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					      Title              Description
                    Abbo of Fleury's Life of St.
Abbo of Fleury: The Martyrdom of St. EdmundEdmund, King of East Anglia before 870, here comes from the Anglo-Saxon vers
                    A series of maps showing the Activities of the Great Army in England, 865 to 878
The Activities of the Great Army in England, 865 to 878
AD 410              2010 marks the 1600th anniversary of the end of Roman Britain in AD 410 - one of the greatest turning poin
Adventus Saxonum    The date of the arrival of the first Germanic settlers in Britain is a matter of considerable debate. It is, howev
                    Following King Alfred’s successful at Battle of Edington in 878, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles contain the entry
Alfred, Guthrum and Christianity: the Peace of Wedmore
                    These translations are works in History of the Cult updating and
An Anthology of Translated Texts, Illustrative of theprogress, subject toof the Saints change. They are listed in rough chronolo
                    The Norman Conquest led to a great upsurge in the building and rebuilding of cathedrals, monastic houses a
Anglo-Norman Church Architecture
                    News blog for
Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Blog Anglo-Saxon archaeology
                    This is a Swicki search engine dedicated to Anglo-Saxon Archaeology. Swicki search engines learn as they
The Anglo-Saxon Archaeology Search Engine
                    Welcome to Britannia's online version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the most important documents t
Anglo Saxon Chronicle
                     for the Heroic Age
Anglo-Saxon LinksAnglo-Saxon Links for the Heroic Age
                    This blog
Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celticis written and maintained by members of the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic, Universi
                    Anglo-Saxon Search Engine by SWICKI
Anglo-Saxon Search Engine
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 2 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 1 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 4 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 5 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 6 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Part of a video
Anglo-Saxon Wallingford Part 7 made by the University of Oxford for the online course “Vikings: Raiders, Traders and Settler
                    Although
Asser's Life of King Alfred similar to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in its annalistic approach, Asser personalized his
                    The
The Battle of Maldon Battle of Maldon (991AD) took place on the shores of the River Blackwater in Essex. There was a heroi
                    The
The Battle of Maldon text for this site is taken from an article published in Medieval World: (Beard, D., 'The Battle of Maldon',
                    The
The Battle of Maldon poem in Modern English
                    The
The Battle of Maldon poem in Old English
Bede's World        The extraordinary life of the Venerable Bede (AD 673-735) created a rich legacy that is celebrated today at B
                     Miracles born Cuthbert
Bede: The Life andBede was of St. in 673, in Northumberland, became a monk and died at Jarrow in 735. His modern feast day
Beowulf in Cyberspacea Guide for Students, Teachers,        and other Visitors in Cyberspace to The old English Epic BEOWUL
                    These excavations are being
Buckland Anglo-Saxon Cemetery Excavations conducted by the Canterbury Archaeological Trust on behalf of the site owners
Burghal Hidage The map below is supplementary material for the unit ‘The Vikings in Europe – conquest and settlement’ in t
                    A
The Burghal Hidage graph show expected and actual sizes of burhs
Burhs and Burghal The map below is supplementary material for the unit ‘The Vikings in Europe – conquest and settlement’ in t
                     Defences
                    We have the little direct evidence
Clothing and Appearance of veryPagan Anglo-Saxons of the clothing of the early 'Anglo-Saxons', as the surviving textiles are on
                    This paper is a relatively
