Whitepaper by leader6


									                                                                               TM

                                           WHITE PAPER
                                              October 12, 2001

AstroView is the developer of a new paradigm in display technology with our Woven Electroluminescent
Display panel that utilizes the textile industry’s continuous fabric three-dimensional weaving process.
AstroView’s technology holds the promise of fulfilling the need for extreme clarity, low cost, energy
efficient, flexible, portable and lightweight full color display that is not limited in size by lithography
but by loom size: can be 60” by 100 yards depending on loom size. AstroView’s technology has
extremely high brightness, and chromaticity for clarity comparable to 35mm or better unlike
competing technologies.

High stress resistant military applications demanding flexible, lightweight displays with high definition,
low power requirements, portability/durability and low cost are driving the demand for the most advanced
flat panel displays. There are numerous developers of alternative display technologies attempting to
produce the impressive high image quality of CRT with the above stated improvements in performance and
reductions in costs. Most have been hampered by complexity, high production costs and size restrictions.
Current display developers are focusing on extending lifetime and reliability of displays, developing more
efficient light emitting structures, drive schemes and efficient manufacturing process, however they are
limited to smaller size displays at with higher cost points.

AstroView’s *patented No Barrier True Ohmic Contact, the common thread of AstroView’s technology,
introduces the means to address the above stated limitations and will impact current and developing display
technologies as known today. The following are the patented key elements of AstroView’s technology.

        No Barrier True Ohmic Contact
        Improved Field Emission Surfaces
        Gated Pixel Elements
        Triode Configuration
        Woven Display as well as printed displays not woven

The convergence of AstroView’s proprietary technologies brings a new standard to display technology.
Let’s take a closer look at how these technologies work together.

*All mentioned patents are issued to Christensen Technologies and haven’t been converted to AstroView as of this

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                               1
AstroView has the only patented technology that has accomplished for the first time between solids
True Ohmic No Barrier Contact between specified metals and inorganic, metal organic and polymer n-type
semiconductors. That unique contact is the common thread through all our patents, from field emission
through LED technology of all descriptions, to triode devices for pixels and control circuitry in woven and
printed displays.

True Ohmic No Barrier Contact – The Field Emission Device (patent 4,663,559) and Field Emission
Devices with Improved Field Surfaces (patent 5,656,883) is the antecedent of all AstroView Patents and
introduced True Ohmic No Barrier Contact, which is essential to preserve energy. The device utilizes a
cermet with graded concentration of insulative and conductive particles deposited on the truncated point of
a conical emitter. The emission surface of the cermet is insensitive to gases that oxidize or poison the
emission surface. Such gases and other contaminants emanate from a phosphor when the emission device is
used in phosphor display devices. (See attachment Effects of Injecting Contacts showing AstroView
injecting contacts) These Field Emission Device patents provide the following benefits:

        Is operated at lower potentials, which reduces power requirements and minimizes heat
         dissipation requirements, thereby enhancing dependability.
        Operates at a lower field potential in order to reduce mechanically and temporally unstable
         emission sites, which result in current bursts and current deficits at these sites.
        Incorporates internal resistors which provide a series resistance to limit noise at affected emission
         areas, eliminating the need to limit noise by incorporating high-valued resistors, typically in series
         with the cathode terminal of the emission device, which reduce the potential to the entire emission
         surface and increasing potentials to produce current sufficient to excite phosphor.

No Barrier True Ohmic Contact permits and requires a third, Gate Terminal to control conduction,
avalanche in semiconductors, including polymer semiconductors.

Gated Pixel Elements – Gated Pixel Elements Using Polymer Electroluminescent Materials for Panel
Displays (Patent 5,977,718) rely on ohmic contact both for electroluminescent pixel devices and the
address and control devices. A gated pixel device with electroluminescent polymer is spun onto a flexible,
transparent substrate, reducing fabrication cost when compared to conventional material deposition
techniques. A plurality of pixels can be integrally fabricated on a common, flexible substrate resulting in
a display panel that can be formed into any desired geometry, creating military applications not
possible with conventional rigid flat panel displays.

