CAE by mamapeirong


facilitative, flexible, brutally honest, to show tact, to be tactless, to be methodical (to be very
organized), to be conscientious (svědomitý, pečlivý), to be sceptical, to be innovative, inquisitiveness,

caring (starost), insular (izolující se), to be short-sighted, apprehensive (mající obavy), solemn (vážný),
distraught (vyšinutý, vystresovaný, obavami bez sebe), outlook isn’t rosy,

To be marooned on an island (ponechán na pospas), to be hooked on, make/take a decision, pluck
out (oškubat), to be deserving of your praise, put in (vynaložit), to be carried away with, make
redundand, babble on, to be taken aback (být zaskočený), blame me for, accuse me of, praise me for,
discourage from, forgive someone for, prevent someone (from), remind me of, rip off (natáhnout na
hůl), to tuck (zastrčit), exorbitant (přehnaný, přemrštěný), alluring (svůdný, lákavý, lze použít také na
ženu), money-spinner (zlatý důl), something is in the pipeline, to elongate (to stretch), collide with, to
finish off (projednou a navždy), widening at,

at a bit of a loose end, tempers can frayed, there is a risk of something, to keep someone waiting, to
make someone wait, to be in awe of, to make ends meet (finančně vyjít), in order to, come to terms
with, can’t imagine turning 30, often miss the bus because I’m often running late, make a living, to
earn a living, jump in the queue, have a clue, bitterly disappointed, ridiculously expensive, awfully
kind, terribly kind, extraordinarily good looking, highly competitive, immediately obvious, total
obedience, error of judgement, put something to use, run short, run out, set fire to, throw fire at,
associate with, out of something (from),

not work = something is out of order, it’s a waste of time, couldn’t make up her mind = decide, could
you take care of the children (look after), be in the mood to go out, to be in the mood for going out,
please remain in your seats, you have got the right to vote, it’s all (the) same for me, I have no
intention of interrupting the meeting, the guide called/drew our attention, he never gave an
explanation why he left, to have no money left, admire = to look up to somebody, put up with
(snášet), to take something into consideration, to lose your temper, make any difference, a likelihood
of, to be humongous, sow the seed of, are in favour of observing, to keep under control, to be bound
for a place (destination) versus to be bound to do something,

on ther run – escaping criminal, on the cards – destiny, in the pipeline – in the process of happening,
what lies in store for you – what is the future of something, somebody, you never know what’s
around the corner – you never know what could happen, in the long run – in the distant future at the
end, take something into account (consider), restaurant has touch of class, get the taste of your own
medicine, to be bitten by the exercise bug,
Compound nouns
a takeover (převrat), a turnover (obrat, pohyb, fluktuace), a turnout (návštěvnost), a setback
(zhoršení, komplikace, zádrhel), a handover (předání), a handout (dávka, prospekt, příděl, leták,
milodar), a breakthrough (průlom, zlomová novinka), a breakout (útěk, průlom, epidemie nemoci), a
breakdown (selhání, porucha)

a bid (snaha, pokus), a coup (puč), maelstrom (vodní vír či smršť, přeneseně zmatek v emocích),
elation (nadšení, radost), upheaval (zvrat),

Verb forms
I suggest we show, I suggest showing a film, good idea to teach, I recommend we invite, I
recommend inviting, I propose putting on, I propose we put on, to marvel at,

to be daunting (znepokojující), to be overbearing (panovačný),

Adjective                          Noun                                 Verb
mature, immature                   maturity                             mature, maturate
decisive, indecisive               decision                             decide
motivated, unmotivated             motivation                           motivate
sensitive, insensitive             sensitivity, insensitivity           sensitise, sense
inquisitive, uninquisitive         inquisition                          inquire
ambitious, unambitious             ambition
independent                        independence
conscientious                      conscientiousness
introverted                        introvert
extroverted                        extrovert

Stative and continuous verbs
Verbs not used in the continuous form are

    a) Verbs that describes wants, likes, preferences
       want, like, prefer, wish, hope, love, hate
    b) Verbs that describes thoughts and opinions
       think, believe, know, remind, understand, (reckon), deserve
    c) Verbs of senses
       hear, see, smell, taste, touch, feel (not: watch, look, stare, listen)
    d) Verbs of belonging and containing
       own, possess, belong

