Qualities facilitative, flexible, brutally honest, to show tact, to be tactless, to be methodical (to be very organized), to be conscientious (svědomitý, pečlivý), to be sceptical, to be innovative, inquisitiveness, conscientiousness Adjectives caring (starost), insular (izolující se), to be short-sighted, apprehensive (mající obavy), solemn (vážný), distraught (vyšinutý, vystresovaný, obavami bez sebe), outlook isn’t rosy, Verbs To be marooned on an island (ponechán na pospas), to be hooked on, make/take a decision, pluck out (oškubat), to be deserving of your praise, put in (vynaložit), to be carried away with, make redundand, babble on, to be taken aback (být zaskočený), blame me for, accuse me of, praise me for, discourage from, forgive someone for, prevent someone (from), remind me of, rip off (natáhnout na hůl), to tuck (zastrčit), exorbitant (přehnaný, přemrštěný), alluring (svůdný, lákavý, lze použít také na ženu), money-spinner (zlatý důl), something is in the pipeline, to elongate (to stretch), collide with, to finish off (projednou a navždy), widening at, Phrases at a bit of a loose end, tempers can frayed, there is a risk of something, to keep someone waiting, to make someone wait, to be in awe of, to make ends meet (finančně vyjít), in order to, come to terms with, can’t imagine turning 30, often miss the bus because I’m often running late, make a living, to earn a living, jump in the queue, have a clue, bitterly disappointed, ridiculously expensive, awfully kind, terribly kind, extraordinarily good looking, highly competitive, immediately obvious, total obedience, error of judgement, put something to use, run short, run out, set fire to, throw fire at, associate with, out of something (from), not work = something is out of order, it’s a waste of time, couldn’t make up her mind = decide, could you take care of the children (look after), be in the mood to go out, to be in the mood for going out, please remain in your seats, you have got the right to vote, it’s all (the) same for me, I have no intention of interrupting the meeting, the guide called/drew our attention, he never gave an explanation why he left, to have no money left, admire = to look up to somebody, put up with (snášet), to take something into consideration, to lose your temper, make any difference, a likelihood of, to be humongous, sow the seed of, are in favour of observing, to keep under control, to be bound for a place (destination) versus to be bound to do something, on ther run – escaping criminal, on the cards – destiny, in the pipeline – in the process of happening, what lies in store for you – what is the future of something, somebody, you never know what’s around the corner – you never know what could happen, in the long run – in the distant future at the end, take something into account (consider), restaurant has touch of class, get the taste of your own medicine, to be bitten by the exercise bug, Compound nouns a takeover (převrat), a turnover (obrat, pohyb, fluktuace), a turnout (návštěvnost), a setback (zhoršení, komplikace, zádrhel), a handover (předání), a handout (dávka, prospekt, příděl, leták, milodar), a breakthrough (průlom, zlomová novinka), a breakout (útěk, průlom, epidemie nemoci), a breakdown (selhání, porucha) Nouns a bid (snaha, pokus), a coup (puč), maelstrom (vodní vír či smršť, přeneseně zmatek v emocích), elation (nadšení, radost), upheaval (zvrat), Verb forms I suggest we show, I suggest showing a film, good idea to teach, I recommend we invite, I recommend inviting, I propose putting on, I propose we put on, to marvel at, Nouns to be daunting (znepokojující), to be overbearing (panovačný), Adjective Noun Verb mature, immature maturity mature, maturate decisive, indecisive decision decide motivated, unmotivated motivation motivate sensitive, insensitive sensitivity, insensitivity sensitise, sense inquisitive, uninquisitive inquisition inquire ambitious, unambitious ambition independent independence conscientious conscientiousness introverted introvert extroverted extrovert Stative and continuous verbs Verbs not used in the continuous form are a) Verbs that describes wants, likes, preferences want, like, prefer, wish, hope, love, hate b) Verbs that describes thoughts and opinions think, believe, know, remind, understand, (reckon), deserve c) Verbs of senses hear, see, smell, taste, touch, feel (not: watch, look, stare, listen) d) Verbs of belonging and containing own, possess, belong Continuous forms imply temporary actions Be Ana is funny. (fact) Ana is being funny. (temporary action) Think I think this class is lovely. (opinion) I am thinking of going abroad. (consider) Appear It appears to be quite hot today. (seems) My friend is appearing