Gated Pixel elements introduce and set forth a design for integrally fabricated gated triode pixel elements
and the associated control circuitry for flat panel displays.

Triode configuration – Current standard diode display technology or two terminal embodiments for flat
display panel pixels has barrier contact at both the injector and the collector terminals of the diode. In a
diode configuration, the address and intensity modulation circuitry must be separately manufactured and
assembled thereby increasing the cost of the display product. Diode pixel elements have a significant
percentage of light emission that is not utilized thereby increasing the power required to obtain a desired
level of illumination.

The proprietary AstroView triode is a natural progression from diodes, which occurred in vacuum tubes
and in semiconductors, with all the intrinsic improvements and advantages. The gated, triode
electroluminescent devices are either of two well known and characterized types: MESFETS (Metal
Schottky-gate Field Effect Transistors), and JFETS (Junction Field Effect Transistors). The EL controlling
gate may be either a Schottky barrier or a Junction barrier to the EL material. The gate is an individual
control element independent of the diode contacts. A triode configuration produces a brighter EL display

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                              2
and allows more efficiency in EL address and logic devices of the display. This allows our displays to have
“smart pixels.”

Woven Display – Woven Polymer Fiber Video Displays with Improved Efficiency and Economy of
Manufacture (Patent 6,229,259) discloses a display woven of dielectric conducting and semi conducting
fibers. The display device is fabricated from a warp and woof fabric of gated triode devices including red,
green and blue gated EL devices, address devices and controlling logic elements. The woven display pixel
density can be superior to that of CRTs and is suitable for military applications for head mounted display,
portable, large area high-density television, warfare and tactical commanders displays where LCD are not
stable. Triode devices produce red, green and blue EL by gate controlled avalanche processes, more
efficient with higher luminous output than the prior art tunneling method. The non-tunneling device source
contact, which enables gate control, also blocks hole current for more efficient luminescent carrier
recombination. The fabric comprising the pixels and control circuitry is encapsulated in a polymer having
advantageous optical interface parameter with the luminescent face of pixels.

AstroView’s patents bring new interface and device technology to both woven and ink-jet printed
electroluminescent displays. Both fiber and ink-jet printed EL materials begin in the same semi liquid
solution and can be either drawn into fibers, or ink jet printed in the dimension and thickness desired.
Characteristics of woven display screen include the following:

       A full color flexible flat panel display that can be as thin, front to back including encapsulation, of
        less than one-half inch.
       A display area is limited only by loom size for woven display
       Both methods (Ink-jet and woven) have considerable advantages in combat conditions due to
        durability and dependability over LCD displays
       Dramatically lower cost method of manufacture
       Display retains operational performance with mechanical flexing
       Dramatic reduction in power consumption


The capability of AstroView’s Technology is ideal for a variety of defense applications. Woven
technology allows flexibility and formability that lends itself to small lightweight and rugged head-worn
display to room size or larger size displays to present visual imagery in simulation.

        High resolution suitable for miniature head mounted displays (0.5”-5”) as well as large size
        screens without the disadvantages of weight, voltage and bulk.
       AstroView technology meets military display parameters of Simplicity, Versatility, Economy and
        Producability as well as stringent technical requirements, including extremely high
        clarity/resolution, full color, and sunlight readability.
       Can meet the demands of cockpit display retrofits in Naval aircraft, and Navy display requirement
        for surface and undersea command-and-control workstations and satisfy the needs for color,
        resolution, brightness, and other performance factors.
       Satisfies the need for area configuration for Attack Centers with gains in operability and tactical
        performance to meet naval requirement for high resolution and wide viewing angles to serve
        multiple users.
       Woven display technology can meet the high stress and rugged demands for field to command
        post applications, portable infantry equipment, and armored vehicles and provides high resolution
        for detailed mapping applications.
       Extremely low power consumption for battery operated display needs.
       Can meet the demands of the severe operating environment of cockpit displays
        Flexible and clear enough to expand visibility from small cameras to larger screens for viewing
        from inside submarines, combat aircraft, stealth vehicles of any size where hull and fuselage
        integrity is critical

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                              3
       Display image is visible in full range ambient light conditions nearing the clarity of 35 mm if
        required for high detail interpretation and precise evaluation.