The Danelaw of England, 700-1100 A.D. brief and incomplete historiography of the study done on the Danelaw of England a
                     East Anglia
Danish Kingdom ofFounded as the southern half of the Danish conquests in England, and much extended from the Anglo-Saxo
                     the                World
Death and Burial inThe Anglo-Saxon worldview was dominated by a fatalistic view of life. Fate, wyrd, dictated who would live an
                     Skeletons found near Weymouth
Decapitated Viking In June 2009 excavations in advance of the Weymouth Relief Road discovered a burial pit containing a larg
                    In the Department of Celtic, Cambridge
Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and ASNC we study the history, material culture, languages, and literatures of the various p
                    Welcome to David Nash Ford's Early British Kingdoms Website
Early British Kingdoms
                    The
Early medieval emporiamap below is supplementary material for the unit ‘Viking society and the beginnings of expansion’ in the
                    A list of the Anglo-Saxon Period
Educational Resources for educational resources for the Anglo-Saxon Period
                     Britain
The End of RomanThe decline of Roman control over Britain was a drawn-out affair which took perhaps a quarter of a century t
                    The Impact of the Viking 871-1066
English Logistics and military administration,Wars
English Place-names Many place names are derived from the person or group of people who first settled in the area. For example
                    Expert gives opinion on Staffordshire gold hoard
Expert gives opinion on gold hoard
                     A Powerhouse of to Viking World
Hedeby, Germany:Check out this clip thelearn more about Viking history and the town of Hedeby, Germany.
The Heroic Age The Heroic Age is a fully peer-reviewed academic journal intended for professionals, students and independ
Hides               Definition of a hide
                    How significant Hoard?
How significant is the Staffordshireis the Staffordshire Hoard? Video
                    Scandinavian place names can be Britain
Introduction to Scandinavian origins of place names infound in various places in Scotland. But rather than attributing them to on
                    King Edward of England (called "The Confessor" because of his construction of Westminster Abbey) died on
Invasion of England, 1066
                    A three-year interdisciplinary research project bringing archaeology, place-names and written sources togeth
Landscapes of Governance
Landscapes of the Kent, the kingdom which received St Augustine's mission to convert the heathen Anglo-Saxons in A.D. 597,
                     Anglo-Saxon Conversion: Excavations at Lyminge
                     Ine
Laws of Alfred and Laws of Alfred and Ine
                    This
The Life of King Alfred work is ascribed, on its own internal authority, to Asser, who is said to have been Bishop of St. David's,
                    The
London and the VikingsAnglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 872 [actually 871] has the entry:         Her for se here to Lundenbyrig f
                    The
London's Last Roman remains of what experts believe was one of the last Romans to have lived in London formed the centre-
Normans             The story behind the Battle of Hastings and the leaders who fought it out in 1066.
                    Welcome to the online version of the Old English Newsletter. Since 1967, OEN has been a source for news,
Old English Newsletter
                    The map below is supplementary
Parish place-names of the North Riding of Yorkshire material for the unit ‘The Vikings in Europe – conquest and settlement’ in t
                    Viking, Saxon, Interactive Maps
Place Names and their meaning - Norman? What do they mean?
                    Place names of the
Place names of the Yorkshire Dales Yorkshire Dales
                    The
The Prittlewell prince Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Prittlewell is located on the northern outskirts of Southend, in south-east Esse
Regia Anglorum Regia Anglorum was a term used by early English writers to describe the English state. It means 'The Kingd
                    Saxon Burials On Carlton, Lincolnshire part 1
Saxon Burials On The Ridge - South The Ridge - South Carlton, Lincolnshire part 1
