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					Q 23/5 “Using ICTs to enable countries to adapt to
                climate change”

     Q 22/5 "Setting up a low cost sustainable
    telecommunication infrastructure for rural
    communications in developing countries"



               Ahmed Zeddam (Chair)
                   Dave Faulkner
            (Climate Associates Ltd, UK)
        Franz Zichy (US Department of State)

                                                 1
 Note to Japanese Colleagues
 We would like to add our sympathy to you
  and your families as you experience
  various hardships arising from the recent
  earthquake




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Agenda
  Introduction to the meeting-Ahmed Zeddam
  Introduction to the new Question 23/5 "Using ICTs
   to enable countries to adapt to climate change" -
   Dave Faulkner
  Introduction to the new Question 22/5 "Setting up a
   low cost sustainable telecommunication
   infrastructure for rural communications in
   developing countries" -Franz Zichy
  Coordination and contributions-Ahmed Zeddam
  Future meetings (SG5 and this JCA)-Ahmed
   Zeddam
  AOB



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                                                         3
Introduction to this online meeting,


 SG5 (and this JCA) Chairman
   Ahmed Zeddam (France Telecom-Orange)




                                           4
                                           4
  What are the aims of this
  meeting?
 Introduce new Questions 22 and 23
 Provide stimulation for contributions on
  the new topics
   Especially where gaps in standards are
    identified




                                             5
                                             5
Motivation for the new Questions
 The Conference of the Parties of the United Nations
  Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in
  December 2007 (COP-13) developed the Bali Action Plan.
    Among its actions it calls for-
    enhanced action on adaptation, taking into account the needs of
     developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the
     adverse effects of climate change;
 The ITU is well placed to help countries to implement the
  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol through the use of ICTs
    It is proposed to work with UNFCCC to ensure that the right policy and
     technical frameworks are in place to move towards a low carbon
     economy and so that ICT’s potential to adapt to climate change is
     maximised.


                                                                              6
                                                                              6
What is in the new Question 23/5?

“Using ICTs to enable countries to adapt
to climate change”



 Acting Rapporteur-
   Dave Faulkner (Climate Associates Ltd)




                                             7
                                             7
  Aims

The aim of the new Question is to address this area of the Bali Action
Plan: ‘enhanced action on adaptation’

This will provide handbooks on best practices and recommendations, if
necessary, to help developing countries to deal with the issues
concerned with adaptation to climate change.

It will work closely with Q18/5 activity on methodology and standardise
the technologies themselves in the appropriate SGs and with new
question ITU-D Q24/2.



                                                                          8
                http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q23.html   8
Study Items include but are not limited to
#1
 What are the standardisation requirements for ICTs to enable
  adaptation to climate change?
 How can ICTs, in particular fibre submarine cable networks, be
  used more effectively to monitor the global
  environment/ecosystem and what new standards are required?
 How can ICT standards be used and adapted to more effectively
  disseminate information on both natural and man-made
  disasters (early warning) to communities (e.g. supporting
  GDACS under the UN framework?




                                                                        9
              http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q23.html   9
Study Items include but are not limited to
#2
 Identifying if new ICT standards are needed to address food
  security, water transportation and supply, in close collaboration
  with D sector.
 How can ICT standards better enable water management under
  accelerating climate change conditions to improve the overall
  efficiency of water use, leading to a more sustainable use of
  water resources?
 What ICT standards need to be used or developed to
  disseminate information to enable farmers to better forecast
  crop yields and production?



                                                                         10
               http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q23.html   10
Study Items include but are not limited to
#3
 How can ICTs be used to monitor deforestation and forest degradation
  and what standards are available or need development?
 How can ICTs be used to reduce CO2e emissions by better waste
  management through a ‘cradle to cradle’, i.e. ‘closed loop’, approach
  whereby more efficient recycling means fewer raw materials need to be
  mined?
 What standards are needed for ICTs to be used to increase energy
  supply efficiency and maximize the use of renewable sources?
 How can ICTs be used in education and to raise awareness on climate
  change and what standards development is required?
 What e-health standards are needed for more effective healthcare, as
  diseases spread due to changing climatic conditions, and to ensure
  interoperability?


