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People make decisions in different ways, but there are three main factors in the careers cycle you will need to consider when choosing your career: focusing on you, exploring what’s out there and reviewing options and making choices. Then you are in a position to make applications and employ effective job seeking strategies.
CAREERS AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT WORKBOOK 2010 CONTENTS Introduction 3 Focusing on you 5 Exploring what’s out there 21 Career Planning for International 26 Students Reviewing options and making 31 choices Making applications 39 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The staff of the Careers and Employability Centre would like to thank Dr. Peter Hawkins for his willingness to allow us to reproduce sections from his book “The Art of Building Windmills – Career tactics for the 21st Century”. Information from the following sections of the guide has been reproduced: Tactic One – Focusing Your Skills, Tactic Two – Finding Your Ideal Job, Tactic Four – The Simple Formula for selling Yourself, Tactic Five – The Art of Action Thinking. We would also like to acknowledge the University of Greenwich Guidance and Careers Advisory Service for the extracts taken from its Careers Planning Workbook - The World of Work Map. Acknowledgments to Epigeum: Online Training for Researchers Web CT resource for the Values and motivations section Acknowledgments to original writers; Julie Wainwright and Sophie Miller Updated and rewritten by Margaret Flynn and Sharon Winders, Careers and Employability Centre, University of Birmingham, 2010 2 INTRODUCTION Your Career Planning: Where are you now? Career planning has a different meaning for everyone – depending on where you are starting from….. So where are you starting from? You may be at number 1 on the road map, and need to think your career ideas through from the beginning, or you may be at number 7 or 8 and just need to think about the last stages of your decisions and then apply for jobs. Whether you are totally at a loss about your future career, thinking about a specific job, postgraduate study or have a vague idea of what interests you, this workbook has been designed to help you take stock of yourself and make more informed decisions about what to do next. It can help you explore what resources there are available in order to help the process along. This workbook won’t provide you with all the answers, but will help you move further along the roadmap Additionally, the Careers and Employability Centre offers other opportunities to help you plan your future: • Career Planning Workshops (see www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers under ‘Events’) • Personal Skills Award – 10 credit module – ‘Planning Your Career’ (see www.psa.bham.ac.uk) 3 Career Planning Cycles People make decisions in different ways, but there are three main factors in the careers cycle you will need to consider when choosing your career: focusing on you, exploring what’s out there and reviewing options and making choices. Then you are in a position to make applications and employ effective job seeking strategies. How you approach investigating these stages will vary depending on where you are at on the career planning roadmap, but at some point most students will need to look at all four stages in the cycle:. Career Planning Focusing on Exploring Cycle you what’s out there Making Reviewing applications options and making choices Focusing on You: Analysing your skills, learning styles, aptitudes, interests and job expectations will provide clues to the type of career that might suit you Exploring What’s Out There: Researching the day-to-day activities involved in a job and the economic health of the employment sector will inform your decisions Reviewing options and making choices: Compiling a ‘plan of action’ for the next step will help you keep the momentum going Making Applications: CVs, application forms and interviews – improve your competence to help you succeed and develop a sound job seeking strategy. You may need to travel around the cycle several times before you make your final decisions – so build in sufficient time to do this. By the end of this workbook you should have: • Used self assessment techniques to create a personal portrait of yourself and considered how you can make use of this portrait to further your career decisions • Found out about resources available to you to research occupations, what employers are looking for and generate some career ideas which interest you. • Become more familiar with practical strategies to help further your plans and avoid ‘getting stuck’. Started to consider what makes a successful CV and how to improve your interview skills. 4 FOCUSING ON YOU Analysing your skills, learning styles, aptitudes, interests and job expectations will provide clues to the type of career that might suit you 5 FOCUSING ON YOU This section looks at what you are like, the skills you have to offer employers and the values you have about work, to help you find which sorts of career you would find satisfying. Completing this section should enable you to: 1. Identify the skills you have developed and gain some ideas of how this knowledge can be used 2. Consider your personality and abilities– your personality type, preferred learning style and analyse your aptitudes (numerical, verbal and reasoning ability) 3. Reflect on your motivations and interests Career Planning Focusing Exploring Cycle what’s out on you there Making Reviewing applications options and making choices 1. IDENTIFY YOUR SKILLS Are you a strong team player … or a good communicator… or a good listener…or good at managing your time? Everyone has a variety of skills they can use in today’s changing world and analysing your strengths will help you decide which careers to investigate further. Skills act as a basis for career choice. If you are good at something, this will provide clues about the type of career that might suit you. By completing the following questionnaires you will identify your strengths, so that you can then identify careers that use these skills more than others. Employers all seek a different range of skills but the questionnaires below cover some of the core ones employers look for are: teamwork skills, communication, planning and organising and creativity. There are others, but these will help you get started. Complete the ones you think are important for you - you don’t have to do them all. You can also use the questionnaires to help you see which skills areas need improving, and so enhance your employability. 6 TEAMWORK SKILLS How do you work with others? Are you a constructive team member and contribute successfully to the success of a team? Being a good team member is more than having experienced working in a team – it’s about what you say and do while you are a member that counts. • Think about a team or group activity you have been part of recently. This could be a project group for your course, a sports team, organising a social event or work experience. • Think about specific meetings or incidents. Think about what you said and what you did. Put X below on the dotted line in the middle column where you think you currently sit for each statement. Be honest – no-one is perfect! Weak team member <…………………………> Strong team member In meetings: In meetings: Interrupt before others Listen fully to others’ points have finished Say nothing Contribute to the discussion Ignore quieter members Encourage quieter members of the team to contribute Talk at length about Speak concisely to make your point, taking up too your point much meeting time Demolish others’ ideas Respect others opinions. at first hearing Consider others’ points, ask questions then give an opinion Don’t turn up to planning Always turn up – or send meetings without letting apologies if can’t make it anyone know Promise to do tasks Do what you agreed to do on knowing you have no time time to do them Jump topics before Ensure everyone has had everyone has had their their say before introducing say new topics Never volunteer to do Volunteer to do what you any of the tasks think you can accomplish Outside meetings: Outside meetings: Don’t tell others when a Keep others informed of change occurs that developments that affect affects the groups plans plans – in person, by telephone or email Get annoyed with others Help others who are who don’t do what they struggling to do their tasks promised without being resentful you are doing more than them 7 Weak team member <…………………………> Strong team member Diverge from agreed Keep to agreed actions or actions because you consult with others