fink by yanyanliu123

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 33

									Collective cultural shock, cultural stretch
and hybridization

Gerhard Fink, Europainstitut, WU-Wien



IACCM conference
Management of Meaning in Organizations
Poznań, June 25-26, 2008
Social Viability




• Organizations need to have a coherent and interactive
      system of values, personalities, and rules that
      regulate patterns of behavior.

• Social viable organizations have rules that secure social
       coherence, peace and identification of staff with
       theirs tasks within the firm.




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                   Folie 2
Three types of reality (Yolles 2007)




                                      Conditions



                                                            Affects

     Believing                              Thinking                      Doing
    (Knowledge)                           (Information)               (Empirical data)


                      Is conditioned by
                                                          Is affected by




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                  Folie 3
Distribution of the Types of
Knowledge across SVS (Yolles 2007)


                                        Existential domain



                                                               Autopoiesis and
    Autogenesis and thematic
                                                             manifestation of task
    principles of strategy that
                                                              related behaviour
     recognises the nature of
            situations


        Existential                  Noumenal domain           Phenomenal domain
          domain                        Elaboration                Execution
       Identification                   knowledge                  knowledge
       (& planning)
        knowledge


                                                                    Autopoiesis and
      Autogenesis and
                                                                regeneration of network
      regeneration of evaluative
                                                                 of decision processes
      perceived experience
                                                                  through phenomenal
                                                                       experience




    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                    Folie 4
Types of knowledge


Knowledge type               Nature of knowledge
Identification               The knowledge required to recognize the nature of
knowledge                    situations
                             and to identify strategies of possible action

Elaboration                  Task directed: Individuals call on their already-
knowledge                    existing knowledge of similar situations coupled
                             with critical thinking and analytic reasoning to
                             develop a better understanding of the current
                             situation.

Execution                    Guides implementation and performance of action
knowledge                    Results from the application of tactical thinking



                                                                adapted from Yolles (2007)


       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                            Folie 5
Values, personality and action in an
organization

                                             Organization domain

         Autogenesis and thematic                                  AP 1
         principles of strategy that                                       Autopoiesis and
          recognises the nature of                                        manifestation of task
                 situations                                                related behaviour
      AG 1


                                                                                     Action
                                                Personality
                    Values                                                   (Execution knowledge)
                 (Identification                (Elaboration
                    knowledge)                    knowledge)



     AG 2                                                                          Autopoiesis and
               Autogenesis and                                                 regeneration of network
               regeneration of evaluative                                       of decision processes
               perceived experience                                   AP 2       through phenomenal
                                                                                      experience




(Yolles/Iles 2006)

            Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                        Folie 6
Four processes in social systems


Four processes determine dynamics of social systems


• AP 1: How people think and act or do not act
• AP 2: How and what people learn or do not learn from
  experience
• AG 1: How values influence or do not influence the ways people
  think and act
• AG 2: How and in what way people change their values or do not
  change their values.




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                      Folie 7
Empirically identified malfunctions


• Collective cultural shock:
 Local managers and staff are not in a position to make
 sense of new rules imposed by foreign owner.
 Identification with new corporate culture is not possible.
 Learning processes require time and interaction between
 HQ and host country managers and staff.
• Cultural stretch:
 Local managers and staff can apply rules implemented by
 foreign owner, but rules are in permanent conflict with the
 demands of the society and other local stakeholders.
 Identification with ‘foreign’ firm is possible, but only at
 instrumental level - I am here to earn my living.



      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                           Folie 8
Hesitancy to act – collective cultural shock


 • Manifestations of ‘psychologically disorienting
   experiences’ (Ferraro 1994)
 • Symptoms
        • passivity
        • protracted and fruitless discussions
        • hesitant decision-making




      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                 Folie 9
Collective cultural shock



                                       Organization domain
                                                             Thinking affects action
          Values condition                                               (AP 1)
          thinking and action
          (AG 1)
                                                                     Action system
           Value system                 Personality                (Cultural standards,
          (Knowledge and                  system                       Language,
             Beliefs)                   (Thinking)                  Communication)



         Experience triggers
            value adjustment process                     Performance influences
                (AG 2)                                   thinking (AP 2)



   Sources: adapted from Fink (2003) and Iles & Yolles (2006).

      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                      Folie 10
Lack of identification – cultural stretch


• Behavior of staff and local managers is adjusted to
  suit the demands of a strong corporate culture.
• Significant difference to a prevailing societal culture
  becomes manifest.
• Permanent stretch between societal norms and
  corporate norms is to be matched by individuals.
• Corporate culture requests redefinition of ‘privacy’.
• Permanent clash in ‘private’ life.