                                                                          11
               http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q23.html    11
  Tasks
 Establish handbooks on practical examples and
  best practices of ICT standards, and if necessary
  Recommendations, to support adaptation to
  climate change.
 Produce a ‘roadmap’ to identify the types of ICT
  technologies and standards available, propose
  improvements and facilitate more effective use of
  these
 Coordinate with other SGs, ITU-R, ITU-D and other
  bodies on a regular basis to collaborate effectively

                                                                    12
          http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q23.html   12
  Next
 The following slides illustrate aspects of
  adaptation which could lead to contributions
      Monitoring and climate forecasts
      Adaptation
      Service Types
      Fixed v mobile benefits
      Which Wireless Systems are we interested in?
      Which Devices are we interested in?
      GDACS-Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System
 Identification of gaps in standards is a key
  consideration

                                                             13
                                                             13
       Climate change adaptation
               Definition
 “Climate change adaptation is acting to tolerate the effects
  of global warming”[1]
    It consists of initiatives and measures to reduce the
     vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or
     expected climate change effects


 However the capacity and potential for human systems to
  adapt (called adaptive capacity) is unevenly distributed
  across different regions and populations [2]
    Adaptation will be more difficult for larger extremes and higher
     rates of climate change


           [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change_mitigation      14
           [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptation_to_global_warming   14
  Climate Monitoring
 Provides climate data to enable scientific
  theories to be verified and allows predictions
  to be made by climate modellers
   Often linked with data gathering for weather
    forecasting and air traffic control




                                                                   15
        http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/star/meeting_CMS2010.php
                                                                   15
What is the predicted
temperature change?
-varies with region and location                    One example cited
                                                     here-West Africa
                                                    The bars at the end
                                                     of the orange
                                                     envelope represent
                                                     the range of
                                                     projected changes
                                                     for 2091 to 2100
                                                    Circa 2007 (always
                                                     check for latest
                                                     results from
                                                     climate modellers)
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter11.pdf

                                                                          16
                                                                          16
  Sea Level Rise This
  Century
 IPCC 4th assessment report
  prediction [1]
    0.18-0.59m
 “Models of glacier mass balance
  (the difference between melting and
  accumulation of snow and ice on a
  glacier) give a theoretical maximum
  value for sea level rise in the
  current century of 2 metres (and a
  "more plausible" one of 0.8 metres),
  based on limitations on how quickly                  [4]
  glaciers can melt [2,3].

           [1] http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter6.pdf
           [2] http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/321/5894/1340            17
           [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise                     17
           [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NOAA_sea_level_trend_1993_2010.png
Sea Level Fluctuations
 Combinations of factors can lead
  to flood disaster
      Land mass sink
      Low atmospheric pressure*
      Storm surge*
      Wave and tidal peak*
      Earthquake and tsunami
      Storm run off*

* = increased risk with global
   warming
                                                        18
               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_level
                                                        18
         Climate Monitoring:
         Examples
  Satellite observations [1,2,3]
       Visible and in infrared


  Ground based
                                                             commons.wikimedia.org/.../File:GOES-
       Remote Automated Weather Stations [4,5]              12_satellite_image_of_Hurricane_Katrina.jpg
       May be added to cellphone base stations


