior to the speaking time.




    2.4 Narrative Text and Narration

    2.4.1 Definition

       Before defining the term NARRATIVE, it is better to define what
NARRATION is. It is “the process of telling or accounting, in a linear
order, a series of events which need not have another relation to one
another except that of a strict ordering” (Banfield, 1952: 264-5).

       By NARRATIVE is meant “an account of a sequence of
chronologically ordered events which represents a connected
meaningful discourse” (Genette, 1950: 28). Narrative can be defined
from at least two perspectives; first, the perspective of literary men like
Scholes and Kellogg (1966: 4) who take narrative to mean “all those
literary works which are distinguished by two characteristics: the
presence of a story and a story-teller; and also like Prince (1982: 4) who
redefines narrative as “the representation of at least two real or fictive
events or situations in a time sequence, neither of which presupposes or
entails the other”.

The second perspective, however, is the perspective of linguists who have dealt with

  narrative in one way or another. For example, Labov (1972: 360) sees “a minimal N.V. as a

 sequence of two clauses, which are temporally ordered: that is, a change in their order will

  result in a change in the temporal sequence of the original semantic interpretation.” He is
referring to any N.V. in which, supposing that the same verb tense is maintained throughout,

   the sequence is crucial to semantic interpretation. Also Gulich and Quasthoff (1985: 170)

state that “a N.V. refers to a series of real or fictional actions of events that take place in the

past relative to the time of narration (or are told as if occurring in the past)”. This resembles

      Dahl’s definition of N.V. discourse as “one where the speaker relates a series of real or

 fictive events in the order they are supposed to have taken place” (1958: 8). In sum, N.V. is,

                                                                             simply, storytelling.


       Longacre (1974: 359) and Larson (1978: 149) say that the primary
aim of N.V. is to entertain (fiction) or to inform (history, whether past or
current, actual or legendary). Further, N.V. has the intent of teaching
group norms and values in a covert and an interesting way.

       Wald (1987: 506) mentions that, on the conceptual level, N.V. has
four properties:

    1- It has distinction in ‘ground’.
    2- It is temporally sequenced.
    3- It refers to the past.
    4- It refers to single events.
    He discussed that altering any one of these properties results in a
different discourse genre.

       Most importantly is the second one: Longacre (1974: 361) argues
that since the N.V. is characterized by chronological succession, the
linkage within N.V. discourse is a chronological linkage. This
chronological linkage is more important than the particular stuff of the
given paragraphs that constitute the N.V. which may have very few N.V.
paragraphs, but if these paragraphs are arranged in a chronological
order, we still have a story rather than an essay (i.e., expository) or
picture making (i.e., description) or sermon (i.e., hortatory) or how to do
it (i.e., procedural) text.

    2.4.2 Narrative Clause

      The skeleton of a N.V. consists of a series of temporally ordered
clauses. These are the N.V. clauses whose order cannot be reversed
without disturbing the temporal sequence of the original semantic
interpretation. Labov insists that each n.v, clause must refer to a single
past event. Therefore, a N.V. clause is basically a main clause and the
“subordinate clauses do not serve as N.V. clauses” but with clauses
considered ‘subordinate’, their order relative to the main clause CAN be
reversed without disturbing the temporal sequence. As Labov puts it,
“Once a clause is subordinated to another, it is not possible to disturb
the semantic interpretation by reversing it”. Thus, “it is only
independent clauses which can function as N.V. clauses”. (1972: 360-2)



    2.4.3 Narrative Event

      Van Dijk (1977: 168-179) puts a detailed discussion of EVENT. He
says that ‘events’ involve a ‘change’ which implies a ‘difference’
between situations. The difference implies a ‘temporal ordering’ of
situations or worlds. The Compound event, on the other hand, is an
event which subsumes several events which are linearly ordered but
which are perceived or conceived of as one event. Also he defines
‘sequences of events’ as a series of distinct events following each other
in time.
   Beaugrande and Dressler argue that the same event can be seen and
expressed in different perspectives, e.g.




   65- a. The beacon flashed.

       b. The beacon kept flashing.

       c. The beacon flashed five times in a row.




   In (a) the event is perceived as a closed single unit at a point in time.
In (b) the event is a multi-part unit which extends over unbounded
stretch of time. In (c) the event is a multi-part unit with defined time
boundaries (1981: 70).

   For successive events which form series or episodes, and large units
like stories or novels, the only coherent interpretation of them is that
the linear order of the clauses corresponds to the chronological order of
the events described, i.e. each event is located in time after the time
location of the previously mentioned event (Comrie, 1985: 27). Comrie
defines n.v. in relation to events and order as;




               … a narrative is by definition an account of a
           sequence of chronologically ordered events (real or
           imaginary), and for a narrative to be well formed it must
           be possible to work out the narrative with minimal
           difficulty; this constraint of minimal difficulty means
           that the easiest way to present these events is with
            their chronological order directly reflected in the order
            of presentation (ibid.: 28).




   2.4.4 Structure of Narrative

   Labov (1972) and Longacre (1974) agree that the deep structure of
all n.v.s are found to consist of certain categories which are basic; Labov
offers six categories while Longacre offers seven. Both are represented
in this comparison in Table (4).




                                      Table (4)

           Labov’s and Longacre’s Comparison of the Structure of Narrative

              Labov 1972                                  Longacre 1974

1- Abstract; not always present            1- Exposition; lay it out.
in N.Vs, representing summary              2- Inciting     Moment:       get
of story (i.e. what was this               something going.
about).                                    3- Developing Conflict: keep
2- Orientation: who, when,                 the heat on.
what, where?                               4- Climax: knot it all up proper.
3- Complicating Action: then               5- Denouement: loosen it.
what happened?                             6- Final     suspense:       keep
4- Evaluation: so what?                    untangling.
5- Result:      what     finally           7- Conclusion: wrap it up.
happened?                                  He considers the title and the
6- Coda: general observation               (formulaic) Arperture (e.g. once
on the N.V. (p.362-370).                   upon a time) to be features of the
                                               surface structure only (p.365).



       2.4.5 Temporal Structure of Narrative


          The aim of most linguists with an interest in time and temporal
relations is to account for the representation, in language, of the
temporal relations between two or more events in time.

          The crucial problems in the field of temporal structure and
organization as Cascio and Vet (1986: 1) argue, are three:

       1- The difference between perfective and imperfective aspect.
       2- The different ways the tenses and temporal adverbs contribute
to the interpretation of sentence and discourse.
       3- The number and nature of reference points.
       A fourth important point is added to these three points:

       4- The order of events represented in the order of sentences.
       The first point, however, is discussed in a previous section. The
second point is much restricted when we restrict the discussion to N.V.
clause and discourse. The adverbials used in N.V. sentences are basically
three types:

       1- Adverbials previous to a given time reference, like: before,
before that, before this, first, … etc.
       2- Adverbials simultaneous with a given time reference, like:
while, when, meanwhile, meantime, then, simultaneously, here, …
etc.
   3- Adverbials subsequent to a given time reference, like: later,
next, finally, after, last, since, subsequently, then, suddenly, after
this, after that, afterwards, …etc. (Quirk et al., 1958: 1481-2).
   These occur on the sentence level and relate events (and
consequently sentences) to each other.

   The text level adverbials appear, usually, at the beginning of a
paragraph, hence, textual orientation (reference) is shown in the dating
of the piece of N.V. as a whole (ibid.: 1488), e.g., once upon a time,
some time ago, the other day, as a child, on one occasion, … etc.

   To show how tenses and adverbs contribute to the interpretation of
discourse, let’s see this example;

   66- She cleaned the house after he had arrived.

        The ‘had+ -en’ usually refers to an event anterior to the other
event in the sentence, and the adverb ‘after’ points the opposite
direction.

        Concerning the nature and number of the reference points, an
adverbial can be set at the beginning of a N.V. text, thereby giving the
reference point for the whole N.V. Quirk et al. (ibid.:1499) approve this
and say that the N.V. as a whole relates temporally to the past and the
N.V. ‘stage’ is set for this with an opening adverbial which implies that the
events are in the past, and/or in the opening sentence whose tense is
past.

        This means that sometimes the N.V. text does not begin with an
adverbial. For example, Julius Caesar’s famous statement;
   67- Veni, Vidi, Vici (‘I came, I saw, I conquered’).

      is a maximally short, ideal and pure N.V. discourse which is rarely
found. In such a discourse, a sentence is considered in a N.V. context (or
considered a N.V. clause) if its reference point is determined by the time
point at which the last related event in the preceding context took place.
Therefore, the event referred to by ‘vidi’ is understood to happen
directly after that of ‘veni’. This means that in a pure N.V. discourse,
every sentence is in a N.V. ‘context’ except the first one.(3) The normal
function of the first N.V. sentence is to provide the temporal reference
for the rest of the discourse (Dahl, 1985: 112-113).

      Nerbonne (1986: 85), Couper-Kuhlen (1987), and Pinto (1989: 85)
hold the opinion that the series of events recounted determines the
point of reference. Since reference is a notion that belongs to the text,
then in a sequence of events anchored in the simple past tense, for
example, the first event serves as a reference point for the second, the
second for the third, and so on. Thus, in a N.V. using the same tense,
reference moves forward at the appearance of each event, thereby
situating the event temporally after the preceding one. When a different
tense is used or when a new time adverbial is introduced, reference
changes accordingly.

      As for the point concerned with the order of events, van Dijk
(1985: 107) states that a text usually consists of sequences of sentences
(or propositions) and they are necessarily temporally ordered. The kind
or ordering, which represents its formal expression and its degree of
explicitness, depends on the particular type of text involved.
    2.4.6 Foreground vs. Background

       The concepts of foregrounding and backgrounding have been
employed by linguists in their effort to characterize the use of
grammatical structures in discourse, particularly in N.V.

       ‘Foreground’ is called the ‘backbone’ of the story by Longacre
(1953: 100). Hopper calls it ‘the actual story line’ (1974: 213); in Labov’s
(1972) model it is the ‘complicating action’ of a N.V. realized in a series
of ‘n.v clauses’.

       Most linguists concerned, however, agree upon the features of
foreground and background information, which are as follows:

1- The foreground consists of a sequence of events which ‘push us
  forward in time’; while the background contains events which
  either concurrent with the main events or are temporally
  unordered.
2- Events in the foreground are expressed via lexical verbs which are
  tensed in the past. Other events, for instance, those expressed by
  verbs tensed in the past perfect or future perfect belong to the
  background.
3- Events in the foreground are found only in main clauses. Any event
  contained in a subordinate clause is automatically part of the
  background.
4- Events of the foreground are expressed via lexical verbs with
  perfective aspect or in the simple form. Imperfective aspect, or the
  progressive form, is reserved for events which are part of the
  background.
5- Events in the foreground are expressed via lexical verbs which
  denote only certain types of events. The background generally
  contains verbs which express states, accomplishment, and
  achievement.
   Couper-Kuhlen (1989) discusses these points, and proves that every
point of them is somehow mistaken or at least overgeneralized. She,
respectively, denies the absolute truth of those points by providing
examples where the reverse of each point exists and is true and that is
grammatically correct and semantically expressive.

   In fact, there is freedom to ‘play’ with the foreground-background
relations; this freedom is only possible if the sequencing of events is left
intact. That is, if clause A reports an event belonging to the temporal
foreground sequence and clause B reports a temporally background
event, then what cannot happen is that A cannot be marked as
syntactically subordinate to B. So A is quite acceptable, B is not:




   68-(a) The host was telling another joke. Having already heard this
joke many times before, Rosa started to yawn.

        *(b) The host was telling another joke. Starting to yawn/having
   started to yawn, Rosa has already heard this joke many times before.

    The choice an originator (a writer/speaker) has between representing a temporally

  sequenced event as part of the’foreground’ (i.e., as a main clause, perfective, past tensed,

        bounded) or as part of the ‘background’ (i.e., as a subordinate clause, imperfective,
     past/present tensed, unbounded) is part of the artistry that makes a written text worth

                                                             reading (Tomlin, 1987: 441-2).




    2.4.7 Schema

      Storytelling is seen as a general human semiotic skill that is not
confined to a particular historical epoch, a particular situation or
communicative context, or a particular medium (Gulich and Quasthoff,
1985: 169). A story text is essentially N.V., thus, predominantly but not
exclusively, guided by a schema (Beaugrande and Dressler, 1981: 207f.).
Schema is “a small number of common patterns underlie an enormous
varietal texts” (ibid.: 203).

    To shed light on schema, van Dijk (1985: 3) says that:




                Stories not only consist of grammatical forms,
           meanings, style, or rhetorical operations, they also
           exhibit more specific schematic organization patterns,
           that is, some kind of superstructures. These N.V.
           structures can be characterized in terms of their own
           conventional categories and formation rules, so that
           even notions such as ‘narrative grammars’ have been
           used in order to explicitly account for such story
           structures.
                         Notes to Chapter Two


1-   Weinrich (1964) Tempus is written in German and not translated
 into English. Nevertheless, this theory is summarized and put in an
 appendix in Casparis (1975: 140-9).
2-   These three categories are, in Joose’s (1964) terminology: tense,
 phase, and aspect, respectively.
3-   ‘Sentence’ here means a clause with finite verb (or independent
 clause).
                        CHAPTER THREE

                  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

3.0 Preliminary Notes

      The aim of this chapter is to present the basis on which the texts
are chosen and the model adopted according to which the texts are
analyzed. The texts of the present study have been chosen on the basis
that, both, the New Testament and Prophetic Traditions, exhibit some
macrostructural resemblance and that they display a narrative/narrated
type of discourse i.e. (anecdotal). The corpus of data comprises ten
texts- on their own- taken from the New Testament(1) and Prophetic
Traditions(2). The sizes of the texts in both the New Testament
(henceforth NT) and Prophetic Traditions (henceforth PT) are not equal
in terms of the number of words or sentences. This can be ascribed to
the nature of germinal ideas of the texts in both NT and PT.




3.1 The Model

      The purpose of the model of the present study is to investigate
the role played by verb tense being a cohesive device within anecdotal
discourse/text (though terminologically distinct, they will be used
interchangeably) vizNT and PT. This model is an eclectic one which is
expected to suit the requirements of this study. It rests upon the insights
drawn from both Longacre’s (1959: 17) and Givon’s (1953: 5) models
with some modifications.
       Longacre’s model helps abstracting a macrostructure out of the NT
and PT texts. Longacre (ibid.) defines macrostructure as “germinal idea
(or closely related complex of germinal ideas) that acts as an overall plan
in the development of the discourse”. Macrostructure includes: a global
or fundamental idea related by a speaker (here, a narrator) to the
narratees. The diagram below presents an overview of Longacre’s model
of text anlaysis.