if think something else is changes are needed better Assume you are Ask others for feedback performing OK as a about your contribution team member Put down others who Aware that others may don’t think the same think/approach tasks way you do differently to you and have different learning/thinking styles Join up the Xs. What does the pattern look like? Are you: • Mainly strong, but one or two points need improving? • Mainly weak, you need to think about what you say and your approach to tasks. Are other barriers affecting your performance? e.g. no interest in the team task, poor English language skills, lack of confidence. • Average. Do you need to identify the areas which need more practice which could help you become a stronger team member? What can you do about it? • Get more practice. Identify opportunities – in your course, in part-time work, in vacations, in extracurricular activities - that will enable you to engage in more team activities. • Think more about how teams work. Analyse your actions and reactions to specific incidents when working in a team and how they might appear to others. • Address any barriers stopping you from contributing effectively e.g. if you are an international student and your English language skills are poor, contact the English for International Students Unit (EISU) for help. The University of Kent Interactive Teamworking Skills exercise suggests you should try to avoid destructive or selfish group roles such as 1: Autocrat - tries to dominate or constantly interrupt other members of the team. Show Off - talks all the time and thinks they know all the answers. Butterfly - Keeps changing the topic before others are ready. Aggressor - Doesn't show respect to others, comments negatively about them. Critic - Always sees the negative side to any argument, but never suggests alternatives. Puts down the ideas of others. Self- confessor. Uses the group as a forum for inappropriate talk about self Avoider: refuses to focus on the task or group relationship problems Clown: shows non-involvement in group and engages in distracting communication. COMMUNICATION SKILLS Employers expect graduates to be good communicators, but what exactly do they mean? What sorts of actions demonstrate good communication skills? The questionnaire below covers the three main aspects of communication: • Speaking – with individuals or in groups 1 http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/teamwork.htm 8 • Listening • Writing Think about specific situations. Think about what you said and what you did. Put X below on the dotted line in the middle column where you think you currently sit for each statement. Be honest – no-one is perfect! Weak communicator <…………………………..> Strong communicator Speaking/listening Speaking/listening Ignore non- verbal Aware of and act on non- signals from others e.g. verbal signals e.g. move to boredom, irritation another topic, shut up, acknowledge the issue Don’t acknowledge that Listen to and indicate you someone has spoken have heard others’ comments No eye contact when Appropriate eye contact – speaking to /listening to not staring someone Interrupt before Wait for an opening before someone has finished making your point speaking Use a loud voice to Speak clearly, so that you drown out others are audible Never ask questions to Ask questions frequently elicit more understanding Assume someone Check their level of doesn’t already know knowledge before about the topic you are elaborating on a point telling them about Use jargon or high level Use plain understandable language unnecessarily language or explain any necessary jargon Think about other things Actively listen to what when listening to people are saying someone Assume you have Clarify you have interpreted understood another their point correctly by person’s point summarising what you think you have heard In writing In writing Use informal ‘texting’ Use standard English in language to emails to strangers/ those strangers/those in in authority/all professional authority in emails/all contacts professional contacts Write in ‘essay style’ Use appropriate style for regardless of the the occasion e.g. business situation style, report style Not write in grammatical Check sentence English construction to ensure the text is grammatically correct 9 Weak communicator <…………………………..> Strong communicator Write using elaborate, Write concisely lengthy sentences Never spell check Always spell check Never proof read the Read the text thoroughly text – just rely on spell and spell check checker Join up the Xs. What does the pattern look like? Are you: • Mainly strong, but one or two points need improving? • Mainly weak, especially in one area e.g. listening? • Mainly weak across all three areas of communication? Are other barriers affecting your performance? E.g. poor English language skills, lack of confidence. • Average. Do you need to identify the areas which need more practice which could help you become a stronger communicator? What can you do about it? • Reflect on what you have said and done regularly. Analyse specific situations which you feel could have gone better, and think about what you could have said or done that would have been better. • Address any barriers stopping you from contributing effectively e.g. if you are an international student and your English language skills are poor, contact the English for International Students Unit (EISU) for help. • Ask others their opinion of your speaking, listening and writing skills • Get more practice in your weak areas. Identify opportunities – in your course, in part- time work, in vacations, in extracurricular activities - that will enable you to develop particular aspects of your communication skills. PLANNING AND ORGANISING Planning and organising skills include the ability to manage your time effectively, prioritise tasks, and pay attention to the details that leads to successful implementation of a task/project and the ability to initiate changes to plans if needed. Think about specific tasks or projects you have been involved with recently. Think about what you said and what you did. Put X below on the dotted line in the middle column where you think you currently sit for each statement. Be honest – no-one is perfect! Weak organiser/planner <…………………......> Strong organiser/planner Never on time for Arrive on time or early meetings/events Never meet deadlines Always meet deadlines Rush about trying to fit Reflect on your workload – everything in change things if you are too busy Underestimate the time it Estimate well how long you takes to do things expect a task to take Leave tasks to the last Plan in advance and try to minute complete ahead of time 10 Weak organiser/planner <…………………......> Strong organiser/planner Do the tasks as they occur Prioritise tasks in order of to you, without much importance/deadlines thought Vague about when you will Allocate times in your diary do tasks for specific tasks Never reflect on your plans Reflect regularly and initiate to see if changes are changes to your plans needed Always ask for extensions Never ask for extensions for course work Once broad ideas in place, Maintain interest right through lose interest in the detail to implementation of the plans Keep the plans in your Make lists/use head mindmaps/project planning software of details to ensure all aspects of your plans are covered Get distracted from the task Keep focussed and go off at a tangent Untidy approach to Keep paperwork etc tidy/ well paperwork labelled/ in order See the task as a whole – Analyse the task into not in its component parts segments Think about/discuss plans Schedule time to take action but never take action on plans Join up the Xs. What does the pattern look like? Are you: • Mainly a strong organiser/planner, but one or two points need improving? • Mainly weak across all points? Are other barriers affecting your performance? e.g. poor English language skills, lack of knowledge about resources that can help you • Average? Do you need to identify the areas which need more practice which could help you become better at planning and organising? What can you do about it? • Reflect on a recent situation – whether planning for a deadline or organising an event. Analyse what you did, when you did it, if the situation could have been better if you had organised it or yourself differently. Decide how this is going to make a difference next time. • Address any barriers stopping you from developing this skill effectively e.g. if you are an international student and your English language skills are poor, contact the English for International Students Unit (EISU) for help. • Ask others their opinion about your planning and organising ability. • Get more practice in your weak areas. Identify opportunities – in your course, in part- time work, in vacations, in extracurricular activities - that will enable you to do more planning and organising than you do normally. 