  Submarine systems
       How can we adapt telecommunications
        systems for this?
       See ITU-T Technology Watch Report [6]
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_satellite
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise
[3] http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/star/meeting_CMS2010.php
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_Automated_Weather_Station
                                                                                                     19
[5] http://raws.fam.nwcg.gov/raws101.html
[6] http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/23/01/T23010000110001PDFE.pdf                               19
 Climate Monitoring
 Where are improvements needed?
 Example - Africa
 Africa has a network eight times below the WMO minimum
  recommended standard, and less than 200 automatic weather
  stations that meet WMO observation requirements
 Mobile networks provide the necessary connectivity, power and
  security to sustain the weather equipment.
    Up to 5,000 automatic weather stations are to be deployed at cellular sites across
     Africa, where less than 300 are reporting today.
    This will increase dissemination of weather information via mobile phones to
     users and communities, including remote farmers and fishermen
    The initial deployment, already begun in Zain networks, focuses on the area
     around Lake Victoria in Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda. The first
     19 automatic weather stations installed will double the weather monitoring
     capacity of the Lake region

               www.wmo.int/pages/mediacentre/press_releases/pr_855_en.html
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        Priorities for Adaptation #1
       Will climate change put these more at risk?

   Drinking water supply
   Food supply
   Shelter
   Health (diseases)
   Transport infrastructure (boat, rail, road, air)

 Robust communications services are vital to
  maintain these services

                                                       21
                                                       21
Priorities for Adaptation #2
Ubiquitous ICT can reduce the risk to local populations
   Food and water preparedness for possible disaster [1]
      Availability of advice online
   Drinking water supply
      Control of water levels (close/open sluice gates etc)
      Blocked drains (alert and action to unblock)
   Food supply
      Monitoring and control of agricultural land and processes
      Flood/drought: request to send to food from nearest store to remote
        locations
   Shelter
      Disaster: request to provide tents and other necessities
   Health (diseases)
      Request advice/medications by phone, text or email
   Transport infrastructure (boat, rail, road, air)
      Updates on state of roads, bridges, railways during flood run off

                                                                               22
                [1] http://www.state.nj.us/njoem/preparedness_foodwater.html
                                                                               22
ICT and Food Security
Example of a wireless network scheme to
monitor agricultural parameters




       [1] ITU-T Technology Watch Report “ICTs and Food Security”   23
       http://www.itu.int/oth/T230100000B/en                        23
       [2] http://commonsense.epfl.ch/
 Next
 Establishing the ICT service requirements
  for Adaptation to Climate Change..




                                              24
                                              24
    Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

   Adaptation with Broadcast Services
 Radio and TV services
     Early warning and Emergency advice
       • Severe weather
       • Flood risk
       • Evacuation procedure
     Education
 Advantage
     Cheap country-wide coverage
 Big limitation
     No signalling or alerts
       • Limited use at night
     One way communication
       • (except with private mobile radio, citizen’s band, etc)
     Revert to sirens or loud hailers etc
     Broadcast text messages would be better


                                                                         25
                                                                         25
  Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change



  Adaptation with Voice Services

 Interactive voice services (network may be fixed or
  mobile)
    Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)
    Request for help
    Planning movement of water, food, people
 Advantage
    Specific actions can be coordinated
 Big limitation
    Coverage and powering
    Infrastructure build required


                                                                       26
                                                                       26
  Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change



  Adaptation with Text Services
 Mobile networks (mostly)
    Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)
    Request for help
    Planning movement of water, food, people
 Advantages
      Cheaper services (than voice and broadband)
      Message can be re-read
      Non intrusive (does not disrupt recipient)
      Alert signal is sent
 Limitations
    Coverage
    Powering
    Infrastructure build required

                                                                       27
                                                                       27
    Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change


    Adaptation with Broadband Services
   Fixed or Mobile Networks can be broadband enabled
        Access to very detailed information from internet
        Access to email etc
        Video services via Skype etc
 Applications include
        Passing on local conditions (to broadcaster)
        Request for help
        Planning movement of water, food, people
        New applications can be quickly devised
   Advantages
        Can be always on
        Messages can be stored, re-read and forwarded
        Non intrusive (does not disrupt recipient)
        Alert signal possible
        Laptops or PDAs may be used for access
   Limitations
        Cost of service
        Coverage (may require broadband enabling)
        Powering
        Infrastructure build required