                                      Macrostructure

[Situation (Speaker  text/texture  Hearer) Situation]

                             (Fig. 5) Longacre’s Macrostructure




       What is pertaining to the present study is text/texture. In order to
understand the role of verb tense as a cohesive device within the
anecdotal      text,    we     must      have     a    clear      conception   of   the
microstructure/constituency of both the NT and PT anecdotal text. The
NT text consists of clauses(3). These clauses are normally grouped to
form colas (Louw, 1973: 101-18) (4) .These colas, in turn, are grouped to
form thematic paragraph (pericope). Thus, the NT text consists of a
number of thematic paragraphs. Unlike the NT text, the microstructure
of the PT text consists of, mostly, a number of successive clauses
forming a single thematic paragraph of a relative length.

       In his model, Givon (1983: 8) manipulates the role of verb tense
under ‘action continuity’. Action continuity receives its expression
strongly and universally by way of tense-aspect-modality subsystem
(tense and aspect are considered one category in the present study).
Modality lies outside the scope of this study.

      For the sake of simplicity, both ‘action’ and ‘event’ are treated
under the name ‘event’. This is done because action is closely connected
with event and action is an event brought out by a human being. Thus
event continuity concerns both temporal sequentiality and temporal
adjacency within a thematic paragraph. Verb tense preserves temporal
referentiality, sequentiality and adjacency and thus contributes to
cohesion. Events, most commonly, are given in their natural sequential
order (i.e., in which they actually occurred) and there might be a small
gap between one event and the next. Verb tense role in cohesion is
supported by the use of the connectives and the subordinators.
Typically, connectives extend over clauses or sequences of clauses, i.e.,
they have both functions: intra- and inter- sentential cohesion.

      In English data, the connectives used are: ‘then’ as a conjunctive
(signals sequentiality), ‘now’ as a continuative conjunct and as a
transitional conjunct (signals a logical relationship of transition from one
instance in the story to a new one), ‘and’ as a continuative conjunct and
as an additive conjunct, and ‘but’ as an adversative and additive
conjunct. The subordinators used are: ‘when’, ‘as’, and ‘if’ conditional.

      In Arabic data, the connectives used are: ‘wa’ as a continuative
conjunct (denoting the meaning of ‘and’), and ‘fa’ as a conjunctive like
‘then’ (signals sequentiality) and as a continuative conjunct (denoting
the meaning of ‘and’). Particles are used like: ‘lammaa’ (having the
corresponding use and meaning of ‘when’ subordinator) and ‘?i aa’
(having the use and meaning of conditional ‘if’).
      The introduction of another tense other than the oriented one
affects the temporal structure within the thematic paragraph, especially,
on the part of the narratees (hearer(s) and/or reader(s)). The oriented
tense (mostly, the preterite) backgrounds the information included in
the thematic paragraph whereas the introduced tense foregrounds the
information. Narrators use this technique so as to focus the narratees’
attention on the ensuing statements. In this case, the narratee(s) is/are
left to interpret it as a shift from the previous norm of using the
preterite to the present. This shift, according to Givon, concerns
temporal adjacency.
3.2 The Analysis of New Testament Texts

Text 1

Anecdote: Baptism of Jesus

Original Speaker: Jesus Christ (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Disciples, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: Matthew

Paragraph Number           Cola Number                Tense     Tense Shift

         1                       1                  Preterite

                                 2                              Present

                                 3                  Preterite   Present

                                 4                  Preterite

                                 5                  Preterite

                                 6                  Preterite

         2                       1                  Preterite

                                 2                              Present

                                 3                              Present

                                 4                              Present

         3                       1                              Present

                                 2                              Present

         4                       1                  Preterite

                                 2                  Preterite   Present
                                                             Present and
                           3               Preterite
                                                            Present Prog.

                           4               Preterite

                           5                                   Present




Discussion

       Cola 1 of the first paragraph is the inception of this anecdote in
which the textual orientation of the reference time of this text is
established by the use of the preterite tense. It grounds this anecdotal
text back in the reference time of the narrative. It represents a
succession of two simultaneous events expressed by the preterite tense
‘came’ and the non-finite ‘preaching’. Cola 2 is the quotation of John’s
preaching in which the present in its imperative ‘repent’ is used which
moves the reference time forward. Thus, this cola is temporally adjacent
to the first one. Cola 3 uses the preterite tense to reestablish the
reference time backward. It represents two sequential events. The first
is expressed by the preterite in its passive ‘was spoken’ and the second
is expressed by the preterite ‘said’. This sequential relation is manifested
through the use of the subordinator ‘when’. The residue of this cola is
the quotation of John’s speech in which the present is used. It is
paratactically linked with the first part of this cola. It represents two
juxtaposed events expressed by the present in its imperatives ‘prepare’
and ‘make’. It moves the reference time forward. Thus, the quoted
clause is temporally adjacent to the previous two events of this cola.
Cola 4 begins with the continuative and transitional conjunct ‘now’
which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It represents an
event and a state. The event is expressed by the preterite tense ‘wore’
and the state is expressed by the preterite ‘was’. The use of the preterite
grounds this cola back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 5
begins with the conjunctive ‘then’ which links temporally this cola with
the previous one. It represents an event expressed by the preterite
tense ‘went out’ which grounds this cola back in the reference time of
the narrative. Cola 6 begins with the additive and continuative conjunct
‘and’ which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It
represents an event expressed by the preterite in its passive ‘were
baptized’ which grounds this cola back in the reference time of the
narrative.

     Cola 1 of the second paragraph begins with the additive and
adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links temporally this cola with the
previous one. It represents a succession of two events temporally
sequenced by the use of ‘when’ subordinator. These two events are
expressed by the preterite verb tense ‘saw’ and ‘said’. The preterite,
here, grounds these two events back in the reference time of the
narrative. The residue of this cola is the first part of John’s speech to the
Pharisees and Sad’ducees which is a rhetorical question. It represents an
event expressed by the preterite verb tense ‘warned’ which grounds this
cola back in the reference time of the narrative. It is temporally
juxtaposed    with the first part of this cola. Cola 2 represents a
commandment whose tense is the present in its imperative ‘bear’ which
moves forward the reference time of the narrative. It is temporally
adjacent to the previous one. Cola 3 begins with continuative and
additve ‘and’ which links two parallel clauses representing two
juxtaposed events having the same temporal relation . It represents a
prohibition expressed by the present verb tense in its negative ‘do not
presume’ The residual that clauses represent states in the present
expressed by the present ‘have’ and ‘is’ respectively. They are
temporally juxtaposed. The present tense used in this cola moves
forward the reference time of the narrative. Cola 4 represents two
successive events having the same temporal relation expressed by the
present in its passive ‘is laid’ and ‘is cut’. They are two juxtaposed
events. The present tense in this cola moves forward the reference time
of the narrative.

      The third paragraph consists of two colas. It is John’s words
baptizing the Pharisees and Sad’ducess. Cola 1 includes four clauses. The
first represents the event of baptism expressed by the present ‘baptize’
which moves forward the reference time of the narrative. The second
clause begins with the adversative and additive conjunct ‘but’ which
links it with the first. It represents a state in the present expressed by
the present ‘is’ which moves forward the reference time of the
narrative. The third clause represents a state in the present expressed by
the present ‘am’ which moves forward the reference time of the
narrative. The fourth clause is a prospective event of baptism carried on
by the hands of Jesus Christ (PBUH) i.e. at the time when Jesus comes. It
is expressed by the present form ‘will baptize’ which moves forward the
reference time of the narrative. Cola 2 includes three clauses. The first
represents a state in the present expressed by the present ‘is’ which
moves forward the reference time of the narrative. The second begins
with the continuative and additive ‘and’ which links this clause with the
first. It represents two prospective events expressed by the present
form ‘will clear and gather’ which moves forward the reference time of
the narrative. The third clause begins with the adversative and additive
conjunct ‘but’ which links this clause with the second temporally. It
represents an event expressed by the present form ‘will burn’ which
moves forward the reference time of the narrative. Cola 1 and cola 2 of
this paragraph are temporally juxtaposed.

      Cola 1 of the fourth paragraph begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘then’ which links this cola with the previous one. It represents
the event of Jesus coming from Galilee to Jordan to John to be baptized
by him. It is expressed by the preterite ‘came’ which reestablishes and
grounds this event back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 2
represents two events; the first is expressed by the preterite ‘would
have prevented’ and the non-finite ‘saying’. The preterite in the first
grounds it, back in the reference time of the narrative. The residue of
this cola is two clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the
present ‘need’ which moves the reference time of the narrative forward.
The second represents a question linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’
with the first. It is expressed by the present ‘do come’ which moves the
reference time of the narrative. The first and the second clauses are
temporally juxtaposed. They are temporally adjacent to the first one of
this cola. Cola 3 begins with the additive and adversative conjunct ‘but’
which links this cola with the previous one. It consists of three clauses.
The first represents the event of answering which is expressed by the
preterite verb tense ‘answered’. The preterite grounds this event back in
the reference time of the narrative. The second represents the answer
itself which is expressed by the present imperative ‘let’ and the present
progressive ‘is fitting’ which both move forward the reference time of
the narrative. It is temporally adjacent to the first clause. The third
clause begins with the continuative conjunct ‘then’ which links this
clause with the previous one. This clause represents an event expressed
by the preterite verb tense ‘consented’ which grounds this event back in
the reference time of the narrative. These three clauses of this cola are
temporally juxtaposed.

Cola 4 begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’ which
links this cola with the previous one. It consists of: first, two successive
clauses represent two temporally sequenced events linked by the
subordinator ‘when’; the first event is expressed by the preterite passive
‘was baptized’ and the second is expressed by the preterite ‘went up’.
The preterite in both events grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. Second, two clauses linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’.
The first represents an event expressed by the preterite passive ‘were
opened’ whereas the second represents an event expressed by the
preterite ‘saw’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. These two clauses are temporally juxtaposed. Cola 5
begins with the additive conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the
previous one. It represents an event of saying expressed by the non-
finite verb ‘saying’ and the quoted clause represents a state in the
present expressed by the present ‘is’. The present tense in this cola
moves forward the reference time of the narrative. This cola is
temporally adjacent to the previous one.
         To sum this discussion up, the analysis of this anecdotal text
shows that 10 occurrences in tense shift from the preterite which is the
natural format of the narrative to the present, the present progressive.



Text 2

Anecdote: The Transfiguration

Original Speaker: Jesus Christ (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Disciples, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: Matthew




Paragraph Number       Cola Number             Tense           Tense Shift

1                      1                       Preterite

                       2                       Preterite

                       3                       Preterite

                       4                       Preterite       Present

                       5                       Pret. Prog. and Present
                                               Preterite

                       6                       Preterite

                       7                       Preterite       Present

                       8                       Preterite

2                      1                       Pret. Prog. and Present
                                               Preterite

                       2                       Preterite       Present

                       3                       Preterite       Present
                   4                 Preterite           Present,      and
                                                         Present Perf.

                   5                 Preterite     and
                                     Pret. Prog.

3                  1                 Preterite

                   2                                     Present

                   3                 Preterite

                   4                 Preterite           Present

                   5                 Preterite

                   6                 Preterite           Present

                   7                 Preterite           Present

                   8                                     Present

4                  1                 Pret. Prog. and     Present
                                     Preterite