11 CREATIVITY What is creativity? Definitions abound. Although often associated with art and literature, it is an essential part of success both in the business world and in other organisations. A good starting point for a definition is outlined in a government report: ‘First, they [the characteristics of creativity] always involve thinking or behaving imaginatively. Second, overall this imaginative activity is purposeful: that is, it is directed to achieving an objective. Third, these processes must generate something original. Fourth, the outcome must be of value in relation to the objective.’ (‘All our futures: Creativity, culture and education', DfEE, 1999). Employers often put creativity at the core of their business: ‘And because our business is based on innovation, we also encourage people to be continuously creative, to question assumptions and systems, to challenge each other and build on fresh insights to find new and better ways of doing things. Within our culture, “we have always done it this way” is the best reason to think again.’ (Astra Zeneca) ‘Creativity is the lifeblood of our organisation’. (BBC) ‘Fast Streamers think imaginatively and creatively - whether tackling the finer details of the Treaty of Rome or masterminding your department's move to another building. Big picture thinking, while focusing on the small details is all-important. You’ll also be expected to challenge accepted ideas and ways of doing things while still being open to new ideas.’ (Civil Service) In a business context creativity is usually about being able to come up with new ideas and concepts and look at alternative solutions to a problem. These ideas often go beyond the obvious and provoke discussion to encourage alternative ideas to emerge. Creative people use lateral thinking to transfer ideas suggested for one situation to another, making relevant new associations between ideas and concepts. Employers seek those who are imaginative, but who can apply their ideas in the context of the organisation. The ideas need to be relevant to the situation, time, and place and within budget constraints. This type of creativity is sometimes referred to as innovation. If you want to know more about creativity, see www.mindtools.com. Creativity and you Think about specific tasks or projects you have worked on recently. Think about what you said and what you did. Put X below on the dotted line in the middle column where you think you currently sit for each statement. Be honest – no-one is perfect! Less creative <…………………………> Strongly creative Adapt existing /others’ ideas Coming up with new /novel ideas Rarely come up with any Come up with several alternative solutions to a alternative solutions situation 12 Use familiar sources to get Take inspiration from a wide ideas range of sources to come up with alternative suggestions Dislike brainstorming Enjoy using brainstorming activities in lectures and techniques in sessions groups sessions Analyse a task into See a task as a whole – not in segments, without looking its component parts at the whole picture Focus on the detail almost Can put detail to one side, so as soon as an idea occurs that the wider picture can be visible Always use tried and tested Prepared to take risks to try out methods ideas Accept a procedure/method/ Regularly think ‘there must be process as it is a better way to do this’ Once started thinking about Often take 'one step back' to the detail of an issue, find it get a broader view of a difficult to take a step back problem and take a broader view Tentatively suggest new Confidently suggest new ideas ideas that occur to you because you enjoy breaking free from the norm Rarely make links between Often see how solutions solutions for one problem designed for one purpose can and another be transferred to another Overemphasise Focus less on practicalities practicalities when thinking when coming up with new of new ideas ideas Do not use facts and data to Backs up suggestions with support suggestions facts and data Simply states an idea Explains and sells the benefits without explaining the of ideas benefits Uncomfortable with thinking Happy to generate ideas of ideas on the spot, prefers quickly and spontaneously to think things through and research first Join up the Xs. What does the pattern look like? Are you: • Mainly a strong creative? • Mainly weak across all points? Are other barriers affecting your performance? e.g. poor English language skills, lack of confidence, lack of knowledge about resources that can help you • Average. ? Do you need to identify the areas which need more practice which could help you show your creative potential? What can you do about it? • Develop a better understanding of what creativity is about and do some research into it. Start with www.mindtools.com 13 • Address any barriers stopping you from contributing effectively. For example, to build your confidence, gradually try out making more creative suggestions in any teams you are involved with • Reflect on what you have said and done regularly • Get more practice in situations where you need to be creative. Identify opportunities – in your course, in part-time work, in vacations, in extracurricular activities - that will enable you to use more creative approaches than you do normally. HOW WILL SKILLS ANALYSIS HELP? 1. When you research jobs in the ‘Exploring What’s Out there’ section, use this list of your strengths to do a direct comparison with the skills required by employers for that career. 2. Self awareness is becoming an increasingly important skill to develop. Many employers expect you to take responsibility for your own development and training and this is very difficult to do if you have little self awareness. Reflecting on and analysing your skills will help with your self awareness. 3. When applying for jobs – by CV or application form, illustrate your strengths to persuade the employer to interview you 4. At interview, illustrate your strengths when answering interview questions 5. When in your job, you can use this knowledge to plan your ‘CPD’ – continuing professional development – a requirement of all graduate level jobs. Using your skills analysis Employers are interested in your skills profile, and how you can illustrate that you are good at what you claim. Knowing your skills and strengths is the first step – you now need to be able to illustrate these – in writing and verbally. Choose a strength from the skills questionnaires on previous pages. Write a paragraph in each section below about an incident or situation which demonstrates what you have claimed. Be specific and use detail – avoid general sweeping statements. Skill Evidence Planning and Example: organising Organised end of term event for my department for 100 people. Decided on and booked venue, booked DJ, distributed publicity, printed tickets, organised sales, managed budget. Sold 78 tickets, 70 attended. Planned well in advance – but sales were slow, so changed plans and increased publicity. Night successful- positive feedback from those who attended. I am player-coach of a local amateur football club. I evaluate our performances after matches by holding discussions with others in the team, and organise future training sessions and decide on match day tactics on the basis of such evaluation. (Team logs, my own notes, reports to club committee) 14 Skill Evidence 15 2. CONSIDER YOUR PERSONALITY AND ABILITIES Psychometric questionnaires and tests Psychometric tests and questionnaires are best done online, so in this section you will find web references for each type of questionnaire and test. Psychometric questionnaires fall into two types: • Learning Styles and Personality Type questionnaires: these questionnaires have no right or wrong answers and are not strictly timed. They assess aspects of personality such as typical behaviour (personality type), preferences (learning styles), interests and motivations. • Aptitude or ability tests where you achieve a score depending on the number of answers you get right. Typical tests are numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, spatial or abstract reasoning. Learning Styles Everyone learns in a different way and understanding the way you learn best will affect the career you prefer as well as your academic work. For example if a job requires you to work and learn on your own and you prefer to learn in group or team situations, perhaps that job may not be for you! Questionnaires help you to assess your preferred learning style and online examples include: • My Potential Learning Styles. 