Further development of AstroView’s technology can present unforeseen applications that can serve a wide
range of diverse military applications.

                            Resolution      Luminance        Color         Weight     Power
                            (Pixel Size)                                              Consumption
AstroView’s EL              7 Microns or    As good as       Better        Lower      10 Times better
Woven Flat Screen           3 times         CRT              Than          Than       than LCD
                            better than
Technology                  CRT
CRT                         25 Micron       Up to 1,000      Only with     High       High
                                            fL               sequential    (with
AMLCD                       12 Micron       Poor-            Yes in ¼      Low        High with
                                            backlight        VGA                      backlight
                                            dependent        resolution
Ferro Electric LCD          13 Micron       Poor – 20fL      Yes with      Low        Low
Thin Film                   24 Micron       Poor – 60 fL     Yes with      Low        High
Electroluminescent                                           sequential
AMEL                                                         shutters,
                                                             small color
Field Emission              16 Micron       300 fL           Yes with      Low        High
Display                                                      resolution
AMLCD on CMOS               12 Micron       Poor – 30 fL     Yes           Low        Low

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                      4
The AstroView Management Team is capable of exploiting the full potential of AstroView’s technology.
The team has experience within the following industries: Electronics, Chemistry, Economics, Finance, Law
and Business Management.

Mr. Campbell’s financial expertise has transcended to many industries from low tech to state of the art
technology. After serving as Captain in the USAF in 1971 Mr. Campbell joined Morgan Stanley Dean
Whitter and received security licenses on all exchanges. Later as a Vice President of Paine Webber he
dealt with institutions and large fiduciary accounts. In 1978 Mr. Campbell founded JS Campbell Company
specializing in mergers and acquisitions for large private companies with a valuation from $10 million to
over $400 million. Mr. Campbell is a combat veteran of the Viet Nam war. Additionally, Mr. Campbell has
an undergraduate degree in Marketing with a minor in Electronic Engineering, CA State Polytechnic
University, a graduate degree from UCLA, and a PhD, Shelbourne University, both in Finance.

Mr. Ben-Dak is Chairman of Tri-Alpha Corp, a high end business strategy planning & services consortium,
and Executive VP of Xybernaut Corporation, the world leader in wearable computers. Ben-Dak is one of
world’s foremost technology and business strategy evaluators. His posts include Chairman, International
Rebound Technology Foundation, Regenesis Foundation, and founder and Chief Executive of United
Nations Global Technology Group. He has served in many US and multinational advisory and corporate
positions and worked over long periods with institutions such as US-DARPA, Korea’s KAIST and Japans
MITI, the Israeli Air Force serving as Academic Director in the Senior Officers Academy. Mr. Ben-Dak
had MAs and PhDs from University of Michigan in Organizational Strategy, Conflict Resolution and
Management; BA and BS, Hebrew University, Jerusalem with post PhD work at University of Lund,
Sweden and Oslo.

Mr. Milden has over 20+ years in high tech industries and is currently COO of Impossible Software, Inc,
and publisher of TypeTamer, a font management utility. He has served as President of In
Communications, a desktop publishing company and developer of Office2000 . Mr. Milden founded State
of the Art Corporation, an accounting application company for the personal computer marketplace. State of
the Art was the originator of “Electronic Checkbook” later sold to Intuit and became the basis of the
Macintosh and Windows versions of “Quicken”, which is among the most widely used software in the
world. Mr. Milden holds a BS degree from the University of California, Irvine in Information and
Computer Science.