                   2                 Preterite           Present

5                  1                 Preterite           Present

                   2                 Preterite           Present

                   3                 Preterite           Present

                   4                                     Present



Discussion

       Cola 1 of the first paragraph is the inception of this anecdote in
which the textual orientation of the reference time of this text is
established by the use of the preterite tense. It grounds this anecdotal
text back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links temporally this anecdote with
the previous ones of this book. It consists of two clauses. The first
represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘took’ whereas the
second is linked with the first by the use of the continuative conjunct
‘and’. The second represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘led
up’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed. Cola 2 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links temporally with the first one. It
consists of three clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the
preterite passive “was transfigured’. The second represents an event
expressed by the preterite ‘shone’. These three clauses are linked
temporally by the continuative conjunct ‘and’. The preterite tense
grounds them back in reference time of the narrative. They are
temporally juxtaposed. Cola 3 is linked temporally with the second by
the use of the continuative conjunct ‘and’. It represents an event
expressed by the preterite ‘appeared’. The preterite tense grounds it
back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola is temporally
juxtaposed with the second one. Cola 4 begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It represents a
reporting event in which the tense of the reporting verb is the preterite
expressed by the verb ‘said’ which grounds this cola back in the
reference time of the narrative. The quoted clause represents a
condition initiated by ‘if’ conditional which links temporally the
sequence of both parts of the condition. The first clause represents an
event expressed by the present ‘wish’ whereas the second represents a
prospective event expressed by the present form ‘will make’. Both the
present and the present form ‘will make’ move forward the reference
time of the narrative. The quoted clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting event. Cola 5 consists of four clauses. The first two represent a
succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by the
subordinator ‘when’. The first represents an event expressed by the
preterite progressive ‘was speaking’ whereas the second represents an
event expressed by the preterite ‘overshadowed’. Both the preterite
progressive and the preterite ground back the events in the reference
time of the narrative. The third clause begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links it temporally with the first two ones. It
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is the
preterite ‘said’ and the quoted clause represents a state in the present
expressed by the present ‘is’ and a juxtaposed event expressed by the
present imperative ‘listen’. The preterite tense grounds back the
reporting event while the present moves forward the reference time of
the narrative. The quoted clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting
verb. Cola 6 consists of three clauses. The first two represented a
succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by the
subordinator ‘when’ expressed by the preterite ‘heard’ and ‘fell’. The
preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. The
third clause begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’
which links this clause with the first two ones. It represents an event
expressed by the preterite passive ‘were filled’ which grounds this event
back in the reference time of the narrative. This clause is temporally
juxtaposed with the first two ones. Cola 7 begins with the adversative
and continuative conjunct ‘but’ which links temporally this cola with the
previous one. It consists of; first, a clause containing two conjuncted
events linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’ expressed by the preterite
‘came’ and ‘touched’ which grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. Second a reporting event in which the reporting verb is a
non-finite   ‘saying’   whereas   the   quoted    clause   represents   a
commandment which contains two events expressed by the present
imperative ‘rise’ and ‘have’. The reporting event is temporally adjacent
to the first two ones. Cola 5 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’
which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It represents a
succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by the
subordinator ‘when’ expressed by the preterite ‘lifted up’ and ‘saw’. The
preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the second paragraph begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It
represents a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by
the subordinator ‘as’ in which the first is expressed by the preterite
progressive ‘were coming’ whereas the second is expressed by the
preterite ‘command’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference
time of the narrative. The residue is the command itself which
represents two events the first is expressed by the present imperative
‘tell’ whereas the second is expressed by the present passive ‘is raised’.
The present moves forward the reference time of the narrative. The two
events of the command itself are temporally adjacent to the first two
events of this cola. Cola 2 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’
which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It is a question
which represents two events; the first one is expressed by the preterite
‘asked’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the second event is the question itself which is expressed by
the present interrogative ‘do say’ which moves forward the reference
time of the narrative. They are temporally adjacent. Cola 3 represents a
replying event in which the replying verb tense is the preterite ‘replied’
which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
quoted answer represents two events expressed by the present tense
‘does come’ in its affirmative and the present with future reference ‘is to
restore’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative forward.
The answer itself is temporally adjacent to the replying verb. Cola 4
begins with the adversative and additive conjunct ‘but’ which links this
cola with the previous one. It consists of four clauses. The first
represents an event expressed by the present tense ‘tell’ in the
superclause whereas the event in the embedded (that-clause) is
expressed by the present perfect ‘has come’ which the present and
present perfect move the reference time of the narrative forward. They
are temporally juxtaposed. The second clause begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this clause with the previous one.
It represents an event expressed by the preterite negative ‘did not
know’. The third clause begins with the adversative and additive
conjunct ‘but’ which links this clause with the previous one. It represents
an event expressed by the preterite ‘did’. The preterite grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally
juxtaposed. The fourth clause represents a prospective event expressed
by the present form ‘will suffer’ which moves forward the reference
time of the narrative. It is temporally adjacent to the previous one. Cola
8 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘then’ which links this cola with
the previous one. It consists of two clauses. The first represents an event
expressed by the preterite ‘understood’ in the superclause whereas the
second represents an event expressed by the preterite progressive ‘was
speaking’. The preterite and the preterite progressive ground them back
in the reference time of the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the third paragraph begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links temporally this cola with the previous one. It
consists of three clauses. The first two represent a succession of two
temporally sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘when’. They
are expressed by the preterite ‘came’ and ‘came up’. The third clause
begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’ which links
temporally this clause with the first two ones. It represents two events.
The first is expressed by the non-finite ‘kneeling’ whereas the second
represents a reporting event expressed by the preterite ‘said’. They are
temporally juxtaposed. The preterite grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative. Cola 2 represents a quotation of the
man’s speech. It consists of five clauses. The first represents a beseech
(request) expressed by the present imperative ‘have’. The second
represents a state in the present expressed by the present ‘is’. The third
begins with the additive conjunct ‘and’ which links this clause with the
previous one. It represents an event expressed by the present ‘suffer’.
The fourth begins with the causal conjunct ‘for’ which links this clause
with the previous one. It represents an event expressed by the present
‘falls’. The fifth one represents an event expressed by the same ellipted
present verb tense ‘falls’. They are temporally adjacent to the previous
cola. The present tense moves forward the reference time of the
narrative. Cola 3 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and which links this cola with the previous one. It
consists of two clauses linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’. The first
represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘brought’ whereas the
second represents an event expressed by the preterite negative ‘could
not heal’. They are temporally juxtaposed. The preterite grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 4 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It
represents an answering event in which the tense of the answering verb
is the preterite ‘answered’ which grounds this cola back in the reference
time of the narrative. The residue is the quotation of the answer itself
which consists of three clauses. Each of the first two represents a
questioning event expressed by the present interrogative ‘am’. The third
clause represents a commanding event expressed by the present
imperative ‘bring’. These three are temporally adjacent to the first part
of this cola. The present tense moves forward the reference time of the
narrative. Cola 8 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links
this cola with the previous one. It consists of three clauses. The first
represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘rebuked’. The second
begins with the additive and continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links it
with the first one. It represents an event expressed by the preterite
‘came out’. The third begins, also, with the additive and continuative
conjunct ‘and’. It represents an event expressed by the preterite passive
‘was cured’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed. Cola 6 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘then’. it represents two juxtaposed events linked
by the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’. The first is expressed by
the preterite ‘came’ whereas the second is expressed by the preterite
‘said’. The residue is a question expressed by the preterite interrogative
negative ‘could not went cast’. It is also juxtaposed with the first two
events. Cola 7 represents an answering event in which the answering
verb tense is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ whereas the residue is the
answer itself. It consists of five clauses. The first represents an event
expressed by the present ‘say’. The second represents a succession of
two events temporally sequenced by the use of the conditional ‘if’ in
which the first is expressed by the present ‘have’ and the second is
expressed by the present form ‘will say’. The third represents an event
temporally juxtaposed with the previous one which is expressed by the
imperative ‘move’. The fourth represents a prospective event temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one by the use of the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which is expressed by the present form ‘will move’. The
fifth one represents a prospective event temporally juxtaposed with the
previous one by the use of the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which is
expressed by the present form ‘will be’. The present as well as the
present forms of ‘will+v.’ moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. These five events are temporally adjacent to the first event.

      Cola 1 in the fourth paragraph consists of two clauses
representing a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by
the use of the subordinator ‘as’. The first event is expressed by the
preterite progressive ‘were gathering’ whereas the second is expressed
by the preterite ‘said’. The preterite progressive and the preterite
ground these two events back in the reference time of the narrative. The
residue is the speech of Jesus (PBUH) which represents an event
expressed by the present passive ‘is to be delivered’ which moves
forward the reference time of the narrative. This event is temporally
adjacent to the first two ones. Cola 2 begins with the continuative and
additive conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It
consists of three clauses each of which begins with the continuative and
additive conjunct ‘and’ which links each one with the previous one. Each
clause represents a prospective event expressed by the present form
‘will +v.’. The first is expressed by the present form ‘will kill’ whereas the
second is expressed by the present form in its passive ‘will be raised’.
They are temporally juxtaposed. The present form ‘will +v.’ moves
forward the reference time of the narrative. The third clause represents
an event expressed by the preterite passive ‘were distressed’ which
grounds this event back in the reference time of the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the fifth paragraph consists of three clauses. The first
two represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked
by the subordinator ‘when’ expressed by the preterite ‘came’ and ‘went
up’. The third represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘said’
which is linked by the use of the additive conjunct ‘and’ with the first
two ones. They are temporally juxtaposed. The preterite grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. The residue represents a
question expressed by the present negative ‘does not pay’ which moves
the reference time of the narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to
the previous events. Cola 2 consists of six clauses. The first represents a
replying event expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative. The residue is an elliptical answer
itself expressed by the present which moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to the first part of this cola.
The second clause begins with the continuative and additive conjunct
‘and’ which links this clause with the previous one. It represents a
succession of two temporally sequenced event expressed by the
preterite ‘came’ and ‘spoke’ which grounds them back in the reference
time of the narrative. The residue represents a reporting event
expressed by the non-finite ‘saying’ and the quoted represents three
questions expressed by the present interrogative ‘do think’, ‘do take’
and the third is ellipted which is expressed originally by the same
present ‘do take’. The present moves forward the reference time of the
narrative. They are temporally adjacent to the previous events. Cola 3
represents a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by
the subordinator ‘when’. The first event represents a reporting event,
the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it
back in the reference time of the narrative. The quoted clause
represents an ellipted answer originally expressed by the present ‘take’.
The present moves the reference time of the narrative forward. The
quoted event is temporally adjacent to reporting verb. The second event
represents also a reporting event, the reporting verb is expressed by the
preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative. The quoted clause represents a state in the present expressed
by the present ‘are’ which moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. The quoted clause is temporally adjacent to reporting verb.
This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 4 consists
of six clauses. The first three ones represent commandments expressed
by the present imperative ‘not to give’, ‘go and east’ and ‘take’. The
present tense moves the reference time of the narrative forward. The
fourth and fifth clauses represent a succession of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘when’ in which the first is
expressed by the present ‘open’ whereas the second is expressed by the
present form ‘will find’. Both the present and the present form ‘will find’
move the reference time of the narrative forward. The sixth represents
two commandments expressed by the present imperative ‘take and
give’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative forward.
This cola is temporally adjacent to the previous cola.

To sum, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 18 occurrences in
tense shift from the preterite and the preterite progressive to the
present and the present perfect.



Text 3

Anecdote: Forgiveness of Sins

Original Speaker: Jesus Christ (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Disciples, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: Mark

    Paragraph              Cola Number                Tense      Tense Shift
     Number

1                      1                       Preterite

                       2                       Preterite and
                                               Pret.Prog

                       3                       Preterite

                       4                       Preterite and
                                               Pret.Perf.

                       5                       Preterite       Present

                       6                       Past Prog.

                       7                                       Present
    8    Preterite        Present

    9                     Present

    10                    Present

    11                    Present

    12   Preterite

2   1    Preterite

    2    Preterite        Present

3   1    Preterite and
         Pret.Prog.

    2    Preterite        Present

    3    Preterite        Present

4   1    Pret.prog. and   Present
         Preterite

    2    Preterite        Present

    3                     Present

    4                     Present

    5                     Present

5   1    Pret.Prog. and
         Preterite

    2    Preterite        Present Prog.

    3    Preterite        Present Perf.

    4    Preterite

    5    Preterite

    6                     Present
Discussion

         Cola 1 of the first paragraph is the inception of this anecdote

  in which the textual orientation of the reference time of this text is

  established by the use of the preterite tense. It grounds this

  anecdotal text back in the reference time of the narrative. This

  cola begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links

  temporally this anecdote with the previous ones of this book. It

  consists of two clauses representing two temporally sequenced

  events linked by the subordinator ‘when’. The first is expressed by

  the preterite ‘returned’ and the second is expressed by the

  preterite passive ‘was reported’. Cola 2 begins with the

  continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous

  one. It consists of three clauses. The first represents an event

  expressed by the preterite passive ‘were gathered. The second

  represents a state expressed by the preterite ‘was’. The third

  begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’ which

  links this clause with the previous one. It represents an event

  expressed by the preterite progressive ‘was preaching’. The

  preterite and preterite progressive ground them back in the

  reference time of the narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed.

  Cola 3 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this

  cola with the previous one. It represents an event expressed by the

  preterite ‘came’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the

  narrative. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one.
Cola 4 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this

cola with the previous one. It consists of four clauses. The first two

represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked

by the subordinator ‘when’. The first event is expressed by the

preterite negative ‘could not get’ and the second event is

expressed by the preterite ‘removed’. The preterite tense grounds

them back in the reference time of the narrative. The second two

clauses begin with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’

which links them with the first two ones. They also represent a

succession of two temporally sequenced events linked by the

subordinator ‘when’. The first is expressed by the preterite perfect

‘had made’ and the second event is expressed by the preterite ‘let

down’. The preterite perfect and the preterite ground them back

in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 5 begins with the

continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous

one. It represents a succession of two temporally sequenced

events linked by the subordinator ‘when’. The first is expressed by

the preterite ‘saw’ and the second is expressed by the preterite

‘said’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of

the narrative. The residue is a quotation of Jesus (PBUH) speech

representing an event expressed by the present passive ‘are’

forgiven’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative

forward. The quoted event is temporally adjacent to the first two

ones. Cola 6 begins with the continuative and transitional conjunct
‘now’ which links this cola with the previous one. It represents two

events. The first is expressed by the preterite progressive ‘were

sitting’ whereas the second is expressed by the non-finite
‘questioning’. The preterite progressive grounds it back in the

reference time of the narrative. It is temporally juxtaposed with

the previous cola. Cola 7 is the quotation of the questioning event

expressed in the previous cola. It consists of two questions and a

statement. The first question is expressed by the present

interrogative ‘does speak’. Then a statement is expressed by the

present ‘is’. The second question is expressed by the present

interrogative ‘can forgive’. They are temporally juxtaposed. The

present moves the reference time of the narrative forward. This

cola is temporally adjacent to the previous one. Cola 8 begins with

the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the

previous one. It consists of three clauses. The first one represents

an event expressed by the non-finite ‘perceiving’ took place in the

spirit of Jesus (PBUH) whereas the second clause is an embedded

one in the superclause. It represents an event that took place

within themselves (i.e. the scribes) and expressed by the preterite

‘questioned’. The third clause represents an event expressed by

the preterite ‘said’. The residue is the quotation of Jesus speech

which is a question expressed by the present interrogative ‘do

question’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative

forward. It is temporally adjacent to the previous clauses of this

cola. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola

9 is a question which is temporally adjacent to the previous cola. It

is expressed by the present interrogative ‘is to say’. Yet it includes
two                                                         clauses.

The first is an event expressed by the present passive ‘are forgiven’

and the second is a commandment expressed by the present

imperative ‘rise and take’. The present moves the reference time

of the narrative forward. Cola 10 begins with the adversative and

continuative conjunct ‘but’ which links this cola with the previous

one. It consists of two clauses. One is embedded in the other. The

first represents an event expressed by the present ‘may know’

whereas the second is expressed by the present ‘has’. The present

moves the reference time of the narrative forward. Cola 11

represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is

expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds this cola back in

the reference time of the narrative. The residue is Jesus speech to

the paralytic which represents an event and a commandment. The

event   is   expressed   by   the   present    ‘say’   whereas   the

commandment is expressed by the present imperative ‘rise, take

up and go’. The quoted clause is temporally adjacent to the

reporting verb. The present moves the reference time of the

narrative forward. Cola 12 begins with the continuative conjunct

‘and’. It consists of five clauses. Each of which represents an event

linked by the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’. The first is

expressed by the preterite ‘rose’. The second comprises two

events expressed by the preterite ‘took up’ and ‘went out’; the

third is expressed by the preterite passive ‘were amazed; the
fourth is expressed by the preterite ‘glorified’; the fifth is

expressed by the non-finite ‘saying’. The residue represents the

scribes speech which represents an event expressed by the

preterite negative ‘never saw’. The preterite tense grounds them

back in the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally

juxtaposed.

     Cola 1 in the second paragraph consists of three clauses.

Each of which represents an event expressed by the preterite

linked by the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’. The first is

expressed by the preterite ‘went out’; the second is expressed by

the preterite ‘gathered’; and the third is expressed by the preterite

‘taught’. They are temporally juxtaposed. The preterite grounds

them back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 2 begins

with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the

previous one . It consists of four clauses. The first two ones

represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked

by the subordinator ‘as’. The first is expressed by the preterite

‘passed’ whereas the second is expressed by the preterite ‘saw’.