                                                                         28
                                                                         28
   Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change


 Are special requirements
 needed for adaptation to CC?
 Adaptation builds on ‘intended use’ of
  telecommunications networks which is to enable
  business and social communications
   Adaptation is an ‘extra consideration’ to the basic services
        • Text, voice and broadband
   Some services may need to be designed and built to
    operate in different modes when disaster strikes
        •   Saving power
        •   Preventing overload
        •   Increasing security
        •   Increased resilience to outage
        •   Broadcasting text or voice services

                                                                        29
                                                                        29
        Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change

                 Fixed versus mobile
             Fixed                                         Mobile
   Exchange power for                            Local power (batteries)
    telephony provided                             needed to make calls
   ADSL may be added to                          2/3G compatible systems
    existing lines                                 available
   Unlimited bandwidth                           Bandwidth limited by cell
    with fibre                                     size /spectrum availability
   Costly infrastructure                         Infrastructure requires
    needed to each user                            less trenching (cheaper)
   Cannot be everywhere                          Can be anywhere (subject
                                                   to radio coverage)
 Flood and wind risk                             Less Flood and wind risk
                                                                             30

                                                                             30
   Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change



What needs to be done at project
    level-(Pre Standards)?
 Run feasibility projects to serve your local or
  national community to help minimise the risks due
  to climate change
    This should (preferably) include an ICT aspect and a
     business case
    A small project with scaling-up potential is preferred
 Multiply up the benefits
    Communicate your results worldwide
    Input to international standards where possible

                                                                        31
                                                                        31
       Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change


      Adaptation to Climate Change
Which wireless systems are we interested in?
   Satellite
      Monitoring weather/climate on national or international scale and early
        warning of extent of disasters
      Interactive: providing ubiquitous coverage for news media
   Land based interactive
      Private Mobile Radio (PMR) to mobilise emergency services
   Land based broadcast
      News updates
   Land based monitoring
      Weather stations
   Cellular: providing detailed information (internet/websites)
      Person to person (text and voice calls)
      Implementing community action plans
      This is the topic identified in Question 22/5….

                                                                                 32
                                                                                 32
       Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change


    Adaptation to Climate change
Which ICT devices are we interested in?
 Mainframes
    Providing ever more sophisticated climate models
    Computing power has doubled every 18 months
 Data centres
    Acting as host servers to allow information to be exchanged
 Personal Computers
    Accessing internet to gain information about climate change and forecasts
    Collecting, managing and uploading local environmental data
 Handheld devices (e.g. based on mobile phones)
       Primary voice communications and text messages
       Global positioning system is included in latest generation
       Photographs and video streaming/upload possible
       Allow a multiplicity of new software applications to be downloaded

                                                                             33
                                                                             33
         Establishing the ICT requirements for Adaptation to Climate Change


       Adaptation to Climate Change
       Software platforms

 Ideally a single platform for mobile broadband would be
  standardised so that all mobiles could receive and
  transmit equally via the internet
 E.g. Android may be an example of this [1]
    a Linux-based platform from the Open Handset Alliance
    Application programming is primarily done in Java.
    Performance critical code can be written in C, C++ or other native code
     languages




                                                                                   34
                 [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_application_development   34
          The Global Disaster Alert and
          Coordination System (GDACS)
 “A cooperation framework under the United Nations umbrella to
    consolidate and strengthen the network of providers and users of disaster
     information worldwide
    provide reliable and accurate alerts and impact estimations after sudden-onset
     disasters and to
    improve the cooperation of international responders in the immediate
     aftermath..
 To date, GDACS has more than 9000 and has become an integral part of
  international disaster response to sudden-onset disasters.
    “Provides near real-time alerts about natural disasters around the world and
     tools to facilitate response coordination, including media monitoring, map
     catalogues..”
    Flood, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami, volcano
    Receive instant email, SMS or fax alerts in case an earthquake or tsunami
     occurs with a potential for humanitarian disaster.
 Has already standardised the communications protocols RSS and
  GLIDE
                                                                                      35
                                                                                      35
 Next
 Franz Zichy will introduce the new
  Question 22/5