                    Saxon Burials On Carlton, Lincolnshire part 2
Saxon Burials On The Ridge - South The Ridge - South Carlton, Lincolnshire part 2
                    Saxon Burials On Carlton, Lincolnshire part 3
Saxon Burials On The Ridge - South The Ridge - South Carlton, Lincolnshire part 3
                    Saxon Burials On Carlton, Lincolnshire part 4
Saxon Burials On The Ridge - South The Ridge - South Carlton, Lincolnshire part 4
                    Saxon Burials On Carlton, Lincolnshire part 5
Saxon Burials On The Ridge - South The Ridge - South Carlton, Lincolnshire part 5
                    Time Team video
Saxons On The Edge - Knave Hill, Leicestershire 1/5
                    Time Team video
Saxons On The Edge - Knave Hill, Leicestershire 2/5
                    Time Team video
Saxons On The Edge - Knave Hill, Leicestershire 3/5
                    Time Team video
Saxons On The Edge - Knave Hill, Leicestershire 4/5
                    Time Team video
Saxons On The Edge - Knave Hill, Leicestershire 5/5
                    Saxons On Hill, Edge - Knave part 1
Saxons On The Edge - Knave The Leicestershire Hill, Leicestershire part 1
                    Saxons On Hill, Edge - Knave part 2
Saxons On The Edge - Knave The Leicestershire Hill, Leicestershire part 2
                    Saxons On Hill, Edge - Knave part 3
Saxons On The Edge - Knave The Leicestershire Hill, Leicestershire part 3
                    Saxons On Hill, Edge - Knave part 4
Saxons On The Edge - Knave The Leicestershire Hill, Leicestershire part 4
                    Saxons On Hill, Edge - Knave part 5
Saxons On The Edge - Knave The Leicestershire Hill, Leicestershire part 5
                    The Market Rasen
Saxon, Vikings and Monsters part 1 Sword
                    The Market Rasen
Saxon, Vikings and Monsters part 2 Sword
                    The Market Rasen
Saxon, Vikings and Monsters part 3 Sword
                    Between 865-874, groups of Vikings and Danes under Ivarr the Boneless and his brother, Halfdan, swept ac
Scandinavian Kingdom of York / Jorvik
                    The terms Scandinavian languages, or North Germanic langauges, refers to languages in Denmark, Norway
Scandinavian Languages
                    Much of the
Scottish Place Names Index fascination of Scottish place-names lies in the fact that they may derive from one or more of at l
                    Staffordshire
Staffordshire Hoard Excavation Hoard Excavation video
                    The of English Place-names
A Survey of the History subject of English place-names is a complicated one. There are many factors involved, not the least of
Sutton Hoo Society  Sutton Hoo is a group of Anglo-Saxon burial mounds overlooking the River Deben in south-east Suffolk, Eng
                    The Adventure a Language 1/5
The Adventure of English - Birth ofof English - Birth of a Language 1/5
                    The Adventure a Language 2/5
The Adventure of English - Birth ofof English - Birth of a Language 2/5
                    The Adventure a Language 3/5
The Adventure of English - Birth ofof English - Birth of a Language 3/5
                    The Adventure a Language 4/5
The Adventure of English - Birth ofof English - Birth of a Language 4/5
                    The Adventure a Language 5/5
The Adventure of English - Birth ofof English - Birth of a Language 5/5
The term "Viking" The use of the term Viking. Defining terminology is often difficult, especially when a term has a specialized u
                    Excavation of three
Three cemeteries at RAF Lakenheath early Anglo Saxon cemeteries at RAF Lakenheath between 1997 and 2002 uncovered a
                    Description of the
The Viking Overwintering at Repton Viking Overwintering at Repton
                     British Isles 789 showing
Viking Raids in the A series of maps to 878 Viking Raids in the British Isles 789 to 878
Vikings             More than the raiders of tradition, the Vikings were also traders and colonists who left an enduring mark on B
                    Place-names derived
The Vikings in Normandy - Place-names from the Old Norse words for landscape features and other descriptions
 om the Anglo-Saxon version as it appears in Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Primer, 9th edn. (Oxford Univ Press: Oxford, 1961), pp. 81-87, trans. K.

