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Texas Economy After the Civil War - TeacherWeb

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Texas Economy After the Civil War - TeacherWeb Powered By Docstoc
					Warm Up: How has industry in Texas
helped urbanize our state?
   Conversation: none, raise hand if you want to answer
    a question.
   Help: Raise hand, if you get behind and need me to
    slow down, or if you have a question.
   Activity: finish Farming and Ranching notes and
    Westward Expansion video
   Movement: none
   Participation: finished packet of notes put on p.20 of
    your spiral
TEXAS ECONOMY AFTER
THE CIVIL WAR
Includes farming, Industry, and immigration
Texas after the Civil War
   After the Civil War, Texas land and property did
    not sustain much damage since many of the battles
    occurred in other states.
   Unfortunately, the economy suffered.
   Many Texas families lost husbands, fathers, and
    brothers to the war.
   Some white Texans were not happy working with
    freedmen.
   Texans were financially ruined. Why?
Confederate bonds and credit
   Bond – certificate issued by the govt. promising to
    pay back borrowed money with interest.
   Confederate bonds – Many Texans had these. When
    the Confederacy was broken up, the bonds were
    worthless.
Confederate bonds and credit
 Credit – agreement in which the buyer pays
  over time.
 Businesses sold goods to the Confederate

  Govt. on credit. After the Confederacy ended,
  the debts would never be paid back to the
  business owners
Return to farming
    Many people were out of work, so they had to
     farm and grow their own food to survive.
    Problems:
1.    Equipment and land had to be repaired.
2.    Transportation was underdeveloped, meaning
      farmers could not receive needed supplies.
3.    It was too expensive to send crops to market for
      sale, so commercial farming was not a good
      option.
Subsistence Farming
   Subsistence farming: growing enough food to
    only feed your family.
   Extra crops were bartered (traded) or sold to
    neighbors or merchants in town.
   Bartering allowed families to obtain goods and
    services they could not produce themselves.
   Ex: I grow corn, you make shoes. I’ll trade you 3
    pounds of corn for one pair of shoes.
Tenant Farming
   Tenant farming: practice of renting the land on
    which one lives and farms.
   Many Texans did NOT own land, or lost it due to
    financial difficulties.
   Plantation owners divided and sold land to
    farmers.
   If farmers couldn’t afford to buy it, they would rent
    instead.
   Problem: many farmers could not earn enough
    money to buy the land.
Sharecropping
   Many farmers were too poor to pay rent on tenant
    farms in cash.
   Sharecropper: farmer who paid the landlord with
    a share of the crop instead of money.
   Problem: Sharecroppers rarely got out of the
    landlord’s debt.
   Many former slaves (freedmen) became
    sharecroppers.
Sharecropper’s Cycle of Poverty
Railroads and Commercial Farming
   Texas government allowed railroad companies to
    build tracks in Texas.
   1876 to 1885 – railroads rapidly expanded. Half
    of the track in Texas was built during this time.
   1890 – Texas had over 8,000 miles of track.
   1900 – Texas led the nation in miles of railroad
    track constructed.
Result of Railroad and Farming
   By the early 1900s, most of Texas could ship goods
    throughout the United States.
   Many farmers started buying large, commercial
    farms.
   Railroad companies sold land to farmers and
    businesses at low prices.
   Farming also expanded to West Texas.
Four Major Ranches
   King Ranch, JA Ranch, Matador Ranch, and the XIT
    Ranch.
   King Ranch – South Texas
   JA ranch – Palo Duro Canyon
   Matador Ranch – North West Texas
   XIT Ranch – Panhandle of Texas. This was the largest
    ranch in Texas (3 million acres, covering 10 counties).
   Texas govt. provided the land for the XIT Ranch in
    exchange for building the new Texas State Capitol.
New farming Technology
   Windmills – pumped underground water to the
    surface for farmers and their livestock. Greatly
    used in West Texas.
   Steel Plow – stronger and lasted longer than the
    iron plow.
   Cotton Gin – machine that separated cotton from
    seeds quickly and cheaply.
Boom and Bust Cycle of farming
   Agriculture was the leading industry in Texas
   Expansion of urban areas created demand of
    agricultural products
   The value of agricultural products increased
   Farmers continued to increase the production of
    agricultural products
   Machines were used to produce goods faster and
    more efficiently
   Prices began to drop because there was too many
    agricultural products on the market
Cotton: The King of Texas Crops
   Cotton was the biggest money maker for farmers
    in the late 1800s.
   Railroad expansion allowed farmers to ship cotton
    nationwide, and even worldwide.
   This led to new industry growth in Texas.
   Cotton industry contributed to clothing
    manufacturing (textile mills).
New Industrial Economy
   Railroad was a major contributor to the growth of
    Texas industry. How?
   It allowed sellers to send products anywhere in the
    United States.
New Industrial Economy
   Coal industry grew (fuel for railroads).

   Meatpacking and market centers develop.

   San Antonio, Houston, Dallas, Galveston, and
    Fort Worth are the state’s largest cities by 1900
Lumber
   The lumber industry also grew (build towns,
    railroad cars, depot building, etc.). By 1900,
    lumber was the #1 industry. Cotton was #2.
   Sawmills were built throughout eastern Texas.
   Orange and Beaumont were major sawmill centers.
Lumber
   Company towns were created. Employees lived,
    worked, worshipped, shopped, etc. together.
   Unfortunately, they were paid in scrip, which was
    money that could only be used in the town and
    nowhere else.
Growth of Industrial Towns
   Fort Worth and Waco – cattle industry

   Beaumont – lumber

   Houston and Galveston – textile and sea ports.

   Dallas – major railroad depot.
Immigrants and other industrial workers
in Texas
   Many people moved from rural farms to work in
    the cities.
   Many Europeans immigrated to Texas for jobs.
   Czechs and Poles settled in rural areas to farm.
Immigrants and other industrial workers
in Texas
   Lebanese, Italian, Irish, and English immigrants
    settled in towns as businesspeople and laborers.




   All immigrants contributed to the economic
    development of Texas.

				
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