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PART A - Outline

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					PART A – Developers Guidelines
Regulatory Requirements within the Banyule City Council Context:

The Banyule Planning Scheme, Clause 56.10-5 (Utilities Provision) describes the public lighting
objective “to provide public lighting to ensure safety of pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles.” To meet
that objective Standard Clause 40 is prescribed as follows.

Standard C40
Public lighting should be provided to streets, footpaths, public telephones and to major pedestrian and
bicycle links likely to be well used at night to provide safe passages for pedestrians, cyclists and
vehicles.
The street lighting should be designed in accordance with Australian Standard
AS1158.1.1-1997, Road lighting, Vehicular traffic (Category V) Lighting - Performance and installation
design requirements.

The lighting of public areas should be designed in accordance with Australian Standard AS1158.3.1-
1999, Road Lighting, Pedestrian Area (Category P) Lighting - Performance and installation design
requirements.
Banyule’s Greenhouse Action Strategy establishes a corporate emissions reduction goal of 30%
below 1996/97 corporate CO2-e levels by 2010. Street lighting is the largest corporate consumer of
electricity.




As part of the implementation of Council strategies it has been identified that the existing mercury
vapour lamps are inefficient and that a program be initiated to improve the energy efficiency and light
output of Banyule’s street lighting.

Banyule’s Subdivision – Civil Works Requirements (September 2003), Condition 9 Street Lighting,
sets down requirements that may apply to developers for the preparation and submission of plans,
lighting selection, and maintenance contributions.

Energy Efficient Lighting
There are a range of energy efficient street lighting opportunities which may deliver benefits to local
government authorities, ratepayers, network providers, drivers, pedestrians and the wider community.
Significant reductions in greenhouse pollution may be achieved at often minimal cost and long term
savings. Some of the potential benefits and opportunities are described as follows:


Energy savings – may be achieved by:
Using more efficient lamps, such as high pressure sodium or fluorescent. For example, 400 watt
mercury vapour lamps may be converted to more efficient 250 watt high pressure sodium lamps to
realise energy savings of more than 35%, with corresponding reductions in greenhouse pollution.

The table below outlines how much light (lumens) different types of lamps produce compared to the
amount of power (watts) they require.
Lamp Description                        Efficacy
                                      Lumens/Watt
Mercury Vapour (MV)          35-55

Compact Fluorescent          70-80

Std Fluorescent              40-80

T5 Fluorescent               80-95

Metal Halide (MH)            85-100

High Pressure Sodium         70-140
(HPS)



    1. Electrical control gear, including photoelectric (PE) cells, typically consumes 10 to 20% over
       and above the electricity consumed by the lamp. For example an 80 watt Mercury Vapour
       lantern consumes 96 watts of electricity. This wastage can be reduced by 80-90% by the use
       of electronic control gear and new PE cell technology e.g. electronic as opposed to iron core
       ballasts. There are, however, reliability issues to consider.
    2. Using high quality luminaires to reduce light losses and to ensure that the light is directed
       where it is required, thereby minimising light spill and night sky illumination.
    3. Energy inefficiency may be caused by the use of non standard decorative lighting, due to
       reduced mounting height and luminaire design. Energy requirements per linear metre of road
       may typically be 15-30% more than standard lighting.
    4. Frosted lamps reduce light transmission and therefore efficiency by about 10%.
    5. Energy savings of 30% or more may be realised by designing for maximum pole spacing.


Cost Savings – may be achieved by:
    1. Optimum pole spacing and mounting heights can reduce the capital costs, due to less poles
       and luminaires being required. Increasing the mounting height of luminaires in minor roads,
       from 5 metres to 7 metres can result in about a 15% increase in the pole spacings with
       commensurate reductions in capital costs, maintenance and energy costs.
    2. Maintenance cost savings may be achieved through using lamps with longer lives. For
       example the life of twin arc high pressure sodium lamps (measured as the time when 50% of
       the population fails) is around 10 years, compared to around 4 years for mercury vapour.
    3. More reliable control gear and better sealed luminaires with ingress protection ratings (IP6x)
       can markedly reduce the failure rates and intervals between cleaning and replacement of
       parts.

Improving maintained lighting levels

Light levels deteriorate over time after installation. This occurs at different rates depending on the type
of lamp selected. Mercury vapour lamps are particularly prone to depreciation in light levels (and
energy efficiency) which may reduce by 50% when approaching rated life. Other lamps such as
fluorescent and high pressure sodium are much less prone to lumen depreciation.

Poorly sealed luminaires can result in the ingress of moisture, dust and insects, causing the lenses,
reflectors and lamps to become dirty and less efficient in reflecting and transmitting light. Selection of
lanterns with ingress protection (IP6x rating) can overcome this problem.
Improving lighting distribution control

By proper design and equipment selection light wastage may be reduced and more efficient use of
emitted light may be achieved.