Continuous forms imply temporary actions

       Be
        Ana is funny. (fact)
        Ana is being funny. (temporary action)
       Think
        I think this class is lovely. (opinion)
        I am thinking of going abroad. (consider)
       Appear
        It appears to be quite hot today. (seems)
        My friend is appearing in the new play at the Opera. (taking part in)
       Expect
        I expect you will like kangaroo (think)
        I’ve been expecting you since 8:30 (anticipate)
       Have
        I have a cat. (possession)
        I’m having dinner with my friend tonight.
       See
        Do you see who I mean? (understand)
        How long have you been seeing your boyfriend?
       Taste
        This food taste amazing. (good flavour)
        I’m tasting wine in the Hunter Valley this weekend. (try)
       Mean
        Do you know what this word means?
        I’ve been meaning to learn French. (intend)

Letter of recommendation
How long I know the person, how I know the person

Character description (give examples – hard-working, why? experience?)

Why do I think they would be suitable for this job?

Summarize my overall opinion of the person’s suitability for this job.

He would be an asset to your team.

I have no hesitation in recommending him for the post.


Stating the purpose
This proposal contains…
In this proposal I will describe/evaluate/present/assess
The aim of this proposal is to…

Background information
Following a survey among students…
There were several issues arising from the last event, which was not a success.
Feedback from a student questionnaire suggests…

Making recommendations and suggestions
I recommend/propose/suggest/believe (that) we (should)…
It is essential/critical to…
I urge you to… / There is an urgent need for

To sum up, I believe that…
In conclusion, I would say…
If these recommendations are followed, then the event will be a great success/the situation will be
greatly improved.
On balance, we are of the opinion that…

something would be an obvious choice, visitors would be amazed and captivated, completely unique,
bring history alive

       take your mind (of your problems)
       take to = like immediately (activity or person)
       take for granted = not appreciate
       take back = retract something what we said
       take up = begin an activity
       take part in = participate
       take your breath away (breathtaking)
       take in = understand
       take someone down a peg or two = setřít, srazit někoho

Gerunds and infinitives
Michael hopes to go to Thailand this year.
Marketa fancies sleeping this weekend.
Evelin expects to get a good job in Brazil.

Followed by gerund
avoid, enjoy, practise, fancy, miss, risk, deny (that)
Followed by infinitive
offer, refuse, want, expect (that), threaten (that), deserve, manage, hope (that), promise (that)

Followed by gerund or infinitive
prefer, like, begin, continue, love

Ana denied stealing the chocolate.
Ana denied that she had stolen the chocolate.

I didn’t expect him to be so friendly.
I didn’t expect that he would be so friendly.

Different meanings
I stopped smoking last year. / give up
I stopped to smoke and then carried on. / another action

I tried to open the window but it was stuck. / effort
I tried opening the window to see if the room would cool down. / experiment

I remembered to do my homework last night. / keep an appointment
I remember doing my homework so I don’t know why I can’t find it. / inform, have a memory

I regret to tell you that you have to pay for your own copies of Lord of the Flies. / sorry for something
I regret not asking him out on a date when I had the chance. / sorry for sth I didn’t do

I mean to earn a lot of money this year. / I intend
Living abroad means experiencing new ways of life. / it involves or requires

To or not to
I let Marketa eat my chocolate.
Market is allowed to eat my chocolate.

I made Marketa eat my chocolate.
Marketa was made to eat my chocolate.

I heard Marketa eat my chocolate.
Marketa was heard to eat my chocolate.

I watched Marketa eat my chocolate.
Marketa was seen to eat my chocolate.

HAD BETTER = a little bit stronger then SHOULD
Marketa had better not eat my chocolate.
I would rather Marketa didn’t eat my chocolate.
I would rather eat (or: I would prefer to) eat Marketa chocolate.

Relative clauses
I moved to Australia in 1979, by which time I already had a British accent.
I left Japan in 2005, by which time I could speak Japanese.

My family live in different states in Australia. All of them were born in the UK.
My family, all of whom were born in the UK, live in different states in Australia.

My sister, who I gave a pair of shoes to for Christmas, loves shopping.
My sister, to whom I gave a pair of shoes for Christmas, loves shopping.

My parents live on Kangaroo Island. It’s biggest export is canola.
My parents live on Kangaroo Island, whose biggest export is canola.

You may choose to go there one day. In this case, you should hire a car.
You may choose to go there one day, in which case, you should hire a car.