      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                        Folie 11
Cultural stretch



                                       Organization domain
                                                             Thinking affects action
          Values condition                                   (AP 1)
          thinking and action
          (AG 1)
                                                                     Action system
           Value system                 Personality                (Cultural standards,
          (Knowledge and                  system                       Language,
             Beliefs)                   (Thinking)                  Communication)



          Experience triggers
          value adjustment process                       Performance influences
                 (AG 2)                                  thinking (AP 2)



   Sources: adapted from Fink (2003) and Iles & Yolles (2006).

      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                      Folie 12
Types of knowledge in headquarter and
new acquisition
                                             Headquarter domain
                             AG 1
                                                                    AP 1


                                                                           Action
                  Values                     Personality
                                                                   (Cultural Standards)
               Headquarter                   Headquarter
                                                                         Headquarter


                                     AG 2                        AP 2




                                            Subsidiary domain
                                             (new acquisition)
                             AG 1                                       AP 1



                                                                               Action
                  Values                       Personality
                                                                    (Cultural Standards)
                Subsidiary                      Subsidiary
                                                                           Subsidiary


                                     AG 2                        AP 2



    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                         Folie 13
Interaction between headquarter and
new acquisition




    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan    Folie 14
The impact of expatriates implementing
headquarter management knowledge

                                       Subsidiary domain

                                               Expatriates’
                                               Personality
                                               Headquarter
                           AG 1
                                                              AP 1



                                            Personality               Cultural
            Values                                                    Standards
                                            Subsidiary
           Subsidiary                                                Headquarter




                                     AG 2                     AP 2

                                                                      Cultural
                                                                     Standards
                                                                     Subsidiary




    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                 Folie 15
Imposing new management knowledge



• Any system of management action is embedded into a set of values,
  is driven by people with given personality characteristics, which
  predispose them to behave in certain ways, and is embedded into a
  culture specific set of cultural standards.
• Transfer of management knowledge, i.e. imposing new
  management knowledge on staff and local managers in another
  culture is depleting the so far valuable knowledge of staff and
  managers.


Fink and Holden (2002)




       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                       Folie 16
Challenges of individuals



Transfer of management knowledge is confronting individuals
 with numerous challenges:


• to learn new management rules and to comply with those rules,
• to behave differently as the still valid values of their society would
  imply,
• to adjust their personality profiles to fit with the prevailing values of
  the society and the new value profiles of the firm,
• to cope with the changes within the organization, and what they imply
  for the social groups they belong to and for their private life,
• to redefine their own personality and what privacy is meaning to them.

Fink and Holden (2002)


       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                             Folie 17
Drama and conflict theory (Howard 1995, 1999)


Four causative pathologies


 • communication failures
 • aspiration differences that are contested and elaborated
         on to form conflicts
 • conflict inertia into which the characters of a conflict are
         locked in
 •unresolved settlement




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                     Folie 18
The impact of headquarter values on
acquired subsidiary    HQ-Values



                                                          Personality
                                                          Headquarter




                                 Subsidiary domain            Personality
                                                              Expatriates
                          AG 1                     AP 1



             Values                  Personality             Cultural Standards
            Subsidiary                Subsidiary                 Headquarter




                                 AG 2              AP 2




                                                          Cultural Standards
                                                               Subsidiary


    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                                Folie 19
Adding to pathology



More of the same mistakes (headquarters).
Futile resistance to change (staff).




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan         Folie 20
Management knowledge transfer


is a process often going through the three stages
failing attempt, socialization, and ‘reducing complexity’.


• Facing cultural shock, coping with hesitancy to act or
  resistance.
• Building a hybrid corporate culture, gaining time to find
  new staff.
• Implementing HQ culture and imposing cultural stretch.




     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                    Folie 21
Changes in domains of hybrid systems


 Values                           Personality            Cultural standards
 (Identification                  (Elaboration           (Execution
 knowledge)                       knowledge)             knowledge)
 Elimination:                     Elimination:           Elimination: Offensive
 Offensive neglect of                                    neglect of a cultural
                                  Dismiss a person
 a value                                                 standard
 Change in value                  Change in personnel Change in mix of
 mix, new ideology,               composition, new    cultural standards,
 new paradigm                     staff               new rules

 Value modification               Modification in        modification of cultural
                                  personality traits     standards
 ‘As if’: subversive              ‘As if’: show off or   ‘As if’: subversive
 obedience                        understatement         obedience
     Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                       Folie 22
The process of hybridization

                                     Headquarter domain



                                                                 Action
               Values                Personality
                                                          (Cultural Standards)
             Headquarter             Headquarter
                                                             Headquarter