2 This questionnaire helps you assess your preferred style: clarifier, activator, creator, explorer. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers under Applying for a Job • The Vark Questionnaire has 16 questions and is a quick and easy way to help you assess your approach to learning and preference for taking in, and putting out information in a learning context. See http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp • Soloman and Felder’s Index of Learning Styles can be completed online and helps you assess your preferences on four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global). See http://www.ncsu.edu/felder- public/ILSpage.html • The Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire has been used for over 20 years to help people assess their learning styles preferences and whether they are inclined towards activist, reflector, theorist or pragmatist. To complete this questionnaire you have to pay £10. See http://www.peterhoney.com/content/tools- learningstyles.html Personality types My Potential Type Dynamics Indicator. This questionnaire assesses how you are likely to react and behave in different circumstances. It is based on the work of psychologist Carl Jung, whose theories are behind the most widely used personality assessments in the world. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers under Applying for a job 2 The Careers Centre is licensed to provide the My Potential assessments to the University of Birmingham’s undergraduate, postgraduate students and recent graduates. 16 Take a ten minute online test about your personality and potential career options; it was developed by psychometric specialist Neil Scott of Cassin-Scott Associates. Results are based on Holland model of vocational choice suggesting people with particular interests and styles tend to favour certain types of jobs. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/careers/ Aptitude or Ability tests Do you know what your ability is in areas such as numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, logical reasoning or abstract reasoning? Employers use these when selecting candidates for jobs and they can indicate your strengths in these areas so are useful when choosing a career. The tests are done under strict administration and time conditions and the questions have definite right and wrong answers. • My Potential Aptitude Tests. The three tests on offer are verbal, numerical and abstract tests. For other practice aptitude tests see www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers under Applying for a job 17 3. YOUR VALUES AND MOTIVATIONS What do you want from a job? The clearer your ideas about what you want from your career then the easier it will be to evaluate opportunities as they come along. Your initial ideas may be unfocussed or unrealistic but there are ways to clarify them and work out the steps required to move towards a career goal. The following exercise will get you thinking about what motivates you in a job. Under each section there are a series of statements for you to allocate a level of importance. There may be other issues that are important to you that are not mentioned, or you might want to expand on some of the ones listed. Write them in the final section. Decide how important the following statements are for you? Must Would Not have be nice important Reward A highly paid job Recognition for my work Achieving a respected position Satisfaction that my work has some value to society Influence Responsibility for major decisions Position of authority over others Career progression within an organisation Pursue an independent career path Challenge Considered an expert in the field Have my abilities stretched constantly Use my specialist skills Regularly required to use problem solving skills Lifestyle Balance between working hours and personal time Plenty of work related travel Flexible working hours Demanding work environment to help me achieve Values Feel that my work makes a difference in the world Show dedication to that particular field Benefit individuals and the wider community Contribution to the profitability of my organisation Security A structured career path Long term security in a stable organisation Build my own business or other organization e.g. a charity 18 Must Would Not have be nice important Variety of jobs and projects with different employers People Work with a team of like minded individuals Develop a good relationship with colleagues Work autonomously without reference to others Satisfaction of contributing to a successful team project There may be other issues that are important to you that are not mentioned, or you might want to expand on some of the ones listed. Write them below. What NEXT? My definites: Prioritise the items you have put in your ‘must have’ category: Choose the top 3 or 4 1. 2. 3. 4. These are the issues to consider when researching opportunities i3 Focusing on You: Summary 3 Epigeum: OnlineTraining for Researchers WebCT resource for the Values and motivations section 19 Finding your Ideal Job Most jobs use a wide range of skills, some of which will play a more central role than others. You have to look for something that plays to your strengths, meets your aspirations and provides you with the chance to use your graduate skills in the way that makes sense to you. You have now: 1. Identified your skills 2. Considered your personality and aptitudes (psychometric questionnaires and tests) 3. Looked at your values and motivations To help you aim for what you really want below are various elements that sum up the key choices to make when picturing your ideal job: Purpose Try to identify the main purpose of your ideal job. How does work relate to your wider life goals? Does it provide you with satisfaction – or simply finance other interests, which give you more of a buzz. In short, do you want to live to work or work to live? Roles What kind of work do you see yourself doing to satisfy this purpose? What suits your temperament best? Do you prefer working with people, ideas or practical things? Organisation Do you see yourself working in the private sector or for a public body – in industrial setting or an office environment? Would you feel more relaxed in a large organisation or a small/medium sized company? Career Motivation What will make you want to get out of bed in the morning? Think about the Values and Motivations questionnaire you have completed. Environment What energises you most – a steady pace or the stimulation of deadlines? Think about the kind of work you enjoy most, the way you interact with others, the social context, the learning environment you enjoy most, and the working hours you prefer. Sector What kind of employment sector suits you best? You also need to check if there are signs of growth in your target sector and where the main opportunities lie. Skills Finally you need to ask what key skills, qualifications and experience you need for your ideal job – remember to look at it from the employer’s perspective. You will need to do more research before you can answer all of these questions. Use the ‘Exploring What’s Out There’ section to help. 20 EXPLORING WHAT’S OUT THERE Researching the day-to-day activities involved in a job and the economic health of the employment sector will inform your decisions 21 EXPLORING WHAT’S OUT THERE Of course it is not enough just to analyse your skills, interests, motivations and learning style without putting this knowledge to use. In this section you can engage with another stage in the process of career choice – Exploring What’s Out There. This section looks at how you can research occupations and employment sectors to help you find which sorts of career you would find satisfying. Using this section should enable you to: • Increase your awareness of job sectors available for graduates • Identify the resources you can use • Relate this research to your own situation to think about what job would suit you Career Planning Focusing on Cycle you Exploring what’s out there Making Reviewing applications options and making choices Graduate Careers 1. The World of Work Map for Graduates on the next pages can help you generate some jobs ideas. It groups broad categories of jobs together. Many are open to graduates of any discipline, even if they require postgraduate study. These categories may coincide with some of the interests and skills you have identified in yourself. Use the chart to help you move on from examining your own skills, interests and motivations to using this knowledge to identify possible areas of work and job ideas. Try to identify 3-4 areas of work that interest you. 2. There are other ways of generating ideas – using the internet, paper based and people based resourcesSee Resources to help you ‘Research Jobs and Careers’ on pages 30-33. These are ideal tools and sources to help you research the careers you are interested in. Once you have some occupations you are interested in the next step is to research these thoroughly. 