in the new play at the Opera. (taking part in) Expect I expect you will like kangaroo (think) I’ve been expecting you since 8:30 (anticipate) Have I have a cat. (possession) I’m having dinner with my friend tonight. See Do you see who I mean? (understand) How long have you been seeing your boyfriend? Taste This food taste amazing. (good flavour) I’m tasting wine in the Hunter Valley this weekend. (try) Mean Do you know what this word means? I’ve been meaning to learn French. (intend) Letter of recommendation How long I know the person, how I know the person Character description (give examples – hard-working, why? experience?) Why do I think they would be suitable for this job? Summarize my overall opinion of the person’s suitability for this job. He would be an asset to your team. I have no hesitation in recommending him for the post. Proposal Stating the purpose This proposal contains… In this proposal I will describe/evaluate/present/assess The aim of this proposal is to… Background information Following a survey among students… There were several issues arising from the last event, which was not a success. Feedback from a student questionnaire suggests… Making recommendations and suggestions I recommend/propose/suggest/believe (that) we (should)… It is essential/critical to… I urge you to… / There is an urgent need for Conclusions To sum up, I believe that… In conclusion, I would say… If these recommendations are followed, then the event will be a great success/the situation will be greatly improved. On balance, we are of the opinion that… Useful something would be an obvious choice, visitors would be amazed and captivated, completely unique, bring history alive Take take your mind (of your problems) take to = like immediately (activity or person) take for granted = not appreciate take back = retract something what we said take up = begin an activity take part in = participate take your breath away (breathtaking) take in = understand take someone down a peg or two = setřít, srazit někoho Gerunds and infinitives Michael hopes to go to Thailand this year. Marketa fancies sleeping this weekend. Evelin expects to get a good job in Brazil. Followed by gerund avoid, enjoy, practise, fancy, miss, risk, deny (that) Followed by infinitive offer, refuse, want, expect (that), threaten (that), deserve, manage, hope (that), promise (that) Followed by gerund or infinitive prefer, like, begin, continue, love Ana denied stealing the chocolate. Ana denied that she had stolen the chocolate. I didn’t expect him to be so friendly. I didn’t expect that he would be so friendly. Different meanings I stopped smoking last year. / give up I stopped to smoke and then carried on. / another action I tried to open the window but it was stuck. / effort I tried opening the window to see if the room would cool down. / experiment I remembered to do my homework last night. / keep an appointment I remember doing my homework so I don’t know why I can’t find it. / inform, have a memory I regret to tell you that you have to pay for your own copies of Lord of the Flies. / sorry for something I regret not asking him out on a date when I had the chance. / sorry for sth I didn’t do I mean to earn a lot of money this year. / I intend Living abroad means experiencing new ways of life. / it involves or requires To or not to LET I let Marketa eat my chocolate. Market is allowed to eat my chocolate. MAKE I made Marketa eat my chocolate. Marketa was made to eat my chocolate. HEAR I heard Marketa eat my chocolate. Marketa was heard to eat my chocolate. WATCH I watched Marketa eat my chocolate. Marketa was seen to eat my chocolate. HAD BETTER = a little bit stronger then SHOULD Marketa had better not eat my chocolate. WOULD RATHER = PREFER TO I would rather Marketa didn’t eat my chocolate. I would rather eat (or: I would prefer to) eat Marketa chocolate. Relative clauses I moved to Australia in 1979, by which time I already had a British accent. I left Japan in 2005, by which time I could speak Japanese. My family live in different states in Australia. All of them were born in the UK. My family, all of whom were born in the UK, live in different states in Australia. My sister, who I gave a pair of shoes to for Christmas, loves shopping. My sister, to whom I gave a pair of shoes for Christmas, loves shopping. My parents live on Kangaroo Island. It’s biggest export is canola. My parents live on Kangaroo Island, whose biggest export is canola. You may choose to go there one day. In this case, you should hire a car. You may choose to go there one day, in which case, you should hire a car. Phrasal verbs with up and down Break up – couples can break up, school can break up (na prázdniny) Break