Phrasal verbs with up and down
Break up – couples can break up, school can break up (na prázdniny)
Break down – stop working, collapse

Set up – arrange a meeting (romantic hope), establish, install
Set down – rules (stanovit, určit), méně často: zaznamenat

Put up – accommodate somebody, hang a picture
Put down – criticize (snížit), euthanize the animal versus let down (nechat ve štychu, zklamat)

Bring up – raise, mention a topic
Bring down – bring somebody down – make someone feel depressed

Turn up – arrive, appear, turn up volume
Turn down – refuse, turn down volume, a job

Other phrasal verbs
hand in (odevzdat), hand on (rozdávat), hand over (vydat), make of (soudit), make up (utvářet),
passed off (proběhnout), passed up (promeškat), stand in (zastoupit), stand up (nepřijít na schůzku),
stand to (zaujmout pozice), turn back (změnit názor), turned over (obrátit se), turn down
(odmítnout), knocked away (odrazit, vykrýt), knocked off (srazit z ceny, udělat rychle v čase), knocked
down (srazit autem)

Compound verbs
a cutback (redukce), a downfall (zhroucení, úpdadek), an upbringing (výchova)
hand out (distribute), make out (looking in the distance and trying to identify), knock out (eliminate),
pass out (loose consciousness),

Future tenses
What time does your train leave?
What are you up to tonight? What are you doing tonight? What are you going to do tonight?
Where will you have travelled by this time next year?
Where will you be living 10 years from now?
How long will you have been living in Australia by the end of this month? (future perfect continous)
What are you going to do when you finish ELSIS?

By the time you get home I will have cooked dinner. (future perfect)
By the time you get home I will be cooking dinner. (future continuous)

6 months from now I will have left Australia. (future perfect)
6 months from now I will still be living in Australia. (future continuous)

Advanced Points

are to
All students are to meet in the assembly hall this afternoon. (have to in the future)

be about to + inf, on the point/verge of + ing
The play is about to start.
I am on the verge of losing my temper.
I am on the point of resigning my job.

be due to
The train is due to leave at 8.15.
The train is due at 8.15. (versus) Her flight is due in at 8.15.

was going to, was planning to, was intending to
I was going to go to Jervis Bay but my car broke down.
I was planning to do the CAE test, but I realized I couldn’t afford it.

going to – prediction about the future for which there is evidence
will – prediction about the future for which there is no evidence

take                        do                          make                   get
advantage                   homework                    sure                   ready
control                     a favour                    a promise              rid of
a photograph                business                    a suggestion           a donation
a rest                      harm                        an exception           a good mark
for granted                 something                   an inquiry
a decision                  exercise                    a decision             a chance
a rest                      on well                     a choice               lost
a risk                                                  a resolution           an impression of
a chance                                                a donation
advice                                                 a living
exercise                                               an impression
                                                       an effort

Writing a format letter

Signing off
       Use always Kind regards (it is generic), yours faithfully, yours sincerely

Formal language
       If the general public is permitted be use the car park facilities, students will have difficulty
        finding spaces. Firstly, your conclusions regarding students’ use of the bus service are
        incorrect/erroneous. It is not realistic to expect to expect students to cycle to college,
        considering the traffic problems in our city. A survey has been conducted recently, was
        carried out recently. The information received is incorrect. The changes you would like to
        implement. We cannot support this decision. This is discriminatory.
       I have to inform you that…
        It is my responsibility to inform you that
        With regard to + noun / Regarding + noun / Firstly I would like to address the issue of / In
        addition / Furthermore / Following this / Besides this – adding information

       Dear Mr Simpson, Dear Ms Simpson, Dear Sir or Madam, To whom it may concern
       I am writing on behalf of the student committee in response to your recent memo regarding
        financial cutbacks at the college.
       I am writing to inquire about, to inform you, regard you, on behalf on

       I hope you will take into account all of these consideration on this matter. I look forward to
        hearing from you soon.

Linking words of contrast
However must start the second sentence and it contrasts the first sentence.