The third one begins with the continuative and additive conjunct

‘and’. It is expressed by the preterite ‘said’. The preterite grounds

them back in the reference time of the narrative. The residue of

the third clause is the speech of Jesus (PBUH) which is a

commandment expressed by the present imperative ‘follow’. It is

temporally adjacent to the previous event. The fourth clause
  begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’ which

  links this event with the previous one . It represents two events

  expressed by the preterite tense. The first is expressed by the

  preterite ‘rose’ and the second is expressed by the preterite

  ‘followed’. They are temporally juxtaposed events. The preterite

  grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the third paragraph begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one . It consists of
three clauses. The first two represent a sequence of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘as’. The first is expressed
by the preterite ‘sat’ and, the second is expressed by the preterite
progressive ‘were sitting’, and the third represents a state expressed by
the preterite ‘were’ which is temporally juxtaposed with the first two
ones. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative. Cola 2 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links
this cola with the previous one . It represents a succession of two
temporally sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘when’. The
first event in its turn includes another event; they are expressed by the
preterite ‘saw’ and the preterite progressive ‘was eating’. The second
event represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is
expressed by the preterite ‘said’ whereas the residue is a quotation of
the Pharisees scribes which is a question expressed by the present
interrogative ‘does eat’. The quoted clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The preterite grounds the events back in the reference
time of the narrative while the present moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Cola 3 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’
which links this cola with the previous one . It consists of a succession of
two temporally sequenced events expressed by the preterite ‘heard’ and
‘said’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative. The residue is Jesus (PBUH) speech which represents two
states expressed by the present ‘are’. The present moves the reference
time of the narrative forward. The quoted states are temporally adjacent
to the previous two events of this cola.

      Cola 1 of the fourth paragraph begins with the continuative and
transitional conjunct ‘now’ which links this cola with the previous one. It
consists of three clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the
preterite progressive ‘were fasting’; the second begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this clause with the previous one.
It represents two juxtaposed events linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’
expressed by the preterite ‘came’ and ‘said’. The preterite and the
preterite progressive ground them back in the reference time of the
narrative. The residue is the quotation of what the people said to Jesus
(PBUH) which is a question. It is expressed by the present interrogative
‘do fast’ and the second part of this question begins with the additive
and adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links the second part with the first.
Yet the second part is expressed by the negative interrogative ‘do not
fast’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative forward.
The quoted question is temporally adjacent to the previous event. Cola 2
begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the
previous one. it represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb
is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative. The residue represents; first, a question
expressed by the present interrogative ‘can fast’; second, a succession of
two temporally sequenced events linked by the particle ‘as long as’ in
which the first is expressed by the present ‘have’ and the second is
expressed by the negative present ‘cannot fast’. The present moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Cola 3 consists of three clauses.
The first represents a prospective event expressed by the present form
‘will come’. The second represents a succession of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘when’ in which the first is
expressed by the present passive ‘is taken’ and the second prospective
event is expressed by the present form ‘will fast’. The present as well as
the present forms ‘will+v.’ move the reference time of the narrative
forward. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the second part of the
previous                    cola.                   Cola                   4


consists of four clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the
present ‘sews’. The second and the third represent a succession of two
temporally sequenced events linked by the conditional ‘if’ in which the
first is expressed by the present ‘does’ and the second is expressed by
the present ‘tears way’. The fourth one represents an event expressed
by the present passive ‘is made’. The present moves the reference time
of the narrative forward. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the
previous one. Cola 8 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which
links this cola with the previous one. It consists of six clauses. The first
represents an event expressed by the present ‘puts’. The second and the
third represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked
by the conditional ‘if’ in which the first is expressed by the present ‘does’
and the second is expressed by the present form ‘will burst’. The fourth
one represents an event expressed by the present passive ‘is lost’ linked
by the additive conjunct ‘and’ with the previous one. The fifth one
represents an event expressed by the present passive ‘are lost’ linked by
the additive conjunct ‘and’ with the previous one. The sixth one begins
with the additive and adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links this clause
with the previous one. It represents a state expressed by the present ‘is’.
The events and the last state are temporally juxtaposed. The present
and the present form ‘will burst’ move the reference time of the
narrative forward.

      Cola 1 in the fifth paragraph consists of three clauses. The first
represents an event expressed by the preterite progressive ‘was going’.
The second and the third ones represent a succession of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘as’ and it is linked with the
previous clause by the additive and continuative conjunct ‘and’. These
two events are expressed by the preterite ‘made’ and ‘began’. The
preterite progressive and the preterite ground this cola back in the
reference time of the narrative besides they reestablish the reference
time back of the narrative. Cola 2 begins with the continuative conjunct
‘and’ which links this cola with the first one. It represents a reporting
event in which the reporting verb tense is the preterite ‘said’ whereas
the reported quotation represents a question expressed by the present
progressive ‘are doing’. The reported question is temporally adjacent to
the reporting verb. The preterite grounds this cola back in the reference
time of the narrative but the present progressive moves the reference
time of the narrative forward. Cola 3 begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It also
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is the
preterite ‘said’ whereas the reported quotation represents an event
expressed by the present perfect interrogative negative ‘have never
read’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb.
Cola 4 is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. It represents
three events expressed by the preterite ‘entered’, ‘ate’, and ‘gave’. They
are linked by the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’. The preterite
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola as a
whole represents a prolonged question. The first event is expressed by
the preterite ‘entered’ and the state is expressed by the preterite ‘was’
represent a sequence of two events linked by the subordinator ‘when’.
The second event which is expressed by the preterite ‘ate’ is linked with
the first one by the additive and continuative ‘and’. Cola 8 begins with
the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous
one. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is
the preterite ‘said’ and the reported is a quotation that represents an
event expressed by the preterite passive ‘was made’. The preterite and
the preterite passive ground them back in the reference time of the
narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed events. Cola 6 represents a
state in the present expressed by the ‘is’. The present moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to the
previous cola.

         In short, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 17
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite, the preterite progressive,
and the preterite perfect to the present and the present perfect have
been observed.



Text 4
Anecdote: Jesus Appears to His Disciples

Original Speaker: Jesus Christ (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Disciples, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: John (one of the Apostles)

Paragraph Number           Cola Number                Tense      Tense Shift

1                      1                       Preterite

                       2                       Preterite

                       3                       Preterite      Present

2                      1                       Pret.Prog.
                                               Preterite

                       2                       Preterite      Present

                       3                       Preterite      Present

                       4                       Preterite      Present

                                               Preterite

                       5                       Preterite

3                      1                       Preterite

                       2                       Preterite      Present

                       3                       Preterite

                       4                       Preterite      Present

                                               Preterite      Present

                       5                       Preterite

                       6                       Preterite

4                      1                       Pret.Perf.
                                      Preterite          Present

                                      Preterite, and     Present

                                      Preterite          Present

                   2                  Preterite          Present

                                                         Present

                   3                  Preterite          Present

                   4                  Preterite          Present,

                                                         Present

                   5                  Preterite

                                      Preterite          Present

5                  1                  Preterite, and

                                      Pret.Perf.         Present

                   2                  Preterite          Pres.Prog

                   3                  Preterite          Present

                   4                  Preterite          Present

6                  1                                     Present       and
                                                         Pres.Perf.

7                  1                                     Present



Discussion

       Cola 1 of the first paragraph is the inception of this anecdote in
which the textual orientation of the reference time of this text is
established by the use of the preterite tense. It grounds this anecdotal
text back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola begins with the
time relator ‘after’ which links this anecdote with the previous one of
this book. It consists of two clauses linked by the additive and
continuative conjunct ‘and’. Both of them represent the same event
expressed by the preterite ‘revealed’. They are temporally juxtaposed
events. Cola 2 represents an event and a state. The first is expressed by
the preterite ‘called’ and the second is expressed by the preterite ‘were’.
The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.
They are temporally juxtaposed. Cola 3 consists of four clauses. The first
one represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is the
preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the reported quotation represents an event
expressed by the present progressive ‘am going’. The present
progressive moves the reference time of the narrative forward. It is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The second is also represents
a reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is the preterite ‘said’
which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
reported quotation represents a prospective event expressed by the
present form ‘will go’. The present form ‘will go’ moves the reference
time of the narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to the reporting
verb. The third and the fourth clauses represent two events linked by
the additive and adversative conjunct ‘but’. Both of them are expressed
by the preterite ‘went out’ and ‘caught’. The preterite grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one.

      Cola 1 in the second paragraph consists of three clauses. The first
one represents a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked
by the subordinator ‘as’. The first is expressed by the preterite
progressive ‘was breaking’ whereas the second is expressed by the
preterite ‘stood’. The third clause is a superclause which includes an
embedded one. The superclause represents an event expressed by the
preterite negative ‘did not know’ whereas the embedded one represents
a state expressed by the preterite ‘was’. The preterite grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally
juxtaposed. Cola 2 represents two reporting events. The reporting verbs
of both events are expressed by the preterite ‘said’ and ‘answered’
which grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative whereas
the reported quotation of the first event represents a question
expressed by the present ‘have’ and the reported quotation of the
second reporting event is an ellipted answer originally expressed by the
present ‘have’ but in the negative. The present moves the reference
time of the narrative forward. The reported is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. Cola 3 consists of three clauses. The first represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb tense is the preterite ‘said’
which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative. The
reported quotation represents two events linked by the additive
conjunct ‘and’. The first is expressed by the present imperative ‘cast’ and
the second is expressed by the present form ‘will find’. The present and
the present form ‘will find’ move the reference time of the narrative
forward. The second and the third clauses are linked by the additive and
continuative conjunct ‘and’. The second represents an event expressed
by the preterite ‘cast’ whereas the third represents a state expressed by
the preterite negative ‘were not able’. The preterite grounds them back
in the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed.
Cola 4 consists of five clauses. The first represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb tense is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which
grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
reported quotation represents a state in the present expressed by ‘is’
which moves the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported
clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The second and the
third represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked
by the subordinator ‘when’. The second is expressed by the preterite
‘heard’ which in its turn includes a state in the preterite expressed by
‘was’. The third is expressed by the preterite ‘put’. The fourth and the
fifth ones represent two temporally juxtaposed events in which the first
is expressed by the preterite passive ‘was stripped’ and the second is
expressed by the preterite ‘sprang’. The preterite grounds them back in
the reference time of the narrative. Cola 5 begins with the continuative
and adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links this cola with the previous
one. It represents two juxtaposed events and a state. The first event is
expressed by the preterite ‘came’ and the second is expressed by the
non-finite ‘dragging’ whereas the state is expressed by the preterite
‘were’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative. It is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one.

      Cola 1 in the third paragraph represents a succession of two
temporally sequenced events linked by the subordinator ‘when’. The
first is expressed by the preterite ‘got’ and the second is expressed by
the preterite ‘saw’. The preterite grounds it back in the reference time of
the narrative. Cola 2 represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb tense is the preterite expressed by ‘said’ whereas the reported
quotation represents a commandment expressed by the present
imperative ‘bring’. The reported quotation is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The preterite grounds this cola back in the reference
time of the narrative whereas the present moves the reference time of
the narrative forward. Cola 3 consists of three clauses. The first
represents two events linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’ which are
expressed by the preterite ‘went’ and ‘hauled’. The second and the third
represent two states expressed by the preterite ‘were’ and ‘was’. The
preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola
4 consists of three clauses. The first represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb tense is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which
grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative. The reported
clause represents a commandment expressed by the present imperative
‘come and have’. The present moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. The reported commandment is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The second clause begins with the continuative and
transitional conjunct ‘now’ which links this event with the previous one.
It represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘dared’. The third
clause represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘knew’. The
preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. They
are temporally juxtaposed. Cola 5 represents three juxtaposed events
linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’ are expressed by the preterite
‘came’, ‘took’, and ‘gave’. The preterite grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative. Cola 6 consists of three clauses. The first
which is the superclause represents a state expressed by the preterite
‘was’. The second and the third are two successive clauses of ‘that
clause’ which is embedded in the first one. They represent two events
linked by the connective ‘after’. The first is expressed by the preterite
passive ‘was revealed’ and the second is expressed by the preterite
passive ‘was raised’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference
time of the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the fourth paragraph consists of three clauses. The first
clause represents a succession of two temporally sequenced events
linked by the subordinator ‘when’. The first is expressed by the preterite
perfect ‘had finished’ whereas the second is expressed by the preterite
‘said’. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative. The residue is a reported quotation of Jesus (PBUH) question
to Simon Peter expressed by the present interrogative ‘do live’. The
present moves the reference time of the narrative forward. It is
temporally adjacent to the first part of this cola. The second clause
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative. The reported clause is expressed by the present ‘know and
love’ which moves the reference time of the narrative. It is temporally
adjacent to the reporting verb. The third clause represents, also, a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite
‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative. The
reported clause represents commandment expressed by the present
imperative ‘feed’ which moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. It is temporally adjacent to the reported verbs. Cola 2 consists
of three clauses. Each verb of the reporting verb is expressed by the
preterite          ‘said’         which           grounds           them
back in the reference time of the narrative. The reported clause of the
first one is expressed by the present interrogative ‘do love’, whereas the
reported clause of the second one is expressed by the present ‘know’
and ‘love’, and the reported clause of the third one is expressed by the
present imperative ‘tend’ representing a commandment. The present
moves the reference time of the narrative forward. Each of the reported
clauses is temporally adjacent to its reporting verb. They are temporally
juxtaposed events. Cola 3 consists of four clauses. The first clause
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative. The reported represents a question expressed by the present
interrogative ‘do love’ which moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. It is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The second one
represents two events: the first is expressed by the preterite passive
‘was grieved’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative; the second is included within the first which represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite
‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the reported is expressed by the present interrogative ‘do love’
which moves the reference time of the narrative forward. It is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The third clause begins with
the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this clause with the previous
one. It represents, also, a reporting event in which the reporting verb is
expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the reference
time of the narrative whereas the reported clauses represent three
events expressed by the present ‘know’, ‘ know’ and ‘love’ which moves
the     reference       time      of     the      narrative      forward.
They are temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The fourth
clause represents, also, a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back
in the reference time of the narrative whereas the reported is expressed
by the present imperative ‘feed’ which moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. This
cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 4 consists of
six clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the present ‘say’
which moves the reference time of the narrative. The second begins
with the subordinator ‘when’ which links two temporally sequenced
clauses in which the first represents a state in the preterite ‘were’
whereas the second represents three events expressed by the preterite
‘girded’, ‘walked’ and ‘would’. The preterite grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative. The third clause begins with the
continuative and adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links this clause with
the previous one. It also represents a succession of two temporally
sequenced clauses linked by the subordinator ‘when’ in which the first
represents a state expressed by ‘are’ whereas the second represents a
prospective event expressed by the present form ‘will stretch’. The
present as well as the present form ‘will stretch’ move the reference
time of the narrative forward. They are temporally adjacent to the
previous clause. The sixth clause begins with the continuative and
additive conjunct ‘and’ which links this clause with the previous one. It
represents two events; the first is expressed by the present form ‘will
gird and carry’ whereas the second is expressed by the present negative
‘do not wish’. The present form ‘will gird and carry’ as well as the
present move the reference time of the narrative forward. It is
temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 5 begins with the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the
previous ones. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is the preterite ‘said’ which grounds this cola back in the reference
time of the narrative. The reported clause represents a commandment
which is expressed by the present imperative ‘follow’ which moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. It is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb.