For street lighting to be effective:
     most of the light should fall on the roadway
     some light should fall on the surrounding areas so that there is not excessive contrast
        between the footpath and the roadway itself
     spilling light onto adjacent properties is undesirable and in residential situations is regarded as
        “light pollution”
     upward lighting from street lighting luminaires should be avoided as far as possible to reduce
        unnecessary light pollution of the night sky and to reduce wastage.

Street Tree Planting
When trees are present they may cause undesirable shadowing and may render street lighting
ineffective.

When there are areas of new planting, consideration should always be given to the potential impact of
shadows from road lighting when selecting the species and position of trees. In new subdivisions
lighting column positions should be established first, and only then trees planted in ways to minimise
the impacts on road lighting and ongoing maintenance.

Safety and security
Proper design and equipment selection can make areas safer and reduce the potential of crime. This
entails assessment of lighting requirements relative to the use. Considerations include:
 crossings, intersections, transport interchange areas, and retail precincts, and the like, may
    require higher lighting levels and different lighting characteristics to local area roads
 Direct glare and high light levels can make visibility more difficult
 Attention to uniformity and even light distribution can add to a persons sense of security and can
    improve detection of pedestrians by drivers
 colour rendition is an important factor to be considered e.g. in areas where there are security risks
    white light may be more preferable than orange or yellow light.


Public Lighting Objectives
Public lighting is the lighting of roadways and other public areas such as parks, squares and footpaths.

Australian Standard 1158 categorises the various areas and road hierarchy, as well as the minimum
technical parameters for each category. The Standard classifies lighting into three main areas:

Category V1 to V5 – Major Road Lighting – Freeways, arterial road, sub-arterial roads, collector
roads, etc. The objective of major road lighting is to provide a lighted environment that is conducive
to the safe and comfortable movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic at night and the
discouragement of illegal acts.

Category P1 to P5 – Minor Road Lighting – Collector/distributor roads, local roads, cycle paths,
etc.
The objective of minor road lighting is to provide a lighted environment where the visual requirements
of pedestrians are dominant due to the low vehicular traffic flow.

Category P6 to P12 – Public Area Lighting – Town centres, town squares, pedestrian malls,
footpaths in parks, car parks etc.
The objective of lighting public areas is to provide an environment where the visual requirements of
pedestrians are dominant.
The objectives of supplementary floodlighting of a pedestrian crossing are to enhance pedestrian
visibility by direct illumination and to provide advance warning to motorists of the presence of the
crossing. Pedestrian crossing floodlighting should only be installed to supplement Category V Road
Lighting.

The Australian Standards are not a regulatory requirement and Council has the discretion to increase
lighting levels where appropriate.


Lighting Equipment
The components that make up public lighting include:
 lamps
 luminaires including reflector, refractor and housing
 electrical control gear including ballasts and photoelectric (PE) cells
 poles and brackets
 light bases (foundations)
 underground cables or overhead conductor electricity supply




‘Greenstreet T5’ lantern showing electronic control gear, optics and luminaire housing



At this time there are six main types of lamps available for street lighting. These are:
 Mercury Vapour
 High Pressure Sodium (single arc and twin arc)
 Fluorescent Tube, inc. efficient T5’s
 Compact Fluorescent
 Metal Halide

Key considerations in selecting the most appropriate lamps for road lighting include:
 lamp life - survival over time
 light output – lumens per watt
 lumen depreciation over time
 temperature sensitivity
 price
 colour rendition

White light may be more preferable to yellow light in some areas where colour rendition and
brightness are more important such as commercial areas in areas with high night time pedestrian
traffic. White light and yellow light should be provided appropriate to the intended use.

Consideration is being given to de-rating the lumen output of high pressure sodium lamps by
25%,under AS 1158.3.1 for category P lighting. This should be taken into account in lighting selection
and design.

The T5 fluorescent and twin arc high pressure sodium are the most economically viable and energy
efficient public lighting options available at this time.

Lamp technology is constantly evolving. Compact fluorescent may soon be more competitive when the
life of these lamps is extended. Metal halide is also promising in the longer term, as purchase costs
reduce and mortality characteristics improve. It is therefore important to recognise the ongoing
technology advances in the context of compatibility of chosen luminaires for future lamp upgrades.
Lamp                   Comments
Mercury Vapour (MV)    Inexpensive, good colour rendition, moderate life, moderate efficacy, poor
                       lumen depreciation, reliable, immune to ambient temperature. Susceptible
                       when voltage drops below 220 volts.


Metal Halide (MH)      High price, moderate life, good colour rendering, but lamp life and efficacy
                       is less than HPS.