                                       36
                                       36
New Question 22/5

“Setting up a low cost sustainable
telecommunication infrastructure for rural
communications in developing countries”

 Acting Rapporteur
   Franz Zichy (US Department of State)




                                             37
                                             37
  Motivation
 Current mobile network systems do not meet the
  requirements for rural/remote deployment in
  developing countries
 Current mobile network systems designed for
  urban area deployment
   Infrastructure
           – Power
           – Shelter
           – Accessibility
           – Manpower skills to operate
           – Logistics




                                                                            38
                  http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q22.html   38
  Challenges
 Challenges to deploying Telecommunication infrastructure
  in rural/remote areas in developing nations are:
      Access to electricity.
      Expense of power backup.
      Terrain.
      Accessibility and transportation.
      Lack of skilled manpower.
      Installation and maintenance of networks.
      Operating costs high.
      Average revenue per user low.
      Population sparse and scattered.




                                                                            39
                  http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q22.html   39
Study Items Include:

 Collect, assess, and combine the challenges faced by developing
  countries in setting up a low cost sustainable telecommunication
  infrastructure in rural areas.
 Develop requirements for rural mobile network system specifically
  addressing such identified challenges of rural deployment, to
  include
    Planning, Analysis, Design, implement, maintenance (SDLC)
 Study the generic system requirements (independent of chosen
  Radio transmission technology) for rural mobile networks systems
    An outlook towards deployment architecture, power
      consumption, power source, packaging, operation &
      maintenance etc.




                                                                        40
              http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com05/sg5-q22.html   40
  Tasks
 Develop guidance:
    To set up sustainable telecommunication infrastructure in
     rural/remote areas of developing countries.
      • With the objective to finding energy efficient means to
         power mobile network systems for deployment of
         telecommunication infrastructure in areas without access
         to electricity.
    To improve resilience of mobile networks during a
     disaster (e.g. hurricane, tropical storm, etc).
 Guidance in the form of a Handbook would contain best
  practices and recommendations.




                                                                    41
                                                                    41
 Understand Needs
 Establishing the requirements for Rural
  Communications
   Understand the needs of rural areas in
    developing countries
     • Taking into consideration:
         – National, regional and global standards and policies
         – Available financial and manpower resources
         – Prevailing material and labor costs
         – The purchasing power of the targeted consumer
         – The capability of potential users, the 'information
           culture' of the society, and topography and weather of
           these countries
         – Action plans needed with partnerships at community
           level to support roll-out and educational aspects

                                                                    42
                                                                    42
Technical Requirements

 Understanding technical requirements
   Base stations may be remotely located
     • May require wind, solar, or other alternative green energy
       source.
     • Equipment built to sustain extreme weather
       (weatherproofing)
     • Ease of service by non-technical personnel
     • Ubiquitous coverage
     • Add-ons such as climate monitoring
     • Wide range of mobile, portable and fixed devices
       supported
     • Resilient and robust network design
     • Low cost



                                                                    43
                                                                    43
Options for Resilience

 Alternative routing to base stations
   E.g. point to point radio (2 links) and/or fibre
 Alternative power sources at base station
   Grid, diesel, wind, solar, battery, wood gas
 Alternative access
   Fixed (copper and/or fibre) and wireless
 IP routing at nodes
   Seeks alternative paths automatically



                                                       44
                                                       44
 Next

 Coordination Activities and
 Summary of what contributions
 are needed
 SG5 (and this JCA) Chairman
   Ahmed Zeddam (France Telecom-Orange)




                                           45
                                           45
Q22 Coordination Requirements
“Setting up a low cost sustainable telecommunication
infrastructure for rural communications in developing
countries”