      Cola 1 in the fifth paragraph consists of three clauses. The first
represents two juxtaposed events linked by the additive conjunct ‘and’
in which the first is expressed by the preterite ‘turned’ and ‘saw’ which
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. The second
represents an event expressed by the preterite perfect ‘had lain’ which
grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative. It is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one. The third is linked by the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ with the previous one. It represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite perfect ‘had said’
whereas the reported clause is expressed by the present ‘is’ the present
progressive ‘is going’ and the infinitive ‘to betray’. The present and the
present progressive move the reference time of the narrative forward.
The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reported verb. Cola 2
consists of two temporally sequenced clauses linked by the subordinator
‘when’ in which the first represents an event expressed by the preterite
‘saw’ whereas the second represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back
in the reference time of the narrative. The reported represents a
verbless interrogative clause. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the
previous one. Cola 3 represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is expressed by the preterite ‘said’ which grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative whereas the reported clauses are
expressed by the present ‘is’ and the present imperative ‘follow’ moves
the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clauses are
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. This cola is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 4 consists of three clauses. The
first represents an event expressed by the preterite ‘spread’. The second
represents an event expressed by the preterite negative ‘did not say’.
The third begins with the adversative and continuative conjunct ‘but’; it
represents a condition which begins with the conditional ‘if’ in which
both clauses are expressed by the present ‘is’. It is temporally adjacent
to the previous clauses. The preterite grounds the event back in the
reference time of the narrative whereas the present moves the
reference time of the narrative forward.

      The sixth paragraph consists of one cola. It consists of three
clauses. The first represents a state expressed by the present ‘is’ and an
event expressed by the present progressive ‘is bearing’. They are
temporally juxtaposed. The second clause represents an event
expressed by the present perfect ‘has written’. It is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one. The third clause represents an event
expressed by the present ‘know’. It is temporally juxtaposed with the
second one. The present and the present perfect move the reference
time of the narrative forward.

      The seventh paragraph consists of one cola. It begins with the
adversative and continuative conjunct ‘but’ which links this cola with the
previous one. It consists of three clauses. The first represents a state
expressed by the present ‘is’. The second represents an event expressed
by the present passive ‘be written’. It is temporally juxtaposed with the
first one. the third clause represents an event expressed by the present
‘suppose’. It is, also, temporally juxtaposed with the second. The present
moves the reference time of the narrative forward.

         To sum, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 16
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite, the preterite progressive,
and the preterite perfect to the present, the present progressive and the
present perfect have been observed.




Text 5

Anecdote: The Apostles before the Council

Original Speaker: Jesus Christ (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Disciples, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: One of the Apostles

Paragraph Number           Cola Number                  Tense     Tense Shift

1                      1                       Pret.Prog. and

                                               Preterite

                       2                       Preterite        Present

                       3                                        Present

                       4                                        Present

                       5                       Preterite

                       6                       Preterite

2                      1                       Preterite
3                  1                  Preterite

                   2                  Preterite

                   3                  Preterite

                   4                  Preterite            Present Perf.

                   5                  Preterite

                   6                  Preterite            Present

                   7                                       Present    Perf.
                                                           Present

                   8                  Preterite



Discussion


       Cola 1 of the first paragraph is the inception of this anecdote in
which the textual orientation of the reference time of this text is
established by the use of the preterite tense. It grounds this anecdotal
text back in the reference time of the narrative. It begins with the
continuative and transitional conjunct ‘now’ which links this anecdote
with the previous one of this book. It consists of three clauses. The first
two represent a succession of two temporally sequenced events linked
by the subordinator ‘when’ in which the first is expressed by the
preterite progressive whereas the second is expressed by the preterite
‘murmured’. The third clause represents an event expressed by the
preterite passive ‘were neglected’. It is temporally juxtaposed with the
first two ones. The preterite and the preterite progressive ground them
back in the reference time of the narrative. Cola 2 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It
consists of two clauses. The first represents an event expressed by the
preterite ‘summoned’ whereas the second represents a reporting event
in which the reporting verb is the preterite ‘said’ and the reported clause
represents a state in the present negative ‘is not’. The preterite grounds
them back in the reference time of the narrative while the present
moves the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clause
is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. Cola 3 represents a
commandment expressed by the present imperative ‘pick out’ which
moves the reference time of the narrative forward. It is temporally
juxtaposed with the reported clause of the previous cola. Cola 4 begins
with the continuative conjunct ‘but’ which links this cola with the
previous one. It represents a prospective event expressed by the present
form ‘will devote’ which moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. It is temporally juxtaposed with the previous cola. Cola 5 begins
with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the
previous one. It consists of two clauses. The first represents an event
expressed by the preterite ‘pleased’ and the second represents an event
expressed by the preterite ‘chose’. The preterite grounds them back in
the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed.
Cola 6 consists of two clauses. The first represents an event expressed
by the preterite ‘set’ and the second represents two juxtaposed events
expressed by the preterite ‘prayed’ and ‘laid’. The preterite grounds
them back in the reference time of the narrative. This cola is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one.

      The second paragrpah consists of one cola. It begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links it with the previous one. It
consists of three clauses. Each of which begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links each one of them with the one before it. The
first and the second represent two events expressed by the preterite
‘increased’ and ‘multiplied’ whereas the third represents a state in the
preterite expressed by ‘were’. These three clauses are temporally
juxtaposed. The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative.

      Cola 1 in the third paragraph begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It represents
an event expressed by the preterite ‘did’ which grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative. Cola 2 begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘then’ which links temporally this cola with the previous one. it
represents two events expressed by the preterite ‘arose’ and ‘disputed’.
The preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.
This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 3 begins
with the continuative and adversative conjunct ‘but’ which links this cola
with the previous one. It represents an event expressed by the preterite
negative ‘could not withstand’. The preterite grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative. It is temporally juxtaposed with the
previous one. Cola 4 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘then’ which
links this cola with the previous one. It represents two events. The first is
expressed by the preterite ‘instigated’ whereas the second represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite
‘said’ whereas the reported clause is expressed by the present perfect
‘have heard’. The preterite grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative while the present perfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. Cola 8 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which
links this cola with the previous one. It represents four successive events
expressed by the preterite ‘stirred up’, ‘came’, ‘seized’, and ‘brought’.
They are linked by the continuative and additive conjunct ‘and’. The
preterite grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. It is
temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 6 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the previous one. It
represents two events. The first is expressed by the preterite ‘set up’
which grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative and the
second represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is
expressed by the preterite ‘said’ whereas the reported clause is
expressed by the present negative ‘never ceases to speak’ which moves
the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. This cola is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 7 represents three events. The
first is expressed by the present perfect ‘have heard’ whereas the
second is expressed by the present form ‘will destroy’ and the third is
linked with the second by the additive and continuative conjunct ‘and’ is
expressed by the present form ‘will change’. The present perfect and the
present forms ‘will+v.’ move the reference time of the narrative
forward. This cola is temporally juxtaposed with the previous one. Cola 8
begins with the continuative conjunct ‘and’ which links this cola with the
previous one. It represents three events and a state. The first event is
expressed by the non-finite ‘gazing’ whereas the second is expressed by
the preterite ‘sat’ and the third is expressed by the preterite ‘saw’
whereas the state is expressed by the preterite ‘was’. The preterite
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.
         To brief the discussion, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows
that 6 occurrences in tense shift from the preterite and the preterite
progressive to the present and the present perfect have been observed.




3.3 The Analysis of Prophetic Traditions Texts

Text 1

Anecdote: /xuluudu ?ahlil d annati wa ?ahlin naar/

Original Speaker: Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Companions, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: at-Tirmidhi

Paragraph Number            Clause             Tense              Tense Shift
                            Number


1                       1             Preterite (perfect)

                        2             Preterite (perfect)    Present (imperfect)

                        3             Preterite (perfect)

                        4             Preterite (perfect)

                        5             Preterite (perfect)    Present (imperfect)

                        6             Preterite (perfect)    Present (imperfect)

                        7             Preterite (perfect)

                        8             Preterite (perfect)

                        9             Preterite (perfect)    Present (imperfect)
                   10           Preterite (perfect)   Present (imperfect)

                   11           Preterite (perfect)   Present (imperfect)

                   12           Preterite (perfect)

Discussion

       Clause 1 is the inception of this anecdote in which the textual
orientation of the reference time of this text is established by the use of
the preterite (perfect) tense. It grounds this anecdotal text back in the
reference time of the narrative. It represents a reporting event in which
the reporting verb is expressed by the preterite (perfect) ‘qaala’ whereas
the reported clauses represent a succession of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the subordinator (particle) ‘lammaa’ in
which the first event is expressed by the perfect ‘xalaqa’ whereas the
second is expressed by the perfect ‘?arsala’. The perfect grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative. The reported clauses are
temporally juxtaposed with the reporting verb. Clause 2 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘fa’. It represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported
clauses represent two temporally juxtaposed events in which the first is
expressed by the present (imperfect) imperative ‘?un ur’ whereas the
second is expressed by the perfect ‘?a‫؟‬dadtu’. The perfect grounds it
back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves
the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. Clause 3 represents, also, a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaala’ whereas the reported clauses represent a series of three
temporally juxtaposed events expressed by the perfect ‘fad aa?ahaa’
which begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this event
with the previous one ‘na   ara’ and ‘?a‫ ؟‬adda’. The perfect grounds it
back in the reference time of the narrative. The reported clauses are
temporally juxtaposed with the reporting verb. Clause 4 represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is expressed
by the perfect ‘fard a‫؟‬a aosho oi sii aswo woi hbiwsicwwsni hbihcihw ‘fa’
wosi iniiw aswo woi w insbci bii aosho hsihi . oi wi iihw      bciti sw owhh
si woi iii iihi wsii bi woi iw wwsni . The reported clause is temporally
juxtaposed with reporting verb. Clause 5 is a reporting event in which
the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the
reported clauses represent a series of four events. The first is expressed
by the imperfect negative ‘ laa jasma‫؟‬u’; the second is expressed by the
perfect ‘daxalahaa’ ; the third begins with the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘fa’ which links this event with the pervious one, it is expressed
by the perfect ‘?amara’; and the fourth begins with the continuative and
additive conjunct ‘fa’, it is expressed by the perfect passive ‘huffat’.

The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative.
These events are temporally juxtaposed. Clause 6 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause with the previous one.
It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed
by the perfect “qaala’ whereas the reported clauses represent a series of
three events in which the first two are expressed by the imperfect
imperative ‘?ird i‫ ’؟‬and ‘?un ur’ linked by the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘fa’ and the third event is expressed by the perfect ‘?a‫؟‬dadtu’.
The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. The reported clauses, here, are temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. Clause 7 represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported
clauses consist of two events. The first begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘fa’ is expressed by the perfect ‘rad a‫؟‬a’ whereas the second is
expressed by the perfect passive ‘huffat’. The perfect grounds them back
in the reference time of the narrative. They are temporally juxtaposed.
Clause 5 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause
with the previous one. It represents two events: the first is expressed by
the perfect ‘rad a‫؟‬a’ whereas the second represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ which begins
with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’ and the reported clause
represents two events: the first is expressed by the perfect ‘xiftu’
whereas the second is expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laa
jadxulahaa’. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. They are temporally juxtaposed events. Clause 9
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clauses represent four events:
the first is expressed by the imperfect-imperative ‘?i hab’; the second
begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’ which links this
event with the first one, it is expressed by the imperfect imperative ‘?un
ur’; the third event is expressed by the perfect ‘?a‫؟‬dadtu’; and the fourth
event is expressed by the imperfect ‘jarkabu’. The perfect grounds them
back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves
the reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clauses are
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. Cola 10 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause with the previous one.
It represents two events: the first is expressed by the perfect ‘rad a‫؟‬a’
and the second represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb
is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ which begins with the continuative
and additive conjunct ‘fa’ and the reported clauses represent four
events. The first is expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laa jasma‫؟‬u’; the
second is expressed by the imperfect ‘jadxulahaa’ which begins with the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’; the third is expressed by the
perfect ‘?amara’ which begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’; and
the fourth event is expressed by the perfect passive ‘huffat’ which
begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’. The imperfect
moves the reference time of the narrative forward whereas the perfect
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. Clause 11
begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause with the
previous one. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb
is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is
expressed          by          the          imperfect          imperative
‘?ird i‫ .’؟‬The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting
verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. Clause 12 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links
this clause with the previous one. It represents two events. The first is
expressed by the perfect ‘rad a‫؟‬a’ and the second represents a reporting
event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’
which begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’. The
reported clauses represent three events: the first is expressed by the
perfect ‘xa iitu’; the second is expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laa
jand uu’; and the third is expressed by the perfect ‘daxalahaa’. The
perfect grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative
forward.
         To sum, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 6
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite (perfect) to the present
(imperfect) have been observed.



Text 2

Anecdote: /?ihtid aad ul d annati wan naari/

Original Speaker: Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Companions, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: at-Tirmidhi

Paragraph Number        Clause Number           Tense               Tense Shift


1                       1                Preterite (perfect)

                        2                Preterite (perfect) Present
                                                               (imperfect)

                        3                Preterite (perfect) Present
                                                               (imperfect)

                        4                Preterite (perfect) Present(imperfect)

                        5                Preterite (perfect) Present
                                                               (imperfect)

Discussion

         Clause 1 is the inception of this anecdote in which the textual
orientation of the reference time of this text is established by the use of
the perfect. It grounds the anecdotal text back in the reference time of
the narrative. It represents an event expressed by the perfect ‘?ihtad d
at’. Clause 2 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this
clause with the first one. It represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaalat’ whereas the reported
clause is expressed by the imperfect ‘jadxulunii’. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 3 begins with the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘wa’ which links this clause with the


second one. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb
is expressed by the perfect ‘qaalat’ whereas the reported clause is
expressed by the imperfect ‘jadxulunii’. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 4 begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause with the previous one.
It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed
by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is expressed by the
imperfect ‘?antaqimu’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative   whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 5 begins with the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘wa’ which links this clause with the previous one. It represents
a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is expressed by the imperfect
‘?arhamu’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting
verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. Each clause is temporally juxtaposed with the one before it.