Lois’ career includes 43 years in high tech as contributor and manager and is a true “Rocket Scientist”.
Lois spent 23 years with Ford Aerospace as part of a rocket science team, where she designed and managed
the Reliability Database of the Manned Space Flight Ground Control System. Lois was founder of
Condesin, Inc. and served as CEO servicing General Electric, Intel. Later, Lois helped develop the work of
Alton O. Christensen in electron beam devices. Since 1985 Lois has devoted herself to the furtherance of
husband Alton Christensen’s developing technologies and patents.

Dr. Christensen is an entrepreneur and inventor. Chris was a founding stockholder and Project Manager of
Engineering Research Associates, later renamed UNIVAC. Later, at Shell Development, Chris did the
early work in computer DRAM and dynamic logic, producing 27 patents for Shell. Chris was Founder of
Standard Microsystems, for the purpose of developing N-channel MOS manufacturing processes. License
and royalty income form that process provided a large percentage of SMC.s income, totaling ten digits.

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                         5
Chris has consulted for Acrian, Fairchild, the Johnson Space Center flight controllers and astronauts,
Motorola, Mostek and Texas Instruments. The May 16, 1983 issue of Fortune featured Chris in a full-page
sidebar. Chris has graduate degrees from University of Houston in Mechanical Engineering, Luther
Theological Seminary and Harvard University, Cruft Laboratories Graduate School of Engineering.

AstroView is capable of completing a demonstratable working model, with $10-20 million in funding,
within 8-16 months, considering no joint venture partners. Once a working model is completed, more
sophisticated military applications may require funding for adaptation to a particular military mission.
AstroView has plans to license strategic manufacturing partners to make computer or TV size displays for
commercial markets, as well as displays for aviation, shipping and automotive industry.

Below is result of non-barrier ohmic contacts whereby two contacts together of dissimilar metals cause
electron flow immediately. AstroView’s patented method eliminates resistance to provide the following
benefits: (details on following page)

1.   Higher reliability and longer operating life: injection contacts are without high field contact-EL stress;
     no such stress producing physical change in the contact interface.
2.   Lower power requirement: no barrier for carriers to overcome.
3.   Higher luminous output for same power input of prior art.

                                Effect of Injecting Contacts


                                       Trap free

                       ln J
                                                                     With traps

                                                   B                Ohm's Law
                                 E    A
                                                  Vx            Vtfl
                                                       ln V
                                                                    Vtfl = eN t d / 
                        J = (8/9) V2 / d
                                               Vx = en c d2 / 
                                 Astroview injecting contacts E - F
                                 Prior Art: A-B-C-D-F

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                              6

Background. -The Mott-Gurney equation1 for trap-free space-charge-limited current density is
          J = (8/9) V2 / d3                                                                              (1)
  where (8/9) is the Mott-Gurney Constant; is the carrier mobility;V=Vtfl is the applied potential; Vtfl is
the potential required to fill all traps; is the polymer permittivity and d is the maximum polymer thickness
to space-charge limited current density J.
The transition from ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction occurs at apotential Vx.
          Vx = en d2 /                                                                                 
where n is the carrier density; is the ratio of free to trapped charge (about 10 -5).
The potential at which traps are filled is Vtfl :                                                             
         Vtfl = eNt d / 
where Nt is the trap density.

Contact between a conductor of low work function m in with n-type EL semiconductor of work function
el when
         m < el                                                                                     (4)
a) an alloy is formed between the conductor and the n-type EL semiconductor; and
b) charge balancing is obtained by injection from the conductor, filling traps in the EL semiconductor.
Thus, with sufficient difference betweenm andel the equality of equation (3) is achieved, and the EL
operates in trap-free mode.

Since the original injecting contact mechanism was identified in 1947, several proprietary compounds
have been identified that
    a) Provide high conductivity;
    b) Alloy with organic and inorganic semiconductors of band gap > 1.1 eV;
    c) Are chemically and environmentally stable.
    d) Inject charge at quiescent equilibrium to fill EL traps.
    e) Provide trap-free EL operation, as illustrated in the chart-.

AstroView, Inc.                                                                                               7

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