He didn’t have much money, although he still managed to buy a new computer.
He still managed to buy a new computer although he didn’t have much money.

horn, beak, tusk (ivory), claw, hoof/hooves, flipper (ploutev), paws, the hide, tail, shell, wing, fin,
mane, antenna/antennae, scales (šupina), pincer
an owl, a woodpecker, a dove, a parrot, an eagle, a stork, a pigeon, a seagull, a cockatoo, a pelican, a
kookaburra, an ibis, a vulture, a finch, a sparrow

feel sluggish (liknavý, vlekoucí se), agile (hbitý), grooming (pečující o sebe)

lice, tick, flea, to burrow (zavrtávat), antler (poraží), graceful (elegantní, půvabný), joey (klokaní

to let the cat out of the bag (vyzradit tajemství, nezáměrně), to make a dog’s dinner of something (to
make a mess of something you are trying to do well), to be/feel like a fish out of water, to move at a
snail’s pace (very slowly), to have a whale of a time (a lot of fun), to put your foot in your mouth
(udělat něco zcela špatně), snake in the grass (venomous) = poisonous, donkey work (práce, kterou
nikdo nechce dělat), to rabbit on (příliš žvanit), to have/get butterflies in your stomach (to feel
nervous), to be in the doghouse (když se po hádce nemluví), be in somebody’s bad books (nemluvit
společně), eat like a horse (hodně), a hen party, a stag party (rozlučky se svobodou),

She wasn’t interested in getting her hair wet, let alone going scuba diving.
I’m afraid of heights, so I wouldn’t do Bridge Climb, let alone go sky diving!

to be hooked to (for good), to be addicted to (for a long time)

to be nostalgic
to dwell on the past

Past Simple
Sequence of events

Past Countinous
to set the scene in a narrative/background information/interrupted actions

While/When/As we were eating our sandwiches we suddenly saw a dolphin in the water

Past Perfect
an event that finished before another event in the past/to describe reasons for emotions in a
narrative sence

Evelin was very excited because she had never seen a dolphin before/until the moment.

Past Perfect Continuous
for events that take place prior to another past event, and when duration or movement is important

Marketa was disappointed because she had been swimming for five minutes before the dolphin
Present Perfect
I’ve done a triathlon – a completed experience, time unknown
I’ve never met Ana’s brother – how often something has happened
I’ve known Ana for about 4 months – for verb of state
I’ve lived in Sydney most of my life – permanent state (live)

Present Prefect Continuous
I’ve been learning French – an incomplete action, still happening
I’ve been swimming (and I am wet) – a recently completed action, for which there is evidence
I’ve been reading War & Peace for ages – focus on duration (still reading), how long…

invariably (neměnně), opinionated (umíněný)

Writing a contribution
written for someone who is in the process of collecting information for use in a larger document, eg.

    1. A book – discursive (racionální, logicky zdůvodněný)
    2. A guidebook – factual
    3. A piece of research – factual, neutral

You should/shouldn’t
You really ought to/ought not to
It would be a good idea if you
It would help if you


to nod, shake your head, yawn, stare, chuckle, giggle, frawn (mračit), choke (dusit), scowl (chmuřit)


to give someone a hand
to foot the bill – to pay
to get your head around something – to understand
something is on the tip of my tongue – I can almost remember it!
to put your foot in your mouth – to say something inappropriate
to head for a place – to move in that direction
something costs an arm and a leg – very expensive
to work your fingers to the bone – to work very hard

Reported speech
Do you like eating kangaroo?
I asked Rudolfo if he liked eating kangaroo and he told me he did, adding that it wasn’t his favorite
Have you already finished college?
Evelin asked Marketa if/whether she had already finished college and she told that she hadn’t.

What would you do if you won the lottery?
Rudolfo asked Vita what he would do if he won the lottery and he said he would invest some of it.

today – that day, tomorrow – the next or following day, yesterday – the day before the previous day,
now – then/at that time, tonight – that night

Reporting verbs
an explanation (to give, offer, provide)
an apology (to make, offer)
forgiveness (ask for, have somebody’s forgiveness)
to beg
accusation (to make)
a denial (be in denial)
a reminder (to issue, give)
a suggestion (to make, give)
a warning (to give, issue)
a threat (make)
a realisation (have)
congratulations (give, pass)
the blame (get, take, put, lay)
an offer (make)
a demand (make
a complaint (make)
a boast (his/her)