f the greatest turning points in our history. What was life on the island like at this critical moment? Was it fire and sword, with barbarian raids
erable debate. It is, however, critical, for dating key events between the departure of Roman authority in 410 and the arrival of the Christian
hronicles contain the entry:     “7 þa salde se here him foregislas 7 micle aþas þæt hie of his rice uuoldon 7 him eac geheton þæt hiera kynin
 e listed in rough chronological order. They are placed here for the use of fellow researchers and students. They may be reproduced for priva
 edrals, monastic houses and parish churches. Some features of Anglo-Saxon architecture survived briefly, but the Romanesque style was fa

rch engines learn as they are used. By voting for good results and voting against poor results, you can improve this search engine.
ost important documents that has come down to us from the middle ages. It was originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great in

n, Norse & Celtic, University of Cambridge. We study the history, languages, literatures and material culture of medieval Britain, Ireland and S

iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
iders, Traders and Settlers.” (See http://www.archaeology.eu.com/vikings/online.html)
 sonalized his
Essex. There was a heroic stand by the Anglo-Saxons against the Viking invasion which ended in utter defeat for Brithnoth and his men. The
D., 'The Battle of Maldon', Medieval World 1, July/August 1991).


hat is celebrated today at Bede's World, Jarrow, where Bede lived and worked 1300 years ago.
735. His modern feast day is May 25. He was one of the most important intellects, and most prolific writers of his time. Among his other acco
 ld English Epic BEOWULF
n behalf of the site owners, Orbit Housing and their main contractors, Denne builders. In accordance with recent Government guide-lines the
nquest and settlement’ in the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers course. Click on the markers to see more information on each site. For mo

nquest and settlement’ in the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers course. This map provides an on-the-ground tour of Viking presence in a m
he surviving textiles are only fragmentary (usually in a mineralised form on metal artefacts) and there is little or no pictorial or literary evidence
  he Danelaw of England and its effects upon Britain and elsewhere. It was written for HST 300, History Methods course at the California Stat
nded from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom to cover a sizeable proportion of the eastern midlands (former Mercia) and all of Essex. Guthrum accep
dictated who would live and die, and, in a world full of blood fueds and wars, death was more than just a fact of life; it was a way of life.
 burial pit containing a large number of dismembered skeletons. Fifty-one decapitated skulls were found in one distinct area of the pit and bo
 literatures of the various peoples who inhabited Britain, Ireland, and the extended Scandinavian world, in the early Middle Ages (5th century

 nings of expansion’ in the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers course. Click on the markers to see more information on each site. For more

 ps a quarter of a century to complete, and it created a twilight period in which Roman civilisation gradually dwindled and died away. The see

d in the area. For example, Sweden literally means 'the Swedes'. A less obvious example is Wales. This came from an Old English word wea


ls, students and independent scholars. The Heroic Age focuses on North-western Europe during the early medieval period (from the early 4


han attributing them to one point of origin, we have to distinguish between four areas of Scandinavian influence and a number of people invo
estminster Abbey) died on January 5, 1066, after a reign of 23 years. Leaving no heirs, Edward's passing ignited a three-way rivalry for the c
and written sources together in a national study of early medieval assembly sites. Early medieval western Europe developed in the shadow o
 nglo-Saxons in A.D. 597, is justly celebrated as the crucible of Christianity in England. In the two centuries following St Augustine's landing,

een Bishop of St. David's, of Sherborne or of Exeter, in the time of king Alfred. Though most of the public events recorded in this book are to
 r se here to Lundenbyrig from Readingum, 7 þær wintersetl nam, 7 þa namon Mierce friþ wiþ þone here.          Here the raiding army went from
London formed the centre-piece of an exhibition which opened in May 2007. Visitors to the Museum of London were able to see the headles

s been a source for news, announcements, and information on the world of Anglo-Saxon studies. Its annual Bibliography and Year’s Work in
nquest and settlement’ in the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers. Click on the markers to see more information on each site. You can also u


uthend, in south-east Essex. The site is on rising ground to the east of the Prittle Brook, a stream which flows into the Roach estuary c 2.5km
 tate. It means 'The Kingdoms of the English'. In a twentieth century context Regia Anglorum is a nationwide society with many independent l




brother, Halfdan, swept across England from the north and east, conquering Northumbria and East Anglia and large swathes of eastern Merc
ages in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Faroe Islands. There are also the Finnish languages and the related Samic laguages
e from one or more of at least five languages: from PICTISH, from two different types of CELTIC, from OLD NORSE and related SCANDINA

 involved, not the least of which is the waves of conquest England suffered during the period in which most of her place-names were formed.
 in south-east Suffolk, England.




 a term has a specialized usage and a popular usage. The term “Viking” is a case in point. David Wilson, in his new book "The Vikings in the
 97 and 2002 uncovered a total of 394 inhumation and 17 cremation burials; the inclusion of burials from earlier excavations by Grace, Lady


left an enduring mark on Britain.
: Oxford, 1961), pp. 81-87, trans. K. Cutler.