down – stop working, collapse Set up – arrange a meeting (romantic hope), establish, install Set down – rules (stanovit, určit), méně často: zaznamenat Put up – accommodate somebody, hang a picture Put down – criticize (snížit), euthanize the animal versus let down (nechat ve štychu, zklamat) Bring up – raise, mention a topic Bring down – bring somebody down – make someone feel depressed Turn up – arrive, appear, turn up volume Turn down – refuse, turn down volume, a job Other phrasal verbs hand in (odevzdat), hand on (rozdávat), hand over (vydat), make of (soudit), make up (utvářet), passed off (proběhnout), passed up (promeškat), stand in (zastoupit), stand up (nepřijít na schůzku), stand to (zaujmout pozice), turn back (změnit názor), turned over (obrátit se), turn down (odmítnout), knocked away (odrazit, vykrýt), knocked off (srazit z ceny, udělat rychle v čase), knocked down (srazit autem) Compound verbs a cutback (redukce), a downfall (zhroucení, úpdadek), an upbringing (výchova) hand out (distribute), make out (looking in the distance and trying to identify), knock out (eliminate), pass out (loose consciousness), Future tenses What time does your train leave? What are you up to tonight? What are you doing tonight? What are you going to do tonight? Where will you have travelled by this time next year? Where will you be living 10 years from now? How long will you have been living in Australia by the end of this month? (future perfect continous) What are you going to do when you finish ELSIS? By the time you get home I will have cooked dinner. (future perfect) By the time you get home I will be cooking dinner. (future continuous) 6 months from now I will have left Australia. (future perfect) 6 months from now I will still be living in Australia. (future continuous) Advanced Points are to All students are to meet in the assembly hall this afternoon. (have to in the future) be about to + inf, on the point/verge of + ing The play is about to start. I am on the verge of losing my temper. I am on the point of resigning my job. be due to The train is due to leave at 8.15. The train is due at 8.15. (versus) Her flight is due in at 8.15. was going to, was planning to, was intending to I was going to go to Jervis Bay but my car broke down. I was planning to do the CAE test, but I realized I couldn’t afford it. going to – prediction about the future for which there is evidence will – prediction about the future for which there is no evidence take do make get advantage homework sure ready control a favour a promise rid of a photograph business a suggestion a donation a rest harm an exception a good mark for granted something an inquiry a decision exercise a decision a chance a rest on well a choice lost a risk a resolution an impression of a chance a donation advice a living exercise an impression an effort Writing a format letter Signing off Use always Kind regards (it is generic), yours faithfully, yours sincerely Formal language If the general public is permitted be use the car park facilities, students will have difficulty finding spaces. Firstly, your conclusions regarding students’ use of the bus service are incorrect/erroneous. It is not realistic to expect to expect students to cycle to college, considering the traffic problems in our city. A survey has been conducted recently, was carried out recently. The information received is incorrect. The changes you would like to implement. We cannot support this decision. This is discriminatory. I have to inform you that… It is my responsibility to inform you that With regard to + noun / Regarding + noun / Firstly I would like to address the issue of / In addition / Furthermore / Following this / Besides this – adding information Opening Dear Mr Simpson, Dear Ms Simpson, Dear Sir or Madam, To whom it may concern I am writing on behalf of the student committee in response to your recent memo regarding financial cutbacks at the college. I am writing to inquire about, to inform you, regard you, on behalf on Conclusion I hope you will take into account all of these consideration on this matter. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Linking words of contrast However must start the second sentence and it contrasts the first sentence. He didn’t have much money, although he still managed to buy a new computer. He still managed to buy a new computer although he didn’t have much money. Animals horn, beak, tusk (ivory), claw, hoof/hooves, flipper (ploutev), paws, the hide, tail, shell, wing, fin, mane, antenna/antennae, scales (šupina), pincer Birds an owl, a woodpecker, a dove, a parrot, an eagle, a stork, a pigeon, a seagull, a cockatoo, a pelican, a kookaburra, an ibis, a vulture, a finch, a sparrow feel sluggish (liknavý, vlekoucí se), agile (hbitý), grooming (pečující o sebe) lice, tick, flea, to burrow (zavrtávat), antler (poraží), graceful (elegantní, půvabný), joey (klokaní mládě) to let the cat out of the bag (vyzradit tajemství, nezáměrně), to make a dog’s dinner of something (to make a mess of something you are trying to do well), to be/feel like a fish out of water, to move at a snail’s pace (very slowly), to have a whale of a time (a lot of fun), to put your foot in your mouth (udělat něco zcela špatně), snake in the grass (venomous) = poisonous, donkey work (práce, kterou nikdo nechce dělat), to rabbit on (příliš žvanit), to have/get butterflies in your stomach (to feel nervous), to be in the doghouse (když se po hádce nemluví), be in somebody’s bad books (nemluvit společně), eat like a horse (hodně), a hen party, a stag party (rozlučky se svobodou), Phrases She wasn’t interested in getting her hair wet, let alone going scuba diving. I’m afraid of heights, so I wouldn’t do Bridge Climb, let alone go sky diving! to be hooked to (for good), to be addicted to (for a long time) to be nostalgic to dwell on the past Tenses Past Simple Sequence of events Past Countinous to set the scene in a narrative/background information/interrupted actions While/When/As we were eating our sandwiches we suddenly saw a dolphin in the water Past Perfect an event that finished before another event in the past/to describe reasons for emotions in a narrative sence Evelin was very excited because she had never seen a dolphin before/until the moment. Past Perfect Continuous for events that take place prior to another past event, and when duration or movement is important Marketa was disappointed because she had been swimming for five minutes before the dolphin appeared. Present Perfect I’ve done a triathlon – a completed experience, time unknown I’ve never met Ana’s brother – how often something has happened I’ve known Ana for about 4 months – for verb of state I’ve lived in Sydney most of my life – permanent state (live) Present Prefect Continuous I’ve been learning French – an incomplete action, still happening I’ve been swimming (and I am wet) – a recently completed action, for which there is evidence I’ve been reading War & Peace for ages – focus on duration (still reading), how long… invariably (neměnně), opinionated (umíněný) Writing a contribution written for someone who is in the process of collecting information for use in a larger document, eg. 1. A book – discursive (racionální, logicky zdůvodněný) 2. A guidebook – factual 3. A piece of research – factual, neutral Advice You should/shouldn’t You really ought to/ought not to It would be a good idea if you It would help if you Expressions to nod, shake your head, yawn, stare, chuckle, giggle, frawn (mračit), choke (dusit), scowl (chmuřit) Expressions to give someone a hand to foot the bill – to pay to get your head around something – to understand something is on the tip of my tongue – I can almost remember it! to put your foot in your mouth – to say something inappropriate to head for a place – to move in that direction something costs an arm and a leg – very expensive to work your fingers to the bone – to work very hard Reported speech Do you like eating kangaroo? I asked Rudolfo if he liked eating kangaroo and he told me he did, adding that it wasn’t his favorite food. Have you already finished college? Evelin asked Marketa if/whether she had already finished college and she told that she hadn’t. What would you do if you won the lottery? Rudolfo asked Vita what he would do if he won the lottery and he said he would invest some of it. today – that day, tomorrow – the next or following day, yesterday – the day before the previous day, now – then/at that time, tonight – that night Reporting verbs an explanation (to give, offer, provide) an apology (to make, offer) forgiveness (ask for, have somebody’s forgiveness) to beg accusation (to make) a denial (be in denial) a reminder (to issue, give) a suggestion (to make, give) a warning (to give, issue) a threat (make) a realisation (have) congratulations (give, pass) the blame (get, take, put, lay) an offer (make) a demand (make a complaint (make) a boast (his/her) When Miguel explained that there where domestic giraffes in Spain, I was a little sceptical. Miguel apologised (to Michael) for lying and I forgave him (for it). When Miguel mentioned that he had seen a lion in Manly, I knew he was having me on (he was pulling my leg). Evelin begged me not to give the class too much homework this week. I denied (ever) giving the class too much homework, and chuckled quietly to myself. I reminded the class to buy me chocolate if they wanted less homework. I