High Pressure Sodium   Moderate price. High efficacy. Yellow light. Higher wattages have longer
(HPS)                  life. High efficiency makes it suitable for street lighting. Dual arc gives
                       extended life.


Low Pressure Sodium    Moderate price. Very high efficacy. Large size. Orange light makes this
(LPS)                  unsuitable for pedestrian and minor road applications.


Standard Fluorescent   Good colour rendering. Moderate efficacy. Temperature sensitive.

T5 Fluorescent         Good colour rendering.
                       Good efficacy for low wattages.

Compact Fluorescent    Good colour rendering but low to moderate lamp life and efficacy.




Operation and Maintenance
In Victoria the provision of public lighting is regulated under the Public Lighting Code 2001. The
purpose of this Code is to regulate the provision of public lighting or the arrangements for such
provision by specifying minimum standards and certain obligations of distributors and public lighting
customers.

Distributors such as AGL and TXU are obliged to maintain public lighting assets to enable the supply
of energy for their operation. Council, being the public lighting customer, is obliged to make payment
to the distributor for public lighting services provided by the distributors.

Electricity used for public lighting is contestable and may be supplied by the distributor or other energy
retailer at the discretion of Council.

The distributor’s charges are based upon the maintenance and capital replacement costs of the
lighting. The charge applied by the distributor for each type of light is referred to as the Operation
Maintenance and Replacement Charge (OMR).




The lamp lumen depreciation and mortality characteristics as well as luminaire, ballast and PE cell
choice are critical in calculating maintenance requirements, which are used by the provider to
calculate OMR charges.

Labour costs for installation and maintenance differ between areas depending on such matters as
travel distances and safety and equipment requirements. The capital cost of installing replacement
lanterns is also a factor, which the network provider takes into account in determining the OMR.
Currently the City of Banyule spends over $700,000 per annum on street lights. About half of this
relates to OMR charges and half to energy costs. The City of Banyule is serviced by two public
lighting distributors, AGL and TXU.

                                     Existing Lighting Population
                                               Banyule

                                                15
                                       735      80
                                                                              MV 50W
                                                                              MV 80W
                         2043                                                 MV 125W
                                                                              MV 250W
                                                                              MV 400W
                                                                              HPS 100W
              77
                                                                              HPS 150W
              46                                                              HPS 250W
         140                                                                  HPS 400W

          156                                                  8087



It is important for Council that faults such as day burning, outages, start up drift, and damaged lights
are promptly repaired so as to minimise safety risks and energy wastage. Under the Public Lighting
Code, where a distributor does not repair a public light within 2 business days of a fault it must pay the
first person who reported the fault a minimum of $10, providing that person is the occupier or
proprietor of an immediately neighbouring premises. Otherwise the distributor must respond within 7
days of receiving a fault report.


Environmental Issues
Lamp disposal is problematic due to the content of toxic heavy metals, in particular mercury. High
pressure sodium lamps pose less environmental risk. For example a 50 watt HPS lamp contains only
0.1 mg of mercury compared to 80 watt mercury vapour lamps which contain about 14 mg.

Modern fluorescent lamps have about 1mg of mercury compared to 30mg in older lamps. There are
some companies which specialise in the recycling of lamps and recovery of heavy metals. Recycling
is more preferable than landfill disposal.


Lighting Levels
Under the Australian Standards (As 1158 series), lighting levels are set for given applications
according to:
 safety
 risk
 aesthetic factors.

The required average maintained horizontal illuminance for P ratings are given as follows:
                                LIGHTING VALUES - Category P
                         20
                         18
 Maintained Horizontal




                         16
   Illuminance (lux)




                         14
                         12
                         10
                          8
                          6
                          4
                          2
                          0
                          P1
                                P2

                                     P3
                                          P4
                                               P5

                                                     P6
                                                          P7

                                                               P8
                                                                    P9

                                                                          0

                                                                               1
                                                                                    2
                                                                         P1

                                                                              P1
                                                                                   P1




                                               Lighting Category

For pedestrian areas (Category P) required lighting levels are graduated P1 to P12. For vehicular
areas (Category V) required lighting levels are graduated V1 to V5.
Conclusion
Intelligent public lighting design, installation and maintenance can yield improved lighting levels,
reduce costs and achieve significant energy savings and reduction in greenhouse pollution.

Part B of this document describes Banyule City Council’s minimum lighting design requirements to
meet these goals.