         In short, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 4
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite (perfect) to the present
(imperfect) have been observed.

Text 3

Anecdote: /linaari nafsajn /

Original Speaker: Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Companions, Followers, and Supporters




Narrator: at-Tirmidhi

Paragraph Number        Clause       Tense                   Tense Shift
                        Number


1                       1            Preterite (perfect)

                        2            Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                        3            Preterite (perfect)

                        4            Preterite (perfect)

                        5            Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                        6                                    Present (imperfect)

                        7                                    Present (imperfect)

                        8            Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)
                   9                                   Present (imperfect)

                   10                                  Present (imperfect)



Discussion
      Clause 1 is the inception of this anecdote in which the textual
orientation of the reference time of this text is established by the use of
the perfect tense. It grounds this anecdotal text back in the reference
time of the narrative. It represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported
clauses represent two events expressed by the perfect ‘daxalaa’ and ‘?i
tadda’. The reported clauses are temporally juxtaposed with the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. Clause 2 represents a reporting event that begins with the
continuative conjunct ‘fa’; the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is expressed by the imperfect
imperative ‘?axrid uhumaa’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent
to                                                                     the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 3 represents a succession of two temporally
sequenced events linked by the particle (subordinator) ‘lammaa’. It
begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links this clause with the
previous one. The first event is expressed by the perfect passive ‘?uxrid
aa’ and the second represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause is
expressed by the perfect ‘?i tadda’. The reported clause is temporally
adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 4 represents a reporting
event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’
whereas the reported clause is expressed by the perfect ‘fa‫؟‬alnaa’ and
the imperfect ‘tarhamanaa’. The perfect grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb.       Clause 5 represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaala’ whereas The reported clause represents two events and a state.
The first event is expressed by the imperfect ‘tantaliqaa’ whereas the
second begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which is expressed by
the imperfect ‘tulqijaa’. The state is expressed by the perfect
‘kuntumaa’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting
verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 6 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’
which links this clause with the previous one. It represents three events:
the first is expressed by the imperfect ‘fajantaliqaan’, the second begins
with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’ and is expressed by the
imperfect ‘julqii’, the third begins with the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘fa’ is expressed by the imperfect ‘jad ‫؟‬aluhaa’. This clause is
temporally adjacent to the previous one. The imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 7 begins with the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘wa’. It represents two events in
which the first is expressed by the imperfect ‘jaquumu’ and the second is
expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laajulqii’. This clause is temporally
juxtaposed with the previous one. The imperfect moves the reference
time of the narrative forward. Clause 8 begins with the continuative
conjunct ‘fa’ and it represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is expressed by the imperfect ‘jaquulu’ whereas the reported clause
represents three events: the first is expressed by the perfect ‘mana‫؟‬aka’,
and the second is expressed by the imperfect ‘tulqii’, and the third is
expressed by the perfect ‘?alqaa’. The perfect grounds them back in the
reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 9 represents a reporting
event that begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the imperfect ‘jaquulu’ whereas the
reported clause represents three events expressed by the imperfect
‘?ard uu’, the imperfect negative ‘laatu‫؟‬iidanii’, and the perfect ‘?axrad
tanii’. The imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative forward.
Clause 10 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ and it represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the
imperfect ‘jaquulu’ whereas the reported clause begins with the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’, it represents an event expressed
by the imperfect ‘jadxulaani’. The imperfect moves the reference time of
the narrative forward. This clause is temporally juxtaposed with the
previous one.



      To sum, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 7
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite (perfect) to the present
(imperfect) have been observed.
Text 4

Anecdote:         /?istikmaalul       ?iimaani        wa     zijaadatuhu      wa
nuqsaanuhu/

Original Speaker: Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Companions, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: at-Tirmidhi

    Paragraph           Clause              Tense              Tense Shift
     Number             Number


1                   1               Preterite (perfect)

                    2               Preterite (perfect) Present (imperfect)

                    3               Preterite (perfect)

                    4               Preterite (perfect) Present (imperfect)

                    5               Preterite (perfect)

                    6               Preterite (perfect)

                    7               Preterite (perfect) Present (imperfect)



Discussion

         Clause 1 is the inception of this anecdote in which the textual
orientation of the reference time of this text is established by the use of
the perfect tense. It grounds this anecdotal text back in the reference
time of the narrative. It represents two events: the first is expressed by
the perfect ‘xataba’ and the second begins with the continuative and
additive conjunct ‘fa’ which links this event with the first one. It is
expressed by the perfect ‘wa‫؟‬a ahum’. They are temporally juxtaposed.
Clause 2 begins with the additive particle (conjunct) ‘       umma’; it
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause represents an event
expressed by the perfect imperative ‘tasaddaqna’. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time forward. Clause 3 begins with the continuative conjunct
‘fa’ which links this clause with the previous one. It represents a
reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect
‘qaalat’ whereas the reported clause represents a question expressed by
the perfect tense. The reported clause is temporally juxtaposed with the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. Clause 4 represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the pefect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported
represents a nominal clause. The perfect grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative. Clause 5 represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ and the
reported clause represents an event expressed by the perfect negative
‘maa ra?ajtu’. The reported clause is temporally juxtaposed with the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative. Clause 6 represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaalat’ and the reported
represents a question expressed by the perfect tense. The reported
question is temporally juxtaposed with the reporting verb. The perfect
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative. Clause 7
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the perfect ‘qaala’ and the reported clause represents two events: the
first is expressed by the imperfect ‘tamku                   u’ and the second is
expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laatusallii’. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reported verb. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward.

         In brief, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that 3
occurrences in tense shift from the preterite (perfect) to the present
(imperfect) have been observed.



Text 5

Anecdote: /hurmatus salaat/

Original Speaker: Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Original Hearer: His Companions, Followers, and Supporters

Narrator: at-Tirmidhi

Paragraph Number         Clause      Tense                      Tense Shift
                        Number


          1                 1        Preterite (perfect)

                            2        Preterite (perfect)        Present (imperfect)

                            3        Preterite (perfect)        Present (imperfect)

                            4        Preterite (perfect)        Present (imperfect)

                            5        Preterite (perfect)
                       6       Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                       7       Preterite (perfect)

                       8       Preterite (perfect)

                       9       Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                       10      Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                       11      Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                       12      Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)

                       13      Preterite (perfect)     Present (imperfect)



Discussion

       Clause 1 is the inception of this anecdote in which the textual
orientation of the reference time of this text is established by the use of
the perfect. It grounds the anecdotal text back in the reference time of
the narrative. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb
is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause
represents a state and two events. The state is expressed by the perfect
‘kuntu’; the first event is expressed by the perfect ‘?asbahtu’ which
begins with the continuative and additive conjunct ‘fa’ which links this
event with the previous state; the second event is expressed by the
imperfect ‘nasiiru’. The reported clause is temporally juxtaposed with
the reporting verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time
of the narrative. Clause 2 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’
which links this clause with the first one. It represents a reporting event
in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qultu’ and the
reported clause represents three events: the first is expressed by the
imperfect imperative (a request) ‘?axbirnii’, the second is expressed by
the imperfect passive ‘judxilanii’; and the third is expressed by the
imperfect passive ‘jubaa‫؟‬idunii’ which is linked with the second event by
the use of the continuative and additive conjunct ‘wa’. The reported
clause here is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect
grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 3
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause represents eight events: the first is
expressed by the perfect ‘sa?altanii’; the second is expressed by the
imperfect ‘jassarahu’; the third is expressed by the imperfect ‘ta‫؟‬budu’;
the fourth is expressed by the imperfect negative ‘laa tu rik’; the fifth is
expressed by the imperfect ‘tuqiimu’; the sixth is expressed by the
imperfect ‘tu?tii’; the seventh is expressed by the imperfect ‘tasuuma’;
and     the      eighth     is    expressed       by     the     imperfect
‘tahud a’. These events (commandments) are linked by the use of the
continuative and additive conjunct ‘wa’. The reported clauses are
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 4 is linked with the third
by the use of the continuative and additive conjunct ‘           umma’. It
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause represents three events:
the first is expressed by the imperfect ‘?adullaka’; the second is
expressed by the imperfect ‘tutfi?u’; and the third is expressed by the
imperfect ‘jutfi?u’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 5 represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ and the reported
clause is linked with the reporting verb by the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘ umma’. The reported clause represents four events: the first
is expressed by the perfect ‘talaa’; the second is expressed by the
imperfect ‘tatad aafaa’; the third is expressed by the perfect ‘bala a’;
and the fourth is expressed by the imperfect ‘ja‫؟‬maluuna’. The perfect
grounds them back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 6 is
linked with the fifth one by the use of the continuative and additive
conjunct ‘ umma’. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting
verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ and the reported clause is
expressed by the imperfect ‘?uxbiruka’. The reported clause is
temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in
the reference time of the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the
reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 7 represents a reporting
event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qultu’ and
the reported is a nominal clause. The perfect grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative. Clause 8 represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the
reported represents a nominal clause. The perfect grounds it back in the
reference time of the narrative. Clause 9 begins with the continuative
and additive conjunct ‘ umma’ which links this clause with the previous
one. It represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is
expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’ and the reported clause is expressed by
the imperfect ‘?uxbiruka’. the reported clause is temporally adjacent to
the reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of
the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 10 represents a reporting event in which the
reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qultu’ whereas the reported
clause represents an event expressed by the perfect ‘?axa a’ which is
linked with the reporting verb by the continuative conjunct ‘fa’. The
reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb. The perfect
grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative whereas the
imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative forward. Clause 11
represents a reporting event in which the reporting verb is expressed by
the perfect ‘qaala’ whereas the reported clause represents an event
expressed     by    the     imperfect     imperative     (a    command)
‘kuffa’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the reporting verb.
The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the narrative
whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the narrative
forward. Clause 12 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’ which links
this clause with the previous one. It represents a reporting event in
which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qultu’ whereas the
reported clause represents an event expressed by the imperfect
‘natakallamu’. The reported clause is temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds it back in the reference time of the
narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward. Clause 13 begins with the continuative conjunct ‘fa’
which links this clause with the previous one. It represents a reporting
event in which the reporting verb is expressed by the perfect ‘qaala’
whereas the reported clauses represent two events expressed by the
perfect ‘ akilatka’ and the imperfect ‘jakubbu’. They are temporally
juxtaposed. The reported clauses are temporally adjacent to the
reporting verb. The perfect grounds them back in the reference time of
the narrative whereas the imperfect moves the reference time of the
narrative forward.

To sum the discussion up, the analysis of this anecdotal text shows that
9 occurrences in tense shift from the preterite (perfect) to the present
(imperfect) have been observed.
                        Notes to Chapter Three



1- (a) New Testament, like Old Testament, contains a number of books,
  each of which carries a name or a title which refers to either its
  narrator (teller or relator) or to whom it is narrated/addressed. Each
  book, in turn, enfolds a number of anecdotes. The present study
  draws its texts from the Revised Standard Version (henceforth, RSV)
  1952, since it is considered to be much more accurate by the National
  Council of Churches. It is very readable translation in many Protestant
  denominations today. Yet there are new releases of the RSV (Nelson
  and Sons, 1952: x).



   (b) New Testament, originally, was written in common (Koine) Greek.
  Thus, fair knowledge of tense in Greek is of significance for both the
  researcher as well as the scholar of the NT Greek and of the NT English
  afterwards. Tense plays a very crucial role in the study of NT. Dana and
  Mantey (1987) state that ‘no element of the Greek language is of more
  importance to the researcher/scholar of the NT than the matter of
  tense”. In Greek, tense refers to both ‘time’ and ‘Aktionsart’ i.e. (kind of
  action). Tense denotes time designating three domains: past, present
  and future. It denotes Aktionsart designating three kinds of verb’s
  actions: punctitiar, linear, and perfected. Greek focuses more on the
  latter of these two aspects. In Greek, ‘time’ is also indicated by tense,
  but only absolutely so in the indicative mood. There are; therefore,
  three fundamental tenses in Greek: the present, representing
   continuous action; the perfect, representing completed action; and the
   aorist, representing indefinite or undefined action. With the indicative
   mood, this last tense is often best translated into English as a simple past
   (the preterite) (ibid.).

2- Prophetic Traditions (Hadiths) of the present study are drawn from,
   mainly, at-Tirmidhi.



3- A clause may be grammatically subordinate to another yet
   semantically of equal, or even greater prominence.



4- J.P. Louw ‘Discourse and the Greek New Testament’, BT 24 (1973),
   pp.101-18.
                            CHAPTER FOUR

     CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND
           PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS, AND
         SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES



   4.0 Preliminary Notes

         Throughout the previous three chapters various issues have been
   considered. The aim of this chapter is to bring the various threads
   together in an attempt to outline the general conclusions drawn from in
   this study. It also sheds light on the pedagogical implications and the
   suggestions outlined in sections 4.2 and 4.3.