reminded the class that if they wanted less homework they could buy me chocolate. The class accused the teacher of blackmailing them. I suggested that the class (should) go to the pub. I suggested going to the pub. I proposed that ELSIS could open a café in one of the classrooms. I proposed opening a café in one of the classrooms. I warned the class against drinking too much. I warned the class not to drink too much. The class threatened not to come to school unless I reduced the amount of homework. The class threatened that they wouldn’t come to school if I didn’t reduce the amount of homework. Vocabulary something runs in the family (něajaký dědičný rys), Word families provide, provision, a provider, to provide, to provision, to be provisional attend, attention, to be attentive, an attendant, an attender doubt, doubtfully, doubtless, doubtful, undoubtedly VERB NOUN (thing) NOUN (person) ADJECTIVE ADVERB produce product producer productive productively perfect perfection perfectionist perfectible perfectly authorise authorisation authority authoritative, authoritatively authoritarian medicine medic medicinal, medicinally, medical medically provide provision provider manage management manager manageable manageably believe belief believer expertise expert expert expertly On no account/Under no circumstances On no account should this door be kept locked. Under no circumstances should you cheat in the exam. (should + subject + verb) Phrases As far as the punctuality is concerned… …something calls for a great/good deal of patience …in terms of… to be lenient, to show leniency, the police turn a blind eye (to ____) Writing: An information sheet Written for an audience who needs information, instruction or advice in some area. Purpose: to provide factual information and/or advice on a topic Clearly organised, may include headings Title (must have), subtitles Conclusion take in = naletět, oklamat, to deceive/trick Are you having me on? = to fool/joke slump into a puddle = propadnout se do louže tag-of-war = přetahovaná na lane I was able to go for a walk last night. I could have gone… I could play the guitar when I was young. I could have played the guitar when I was young. I couldn’t do my homework. I wasn’t able to do my homework. I have been able to speak English since I was 5. I’m sure I can speak English fluently in a few years. I’m sure I will be able to speak English… I hate that I can’t speak another language fluently. I hate not being able to speak another… wear out, tire out = utrápit, zničit I am worn out from so much exercise. a head spin = feeling of dizziness strain = the effort to do something difficult pursue and activity = enjoy Phrasal verbs (prasečí slovesa) go through with something = try/do something difficult/scary look up to = respect bring a rule in = to introduce a rule/law turn down = refuse to get carried away = to be unable to control a situation put up with something = to tolerate it fed up with something = to be frustrated break into = enter a house illegally turn somebody off = to disgust call of = to cancel cut down = reduce stop over = stop in one place on your way to another set off for a specific place, set off on holiday or adventure = begin a journey pick on = to criticize somebody/tease put somebody down = criticize/humiliate go off = when alarm start set off = when I start the alarm look down on somebody x look up to somebody own up = to confess of a sudden = z ničeho nic be on the mend = zotavit se under the weather = cítit se pod psa leftover = zbytek jídla a false economy little by little = obdobně jako step by step collided with one another exited at the thought to have a detrimental effect on = neblahý, poškozující spatial awareness = prostorová představivost lateral thinking = thinking outside the box Essay writing 1. Make a plan (on paper or in your mind): For & Against the topic 2. Introduction a. Thesis statement: broad/general statement about the topic b. Rhetorical question – optional c. What you are going to say 3. Main body a. Say it! b. Paragraph 1 – Argument for c. Paragraph 2 – Argument against 4. Conclusion: Summarise your main point and give your opinion Many sports teams and sporting events depend on sponsorship from the world of business. Does this link between sport and business have a positive or negative effect on sport? Eating too much chocolate led to an increase in weight. Giving up chocolate resulted in despair and misery. Lack of chocolate had an effect on my teaching. Evelin was directly responsible for re-igniting my chocolate addiction. Taking up chocolate again was the source of much celebration. The war in Vietnam led to significant political changes in USA. Inventing the modern music