Further Information
Information regarding greenhouse abatement and public lighting may be accessed at the following websites:

Sustainability Victoria
http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/

Australian Greenhouse Office
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/

Essential Services Commission - Victoria
http://www.esc.vic.gov.au/

ICLEI
http://www.iclei.org/anz/

Sylvania Lighting
http://www.sla.net.au/

Pierlite
http://www.pierlite.com.au/

Rexel
http://www.rexel.com.au/

Royce Thompson
http://www.roycethompson.com

Standards Australia
http://www.standards.com.au/



Lighting Definitions
Aeroscreen (Cut-Off) Lanterns
Lanterns that are designed to emit no light above a horizontal line projected from the face (glass) of the lantern.

Average Lamp Life
Time taken until 50% of lamps has reached end of life. Some distributors use a figure of 10%.

Ballast
Device used with discharge lamps for stabilising the current in the discharge.

Category V Lighting
Lighting designed principally for vehicular traffic eg traffic routes as described in AS/NZS 1158.0 and in AS/NZS
1158.0.

Category P Lighting
Lighting designed principally for local roads to provide a safe and comfortable visual environment for pedestrian
movement at night, as described in AS/NZS 1158.3.1

CO2-e
Equivalent tonnes of carbon dioxide caused by energy production and distribution losses.
Colour rendition
General expression for the effect of an illuminant on the colour appearance of objects in conscious or
subconscious comparison with their colour appearance under a reference illuminant.

Efficacy
A measure of lamp output efficiency with units of lumen/watt.

Fluorescent lamp
Discharge lamp of the low-pressure mercury type in which most of the light is emitted by a layer of fluorescent
material excited by the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge.
Note: This term is most commonly applied to low-pressure tubular fluorescent lamps

High-pressure mercury (vapour) lamp
Mercury vapour lamp, with or without a coating of phosphor, in which during operation the partial pressure of the
                            5
vapour is of the order of 10 Pa - for example: HPL and HPL-N lamps.

Frangible poles
Poles designed to detach from a solid base at ground level upon impact of a motor vehicle.

Glare
Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in the ability to see significant objects, or both, due
to an unsuitable distribution or range of luminance or to extreme contrasts in space or time.

lumen
The lumen (symbolised lm) is the International Unit of luminous flux. It is defined in terms of candela steradians
(cd multiplied by sr). One lumen is the amount of light emitted in a solid angle of 1 sr, from a source that radiates
to an equal extent in all directions, and whose intensity is 1 cd.

Luminaire
Apparatus that distributes, filters or transforms the light given by a lamp or lamps and which includes all the items
necessary for fixing and protecting these lamps and for connecting them to the supply circuit Gas-filled lamp
containing a tungsten filament and a small proportion of halogens.

High-pressure sodium (vapour) lamp
                                                                                                     4
Sodium vapour lamp in which the partial pressure of the vapour during operation is of the order of 10 Pa - for
example, SON and SON-T lamps.

Horizontal illuminance
The value of illuminance on a designated horizontal plane at ground level Unit lux. (lx)

HPS
High pressure sodium lamp.

Incandescent (electric) lamp
Lamp in which light is produced by means of an element heated to incandescence by the passage of an electric
current.

Ingress Protection (IP6x)
Refers to the sealing of luminaires to prevent the admittance of moisture, insects, dust and dirt. This
influences the intervals between cleaning and the maintained lighting levels. Luminaires may be
designed and tested to achieve IP ratings eg IP66, IP65.

Lamp
Is the part of a lantern that emits light and which may require associated control equipment to operate.

Lantern
A complete light fitting containing a lamp and designed to control the output of the light.


Lux
The lux (symbolised lx) is the unit of illuminance in the International System of Units (SI). It is defined
                                               2
in terms of lumens per metre squared (lm/m ).
Metal halide lamp
Discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by the radiation from a mixture of a
metallic vapour (e.g. mercury) and the products of the dissociation of halides (e.g. halides of thallium,
indium or sodium) - for example: HPI-T lamps.

Metal vapour lamp
Discharge lamp such as the 'mercury (vapour) lamp' and the 'sodium (vapour) lamp' in which the light
is mainly produced in a metallic vapour.

Mortality rate
The number of operating hours elapsed before a certain percentage of the lamps fail.

Mounting height
The distance between the reference plane and the plane of the luminaires.

OMR
Term used in Victoria referring to the operation, maintenance and replacement costs of public lighting.

Photoelectric (PE) Cell
A device that is normally incorporated in a lantern that automatically switches the lantern on at dusk
and switches the lantern off at dawn

Public Lighting
Includes lighting for all situations on public property to which to AS1158.1.1:1997 Category V lighting
or equivalent and AS1158.3.1:1999 Category P lighting or equivalent would normally apply.

Reflector
Device in which the phenomenon of reflection is used to alter the spatial distribution of the luminous
flux from a source.

Service Level Agreement
A code of practice between the network provider and the customer for the provision of public lighting
services.

Spacing
The distance between the centres of two successive luminaires in an installation, which is related to
luminaire height and characteristics.

				
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