   4.1 Conclusions

1- The preterite (perfect) tense is utilized most frequently in both of the
   NT and PT texts. It is regarded as the ‘default tense’ of the narratives.
2- Because of its bounded and compact nature, the preterite (perfect)
   tense is used in both of the NT and PT texts to narrate events/states
   that happened and were completed in the past. This confirms
   hypothesis No.1 and No.2 together.
3- The preterite (perfect) tense is used in both of the NT and PT texts to
   express sequentiality and juxtaposition of past events in conjunction
   with the subordinators and connectives.
4- The preterite (perfect) tense in both of the NT and PT texts has a
   temporal cohesive function in grounding narrative clauses in the
   reference time of the narrative, and therefore, the sequence of those
   narrative clauses iconically reflects the sequence of events/states
   that actually occurred at the time of the event/state. This verifies
   hypothesis No.2.
5- The preterite (perfect) tense in both of the NT and PT texts facilitate
   the chronological representation of temporally ordered narrative
   clauses which represent bounded and complete events/states, so
   that the narrative clauses are able to be ordered in such a way that
   each event (represented by a narrative clause) is understood to have
   occurred after the one preceding it, and before the one following it.
6- The preterite (perfect) tense in both of the NT and PT texts grounds
   the information viz. (the events/states) presented in the narrative
   clause(s) back. This validates hypothesis No.2.
7- The present (imperfect) tense is utilized in both of the NT and PT
   texts in direct speech as well as in the quoted/reported speech
   (narrated events/states).
8- The ‘historic present’ that alternates with the preterite (perfect) in
   expressing past events is used in both of the NT and PT texts. It is
   regarded as the ‘historic tense’.
9- The ‘historic present’ is used in both of the NT and PT texts to
   highlight distinct events/states that occur throughout the narrative,
   and it helps the text progress chronologically forward through time.
   Thus, it grounds the information presented in the narrative clause(s)
   forward. This verifies hypothesis No.2.
10- The present (imperfect) tense is used in both of the NT and PT texts
   to present information in an immediate, atemporal context without
   the personal attachment of the first-person narrative voice to
   personalize the generic truths it relates to the reader/hearer.
11- The present (imperfect) tense has a non-chronological nature which
   allows the events/states it relates to appear open to repeated
   viewing by the reader/hearer of the NT and PT texts, and the
   timelessness of the information presented in the present
   (imperfective) tense appears to make the information more
   ‘important’ to any individual and not just a specific individual (for
   example, a narrator retelling events/states that denote significance
   or eternal truthfulness) because the information appears important
   not only in the moment it is being read/heard by the reader/hearer,
   but at any moment, whether it be the present, the past, or the
   future.
12- The present (imperfect) tense removes the focus from temporal
   sequencing in a text and is used as marker of immediate situations, in
   which the relaying of generic information is deemed more important
   than the communicating of specific, story-like information.
13- Both the preterite perfect and the present perfect tenses are used in
   the NT texts, though infrequently, to narrate events located prior to
   the reference point in question. Yet, the former grounds the
   information presented in the narrative clauses backward whereas the
   latter grounds the information presented in the narrative clauses
   forward.
14- The progressive (the preterite and the present) tenses are used in
    the NT texts to narrate durational events whether these events have
    limited duration or not, the former is used in background information
    whereas the latter is used in foreground information.
15- It is, only, in the NT texts that the present form of the auxiliaries
    ‘will’ and ‘shall’ are used to express futurity, prospectiveness and
    expectancy in the past and in commandments.
16- In addition to its contributory role in maintaining textual cohesion
    and progression of temporal reference of the narrative/anecdotal
    text, verb tense has a role as a signalling device of projection.

    4.2 Recommendations and Pedagogical Implications

(i) Since verb tense plays a vital and pivotal role not only in building up the
    sentences and connecting the sentences of the text with each other but
    also in the process of interpretation of the text, it is advisable to include
    in the curriculum of teaching literature fairly short sample texts
    according to which the role of verb tense in cohesion is elaborately
    discussed. It is recommended that the samples should be short so that
    the discussion can be manageable; verb tense role in cohesion is often
    subtle and may not be easily grasped within a classroom setting if the
    text is too large.
(ii) The procedure advocated in the recommendations above is also
    applicable to teaching reading comprehension to students of English at
    the early undergraduate levels.



    4.3 Suggestions for Further Studies
   Further studies are necessary to investigate the following:

(i) The correlation between verb tense and cohesion in two completely
   different genres such as essay writing and poetry.
(ii) The correlation between verb tense and speech representation in novels
   and plays to reveal how this linguistic phenomenon supports these
   genres.
(iii) The role of verb tense in sustaining texture of description on the one
   hand, and dialogue on the other.
                    / xuluudu ?ahlil dzannati wa ?ahlin naar /




/ haddaOanaa ?abuu kurajb haddaOanaa ‫؟‬abda bnu sulajmaana ‫؟‬an
muhammadi bni ‫؟‬amruu haddaOanaa ?abuu salamata ‫؟‬an ?abii hurajrata
‫؟‬an rasuulil laahi sallal laahu ‫؟‬alajhi wa sallam qaala lamaa xalaqal laahul
dzannata wan naara ?arsala dzibriilu ?ilal dzannati faqaala ?un ur
?ilajhaa wa ?ilaa maa ?a‫؟‬dadtu li?ahlihaa fiihaa qaala fadzaa?ahaa wa
na ara ?ilajhaa wa ?ilaa maa ?a ‫؟‬addal laahu li?ahlihaa fiihaa qaala
faradza‫؟‬a ?ilajhi qaala fawa‫؟‬izzatika laa jasma‫؟‬u bihaa ?ahadun ?illaa
daxalahaa fa?amara bihaa fahuffat bilmakaarihi faqaala ?irdzi‫? ؟‬ilajhaa
fan ur ?ilaa maa ?a‫؟‬dadtu li?ahlihaa fiihaa qaala faradza‫؟‬a ?ilajhaa fa?i aa
hija qad huffat bilmakaarihi faradza‫؟‬a ?ilajhi faqaala wa ‫؟‬izzatika laqad
xiftu ?an laa jadxulahaa ?ahadun qaala ?i hab ?ilan naari fan ur ?ilajhaa
wa ?ilaa maa ?a‫؟‬dadtu li?ahlihaa fiihaa fa?i aa hija jarkabu ba‫؟‬duhaa
ba‫؟‬dan faradza‫؟‬a ?ilajhi faqaala wa ‫؟‬izzatika laa jasma‫؟‬u bihaa ?ahadun
fajadxulahaa fa?amara bihaa fahuffat bi ahawaati faqaala ?irdzi‫؟‬
?ilajhaa faradza‫؟‬a ?ilajhaa faqaala wa ‫؟‬izzatika laqad xa iitu ?an laa
jandzuu minhaa ?ahadun ?illaa daxalahaa /




                       /?ihtidzaadzul dzannati wan naari /




/ haddaOanaa ?abuu kurajb haddaOanaa ‫؟‬abda bnu sulajmaana ‫؟‬an
muhammadi bni ‫؟‬amruu ‫؟‬an ?abii salamata ‫؟‬an ?abii hurajrata qaala
qaala rasuulul laahi sallal laahu ‫؟‬alajhi wa sallam ?ihtadztil dzannatu wan
naaru faqaalatil dzannatu jadxulunii ?addu‫؟‬afaa?u wal masaakiinu wa
qaalatin naaru jadxulunii ?aldzabbaaruuna wal mutakabbiruuna faqaala
lin naari ?anti ‫؟‬a aabii ?antaqimu biki mimman i?tu wa qaala lildzannati
?anti rahmatii ?arhamu biki man i?tu /
                               / linaari nafsajn /


/ haddaOanaa suwajdu bnu nasr ?axbaranaa ‫؟‬abdul laahi ?axbaranaa
 ru diinu ?ibnu ?an‫؟‬uma ‫؟‬an ?abii ‫؟‬uOmaana ?annahu haddaOahu ‫؟‬an
?abii hurajrata ‫؟‬an rasuulil laahi sallal laahu ‫؟‬alajhi wa sallam qaala ?inna
radzulajni mimman daxalan naara ?i tadda sijahuhumaa faqaalar rabbu
‫؟‬azza wa dzalla ?axridzuhumaa falamaa ?uxridzaa qaala lahumaa
li?aji aj?in ?i tadda sijahukumaa qaala fa‫؟‬alnaa aalika litarhamanaa
qaala ?inna rahmatii lakumaa ?an tantaliqaa fatulqijaa ?anfusakumaa
hajOu kuntumaa minan naari fajantaliqaani fajulqii ?ahaduhumaa
nafsahu fajadz‫؟‬aluhaa ‫؟‬alajhi bardan wa salaaman wa jaquumul ?aaxaru
falaa julqii nafsahu fajaquulu lahur rabbu ‫؟‬azza wa dzalla maa mana‫؟‬aka
?an tulqija nafsaka kamaa ?alqaa saahibuka fajaquulu jaa rabbi ?innii
la?ardzuu ?an laa tu‫؟‬iidanii fiihaa ba‫؟‬da maa ?axradztani fajaquulu lahur
rabbu laka radzaa?uka fajadxulaani dzamii‫؟‬an ?aldzannata birahmatil
laahi /




              / ?istikmaalul ?iimaani wa zijaadatuhu wa nuqsaanuhu /




/ haddaOanaa ?abuu ‫؟‬abdil laah hurajmu bnu mis‫؟‬ar ?al?azdiju
?attirmi ijju haddaOanaa ‫؟‬abdul ‫؟‬aziiz binu muhammadin ‫؟‬an suhajl bni
?abii saalih ‫؟‬an ?abiihi ‫؟‬an ?abii hurajata ?anna rasuulal laahi sallal laahu
‫؟‬alajhi wa sallam xataban naasa fawa‫؟‬a ahum Oumma qaala jaa ma‫؟‬
aran nisaa?i tasaddaqna fa?innakunna ?akOaru ?ahlin naar faqaalat
?imra?atun minhunna wa limaa aaka jaa rasuulal laahi qaala likuOrati
la‫؟‬nikunna ja‫؟‬nii wa kufrakunna ?al‫؟‬a iira qaala wamaa ra?ajtu min
naqisaati ‫؟‬aqlin wa diinin ?axlaba li awil ?albaaba wa awil ra?ji minkunna
qaalat ?imra?atun minhunna wa maa nuqsaanu diinihaa wa ‫؟‬aqlihaa
qaala
  ahaadatu ?imra?atajni minkuuna bi ahaadati radzulin wa nuqsaanu
diinikunna ?alhajdatu tamkuOu ?ihdakunnaO OalaaOa wal ?arba‫؟‬a laa
tusallii /




                              / hurmatis salaat /




 / haddaOanaa ?ibnu ?abii ‫؟‬umara haddaOanaa ‫؟‬abdul laahi bnu
mu‫؟‬aa ins san‫؟‬aaniji ‫؟‬an ma‫؟‬amar ‫؟‬an ‫؟‬aasim bni ?abin nadzdzuudi ‫؟‬an
?abii waa?il ‫؟‬an mu‫؟‬aa bni dzabal qaala kuntu ma‫؟‬an nabiji sallal laahu
‫؟‬alajhi wa sallam fii safarin fa?asbahtu jawman qariiban minhu wa nahnu
nasiiru faqultu jaa rasuulal laahi ?axbirnii bi‫؟‬amalin judxilaniil dzannata
wa jubaa‫؟‬idunii ‫؟‬anin naari qaala laqad sa?altanii ‫؟‬an ‫؟‬a iimin wa ?innahu
lajasiirun ‫؟‬alaa man jassarahul laahu ‫؟‬alajhi ta‫؟‬budul laaha wa laa tu rik
bihi aj?an wa tuqiimus salaata wa tu?tiz zakaata wa tasuuma
ramadaana wa tahudzdzal bajta Oumma qaala ?alaa ?adullaka ‫؟‬alaa
abwabil xajri ?assawmu dzunnatun was sadaqatu tutfi?ul xatii?ata
kamaa                                                                jutfi?ul
maa?an naara wa salaatur radzuli min dzawfil lajli qaala Oumma talaa
tatadzaafaa dzunuubuhum ‫؟‬anil madaadzi‫ ؟‬hattaa balaxa ja‫؟‬maluuna
Oumma qaala ?alaa ?uxbiruka bira?sil ?amri kullihi wa ‫؟‬amuudihi
wa arwati sanaamihi qultu balaa jaa rasuulal laahi qaala ra?sul ?amri
?al?islaamu wa ‫؟‬amuuduhus salaatu wa arwata sanaamihil dzihaadu
Oumma qaala ?alaa ?uxbiruka bimalaaki aalika kullihi qultu balaa jaa
nabijal laahi fa?axa a bilisaanihi qaala kuffa ‫؟‬alajka haa aa faqultu jaa
nabijal laahi wa ?innaa lamu?aaxa uuna bimaa natakallamu bihi faqaala
Oakilatka ?ummuka jaa mu‫؟‬aa u wa hal jakubbun naasa fin naari ‫؟‬alaa
wudzuuhihim ?wa ‫؟‬alaa manaaxirihim ?illaa hasaa?idu ?alsinatihim /
                                Baptism of Jesus

1 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness
of Judea,2 "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 3 For this is he
                      who was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah when he said,

                              "The voice of one crying in the wilderness:

                  Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight."

      4
          Now John wore a garment of camel's hair, and a leather girdle
 around his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then went
out to him Jerusalem and all Judea and all the region about the Jordan, 6
      and they were baptized by him in the river of Jordan, confessing their
                                                                            sins.

  7
      But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sad'ducees coming
 for baptism, he said to them, "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to
  flee from the wrath to come?" 8 Bear fruit that befits repentance,9 and
 do not presume to say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father';
            for I tell you, God is able from these stones to raise up children to
 Abraham.10 Even now the axe is laid to the root of the trees; every tree
therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the
                                                                            fire.

11 "I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming
  after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry; he
 will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire.12 "His winnowing fork
  is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat
          into the granary, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire."
      13 Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be
 baptized by him.l4 John would have prevented him, saying, "I need to be
  baptized by you, and do you come to me?" 15 But Jesus answered him,
   "Let it be so now; for thus it is fitting for us to fulfil all righteousness."
        Then he consented. 16 And when Jesus was baptized, he went up
immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and
  he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him;17
and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, "This is my beloved Son, with whom
                                                           I am well pleased."

( RSV, Matthew iii: 758 )

                        The Transfiguration

 1 And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John
       his brother, and led them up a high mountain apart. 2 And he was
       transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his
 garments became white as light. 3 And behold, there appeared to them
 Moses and Eli'jah, talking with him. 4 And Peter said to Jesus, "Lord, it is
well that we are here; if you wish, I will make three booths here, one for
you and one for Moses and one for Eli'jah." 5 He was still speaking, when
  lo, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said,
  "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him." 6
    When the disciples heard this, they fell on their faces, and were filled
   with awe. 7 But Jesus came and touched them, saying, "Rise, and have
no fear." 8 And when they lifted up their eyes, they saw no one but Jesus
                                                                           only.
9 And as they were coming down the mountain, Jesus commanded
    them, "Tell no one the vision, until the Son of man is raised from the
         10
dead."    And the disciples asked him, "Then why do the scribes say that
   first Eli'jah must come?" n He replied, "Eli'jah does come, and he is to
restore all things; 12 but I tell you that Eli'jah has already come, and they
did not know him, but did to him whatever they pleased. So also the Son
 of man will suffer at their hands." 13 Then the disciples understood that
                             he was speaking to them of John the Baptist.

 14 And when they came to the crowd, a man came up to him and
    kneeling before him said,15 "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is an
epileptic and he suffers terribly; for often he falls into the fire, and often
into the water. 16 And I brought him to your disciples, and they could not
  heal him.17 And Jesus answered, " O faithless and perverse generation,
   how long am I to be with you? How long am I to bear with you? Bring
 him here to me." 18 And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon came out of
him, and the boy was cured instantly. 19 Then the disciples came to Jesus
   privately and said, "Why could we not cast it out?" 20 He said to them,
 "Because oi your little faith. For truly, I say to you, if you have faith as a
    grain of mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, 'Move hence to
  yonder place,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible to you."