22 1. World of Work Map for Graduates Logistics & Human Transport Charity, Resources Development Work and and Regeneration Administration Buying, selling & retailing Sport, Leisure & Tourism IT Defence and Hospitality and Information Public Events Patents and Protection Management Heritage Management Actuarial, Pensions Advertising, &Insurance Social PR & Guidance marketing and Legal Community services PEOPLE DATA Education Accountancy Health care and Financial and PRACTICAL CREATIVE Management Psychology Management and Research Animal & Construction Services plant and Property resources Management Creative Arts & Design Natural Engineering & Resources & Manufacturing Environment Performing Arts Scientific Research, Publishing Analysis & Support and Media 23 World of Work Map for Graduates In more detail… EDUCATION SPORT, LEISURE & TOURISM Teaching in Schools Sport Lecturing in Further and Higher Leisure Education Tourism Special Educational Needs Teaching English as a Foreign ADVERTISING, PR & MARKETING Language Teaching in Non-School/College Advertising Settings PR Education Advice and Development Marketing SOCIAL, GUIDANCE & BUYING, SELLING & RETAILING COMMUNITY WORK Buying/Purchasing Social and Probation Work Selling and Sales Management Personal and Careers Guidance Retailing and Wholesaling Counselling Community Work ACTUTIAL WORK, INSURANCE & PENSIONS HEALTH CARE & PSYCHOLOGY Actuarial Work Medicine Pensions Dentistry Insurance Nursing and Midwifery Allied Medical Specialisms ACCOUNTANCY & FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Physical Therapies Chartered Accountancy Health Promotion and Wellbeing Certified Accountancy Psychology Public Finance Accountancy Management Accountancy DEFENCE & PUBLIC PROTECTION Taxation Retail Banking and Personal Armed Forces Financial Services Security Services Investment Banking and Corporate Emergency Services Financial Services Public Health and Protection Investment Management HOSPITALITY & EVENTS LEGAL SERVICES MANAGEMENT Solicitors Hospitality Barristers Events Management Ancillary Legal Professionals International Law 24 HUMAN RESOURCES & ANIMAL & PLANT RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION Agriculture Human Resources, Recruitment and Horticulture Training Forestry Administration Fisheries Clerical & Secretarial Services Veterinary and Animal Care INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING & Programming, Systems Analysis and Software MANUFACTURING IT Management and Services Engineering Plant and Production CHARITY, DEVELOPMENT WORK Process and Quality Control & REGENERATION Engineering Sales and Service Charity and Development Work Regeneration SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, ANALYSIS & SUPPORT MANAGEMENT & RESEARCH Scientific Research and Development SERVICES Management consultancy Medical Related Scientific Services Statistical services Scientific Analysis and Investigation Research Services Scientific Technical Support Translation & Interpreting INFORMATION, PATENTS & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT LOGISTICS & TRANSPORT Information and Library Logistics Management Transport Management Patent and Related Work Transport Personnel Heritage and Museums Management CONSTRUCTION & PROPERTY MANAGEMENT CREATIVE ARTS & DESIGN Town and Regional Planning Photography Landscape Architecture Arts and Crafts Architecture Illustration and Multimedia Civil Engineering and Construction Fashion and Textiles Land and Property Management NATURAL RESOURCES & THE PUBLISHING, MEDIA & ENVIRONMENT PERFORMING ARTS Cartography Publishing and Printing Exploration Journalism Extraction and Harnessing Writing Environmental Control and Broadcasting, Film and Video Management (Technical) Environmental Protection and Broadcasting, Film and Video Conservation (Production) Theatre Performance 25 Career Planning for International Students Career Planning for International Students operates in the same way as it does for UK Students, but there are some additional aspects that need to be considered. Identifying your Unique Contribution As an international student you have experience of living and working in a second culture and this means you can show that you have developed a number of skills highly desired by employers i.e. flexibility, cultural skills, adaptability and you will most likely have studied in a 2nd language. As an international student you will also have knowledge, experience of your home culture and access to networks which may be invaluable to an employer wishing to develop business in that country. When you research a labour market or a company for a job in the UK it gives you an edge if you can also talk about the market in your home country. If you intend to return to your own country you need to ensure that you maintain your networks whilst you are here, keep up to date with the labour market news, develop your networks when visiting friends and family. Recognising the Barriers you may face Issue Solution Poor English language skills Join student societies and talk in English to other students or colleagues Access language courses at EISU Lack of understanding of UK work culture Ensure that you socialise outside your own and social conventions cultural group. Work experience paid or unpaid will give you experience of social norms in the workplace. Failure to represent your skills and Show how you have developed transferable competencies skills and be able to give examples at interviews, practising answering competency based questions is essential Many employers do not understand the Nothing you can do except explain if you immigration rules and so will not take the risk have the chance to talk directly to an of employing an international student for fear employer of prosecution Work Schemes for International Graduates The following schemes exist for Non-EU students to work in the UK, current information about these schemes can be found on the UKCISA or ISAS websites: www.ukcisa.org.uk; www.as.bham.ac.uk/support/international Tier 1 Post Study Work (PSW) Tier 1 (General) Highly Skilled Tier Tier 2 Work Permit (you cannot apply for this Scheme in the first instance, the employer must make the application) 26 2. Resources to help you research Jobs and Career Areas Use this section to generate more career ideas and to research the career options you are already considering. Decide what you need to know and then use the resources listed for your research. Remember to judge the reliability of each resource you use. What do you need to know? To find your ideal job, you need to find out: • The key skills needed to be successful in that job • What people do in the job on a daily basis • What qualifications are needed • Is further training required • The state of market for that industry - labour market information • Competition and availability of jobs • Salaries and lifestyle implications How to judge the reliability of each source Consider • How up to date is it? If it is more than 2 years old – it could be very out of date • Is it biased? Is the material written by marketers, or give just one view of the career? • Does information from different sources conflict? If so you need to delve for more sources or network to find out more from personal contacts. Where can you find it? Web based: www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers. Destination information of recent graduates Current vacancies for graduates Work experience vacancies Occupational information Employer database www.prospects.ac.uk Explore types of jobs – details of about 400 occupations, about 2000 words on each occupation Options with your subject - about 70 subjects Communities e.g. Finance, Education, Media National vacancies – adverts from employers www.targetjobs.co.uk includes jobs and advice about different career sectors Employers’ own websites Business information e.g. www.incomesdata.co.uk ; websites www.wetfeet.com ; www.ukbusinesspark.co.uk; www.reuters.com www.sscalliance.org.uk Sector Skills Councils. Each council is 27 responsible for a specific industry sector e.g. Skillset (audio visual industries) Government websites e.g. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills www.bis.gov.uk Training and Development Agency for Schools www.tda.gov.uk Professional bodies and e.g. Institute of Personnel and institutions Development www.cipd.co.uk , Institute of Practitioners in Advertising www.ipa.co.uk, Research bodies e.g. www.guidance-research.org Paper based Careers and Employability red file information – books/magazines (web Centre Information Room e.g. Target publications e.g. Property, versions Finance, Insight Guides, AGCAS often publications, Careers and available) Employability Centre’s own leaflets National press e.g. Guardian, Financial Times Local papers e.g. Birmingham Post Business magazines e.g. New Scientist, New Civil Engineer, Computer Weekly People Employer presentations on (Autumn term mainly) based campus (networking see below) Employer fairs e.g. Law Fair, Science and Engineering fair, AIESEC fair (Autumn term mainly) Careers advisers Advice desk consultations available daily Careers events e.g. Media and Communications Day, Making a Difference Week Alumni Yourbham alumni network for available when you graduate Work experience or Your own contacts voluntary work contacts Networking for Career Research Networking whilst still at university is an important part of career planning and involves building positive contacts with others in your field or career areas you may be interested in. Networking is a two way process that can be of mutual benefit to you and your contact. Successful networking can: • Offer you support and encouragement • Help you to collaborate with colleagues on a professional level • Establish contacts with others who can provide information and insight into careers and institutions • Provide useful sources of vacancies (not all jobs are always advertised) 28 You should aim to develop contacts wherever possible: • Within you department • Professional conferences, workshops and meetings • Careers fairs and careers information days Networking can raise your profile both in your own field and beyond. We would all prefer to work with people we like, trust and know. Thus networking can directly influence your job prospects. If you are not planning to make your career within further study or academia, you should try to develop contacts with people in the occupations you are interested in. Try to arrange a meeting to discuss what the job involves or organise some “work shadowing” to observer them doing their job. Most people are happy to talk about their work and will show an interest in yours. The hard part for many is having the courage to approach people especially if they are well known in the field. Unless you are introduced by someone else, it is unlikely that you will get to speak to them unless you are proactive. Go for it! Tips for effective networking 4 I think, probably be interested in the other people. You want them to be interested in you, but you will find if you're interested in them that creates the sort of translation of ideas that will keep you in their memory. Networking Resources www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers/events Careers and Employability Centre events, check for employer presentations, careers fairs and skills workshops. Jobs.ac.uk (2007) Networking Skills [online] Available from http://www.jobs.ac.uk/careers/whitepapers/573/Networking_Skills [Accessed 13th May 2010] Nature Publishing (2010) Nature Network [online] Available from http://network.nature.com/ [Accessed 13th May 2010] 4 Dame Julia Higgins Imperial College London From WebCT course “Selecting a conference, presenting and networking” 29 Linked in corporation (2010) Linked in Professional Network [online] Available from http://www.linkedin.com [Accessed 13th May 2010] Facebook (2010) Facebook Social Networking [online] available from http://www.facebook.com [Accessed 13th May 2010] Second Life (2010) [online] Second Life Available from http://www.secondlife.com [Accessed 13th May 2010] University of Derby (2008) Career Networking [online] Available from http://www.derby.ac.uk/careers/career-networking [Accessed 22nd December 2009] Hind and Moss (2005) Employability Skills, Business Education Publishers D’Souza S. (2007) Brilliant networking. Prentice Hall http://www.pearsoned.co.uk ISBN: 9780273714842 Exploring What’s Out There: Summary Generating some career ideas to research is a good start – even if you discard some of them after more research. The next step is to make time to research these occupations thoroughly, using a variety of resources. Most important is to think about the reliability of the information you are finding. Before making a judgement about a career, ask yourself: • Are you getting conflicting information from different sources? • How old is the information? • Could the source be biased? Build into your research opportunities to network and talk to people doing the job or at least talk to people with knowledge of the sector. With these contacts you may be able to organise work experience or job shadow someone doing a job you want to learn more about. Use labour market information such as ‘What Do Graduates Do’ or the Prospects website www.prospects.ac.uk ‘Sector’ information to find out more about sector or industry you are researching. Reflecting and reviewing your feelings about these careers is the next stage of the process: see Reviewing Options and Making Choices. 30 REVIEWING OPTIONS AND MAKING CHOICES Compiling a ‘plan of action’ for the next step will help you keep the momentum going 31 REVIEWING OPTIONS AND MAKING CHOICES Career decision making is not a one off process. You will find yourself reviewing and reflecting on your plans frequently. These reflections will affect the choices you make, so be prepared to move round the career planning cycle several times. Using this section should enable you to increase your awareness of: • The steps needed to make your own action plan • Key points about reflecting and reviewing your progress Career Planning Focusing on Exploring Cycle you what’s out there Reviewing Making options and applications making choices Steps to Action Planning This is an essential part of career planning as it provides you with the means of recording and assessing your own career development. Regularly setting and reviewing short, medium and long-term goals enables you to be in a stronger position to develop your career on your terms – nobody else’s. The seven steps to action planning outlined below, are designed to help you develop this kind of approach and put it to work. 1. Identify and clearly define your goal. For example, this might be: Short-term – to obtain a 2:1 in your degree Medium-Term – to apply for a postgraduate IT conversion course Long-term – to secure a job as an IT systems analyst 32 2. Brainstorm the activities and tasks you must undertake to achieve the goal, prioritise them and set a date for completion of each task. You may want to set daily, weekly, monthly or yearly targets. 3. Break down your goals into smaller tasks. Achieving your goals will seem less daunting this way. For example if you are interested in researching opportunities in personnel or marketing you might aim to: • Read relevant occupational information e.g. on Prospects website • Contact CIPD and CIM (professional bodies) and read the careers section of their websites • Attend an employer fair and discuss these roles with employers on the stands Avoid being vague by using the SMART technique: – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and within a Timescale. 4. Identify obstacles and difficulties from the start and plan ways to overcome them. Write down the barriers you feel are stopping you making progress e.g. time constraints, pressures of work, distractions, unsure about how to write a persuasive CV, having difficulty finding relevant information, confused by conflicting information… 5. Find useful resources and opportunities. Use the Careers and Employability Centre to help you get started. 6. Brainstorm people who may be able to help you. Start networking and get them on board. Pinpoint key people and identify how they can help you achieve your goals. For example friends, family, lecturers, careers advisers may be able to give you the encouragement, contacts and advice you need. 6. Develop positive thinking. In order to achieve the goal you have to believe in it and believe in yourself 7. Take personal responsibility and take action. Reflect on what you are doing. Banish the destructive habits of making excuses and poor planning and ‘never getting round to it’. Keep a record of what you have done and store it where you can find it. Decide when you are going to review it and note it in your diary. Start your record by completing the Personal Profile and Action Plan below. Your Personal Profile and Career Action Plan By now you will have undertaken a variety of different activities to help you gather information about yourself, i.e. your skills, interests, motivations and personal preferences. You should have some ideas about what you need to do next to help you decide about your career. These could be • explore in more depth areas of work you may be interested in and suited to. • revisit your skills analysis to plan improving in some key areas • make job applications or applications for work experience Action planning is a key career management skill. Working out where you want to be and the steps you need to take to get there can be applied to short, medium and long term goals. 