t fire and sword, with barbarian raids, peasant risings, tribal warfare?
  410 and the arrival of the Christian mission of St. Augustine in 597. Examples of these events include: Vortigern's rise to power and the len
on 7 him eac geheton þæt hiera kyning fulwihte onfon wolde” (sub anno 878)       “and then the raiding-army granted him prime hostages and
 ts. They may be reproduced for private use, but may not be reproduced for publication. Any comments on or corrections to these translations
  fly, but the Romanesque style was favoured in most cases. It was developed in France in 1025-50 and first used in England on a grand scal

mprove this search engine.
he orders of King Alfred the Great in approximately A.D. 890, and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scrib

 ure of medieval Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia. For more information about us go to: http://www.asnc.cam.ac.uk




defeat for Brithnoth and his men. The battle's progress is related in a famous Anglo-Saxon poem, only part of which survives. This site also




 rs of his time. Among his other accomplishments was in becoming the only Englishman in Dante's Divine Comedy. His most important work

h recent Government guide-lines the excavations are being funded solely by Orbit Housing as part of the site development cost.
 ore information on each site. For more information on using Google Maps in this course please visit the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers

ground tour of Viking presence in a modern-day town, using media we have filmed around Wallingford. These include both short videos of D
 ttle or no pictorial or literary evidence from this country.
Methods course at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Any comments or criticisms are welcome, as is serious discussion. F
 cia) and all of Essex. Guthrum accepted baptism as part of the Peace of Wedmore, taking the Christian name of Æthelstan with Alfred of W
 fact of life; it was a way of life.
  in one distinct area of the pit and bodies were found randomly placed in another section of the pit. Initially, the burials were believed to date
n the early Middle Ages (5th century to 12th century). We study these peoples separately, and in relation to each other. Our students might c

 e information on each site. For more information on using Google Maps in this course please visit the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers m

 lly dwindled and died away. The seeds were sown in the fourth century decline seen throughout the Western Roman Empire, as barbarian t

 came from an Old English word wealas which meant 'foreigners'. To the early Anglo-Saxon invaders, Wales became the place of the foreign


 rly medieval period (from the early 4th through 13th centuries). We seek to foster dialogue between all scholars of this period across ethnic


nfluence and a number of people involved in coining those names at different times. Often the Scandinavian settlers are referred to as ‘Viking
 g ignited a three-way rivalry for the crown that culminated in the Battle of Hastings and the destruction of the Anglo-Saxon rule of England.
rn Europe developed in the shadow of the classical Roman world. While substantial traces of the organizational capacity of the Roman Empi
 es following St Augustine's landing, the Kentish kings invested heavily in a group of monastic centres – led by St Augustine's, Canterbury, bu

 c events recorded in this book are to be found in the Saxon Chronicle, yet for many interesting circumstances in the life of our great Saxon k
 .    Here the raiding army went from Reading to London town, and took winter-quarters there, and then the Mercians made peace with the
London were able to see the headless skeleton of a man, thought to be in his late thirties or early forties, laid in a limestone coffin. It was fou

nual Bibliography and Year’s Work in Old English Studies are used by thousands of scholars worldwide.
ormation on each site. You can also use the filters in the top right-hand corner of this resource to sort the markers displayed by language type


 lows into the Roach estuary c 2.5km to the north. The area is known to have been inhabited since prehistoric times.
wide society with many independent local groups, from Scotland to the south coast, who all work within a tight set of common sense rules.




ia and large swathes of eastern Mercia. Not long afterwards, the acknowledged Danish leader, Guthrum, assumed the title of king of East An
ges and the related Samic laguages in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The most close link between these languages are at the level that form
OLD NORSE and related SCANDINAVIAN tongues, and from ENGLISH in its ANGLO-SAXON (also called OLD ENGLISH), MIDDLE ENGL

ost of her place-names were formed. The result is that English place-names come from a variety of languages: possibly pre-British, British, L




, in his new book "The Vikings in the Isle of Man" has discussed this problem, and his comments are worth quoting in full:
  earlier excavations by Grace, Lady Briscoe, gives a total of 446. Cemeteries ERL 104 and 114 were almost fully excavated with the majority
  Vortigern's rise to power and the length of his reign; his dealings with Ambrosius; the Saxon revolt; the coming of Arthur and Badon itself.
my granted him prime hostages and great oaths that they would leave his kingdom, and also promised him that their king would receive bapt
on or corrections to these translations are welcomed at thead@shiva.hunter.cuny.edu.
first used in England on a grand scale in Edward the Confessor's Westminster Abbey.


 o by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th Century. The original language was Anglo-Saxon (Old English), but later




 art of which survives. This site also contains a commentary, a translation of the poem, a map, and images of the battle-ground as it is today




 e Comedy. His most important work his is History of the English Church and People, but he wrote many others - biblical commentaries and h

e site development cost.
 Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers maps page.