 22 As they were gathering in Galilee, Jesus said to them, "The Son
of man is to be delivered into the hands of men, 23 and they will kill him,
and he will be raised on the third day." And they were greatly distressed.

    24 When they came to Caper'na-um, the collectors of the half-
    shekel tax went up to Peter and said, "Does not your teacher pay the
    tax?" 25 He said, "Yes." And when he came home, Jesus spoke to him
    first, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do kings of the
 earth take toll or tribute? From their sons or from others?" 26 And when
     he said, "From others," Jesus said to him, "Then the sons are free. 27
However, not to give offense to them, go to the sea and cast a hook, and
 take the first fish that comes up, and when you open its mouth you will
     find a shekel; take that and give it to them for me and for yourself."

( RSV, Matthew xvii: 772 )




                     The Forgiveness of Sins

   1 And when he returned to Caper'na-um after some days, it was
 reported that he was at home. 2 And many were .gathered together, so
  that there was no longer room for them, not even about the door; and
 he was preaching the word to them. 3 And they came, bringing to him a
   paralytic carried by four men. 4 And when they could not get near him
because of the crowd, they removed the roof above him; and when they
   had made an opening, they let down the pallet on which the paralytic
  lay. 5 And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, "My son,
    your sins are forgiven." 6 Now some of the scribes were sitting there,
        questioning in their hearts, 7"Why does this man speak thus? It is
    blasphemy! Who can forgive sins but God alone?" 8 And immediately
           Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they thus questioned within
  themselves, said to them, "Why do you question thus in your hearts? 9
Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven,' or to say,
  'Rise, take up your pallet and walk'? 10 But that you may know that the
       Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins"—he said to the
  paralytic 11 "I say to you, rise, take up your pallet and go home." 12 And
  he rose, and immediately took up the pallet and went out before them
  all; so that they were all amazed and ; glorified God, saying, "We never
                                                   saw anything like this!"

13 He went out again beside the sea; and all the crowd gathered
about him, and he taught them. 14 And as he passed on, he saw Levi the
son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me."
                                           And he rose and followed him.

     15 And as he sat at table in his house, many tax collectors and
    sinners were sitting with Jesus and his disciples; for there were many
   who followed him. 16 And the scribes of the Pharisees, when they saw
  that he was eating with sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples,
   "Why does he eat' with tax collectors and sinners?" 17And when Jesus
        heard it, he said to them, "Those who are well have no need of a
   physician, but those who are sick; I came not to call the righteous, but
                                                                  sinners."

18 Now John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting; and people
  came and said to him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the
 Pharisees fast, but your disciples do not fast?" 19And Jesus said to them,
    "Can the wedding guests fast while the bridegroom is with them? As
    long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20 The
     days will come, when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and
  then they will fast in that day. 21 No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth
     on an old garment; if he does, the patch tears away from it, the new
    from the old, and a worse tear is made. 22 And no one puts new wine
into old wineskins; if he does, the wine will burst the skins, and the wine
              is lost, and so are the skins, but new wine is for fresh skins."

  23 One sabbath he was going through the grainfields; and as they
     made their way his disciples began to pluck ears of grain. 24 And the
   Pharisees said to him, "Look, why are they doing what is not lawful on
 the sabbath?" 25 And he said to them, "Have you never read what David
 did, when he was in need and was hungry, he and those who were with
      him: 26 how he entered the house of God, when Abi'athar was high
  priest, and ate the bread of the Presence, which it is not lawful for any
  but the priests to eat, and also gave it to those who were with him?" 27
  And he said to them, "The sabbath was made for man, not man for the
               sabbath; 28 so the Son of man is lord even of the sabbath."

( RSV, Mark ii: 787 )




                 Jesus Appears to His Disciples

   1 After this Jesus revealed himself 1 again to the disciples by the
     Sea of Tibe'ri-as; and he revealed himself in this way. 2 Simon Peter,
      Thomas called the Twin, Nathan'a-el of Cana in Galilee, the sons of
   Zeb'edee, and two others of his disciples were together. 3Simon Peter
    said to them, "I am going fishing." They said to him, "We will go with
   you." They went out and got into the boat; but that night they caught
                                                                     nothing.

       4 Just as day was breaking, Jesus stood on the beach; yet the
  disciples did not know that it was Jesus. 5 Jesus said to them, "Children,
  have you any fish?" They answered him, "No." 6 He said to them, "Cast
       the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some." So they
cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, for the quantity of fish. 7
        That disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It is the Lord!" When
Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his clothes, for he was
stripped for work, and sprang into the sea. 8 But the other disciples came
  in the boat, dragging the net full of fish, for they were not far from the
                                        land, but about a hundred yards off.

  9 When they got out on land, they saw a charcoal fire there, with
  fish lying on it, and bread. 10 Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish
   that you have just caught." 11 So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled
 the net ashore, full of large fish, a hundred and fifty-three of them; and
although there were so many, the net was not torn.12 Jesus said to them,
"Come and have breakfast." Now none of the disciples dared to ask him,
  "Who are you?" They knew it was the Lord. 13 Jesus came and took the
bread and gave it to them, and so with the fish. I4 This was now the third
   time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples after he was raised from
                                                                    the dead.

   15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter,
 "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him,
 "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs."
  16
       A second time he said to him, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?"
       He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him,
  "Tend my sheep." 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John,
       do you love me?" Peter was grieved because he said to him the third
               time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Lord, you know
      everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my
    sheep. 18 Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you girded
   yourself and walked where you would; but when you are old, you will
  stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where
you do not wish to go." 19 (This he said to show by what death he was to
                  glorify God.) And after this he said to him, "Follow me."

  20 Peter turned and saw following them the disciple whom Jesus
loved, who had lain close to his breast at the supper and had said, "Lord,
who is it that is going to betray you?" 21 When Peter saw him, he said to
 Jesus, "Lord, what about this man?" 22 Jesus said to him, "If it is my will
     that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Follow me!" 23 The
  saying spread abroad among the brethren that this disciple was not to
  die; yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, "If it is my
                    will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?"

  24 This is the disciple who is bearing witness to these things, and
   who has written these things; and we know that his testimony is true

     25 But there are also many other things which Jesus did; were
   every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could
                            not contain the books that would be written.

( RSV, John xxi: 856 )




                  The Apostles before the Council

1 Now in these days when the disciples were increasing in number,
    the Hellenists murmured against the Hebrews because their widows
were neglected in the daily distribution. 2 And the twelve summoned the
     body of the disciples and said, "It is not right that we should give up
   preaching the word of God to serve tables. 3Therefore, brethren, pick
 out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of
       wisdom, whom we may appoint to this duty. 4 But we will devote
   ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word." 5 And what they
said pleased the whole multitude, and they chose Stephen, a man full of
    faith and of the Holy Spirit, and Philip, and Proch'-orus, and Nica'nor,
     and Timon, and Par'-menas, and Nicola'us, a proselyte of Antioch. 6
These they set before the apostles, and they prayed and laid their hands
                                                               upon them.

 7 And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples
    multiplied greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were
                                                     obedient to the faith.

    8 And Stephen, full of grace and power, did great wonders and
     signs among the people. 9 Then some of those who belonged to the
synagogue of the Freedmen (as it was called), and of the Cyre'nians, and
       of the Alexandrians, and of those from Cili'cia and Asia, arose and
 disputed with Stephen. 10 But they could not withstand the wisdom and
the Spirit with which he spoke. 11 Then they secretly instigated men, who
 said, "We have heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses and
  God." 12 And they stirred up the people and the elders and the scribes,
   and they came upon him and seized him, and brought him before the
council, l3 and set up false witnesses who said, "This man never ceases to
   speak words against this holy place and the law; 14 for we have heard
       him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will
 change the customs which Moses delivered to us." l5 And gazing at him,
 all who sat in the council saw that his face was like the face of an angel.

( RSV, Acts vi: 862 )
‫خلود اهل الجنة واهل‬
       ‫النار‬
‫3542 حدثنا أبو كريب حدثنا عبدة بتن ستليمان عتن محمتد بتن عمترو حتدثنا أبتو ستلمة عتن أبتي‬
‫هريرة عن رسول هللا صلى هللا عليه وسلم قال ثم لما خلتق هللا الجنتة والنتار أرستل جبريتل لتى‬
‫الجنة فرال أنظر ليها و لى ما أعددت ألهلها فيها قال فجاءها ونظر ليها و لى ما أعد هللا ألهلها‬
‫فيها قال فرجع ليه قال فوعزتك ال يسمع بها أحد ال دخلها فأمر بها فحفت بالمكاره فرتال ارجتع‬
‫ليها فانظر لى ما أعددت ألهلها فيها قال فرجع ليها فإذا هي قد حفت بالمكاره فرجع ليته فرتال‬
‫وعزتك لرد خفت أن ال يدخلها أحد قال اذهب لى النار فانظر ليها و لى متا أعتددت ألهلهتا فيهتا‬
‫فإذا هي يركب بعضها بعضا فرجع ليه فرال وعزتك ال يسمع بها أحتد فيتدخلها فتأمر بهتا فحفتت‬
‫بالشهوات فرال ارجع ليها فرجع ليها فرال وعزتتك لرتد خشتيت أن ال ينجتو منهتا أحتد ال دخلهتا‬
                                                         ‫قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح‬

‫رواه الترمذي ج4 ص 396‬
                                       ‫احتجاج الجنة والنار‬

‫4542 حدثنا أبو كريب حتدثنا عبتدة بتن ستليمان عتن محمتد بتن عمترو عتن أبتي ستلمة عتن أبتي‬
‫هريرة قال قال رستول هللا صتلى هللا عليته وستلم ثتم احتجتت الجنتة والنتار فرالتت الجنتة يتدخلني‬
‫الضعفاء والمساكين وقالت النار يدخلني الجبارون والمتكبرون فرتال للنتار أنتت عتذابي أنتترم بتك‬
  ‫ممن شئت وقال للجنة أنت رحمتي أرحم بك من شئت قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح‬

‫رواه الترمذي ج4 ص 494‬


                    ‫للنار نفسين‬
‫4282 حدثنا سويد بن نصر أخبرنا عبد هللا أخبرنا رشتدين حتدثني بتن نعتم عتن أبتي عثمتان أنته‬
‫حدثه عن أبي هريرة عن رسول هللا صلى هللا عليه وسلم قال ثم ن رجلين ممن دخل النار اشتد‬
‫صياحهما فرال الرب عز وجل أخرجوهما فلما أخرجا قتال لهمتا ألي شتيء اشتتد صتياحكما قتاال‬
‫فعلنا ذلك لترحمنا قال ن رحمتي لكمتا أن تنطلرتا فتلريتا أنفستكما حيتث كنتمتا متن النتار فينطلرتان‬
‫فيلرى أحدهما نفسه فيجعلها عليه بردا وسالما ويروم اآلختر فتال يلرتي نفسته فيرتول لته الترب عتز‬
‫وجل ما منعك أن تلري نفسك كما ألرى صاحبك فيرول يا رب ني ألرجو أن ال تعيتدني فيهتا بعتد‬
‫ما أخرجتني فيرول له الرب لك رجاؤك فيدخالن جميعا الجنتة برحمتة هللا قتال أبتو عيستى ستناد‬
‫هذا الحديث ضعيف ألنه عن رشدين بن سعد ورشدين بن سعد هو ضعيف ثم أهل الحتديث عتن‬
                                         ‫بن نعم وهو اإلفريري واإلفريري ضعيف ثم أهل الحديث‬

‫رواه الترمذي ج4 ص 414‬
          ‫استكمال االيمان‬
          ‫وزيادته ونقصانه‬
‫5382 حدثنا أبو عبد هللا هريم بن مسعر األزدي الترمذي حدثنا عبد العزيز بن محمد عن ستهيل‬
‫بن أبي صالح عن أبيته عتن أبتي هريترة ثتم أن رستول هللا صتلى هللا عليته وستلم خطتب النتاس‬
‫فوعظهم ثم قال يا معشتر النستاء تصتدقن فتإنكن أكثتر أهتل النتار فرالتت امترأة متنهن ولتم ذاك يتا‬
‫رسول هللا قال لكثرة لعنكن يعني وكفركن العشير قال وما رأيت من ناقصات عرتل وديتن أغلتب‬
‫لذوي األلباب وذوي الرأي منكن قالت امرأة منهن وما نرصان دينها وعرلها قتال شتهادة امترأتين‬
‫منكن بشهادة رجل ونرصان دينكن الحيضة تمكث حداكن الثالث واألربع ال تصتلي وفتي البتاب‬
           ‫عن أبي سعيد وابن عمر قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث صحيح غريب حسن من هذا الوجه‬

‫رواه الترمذي ج5 ص27‬




                      ‫حرمة الصلة‬
‫1441 حدثنا بن أبي عمر حدثنا عبد اهلل بن معاذ الصنعاني عن معمر عن عاصم بنن أبني‬

‫النجود عن أبي وائل عن معاذ بن جبل قال ثم كنت مع النبي صلى اهلل عليه وسلم في سنرر‬

‫فأصبحت يوما قريبا منه ونحن نسير فقلت يا رسول اهلل أخبرني بعمل يدخلني الجنة ويباعدني‬

‫من النار قال لقد سألتني عن عظيم وإنه ليسير على من يسره اهلل عليه تعبد اهلل وال تشرك به‬

‫شيئا وتقيم الصالة وتؤتي الزكاة وتصوم رمضان وتحج البيت ثم قال أال أدلك علنى أبنواب‬

  ‫الخير الصوم جنة والصدقة تطرئ الخطيئة كما يطرئ الماء النار وصالة الرجل منن جنو‬

‫الليل قال ثم أصحهما تتجافى جنوبهم عن المضاجع حتى بلغ يعملون ثم قال أال أخبرك برأس‬

‫األمر كله وعموده وذروة سنامه قلت بلى يا رسول اهلل قال رأس األمنر اسسنالم وعمنوده‬

‫ال صالة وذروة سنامه الجهاد ثم قال أال أخبرك بمالك ذلك كله قلت بلى يا نبي اهلل فأخذ بلسانه‬

‫عليك هذا فقلت يا نبي اهلل وإنا المؤاخذون بما نتكلم به فقال ثكلتك أمك يا معاذ وهل‬         ‫قال ك‬
‫يكب الناس في النار على وجوههم أو على مناخرهم إال حصائد ألسنتهم قال أبو عيسى هنذا‬

‫حديث حسن صحيح‬

‫رواه الترمذي ج8 ص11‬
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