When Miguel explained that there where domestic giraffes in Spain, I was a little sceptical.
Miguel apologised (to Michael) for lying and I forgave him (for it).
When Miguel mentioned that he had seen a lion in Manly, I knew he was having me on (he was
pulling my leg).
Evelin begged me not to give the class too much homework this week.
I denied (ever) giving the class too much homework, and chuckled quietly to myself.
I reminded the class to buy me chocolate if they wanted less homework.
I reminded the class that if they wanted less homework they could buy me chocolate.
The class accused the teacher of blackmailing them.
I suggested that the class (should) go to the pub.
I suggested going to the pub.
I proposed that ELSIS could open a café in one of the classrooms.
I proposed opening a café in one of the classrooms.
I warned the class against drinking too much.
I warned the class not to drink too much.
The class threatened not to come to school unless I reduced the amount of homework.
The class threatened that they wouldn’t come to school if I didn’t reduce the amount of homework.
something runs in the family (něajaký dědičný rys),

Word families
provide, provision, a provider, to provide, to provision, to be provisional

attend, attention, to be attentive, an attendant, an attender

doubt, doubtfully, doubtless, doubtful, undoubtedly

VERB                 NOUN (thing)         NOUN (person)         ADJECTIVE        ADVERB
produce              product              producer              productive       productively
perfect              perfection           perfectionist         perfectible      perfectly
authorise            authorisation        authority             authoritative,   authoritatively
                     medicine             medic                 medicinal,       medicinally,
                                                                medical          medically
provide              provision            provider
manage               management           manager               manageable       manageably
believe              belief               believer
                     expertise            expert                expert           expertly

On no account/Under no circumstances
On no account should this door be kept locked.
Under no circumstances should you cheat in the exam. (should + subject + verb)

As far as the punctuality is concerned…
…something calls for a great/good deal of patience
…in terms of…
to be lenient, to show leniency, the police turn a blind eye (to ____)

Writing: An information sheet
       Written for an audience who needs information, instruction or advice in some area.
       Purpose: to provide factual information and/or advice on a topic
       Clearly organised, may include headings
       Title (must have), subtitles
       Conclusion

take in = naletět, oklamat, to deceive/trick
Are you having me on? = to fool/joke
slump into a puddle = propadnout se do louže
tag-of-war = přetahovaná na lane
I was able to go for a walk last night. I could have gone…
I could play the guitar when I was young. I could have played the guitar when I was young.
I couldn’t do my homework. I wasn’t able to do my homework.
I have been able to speak English since I was 5.
I’m sure I can speak English fluently in a few years. I’m sure I will be able to speak English…
I hate that I can’t speak another language fluently. I hate not being able to speak another…

wear out, tire out = utrápit, zničit
I am worn out from so much exercise.

a head spin = feeling of dizziness
strain = the effort to do something difficult
pursue and activity = enjoy

Phrasal verbs (prasečí slovesa)
go through with something = try/do something difficult/scary
look up to = respect
bring a rule in = to introduce a rule/law
turn down = refuse
to get carried away = to be unable to control a situation
put up with something = to tolerate it
fed up with something = to be frustrated
break into = enter a house illegally
turn somebody off = to disgust
call of = to cancel
cut down = reduce
stop over = stop in one place on your way to another
set off for a specific place, set off on holiday or adventure = begin a journey
pick on = to criticize somebody/tease
put somebody down = criticize/humiliate
go off = when alarm start
set off = when I start the alarm
look down on somebody x look up to somebody
own up = to confess

of a sudden = z ničeho nic
be on the mend = zotavit se
under the weather = cítit se pod psa
leftover = zbytek jídla
a false economy
little by little = obdobně jako step by step
collided with one another
exited at the thought
to have a detrimental effect on = neblahý, poškozující
spatial awareness = prostorová představivost
lateral thinking = thinking outside the box

Essay writing

    1. Make a plan (on paper or in your mind): For & Against the topic
    2. Introduction
           a. Thesis statement: broad/general statement about the topic
           b. Rhetorical question – optional
           c. What you are going to say
    3. Main body
           a. Say it!
           b. Paragraph 1 – Argument for
           c. Paragraph 2 – Argument against
    4. Conclusion: Summarise your main point and give your opinion

Many sports teams and sporting events depend on sponsorship from the world of business. Does this
link between sport and business have a positive or negative effect on sport?

Eating too much chocolate led to an increase in weight.
Giving up chocolate resulted in despair and misery.
Lack of chocolate had an effect on my teaching.
Evelin was directly responsible for re-igniting my chocolate addiction.
Taking up chocolate again was the source of much celebration.