33 My Personal Profile and Career Action Plan Date: Where are you in the Career Planning process? Which number on the Career Planning Roadmap did you choose on page 3? What have you learned about yourself from the ‘Focusing on you’ section on page 5? Have you generated any career options from the Exploring What’s Out There section on page 21? If not, what are you going to do to generate some? If yes – what are they? What have you done so far to follow up these ideas? 34 What is the next goal you are going to set yourself? Use the SMART technique described on page 33. What action will you take now? (in order to achieve your SMART goal) By when W hat resources will you use and what information do you need? 35 What might stop you following up these ideas? How are you going to overcome them? When are you going to review this action plan? 36 Reviewing Options and Making Choices: Summary Reviewing options is a continuous process and your choices may change direction as a result. Reflecting takes time – so allocate space to do this when you can focus and concentrate on the process. Use the action planning techniques to keep you on track and remind you of progress so far. Test out your ideas by making applications for jobs and courses. See Making Applications to help with the next step. 37 38 MAKING APPLICATIONS CVs, application forms and interviews – improve your competence to help you succeed and develop a sound job seeking strategy 39 MAKING APPLICATIONS Using this section should enable you to: • Increase your awareness of help available for graduates • Identify the resources you can use • Relate this research to your own situation Many students and graduates start the whole career planning process by writing their CV and /or replying to a job advert by completing an application form. In reality, this is the end of the process of thinking, reflecting and researching so that the time you spend making applications is worthwhile and your chances of success are better. After making a few applications, you may need to do more research or revisit other parts of the career planning cycle. Career Planning Focusing on Exploring Cycle you what’s out there Making applications Reviewing options and making choices This section includes a Resources list so that you can do more in depth research yourself and gives a basic introduction to: 1. Writing your CV 2. Interview tips 40 1. Writing a CV Is it still needed? A significant proportion of recruiters now use on line application forms and not CVs. The process of writing a CV however allows you to effectively analyse your skills, achievements and qualifications and present them succinctly. Having an up to date CV enables you to respond quickly to opportunities and can be seen as a useful resource for filling in online application forms. What’s the point? The point of a CV is to show an employer you have the relevant skills for the position you are applying for and its purpose is to get you the interview. It needs to be clear and concise and sell your skills to open that vital door. Within the first seven to ten seconds of reading your CV, the person pre-screening all applicants must be convinced that you merit further consideration. They need to be able to review a summary of your education, skills, accomplishments and experience within that time frame. Format, design and vocabulary all play big roles. What does the employer want? You will need to alter/ tailor your CV depending on the job you are applying for, so be prepared to write several versions. A CV is not a life history but a summary of how you can provide the skills and experience required by the role and the employer. 1. Show you know what specific skills the employer is looking e.g. for X, Y and Z skills in the person specification and you have experience of X, Y and Z make it clear. 2. Highlight with evidence how you meet their essential criteria, relevance is a key factor, structure your CV to illustrate this and attract the attention of the selectors. Useful Running Order • Personal details (contact details only required not date of birth, marital status etc.) • Career Objective/ Personal Profile (short, punchy highlighting unique skills) • Education and Qualifications (in reverse chronological order) • Employment History (ensure any gaps are accounted for) • Experience and achievements • Skills include specific training, IT skills or languages spoken • Extracurricular interests – not just a list, but with some detail about your level of commitment • Referees (2 referees – one from university) Format Whilst there is no set CV format, there are a number of styles of CVs which may help you to identify your skills, experience and achievement to an employer. Typical/reverse chronological (includes hybrid) This style incorporates experiences and skills within the descriptions of particular activities, starting with the most recent. A Hybrid CV is the same as Traditional but also includes an additional Skills or Achievement section. • The skills section is there to provide evidence that you meet the essential criteria of the person specification of the job. • Choose relevant skills and try have 2-3 examples of evidence for each skills • Example to download [link] http://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/applications-and- cvs/different-cvs-for-different-types-of-graduate-job 41 Skills-based Summarises experiences under skills headings with other data presented briefly • Skills based CVs focus on the transferrable skills you have for the role you apply for • This format is useful for someone who is either starting out on a career or changing work sectors so has less work experience in the specific field/ sector. • Example to download http://www.prospects.ac.uk/sample_cvs.htm At the link below, there are example CVs for a range of graduate career sectors, you may wish to compare the different styles used in each and choose which would be most appropriate for your job application. However, please do tailor it to your own CV and the sector you are interested in. http://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/job-hunting-tools-downloads Academic CV These tend to be more detailed and can go onto 3 pages as they include all research papers, conference and presentations that you have done as well as your qualifications and experience. For links to sample academic CV see resources pages Language Positive language is required to create impact so for example use words like led, improved, negotiated, initiated, rather than involved in, observed which are more passive. Proof Read your CV Does it pass the 5 Cs test: Clear - avoiding underlining, boxes and different layouts Concise – focus on what is relevant to the recruiter Complete – ensure that all relevant sections and information are included Consistent – keep fonts the same and avoid different formats for different sections Current – keep it up to date and relevant to the opportunity you are applying for More employers are using software that detect spelling and grammatical errors; often three mistakes and you are out! A cover letter is a letter that you send to accompany your CV when you apply for job, whether advertised or when you are sending a speculative application. Do not overlook this tool as it can be a great asset in your job hunt. It is not meant to replace a CV but to highlight key skills that you could bring to the job and organization, also your drive and motivation. The cover letter is a formal letter format and should be addressed to a specific named person if possible. The aim of the cover letter is to get the selector to read your CV. It needs to be focused and should cover the following: • Dear Mr X (or Dear Sir) • Job Reference (e.g. Trainee Recruitment Consultant Job Ref 123A) • Why you are interested in that job & that company • What specific skills you can bring to that job • Positive ending- e.g. look forward to discussing further at interview • Yours sincerely (use Yours faithfully