                                                               Phenomenal
                                                                 domain
                                     Subsidiary domain
                                      (new acquisition)



                                                                 Action
               Values                 Personality         (Cultural Standards)
              Subsidiary              Subsidiary               Subsidiary




    Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                               Folie 23
Forms of hybridization



 • Deck of cards – technocratic approach
 • Common space - negotiated and managed hybridization
 • Knowledge migration – knowledge changes its meaning, polyphonic
        concept of truths
 • ‘People’s Twist’ - the subversive concept
 • Hybridization for flexibility – multiple standards set by organization
         and staff
 • Vintage concept – new and young vs. established and old




       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                            Folie 24
Hybridization→ deck of cards’ concept




• New mixture of cultural manifestations of different levels and
  kinds derived from local corporate culture and headquarter
  culture.


• (Alvesson, 2002, 190) suggests that organizational cultures are best
  understood not as unitary wholes or as stable set of subcultures, but
  as mixtures of cultural manifestations of different levels and kinds.




      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                            Folie 25
Hybridization→ managed hybridization




• Common space: Negotiated adaptations of head quarter principles
  and practices to local conditions and requirements.
• Reverse learning: Expatriates learn from local staff.
• Inpatriation: Local management potential experience values and
  practices at headquarter location.




      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                        Folie 26
Hybridization→ knowledge migration




• Knowledge is changing its meaning when traveling.
• The emergence of multiple standards, a polyphonic concept of
  truths (M. M. Bakhtin 1993).


• ‘An utterance that belongs, by its grammatical and compositional makers, to a
  single speaker’ (Bakhtin 1996, 304) may contain two speech manners, two
  styles, two languages, two semantic and axiological belief systems. ‘It
  frequently happens that even one and the same word will belong
  simultaneously to two languages, two belief systems that intersect in a hybrid
  construction’ (Bakhtin 1996, 305).



       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                 Folie 27
People‘s Twist → subversive hybridization

• Subversive interpretation of texts, intentionally giving a
different meaning to official language, artifacts and
symbols.

•Tacit knowledge is a means of self-protection and counterpoise to
explicit knowledge.
• People employ ‘work’ and not ‘bureaucracy’: bottom-up reports
undermine organizational top-down control.
• ‘Work knowledge’ shifts the asymmetric difference of explicit and tacit
knowledge towards symmetry. Any bureaucracy necessarily is blind to
that.




   (from Fink, Holden and Lehmann 2007)


         Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                                     Folie 28
Hybridization for flexibility

• Hierarchic and bureaucratic organizations employ teams
and task forces to enhance flexibility.

•Staff in hierarchic and bureaucratic organizations employ
boundary spanning and collaborative informal group work
to enhance flexibility.

•Values and rules in teams and task forces and in
boundary spanning and collaborative informal group work
are different from values and rules of the bureaucracy.




        Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                       Folie 29
Hybridization by vintage



• Younger generation uses a different language and
attributes different meanings to the same texts, utterances,
symbols and artifacts than elder generation.

•Values and attitudes change with increasing wealth and
technological change (Inglehart, Theory of Value Change).

•Parochial vs. professional (Hofstede et al. 1990).




        Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                         Folie 30
Stability → System dynamics



Social (and also hybrid social) systems follow their own implicit
 laws


• Principle of consequence
• Principle of immanent self-determination of the system‘s destiny
• Impact from outside can hamper or foster its inherent
  development or even destroy the system.
• The external impact cannot make a system become was is not
  there.
(Sorokin 1957, 639)



       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                       Folie 31
Stable and unstable hybridization



 • Stable hybridization: Development of new viable systems
   (headquarter and subsidiary) with new qualities. The new system
   follows its own inherent dynamics.
 • Unstable hybridization: Hybridization in an externally driven
   adjustment process towards a different system. The hybrid is
   permanently challenged from inside (people’s twist) and from outside
   (unresolved causative pathologies: communication failures, aspiration
   differences, conflict inertia, unresolved settlement).




       Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                           Folie 32
Hybridization as system change process


Integration (Berry et al.1989 ): development of a new viable system
  (at headquarter and subsidiary) with new qualities → negotiated
  hybridization, common space.


Hybridization as intermediate steps towards assimilation, or
 marginalization (Berry et al.1989):
  Assimilation: convergence of one system (subsidiary) to another
  system (headquarter) → double standards likely to emerge in
  hybridization process.
  Marginalization: social transformation of a system, which becomes
  economically or socially non-viable → People‘s Twist.


      Gerhard Fink 2008 IACCM Poznan                         Folie 33

								
To top