The war in Vietnam led to significant political changes in USA.
Inventing the modern music notation resulted in a new historical period, when many famous
musicians were able the record their masterpieces very easily.
Drawing on the walls of caves had an effect on the ability of imagination and art skills of our
The fear of death of ancient Egyptians was the source of their willingness to build monumental

off                                                                                                   in
to start a journey, make an alarm sound,                             weather sets in = it’s here to stay
to light fireworks
cigarettes give off a strong smell (vydávat)        GIVE                                 to surrender
delay or postpone (odložit),                                  to contribute money, time (vložit, složit)
to be discouraged from –ing (odradit)
remove (e.g. hair)                                                           to understand, to deceive
products, people, company (odstartovat),           TAKE
to mimic, to copy
bring off = uspět = succeed against expecations
cut in = skákat do řečit = interrupt the speech

Participle clauses
Miguel didn’t want to be around Spanish speakers so he decided to come to Australia.
Not wanting to be around Spanish speakers, Miguel decided to come to Australia.

Because Robert didn’t like the long Czech winters, he decided to move to sunny Australia.
Not liking the long Czech winters, Robert decided to move to sunny Australia.

Maical had already travelled extensively so he was ready to settle down in Australia.
Having already travelled extensively, Maical was ready to settle down.

Rudolfo ate his dinner and then went to bed.
Having eaten his dinner, Rodolfo went to bed.

Dan shoved Lenka out of his way and stood up to go to the toilet.
Shoving Lenka out of his way, Dan stood up to go to the toilet.

BEFORE/AFTER/WHEN/WHILE can be used as well

While Jarmila was studying at ELSIS, she met the man of her dreams.
While studying at ELSIS, Jarmila met the man of her dreams.

Past participle clauses (always passive content)
Evelin was refused entry to the class so she went to the pub.
Refused entry to the class, Evelin went to the pub.

If kangaroo is cooked properly, it tastes delicious.
Cooked properly, kangaroo tastes delicious.

ELSIS was founded in 1991. It is still flourishing today.
Founded in 1991, ELSIS is still flourishing today.

Reduced relative clauses
The people who were leaving the building looked terrified. (defining)
The people leaving the building looked terrified.

The Picasso, which was presented to the museum last year, is worth $5 million dollars. (non-defining)
The Picasso, presented to the museum last year, is worth $5 million dollars.

A competition entry
       written for a judge or a panel of judges
       usually expected to nominate somebody for something
       format – a letter or an article
impractical, indecisive, incapable, illogical, unsuitable, disagreeable, dishonest, illegal, irregural
unlimited, unmistakable, unpleasant, unreliable, unlucky, unmanageable, unpopular, unreliable,

quiver – body part
tremble – while fear
shiver – with cold
shudder – one moment, often involuntary

to come across = to find
to come across as (a real bitch) = to give an impression of being

<2 weeks missing>

influential, infancy
overcome a problem, play is performed, concert is held
as a whole (jako celek)
from time to time
well over (a lot of more)
My friend = friend of mine, however, his friend = friend of his
in its favor = for its benefit, advantage
no/little/not any point, to take somebody by surprise
make A name for yourself
no chance OF doing something
a chest of drawers = prádelník, komoda

strong                              strength                            strengthen
long                                length                              lengthen
wide                                width                               widen
broad                               breadth                             broaden
deep                                depth                               deepen

Vocabulary and proposition
manslaughter, car-jacking, mugging, to conspire, to smash, a bulldozer, to snatch, to raid, a raid, a
ringleader, to be caught red-handed, offender, maintain versus maintenance, unattractive,
VITEZSLAV is shorten TO Vita, carry OUT an experiment or a plan (provést), for the time BEING = for
now, vital part, a keen eye, products are manufactured things, but produce for food,
scarce/scarcity/scarcely, environmentally friendly,

        get down to business = start work
       go out of business = close down due to financial concerns
       in business (with somebody) = work together to achieve something
       away on business = travel for business reasons
       none of your business, mind your own business = don’t be nosy

baffled by (být Janek z něčeho), love at first sight, looks under age, by coincidence, put on the market

to do something without delay, to do something in advance, to be on good terms with someone,
something that is done by mistake, people that are in good/high spirits, something you are conscious
of doing, someone that is out of luck, to have access to a place, someone that you quarrel with