with Dear Sir) http://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/applications-and-cvs/covering-letter-essentials-for- graduate-vacancies 42 2. Interview Techniques Interviews are a key part of an employer’s selection process and may be used on their own or as part of a longer selection process involving an assessment centre. The interview allows the employer to gain more evidence about your suitability for the role and the organisation. In summary they want to know: whether you can do the job, whether you want the job and whether you will fit in to the organisation. It is also your opportunity to see whether the job is right for you. Interview success depends on good preparation, creating a positive impact and giving strong answers to interview questions. Preparation is the key to success. It is crucial to put the time in before the interview – you will have a much better chance of performing at your best and you will feel more confident. A quick look at the recruiter’s website the day before is not sufficient! Use the Resources section in Exploring What’s Out There to help you research the job, the employer and the industry sector. See also www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers (under Applying for a job) for details of further links and resources to research. During the Interview Good interviewers are trained to base their decision on more than their first impression of you. However, in addition to what you actually say, how you come across i.e. your “personal impact” is very important in giving the interviewer a sense of whether you can work well with colleagues or clients. For tips on body language see Employability Skills 5. Interview post-mortem As soon as you can after the interview it is useful to jot down a few notes about what was covered including questions that went well or not so well. This will be useful if you are invited back to a further selection stage as a second interviewer may be asked to probe further on particular issues. If you are rejected, you may want to analyse if your interview answers need adjustment. Example interview questions For more detailed tips to help with preparing for, answering difficult questions see www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers (under Applying for a Job). To help you get started, some example questions are listed below. You could get a friend or family member to ask you some of these questions for general practice. Skill/Competency questions • Tell me about an occasion when you worked as part of a team. [How did you contribute to the team’s success? How did you build good working relationships with the others?] • Tell me about a difficult colleague or customer situation you have had to deal with. [How did you handle it? What was the outcome?] 5 Hind and Moss (2005) Employability Skills, Business Education Publishers. Available on reference in the Careers Centre. 43 • Describe a difficult decision you have had to make [Why was it difficult? How did you come to a decision?] • Tell me about an idea you have taken forward or a change you have made. • Describe a time when you have had to manage a number of tasks at the same time. [How did you decide on the priorities? What were the challenges?] • When have you had to deal with something not going according to plan? [How did you resolve the issue?] General and experience questions • Tell me about yourself? • Why would you be suitable for this job? / Why should we hire you? / Summarise your strengths for this role. • What has been your greatest achievement to date? • What has been your biggest disappointment / failure? • What are your weaknesses? • How would other people describe you? • Tell me more about your experience at xxxxx. What did you contribute in the role? What skills did you develop? • Your grade in xxxxx is not as good as you’re other grades – why do you think that was? • How did you decide on what to study at university? What do you enjoy about your subject? Career motivation questions • What attracts you to this role? • How have you researched the role? What do you think it involves day to day? • Why do you want to work for this organisation? • Why does a career in the xxxxx sector appeal to you? • What other careers have you considered? What other applications have you made? Business awareness questions • How do you keep up to date with what is happening in the business world/current affairs? • Tell me about a business news story in the press at the moment that you have been following? [Why does it interest you? What are your views on the issues involved?] • What did you learn about the issues/challenges for a business in your work experience at xxxx? • What do you know about our clients/services? • What do you think are the main issues affecting this company/sector/profession at the moment? 44 Making Applications Resources Resources to help with writing CVs, interviews and making applications are available in the Careers and Employability Centre or online: Making Applications: CVs folder and Interviews folder (Reference folders available in Careers and Employability Centre) Face-to-Face help: CV Advisers offer a CV clinic personal CV checking service most days during term and for periods of the vacations. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers for details of availability and how to book a slot. CV workshops (90 minutes long) are offered in term time. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers for details. Careers Advisers offer a short discussion at Advice Desk to answer your interview queries. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers for details of availability. Practice interviews are offered subject to staff availability. Interviews workshops (90 minutes long) are offered in term time. See www.as.bham.ac.uk/careers for details. CVs and Covering Letters AGCAS (2009) Applications, CVs and covering letters [Available from Careers and Employability Centre and online] www.prospects.ac.uk/links/appsinterviews [Accessed 8th October 2009] Prospects (2010) Writing an Academic CV [online] available www.prospects.ac.uk/links/cvwriting [accessed 12th May 2010] Prospects (2009) Sample Academic CV [online] available from www.prospects.ac.uk/links/examplecvs [accessed 12th May 2010] Vitae (2010) Writing an academic CV [online] available from http://www.vitae.ac.uk/researchers/1373/Academic%20CVs.html [accessed 12th May 2010] Jobs.ac.uk (2010) Academic CV Template [online] http://www.jobs.ac.uk/careers/articles/1309/academic-cv-template/ [accessed 12th May 2010] AGCAS Scotland (2009) Building Your Graduate Career [online] Available from http://www.agcasscotland.org.uk/sorted/ [Accessed 8th October 2009] Graduate Employment and Training (2009) Applications Advice [online] Hobsons Available at http://www.get.hobsons.co.uk/advice/applications [Accessed 8th October 2009] Graduate Employment and Training (2009) Interviews and Selection Centres [online] Hobsons Available at http://www.get.hobsons.co.uk/advice/interviews [Accessed 8th October 2009] Hawkins,P. and University of Liverpool (2007) Windmills Interactive: How do I help myself? [online] Available from www.windmillsonline.co.uk/interactive/ [Accessed 8th October 2009] 45 SKILL (2005) Disclosing Your Disability [online] Available from http://www.skill.org.uk/page.aspx?c=10&p=106 [Accessed 8th October 2009] Targetjobs.co.uk (2009) Job Hunting Tools [online] Available at www.targetjobs.co.uk [Accessed 8th October 2009] Interviews AGCAS (2009) Going for Interviews [Available from Careers and Employability Centre and online] www.prospects.ac.uk/links/interviews [Accessed 8th October 2009] Graduate Employment and Training (2009) Interviews and Selection Centres [online] Hobsons Available at http://www.get.hobsons.co.uk/advice/interviews [Accessed 8th October 2009] Jobsite (2009) Be My Interviewer [online] Jobsite UK Ltd. Available at http://www.bemyinterviewer.co.uk/ [Accessed 1st October 2008] 46 AND FINALLY…. After completing the workbook you should have: • Used self assessment techniques to create a personal portrait of yourself and considered how you can make use of this portrait to further your career decisions • Found out about resources available to you to research occupations, what employers are looking for and generate some career ideas which interest you. • Become more familiar with practical strategies to help further your plans and avoid ‘getting stuck’. • Started to consider what makes a successful CV and how to improve your interview skills. So are you any further along the roadmap? You may not have reached number 10 yet – but at least you have made a start! 47
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