 These include both short videos of David Beard talking through many of the Viking elements still visible in Wallingford today and panoramas

 welcome, as is serious discussion. For ease of reading, the endnotes have been linked for easy reference to the exact endnote in question.
  name of Æthelstan with Alfred of Wessex his godfather. The northern half of the conquered territory quickly became the Scandinavian kingd

ally, the burials were believed to date to between the late Iron Age and the early Roman Period. However, C14 dating gave a date in the Late
 to each other. Our students might choose to focus on history and material culture, or on language and literature; but most of them range in

 kings: raiders, traders and settlers maps page.

estern Roman Empire, as barbarian tribes continued to make deeper incursions into Gaul, Hispania, and Italy, and then began to settle. The

Wales became the place of the foreigners after the invaders had driven many of the original Celtic inhabitants westward. Wessex was the are


 scholars of this period across ethnic and disciplinary boundaries, including—but not limited to—history, archaeology, and literature pertaining


 vian settlers are referred to as ‘Vikings’, but to regard them as one coherent group is wrong.
 f the Anglo-Saxon rule of England.
 zational capacity of the Roman Empire can still be seen in Britain, for example the Roman road network and Hadrians Wall, evidence for pow
 led by St Augustine's, Canterbury, but with regional outposts at Reculver, Lyminge, Dover, Folkestone, and Minster-in-Thanet. These region

ances in the life of our great Saxon king we are indebted to this biography alone. But, as if no part of history is ever to be free from suspicion,
n the Mercians made peace with the raiding-army. The period of Viking occupation in London ended in 886, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronic
 laid in a limestone coffin. It was found last year when a £36m building project was undertaken at St Martins-in-the-Field, in Central London.


e markers displayed by language types and place-name elements. For more information on using Google Maps in this course please visit the



a tight set of common sense rules.




m, assumed the title of king of East Anglia. The first king of Scandinavian York was Halfdan himself, ruling all of modern Yorkshire, Lancashir
 e languages are at the level that forms the Finno-Lappic language group. (As to be found in this Finno-Ugric language classification list.
 led OLD ENGLISH), MIDDLE ENGLISH or SCOTTISH forms.

 uages: possibly pre-British, British, Latin, Old English, Old Norse of two varieties and Norman French. Each of these languages has contribu




rth quoting in full:
most fully excavated with the majority of the cemetery limits exposed, but only the southern and western limits of ERL 046 were contained wi
 coming of Arthur and Badon itself. This Germanic influx is known historically by the Latin phrase
him that their king would receive baptism” ("The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles", (trans) Swanton, M., Phoenix, 2000, p. 76) The insistence that Gu




Anglo-Saxon (Old English), but later entries were probably made in an early form of Middle English.




ges of the battle-ground as it is today. There are also currently about thirty links to other relevant international sites to assist researchers to




y others - biblical commentaries and hagiography in particular.




n Wallingford today and panoramas of some of the key views. For more information on using Google Maps in this course please visit the Vik

ce to the exact endnote in question.
ickly became the Scandinavian kingdom of York. However, Wessex quickly recovered its strength and, united with the remaining Mercian lan

er, C14 dating gave a date in the Late Saxon Period of between AD 890 and 1030. The skeletons all appeared to male, and the majority age
literature; but most of them range in their own ways across the different areas and disciplines.



 Italy, and then began to settle. The rot had set in, and with it came rebellion, lost territory, and subsequent losses in vitally-needed manpowe

ants westward. Wessex was the area where the West Saxons lived, Sussex where the South Saxons lived, Norfolk where the Northern Peo


archaeology, and literature pertaining to the period.




 and Hadrians Wall, evidence for power and authority in the centuries following the Roman occupation is much more subtle. Arbitration, nego
and Minster-in-Thanet. These regional hubs initiated the grass-roots conversion of the Kentish populace, serving as a model for Christian co

 ory is ever to be free from suspicion, or from difficulty, a doubt has been raised concerning the authenticity of this work.
 886, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry reads:           Þy ilcan geare gesette Ęlfred cyning Lundenburg, 7 him all Angelcyn to cirde, þæt buto
 rtins-in-the-Field, in Central London. Curators said the man's death dated back to about AD 410.


e Maps in this course please visit the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers maps page. This map uses the parishes as they were before 183




 g all of modern Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cumbria. Records for this kingdom are fairly poor, especially in comparison with those of Wesse
 gric language classification list.