  ITU-T SGs 3, 5, 6, 15, 19 and 23/5
  ITU-D SG 2 and ITU-R SGs
  Standardization bodies, forums and consortia:
     ISO, IEC, ETSI , GSMA,
  Others
     Need to consider best practice from other entities




                                                        46
                                                           46
Work underway in ITU-D
Need for coordination in Q22:

  ITU-T SG 5 encouraged to take advantage of resources
   produced in ITU-D
     Case study libraries
        • http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/study_groups/SGP_2006-
          2010/events/Case_Library/index.asp
     ITU-D Questions
        • Question 10-3/2, Telecommunications/ICT for rural and
          remote areas
        • Question 22-1/2, Utilization of telecommunications/ICTs
          for disaster preparedness, mitigation and response
        • Question 25/2, Access technology for broadband
          telecommunications including IMT, for developing
          countries

                                                                    47
                                                                    47
Q23 Coordination Requirements
“Using ICTs to enable Countries to Adapt to Climate Change”

 ITU-T SGs 9, 13, 15 and 16
 ITU-D and ITU-R SGs
 Standardization bodies, forums and consortia:
     ISO, ETSI ,UNFCCC, UNEP, FAO, UN-REDD Programme
      (avoiding forest degradation), UN-Water and UN-Habitat on
      sustainable water supplies,
 Cooperation with UNFCCC
     is particularly important for the assessment of the
      environmental impacts including ICT projects and the
      assessment of the environmental impacts of ICT in countries
      or groups of countries
 Any Others?
     Need to consider best practice from elsewhere
                                                                  48
                                                                  48
Work underway in ITU-D
Need for coordination in Q23 (Adaptation):

  ITU-T SG 5 encouraged to take advantage of resources
   produced in ITU-D
     ITU-D Questions- as for Q22 plus
        • Question 7-3/1, Implementation of universal access to
          broadband services
        • Question 19-2/1, Implementation of IP telecommunication
          services in developing countries
        • Question 9-3/2, Identification of study topics in the ITU T
          and ITU-R study groups which are of particular interest to
          developing countries
        • Question 24/2, Question on ICT and climate change
  International standards may be required in some of these
   topic areas
     These could be produced in Q23/5
                                                                        49
                                                                        49
Summary of issues to consider in
Contributions to Q22
Rural Communications
   Examples of potential new standards (handbooks)
      Power supply (affordability and reliability)
        • Providing power and power backup
        • Avoiding environmental hazards
      How to cope with
        • Difficult terrain
            – Access and transportation challenges
            – Wireless signal transmissions
        • Lack of skilled manpower to install and maintain networks
        • Sparsely populated and scattered population clusters
      Measures designed to
        • Reduce cost
        • Improve availability and reliability
        • Enable weather monitoring at low additional cost            50
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Summary of issues to consider in
contributions on Q23 (Adaptation)
 What new standards (handbooks) are needed in the areas of
    ICTs to enable adaptation to climate change
    Submarine cable networks to monitor the global
     environment/ecosystem
    ICTs to disseminate information on natural and man-made
     disasters
    Food security, water transportation, water management and supply
    Dissemination of information to enable farmers to better forecast
     crop yields and production
    Monitoring deforestation and forest degradation
    Waste management reducing raw materials and CO2
    Energy supply and use of renewable sources
    Education and raising awareness on climate change
    E-health as diseases spread due climate change
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  Final Comments
 Next meeting of ITU-SG5 is
    27 April-05 May 2011 Geneva
    For ITU-T members and invited guests/observers
    Will appoint Rapporteurs and Associate Rapporteurs for
     Q22 and Q23 at this meeting
 Next meeting of this JCA is
    10:00-13:00, 6 May, Geneva and online
    Open to all
 Please contribute to the new (and existing)
  questions
    Consider the gaps in standards as top priority
    Deadline 14 April (for 27th April meeting)
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