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					    Part Two
Debating the Age of
   Revolutions
   1600-1870
What’s is important here: Four

     Bourgeois and/or National
          Revolutions?
    Revolutions of this period
• Against the ancien regime (old order)
  – (Reformation – earlier but a big challenge)
  – Enlightenment
  – American Revolution
  – French Revolution
  – Haitian Revolution
  – Mexican Revolution
  – South American Revolutions
  – Industrial Revolution
 Challenging the “master narrative”
• Formerly historians adopted a very
  Eurocentric stance – looked for causes
  only within Europe and assumed rest of
  world was left to wither imitate Europe or
  be left behind.
 The BIG question for Part Two
• What were the origins of the revolutions
  and reforms of the sixteenth to the
  nineteenth centuries in the Americas,
  France, the Ottoman and British Empires
  and elsewhere?
    • Was global trade central to these transformations?
    • To what degree did global trade cause variance?
    • How important were local factors, such as the
      development of national identity?
Rise of the Bourgeois
         • Wealthy European merchant
           – entrepreneurs and
           innovators – profits.
         • Essential ingredient to Age of
           Revolution?
         • Leaders and participants in
           many of the revolutionary
           movements – not just
           political but Enlightenment,
           Scientific Revolution,
           capitalism and Industrial
           Revolution.
     The “European Miracle”?
• Eric Jones (Reading 29, p. 81) – believes in the
  “miracle” of responsive capitalism.
• Culmination of very long term trends – market
  responds to customer demands.
• Add New World bounty – merchants already in
  place to profit.
• In comparison with Zheng He’s voyages –
  individual merchants di not profit.
• “Peace and easy taxes” a necessary prelude.
Adam Smith, 1776
     • Argues that Europe economic
       systems not so free and
       efficient as Jones believes they
       were.
     • Mercantilism – belief that there
       is a fixed amount of wealth –
       thus look always for a favorable
       balance of trade.
     • European countries because of
       mercantilism insist their
       colonies only trade with Mother
       Country – limits profitablity in
       Smith’s belief.
        Dependency Cycles
• When western Europeans turn to
  exploiting and importing goods from
  elsewhere it creates a dependency cycle:
• Americas export raw materials to Europe –
  Africa exports slaves to Americas – Asia
  exports finished goods to Europe, which
  Europeans pay for with American silver.
• At each stage European shippers profit –
  profits go into innovations in Europe.
   Just how important was global
              trade?
• Kenneth Pomeranz (reading 31) argues
  for the extreme importance of global trade
  to European development, But Patrick
  O’Brien, argues that local and inter-
  regional trade was more important.
• Only 4% of Europe’s Gross national output
  going to export, but profits made from
  imports and from moving goods around.
  (e.g. slave trade does not involve Euro
  export)
A European Agent in India 1580
               • Reading 33, p. 91, an
                 agent for the powerful
                 banking family, the
                 Fuggers, send back a
                 disappointing report –
                 the only thing he
                 seems to be able to
                 trade for Indian
                 spices, is American
                 silver.
               •   Sixteenth Century Church of St Francis in
                   Cochin – no doubt our agent would have
                   attended services there.
    Did Local Nationalism cause
        Atlantic Revolutions?
• The Atlantic World – North and South
  America, Europe and Africa.
• Created by movement in goods, people,
  ideas and species.
• Enlightenment Ideas about the most just
  and natural society spread and caused
  waves of revolution in the Atlantic world?
                  Timeline
• Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth century
    – Enlightenment
•   1775 – American Revolution
•   1789 – French Revolution
•   1792 – Haitian Revolution
•   1810 – Hidalgo’s Mexican Revolution
•   1819-1821 – most Latin American
    countries achieve independence
       What is the Third Estate
• Since the medieval period, France’s parliament had
  been the Estates General – three estates – clergy,
  nobility and “everyone else”.
• Not called for over a hundred years – French king
  wanted to rule as absolutists.
• But Louis XVI had lent money to American
  revolutionaries (because they were fighting the British) –
  now broke.
• Needs to call the Estates General – but the Third Estate
  now includes wealthy but disenfranchised bourgeois –
  sick of not really being represented because first two
  estates in cahoots.
• Reading 34, Abbe Seyes argues it is only the third estate
  that work, so they really are the nation, they are
  “Everything”
 A generalized sense of national or
             localized?
• Liah Greenfield argues that that there was no
  generalized spread of nationalism behind these
  revolutions, but local factors in each
  revolutionary area were more important.
• In terms of France, she argue that the absolutist
  government created a situation in which the
  desires of the nobility and the bourgeois
  temporarily aligned – the nobility wanting to
  protect their status from further erosion and the
  bourgeois wanting to attain a status which
  matched their new found wealth
Nationalism in America – “Just say
               No!”
• T. H. Breen argues that nationalism in the
  thirteenth colonies was expressed by the wide-
  scale boycotting of popular goods – especially
  tea.
• Increased taxation to pay for the Seven Years
  War against France (fought in both America and
  India) – was not matched by an increasing say in
  colonial affairs.
• The Declaration and Resolves of the First
  Continental Document - expresses this colonial
  anger.
   Is Nationalism about “Imagined
            Community”?
• Benedict Anderson’s argument, reading
  38, on page 105 – argues that nationalism
  is often and internal creation rather than a
  really historical unity.
• In Spanish America – the Creoles were
  discriminated against in favor of the
  peninsulares – this gave them a common
  sense of cause – an imagined community.
                  Summary
• Think about the American revolution in terms of
  the wave of revolutions in the Atlantic world.
• Was revolutions caused by the increase in
  bourgeois power and wealth as a result of global
  trade?
• How did nationalism develop – was this the root
  cause of revolutions?
• Next time (just chapter 9) – look more closely at
  the connections between Atlantic Revolutions.

				
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posted:2/16/2013
language:English
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