Each of these languages has contributed place-names and influenced the form of existing place-names. This makes a rich and complicated s




 limits of ERL 046 were contained within the excavation. Small areas of all three cemeteries remain preserved below roads, buildings and gr
 2000, p. 76) The insistence that Guthrum accepted baptism was a tremendous act of political acumen on behalf of King Alfred.




ational sites to assist researchers to find further information. Note the addition of material on Brithnoth's tomb at Ely, the JRR Tolkien connec




aps in this course please visit the Vikings: raiders, traders and settlers maps page.


united with the remaining Mercian lands which it now controlled, made swift inroads into East Anglian territory.

peared to male, and the majority aged between late teens and c. 25 years old, with a few older individuals. As a group, they were of tall and r




ent losses in vitally-needed manpower and resources. The period ended in a mist of obscure references and hazy recollections which were o

ved, Norfolk where the Northern People lived and the Southern People inhabited Suffolk.




s much more subtle. Arbitration, negotiation and dispute settlement were fundamental to the formation of kingdoms and ultimately the nation
, serving as a model for Christian conversion in neighbouring southern kingdoms.

city of this work.
 7 him all Angelcyn to cirde, þæt buton Deniscra monna hæftniede was, 7 hie þa befæste þa burg Ęþerede aldormen to haldonne.          The s



he parishes as they were before 1832 and is based on Colin Hinson’s ‘The Parishes of the North Riding’ map. The pre 1832 parish names h




y in comparison with those of Wessex for the period, so a certain amount of educated guesswork is required to established a full sequence o



This makes a rich and complicated subject with much fine detail. I have tried to review the major types of English place-names, but it has no




served below roads, buildings and grass.
on behalf of King Alfred.




tomb at Ely, the JRR Tolkien connection, and the new statue of Brithnoth in Maldon.




ls. As a group, they were of tall and robust stature. Most of the skulls showed evidence of multiple blows to the vertebrae suggestive of swo




and hazy recollections which were often only written down generations later.




f kingdoms and ultimately the nation state of England, but the places where such activities occurred have never been comprehensively studi
ede aldormen to haldonne.      The same year King Alfred occupied London fort and all the English race turned to him, except what was in ca



 map. The pre 1832 parish names have been used because they are more likely to represent places of importance in earlier times. The me




ired to established a full sequence of events. In 940, the kingdom gained (or regained) the 'Five Boroughs' of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire,



of English place-names, but it has not been possible to touch on every aspect of the subject.
s to the vertebrae suggestive of sword blows.




e never been comprehensively studied as archaeological sites, their names investigated only once in the last 80 years by the Scandinavian s
 turned to him, except what was in captivity to Danish men; and he then entrusted the fort to Ealdorman Æthelred to hold. ‘Lundenburg’ refe



importance in earlier times. The meaning of the place-names are taken from Eilert Ekwall’s “The Concise Dictionary of English Place-Name




ghs' of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincoln, Leicestershire, and Stamford (the area around Spalding, always a separate region since it had
e last 80 years by the Scandinavian scholar O. S. Anderson. Landscapes of Governance is a three-year interdisciplinary venture bringing arc
Æthelred to hold. ‘Lundenburg’ refers to the walled area of the old Roman town, and Ealdorman Æthelred, who held the site for the king, w



se Dictionary of English Place-Names”.




ways a separate region since it had been settled by the Spaldingas tribe of Angles in the fifth century, later Holland, and now South Holland,
r interdisciplinary venture bringing archaeology, place-names and written sources together for the first time in a comprehe
red, who held the site for the king, was the lord of the Mercians, Alfred’s son-in-law.




ter Holland, and now South Holland, within Lincolnshire).
me in a comprehe

				
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