notation resulted in a new historical period, when many famous musicians were able the record their masterpieces very easily. Drawing on the walls of caves had an effect on the ability of imagination and art skills of our ancestors. The fear of death of ancient Egyptians was the source of their willingness to build monumental structures. off in to start a journey, make an alarm sound, weather sets in = it’s here to stay SET to light fireworks cigarettes give off a strong smell (vydávat) GIVE to surrender delay or postpone (odložit), to contribute money, time (vložit, složit) PUT to be discouraged from –ing (odradit) remove (e.g. hair) to understand, to deceive products, people, company (odstartovat), TAKE to mimic, to copy bring off = uspět = succeed against expecations cut in = skákat do řečit = interrupt the speech Participle clauses Miguel didn’t want to be around Spanish speakers so he decided to come to Australia. Not wanting to be around Spanish speakers, Miguel decided to come to Australia. Because Robert didn’t like the long Czech winters, he decided to move to sunny Australia. Not liking the long Czech winters, Robert decided to move to sunny Australia. Maical had already travelled extensively so he was ready to settle down in Australia. Having already travelled extensively, Maical was ready to settle down. Rudolfo ate his dinner and then went to bed. Having eaten his dinner, Rodolfo went to bed. Dan shoved Lenka out of his way and stood up to go to the toilet. Shoving Lenka out of his way, Dan stood up to go to the toilet. BEFORE/AFTER/WHEN/WHILE can be used as well While Jarmila was studying at ELSIS, she met the man of her dreams. While studying at ELSIS, Jarmila met the man of her dreams. Past participle clauses (always passive content) Evelin was refused entry to the class so she went to the pub. Refused entry to the class, Evelin went to the pub. If kangaroo is cooked properly, it tastes delicious. Cooked properly, kangaroo tastes delicious. ELSIS was founded in 1991. It is still flourishing today. Founded in 1991, ELSIS is still flourishing today. Reduced relative clauses The people who were leaving the building looked terrified. (defining) The people leaving the building looked terrified. The Picasso, which was presented to the museum last year, is worth $5 million dollars. (non-defining) The Picasso, presented to the museum last year, is worth $5 million dollars. A competition entry written for a judge or a panel of judges usually expected to nominate somebody for something format – a letter or an article impractical, indecisive, incapable, illogical, unsuitable, disagreeable, dishonest, illegal, irregural unlimited, unmistakable, unpleasant, unreliable, unlucky, unmanageable, unpopular, unreliable, unrealistic quiver – body part tremble – while fear shake shiver – with cold shudder – one moment, often involuntary to come across = to find to come across as (a real bitch) = to give an impression of being <2 weeks missing> Expressions influential, infancy overcome a problem, play is performed, concert is held as a whole (jako celek) from time to time well over (a lot of more) My friend = friend of mine, however, his friend = friend of his in its favor = for its benefit, advantage no/little/not any point, to take somebody by surprise make A name for yourself no chance OF doing something a chest of drawers = prádelník, komoda strong strength strengthen long length lengthen wide width widen broad breadth broaden deep depth deepen Vocabulary and proposition manslaughter, car-jacking, mugging, to conspire, to smash, a bulldozer, to snatch, to raid, a raid, a ringleader, to be caught red-handed, offender, maintain versus maintenance, unattractive, VITEZSLAV is shorten TO Vita, carry OUT an experiment or a plan (provést), for the time BEING = for now, vital part, a keen eye, products are manufactured things, but produce for food, scarce/scarcity/scarcely, environmentally friendly, Business get down to business = start work go out of business = close down due to financial concerns in business (with somebody) = work together to achieve something away on business = travel for business reasons none of your business, mind your own business = don’t be nosy Prepositions baffled by (být Janek z něčeho), love at first sight, looks under age, by coincidence, put on the market to do something without delay, to do something in advance, to be on good terms with someone, something that is done by mistake, people that are in good/high spirits, something you are conscious of doing, someone that is out of luck, to have access to a place, someone that you quarrel with to be not good WITH animals, IN the early stages, to be UDER the impression, no real