to be not good WITH animals, IN the early stages, to be UDER the impression, no real alternative TO
the plan, to be famous FOR something, it contrasts WITH something, somebody where implicated IN
the plot

bring on = cause, to ease stress, well over = hodně přes, take into account = vzít na vědomí,
satisfactorily, to be dissatisfied

take after = být po někom, look up to = respect, get over = recover, dostat se přes něco, fall out
(with) = argue, make up = forgive, smířit se, potom se člověk může “move on” nebo “start over”, get
on well with, we really hit it off = dva lidé, kteří hned od počátku cítí, že k sobě náleží

right on cue (perfect timing), excruciating = nesnesitelný, mučivý, strenuousness = namáhavost,
těžkost, rehearsal = zkouška (generálka), hlavně u divadla a hudby

Big difference
Brazil is much/a lot of/far/a great deal/considerably bigger/more populated than the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic isn’t nearly as big as Brazil.
The Czech Republic is nowhere near as big as Brazil.
SUPERLATIVE: Brazil is by far the biggest country (if the class).

Small difference
Czech winters are slightly/a (little) (bit) colder than Korean winter.
Korean winters aren’t quite as cold as Czech winters.

No difference
Sydney is just as rainy as Sao Paulo.
ddddddddcqThe longer you stay in Australia, the better your English will be.
The more you eat, the fatter you will/get be.
As or like?
As + noun = the role/purpose of something
As your teacher, I’ll help you as much as I can.

Like + noun = in the same way/similar to
Like your classmates, you have to work hard in Sydney.

We use like to compare appearance or behaviour.
She’s got a cute boyfriend, like me. (like = such as)

feels like + -in
sounds like + -in
tastes like + -in
smells like + -in

as if/as though = conjunctions followed by subject
It looks as if it’s going to rain.
It looks as if he’s going to be sick.

So and such
There are so many beaches that it’s easy to see beautiful women.
There are so many cockroaches that it turns you off.
There are such a lot of great people in the CAE class that it’s easy to have fun.

There are too many mosquitoes to go outside at night.
It is too windy to walk around without a coat.

It isn’t near enough to Europe. (adjective + enough)
There aren’t enough Asian girls in Italy for Michael. (enough + noun)

somebody is made to do something, something has slipped my mind, do away with = to move from
the world entirely, he bought me flowers to make up for hurting me, say unexpectedly short
comment, which is inappropriate/shocking/funny = to come out with, move at the same pace = keep
up with, to keep up with the Joneses (to have what my neighbour have), nag = to go on and on and
on at me (constantly telling the same thing), to stick up for (postavit se za někoho v diskusi, typical
also in court), to walk out on someone (odejít ze vztahu, opustit), on the spur, to be taken into
custody, at the very end, at a loose end, scope for something, weigh up pros and cons, deforestation
(logging industry), grazing land (půda pro pastvu)

something cost the earth = ridiculously expensive
to be on the top of the world = to be happy
to be thin on the ground = nemít pevnou půdu pod nohama
to have the world at your feet = all possibilities
to lot of ground to make up = to do a lot of work to catch up
to set the world on fire = do something extraordinary
business has got off the ground = took off
nothing on Earth can persuade me to do something…

Emphasis (inversion)
       formal, literary
       aux verbs + subject (do, be, have)
       often begin with adverbial phrases

As soon as I arrived in Vancouver it started to rain.
No sooner did I arrive in Vancouver than it started to rain.
No sooner had I arrived in Vancouver than it started to rain.

I had never been so excited as when I went whale watching.
Never (before) had I been so excited as when I went whale watching.

I didn’t realise/know/understand how much I would love Canada.
Little did I know how much I would love Canada.

I learnt that you should never approach bear cubs.
Under no circumstances should you ever approach bear cubs.

I didn’t leave Canada until I had run out of money.
Not until I had run out of money did I leave Canada.

I will never have another experience like it.
Never (again) will I have another experience like it.

I really want a house made of chocolate.
What I really want is a house of chocolate.

I am worried about not having enough money to buy one.
All I’m worried about is not having…

I think Miguel would build one for me
The person who I think would build one for me is Miguel.

I can’t image anything better than having a house of chocolate.
My reason for wanting a house made of chocolate is (that) I can’t image anything better.

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