Unit 5 – Cognitive Level of Analysis - TeacherWeb by hcj

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									Unit 5 – Cognitive Level of Analysis

                IBY1
      Lesson 1: Model of Memory

            Watch this introductory video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxVb6M8UPTQ&playnext
        =1&list=PL516D1C4000C588BD&index=7
         Memory Processes



ENCODING         STORAGE       RETRIEVAL
(transforming
 information;   (maintaining    (pull from
  perception)   information)    memory)
                                     Schema Theory
 Cognitive theory about information processing; network of information,
  beliefs, perception, and expectations of your environment
 Example:

                                       books        Papers


                                                             Positive Perceptions:
                             desks                           good grades, favorite
                                                              teachers, fun times




                                                                               Negative Perceptions:
                                                                                bad grades, teachers
                classmates
                                                                                   yelling at me,
                                                                               embarrassing moments




          teachers
                                               School                                 Pathway to Success;
                                                                                      preparing for college
                      Working Memory Model
Short-term Memory/Working                                           Sensory Memory: receives input
Memory: information that is                                         from sensory organs; lasts for a few
currently being rehearse or                                         seconds; may continue to short-term
used regularly; needed to                       Sensory Memory      memory/working memory; needed
perform task or operate daily                                       to create some type of immediate
                                                                    reaction


                                     Short-
                                 term/Working
                                    Memory




                                                          Long-term Memory
    Long-term Memory: vast storehouse of
    information; has indefinite duration and
    unlimited capacity; needed to form
    schemas
                       Analytical Writing
                         (250 words)
 Evaluate the impact of various aspects of memory on the average
  human. Consider the following questions as you write your
  analysis:
   Why is “memory” important to humans?
   What part does memory serve in cognitive processes?
   Why is forming schemas important to humans’ daily occupations
    and survival?
   What impact does loss of one or more types of memory have on a
    person?
   What are the biological, social/cultural, and cognitive factors that
    affect memory?
Lesson 2: Cognition and Emotion
Emotions Consist of 3 Factors:
      Physiological Changes
      • Arousal of the autonomic nervous system and
        endocrine system

      Subjective Feeling
      • e.g. happiness, sadness, excitement, etc.


      Associated Behavior
      • e.g. smiling, running away
Biological Factors in Emotion
 LeDoux  The Emotional Brain (1999)
 Amygdala  controls emotions such as fear,
 anger, hunger, stress, etc
 Short route of emotions; goes from the
  thalamus to the amygdala; fight or flight
 Long route of emotions; passes through the
  neocortex and hippocampus before
  responding
Cognitive Factors in Emotion
 Lazarus and Folkman (1988)
 Interpreting and evaluating how a situation affects one’s
  personal well-being
 Problem-focused coping: aims to change the problematic
  situation that causes emotional stress
 Emotion-focused coping: aims to handle the emotions rather
  than changing the problematic situation
                              You look at a pregnant lady
 You look at a homeless        in her 30s with two other
person? Why do you think      children under the age of 5?
 you are feeling this way?     Why do you think you are
                                    feeling this way?

                    What do you feel
                       when…

You look at a person being     You look at a 2-year old
arrested on the side of the    who is lost in Wegmans’
95/495 Beltway? Why do        Grocery store? Why do you
 you think you are feeling     think you are feeling this
         this way?                       way?
   Flashbulb Memories
 Perceived clarity of memory of surprising or
 major events stored in memory
  Ex: Where you were on 9/11/01; your first
   birthday party; a major car accident; when
   you broke your leg
Cognitive Factors in Happiness
 Social Comparison Theory: concept that people learn about
  and assess themselves by comparing themselves to others
   Tend to be more happy if one assess themselves as having as
    much or more than the person he/she is comparing themselves
    to
 Level of Aspiration Theory: concept that people tend to
  explore what they can gain and the likelihood of their
  achieving the goals before making decisions
 Upward Comparison: when one is comparing themselves to
  someone who is considered more fortunate; leads to
  dissatisfaction.
Sociocultural Factors in Happiness
 Dalai Lama – “the key to happiness is in your own hands”
 Can be achieved through the mind, heart, attitudes and
  outlook on life
 Compassion for others is an important part of one’s spiritual
  development .                              – Dalai Lama
 Know your limitations; knowing how much is enough.
 Gross National Happiness: a measure of growth in happiness
   Danes (Denmark) are the happiest people on the earth
      Biological Factors in Happiness
 Habituation – becoming use to the way things are
 Set-point: the baseline or beginning point of happiness according to our
  personality
 Happiness Twin Study (Lykken, 1996): compared happiness scores among
  sets of identical and fraternal twins who grew up together or were raised
  up in separate homes
 Factors:
     Family/friend time
     Can easily express gratitude
     Helpful to others
     Optimistic outlook on the future
     Enjoy the pleasures of life and live in the present
     Physically active
     Committed to lifelong goals and ambitions
     Cope well in times of crisis

								
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