alternative TO the plan, to be famous FOR something, it contrasts WITH something, somebody where implicated IN the plot Expressions bring on = cause, to ease stress, well over = hodně přes, take into account = vzít na vědomí, satisfactorily, to be dissatisfied take after = být po někom, look up to = respect, get over = recover, dostat se přes něco, fall out (with) = argue, make up = forgive, smířit se, potom se člověk může “move on” nebo “start over”, get on well with, we really hit it off = dva lidé, kteří hned od počátku cítí, že k sobě náleží right on cue (perfect timing), excruciating = nesnesitelný, mučivý, strenuousness = namáhavost, těžkost, rehearsal = zkouška (generálka), hlavně u divadla a hudby Comparisons Big difference Brazil is much/a lot of/far/a great deal/considerably bigger/more populated than the Czech Republic The Czech Republic isn’t nearly as big as Brazil. The Czech Republic is nowhere near as big as Brazil. SUPERLATIVE: Brazil is by far the biggest country (if the class). Small difference Czech winters are slightly/a (little) (bit) colder than Korean winter. Korean winters aren’t quite as cold as Czech winters. No difference Sydney is just as rainy as Sao Paulo. ddddddddcqThe longer you stay in Australia, the better your English will be. The more you eat, the fatter you will/get be. As or like? As + noun = the role/purpose of something As your teacher, I’ll help you as much as I can. Like + noun = in the same way/similar to Like your classmates, you have to work hard in Sydney. We use like to compare appearance or behaviour. She’s got a cute boyfriend, like me. (like = such as) feels like + -in sounds like + -in tastes like + -in smells like + -in as if/as though = conjunctions followed by subject It looks as if it’s going to rain. It looks as if he’s going to be sick. So and such There are so many beaches that it’s easy to see beautiful women. There are so many cockroaches that it turns you off. There are such a lot of great people in the CAE class that it’s easy to have fun. There are too many mosquitoes to go outside at night. It is too windy to walk around without a coat. It isn’t near enough to Europe. (adjective + enough) There aren’t enough Asian girls in Italy for Michael. (enough + noun) Phrases somebody is made to do something, something has slipped my mind, do away with = to move from the world entirely, he bought me flowers to make up for hurting me, say unexpectedly short comment, which is inappropriate/shocking/funny = to come out with, move at the same pace = keep up with, to keep up with the Joneses (to have what my neighbour have), nag = to go on and on and on at me (constantly telling the same thing), to stick up for (postavit se za někoho v diskusi, typical also in court), to walk out on someone (odejít ze vztahu, opustit), on the spur, to be taken into custody, at the very end, at a loose end, scope for something, weigh up pros and cons, deforestation (logging industry), grazing land (půda pro pastvu) something cost the earth = ridiculously expensive to be on the top of the world = to be happy to be thin on the ground = nemít pevnou půdu pod nohama to have the world at your feet = all possibilities to lot of ground to make up = to do a lot of work to catch up to set the world on fire = do something extraordinary business has got off the ground = took off nothing on Earth can persuade me to do something… Emphasis (inversion) formal, literary aux verbs + subject (do, be, have) often begin with adverbial phrases As soon as I arrived in Vancouver it started to rain. No sooner did I arrive in Vancouver than it started to rain. No sooner had I arrived in Vancouver than it started to rain. I had never been so excited as when I went whale watching. Never (before) had I been so excited as when I went whale watching. I didn’t realise/know/understand how much I would love Canada. Little did I know how much I would love Canada. I learnt that you should never approach bear cubs. Under no circumstances should you ever approach bear cubs. I didn’t leave Canada until I had run out of money. Not until I had run out of money did I leave Canada. I will never have another experience like it. Never (again) will I have another experience like it. I really want a house made of chocolate. What I really want is a house of chocolate. I am worried about not having enough money to buy one. All I’m worried about is not having… I think Miguel would build one for me The person who I think would build one for me is Miguel. I can’t image anything better than having a house of chocolate. My reason for wanting a house made of chocolate is (that) I can’t image anything better.
Pages to are hidden for
"CAE"Please download to view full document