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ABI

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									  EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
  Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
  Information pack
  Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
               th
  Due date: 30 of October
  www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury




  What's happened in the past
     cannot be changed

And the present seems like you’re
             alone

It's important then to remember
        you're not alone

  And the future can be bright




  Welcome:

  Whether you are a parent, family member, teacher or just trying to find more information;
  Welcome to the downloaded information pack about acquired brain injury. If you are a
  parent or a family member it is important to remember you are NOT alone there are other
  families out there and many support groups that can help you come to terms with what is
  going to happen, what you can do, answer your questions or just be there to listen to you
  when you need someone to talk to.

  The idea of this website is to give information about what is Acquired Brain injury (ABI), how
  it affects people in different surroundings and who you can get into contact with for more
  information or support.

                                                                                      1|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury


Contents:



Home page.........................................................................page 1



About acquired brain injury................................pages 3-6



Home life.....................................................................pages 7-8



Education and care setting................................pages 9-10



Support groups....................................................pages 11-12



References.............................................................pages 13-16




                                                                              2|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

About Acquired Brain Injury:

Definition:

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) can be defined as
a person who has damaged any part of the
brain after birth (State Government of Victoria,
2011). This is a pretty broad definition and
you might be asking yourself well how do I
know if you can diagnose someone with an
                                                           Commonwealth of Australia, 2009
acquired brain injury. To start the process of
understanding what ABI is, it is important to understand the capabilities and functions of
the brain. The brain although only making up 2% of the body’s weight is the powerhouse
and controls all the functions of the body (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009) thus when the
brain is injured even in the tiniest way it can cause a large disability depending on the
damaged part of the brain (Brain Injury Australia n.d.). The brain can be firstly broken into two
hemispheres the left controlling speech, language, logical processing of information and
right controlling visual perception and interpreting non-verbal information (Commonwealth
                                                                  of Australia, 2009). Secondly
                                                                  it can be broken down into
                                                                  areas that all play a specific
                                                                  role in our daily activities. As
                                                                  you can see on the left there
                                                                  are 6 areas which is why it is
                                                                  so hard to make a definition
                                                                  for ABI more precise as
                                                                  every case needs to be
                                                                  treated differently.


     Commonwealth of Australia, 2009


                                                                                       3|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Causes:

To continue in learning about ABI it is important that we know what some of the major
causes include. There are many different minor causes which can generally be placed into
three categories which become major causes that include:

               1. Cerebro-vascular accidents: Commonly referred to as a stroke; is a
                   blockage or rupture of a blood vessel that has caused damage to the
                   brain (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).


               2. Traumatic brain injuries: Can range from a blow to the head by an object
                   or in some instances a penetrating blow to the head like a gunshot
                   (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).


               3. Alcohol or drug related: occurs when use of the substance has led to
                   brain damage for example alcohol when over consumed can cause
                   dehydration and shrinkage of brain cells (Commonwealth of Australia,
                   2009).

Other major causes of ABI that don’t quite fall under these categories include:

                Lack of oxygen: referred to as anoxic brain injury which can include a near
                   drowning experience or a near suffocation experience (State Government
                   of Victoria, 2011).

                   Disease: There are numerous diseases that can affect the brain ranging
                   from Alzheimer’s to Parkinson’s just to mention a few (State Government
                   of Victoria, 2011).




                                                                                  4|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Statistics:

There are many statistics that could be displayed, but here are some of the important ones
that people need to be aware of, including:

        ABI is a common disability with over 500,000 Australian having it with every
           three out of four people being under the age of 65. Furthermore two out of the
           three people where under the age of 25 when diagnosed with ABI with three out
           of four being male (Brain Injury Australia, n.d.).


        Leading cause of ABI is stroke where a clot or bleeding has stopped blood from
           going to the brain (Brain Injury Australia, n.d.).




        The second leading cause of ABI is an accident or trauma to the head known
           commonly as a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In 2004 to 2005 over 22,000 people
           were hospitalised from TBI with two in every five caused from falls, one in three
           from a motor vehicle crash and one out of six was caused by an assault (Brain
           Injury Australia, n.d.).


        ABI often leads to a physical difficulty as well as a change in emotions and
           thinking (Brain Injury Australia, n.d.)




        Majority of people can expect to improve with treatment and support
           (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).




                                                                                   5|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Treatment:

Any treatment for ABI depends of the extent of the damage and to which location of the
brain. In certain cases where the damage is not extreme and the part of the brain allows it
surgery may be an option however things like age, general health of the individual,
speediness of the first aid given and the quality of treatment given (Commonwealth of
Australia, 2009). To find out if the ABI can be treated there are a number of tests ranging
from x-rays to CT brain scans that can help pinpoint the exact areas of damage
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).


If ABI cannot be treated with surgery this can cause distress for not only the family but the
person who has been diagnosed. This will lead to the family and the diagnosed person
having to form new relationships with others such as therapists, doctors and neurologists
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009).




Affects on the person with ABI:

ABI can affect people in different ways depending on the location and severity of the
damage. Some of these common affects can include:

                Increased fatigue both physically and mentally (State Government of
                   Victoria, 2011)
                Process of information, problem solving and planning may be slower
                   (State Government of Victoria, 2011).
                Personality and behavioural changes (State Government of Victoria,
                   2011).
                Thinking and learning as well as Physical and sensory abilities changes
                   (State Government of Victoria, 2011)
                Medical difficulties (State Government of Victoria, 2011)



                                                                                    6|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Home life:

The two big questions that need to be answered when looking at this topic are will I need to
adapt my home? And who is going to be the carer and how will they be affected? It is
important then that before we attempt to answer these questions that we remember that
every case of ABI can be different to the case before. Each case will depend on the location
of the damage, the severity of the damage both to the brain and if there is another physical
disability associated with it as well as if there can be treatment applied or not.




Will I need to adapt my home:

Yes, as with all disabilities the home will need to be moderated depending on the severity of
the ABI and if there are any other disabilities that are combined. It is worth noting that in
severe cases unfortunately that people diagnosed with ABI need to move into age care
residents where they can have a permanent carer or a house where carers are readily
available. In both situations their homes will be set to cater for their needs and abilities (ABI
services pty ltd, n.d.).




Who is going to be the carer and how will they be affected:

Who cares for the person can vary depending on the severity of the brain injury and if the
family can afford carer’s or lives in an area where carer’s are readily available to help. A
carer’s role in the house is not only to help the person diagnosed with ABI but are also often
required to support and answer questions from grieving family members (Brain Injury
Australia, n.d.). It’s important to note that yes having a carer can take a certain amount of
ease off the family by answering their questions, giving advice or even just watching him or
her so they can have a break but they are still human, too much work and pressure will
cause stress and can be quite common amongst them (Brain Injury Australia, n.d.).


                                                                                       7|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

It is important to remember when someone is diagnosed with ABI it is not only them whom
will be affected it is the entire family and everyone will try and cope in their own way going
through a grieving process (Brain Injury Australia, n.d.). However it is not only family that
grieves it is also the friends that are affected. Sadly both family members and friends
sometimes don’t handle the changes well and thus decide it is easier not to remain in touch.




For those family members that decide to stay, it can bring the family closer together but
also place incredible difficulties and burdens on them. It helps families if they have
researched ABI, appreciate that there will be difficulties and understand any improvement
or recovery will be a slow process (State Government of Victoria, 2011). It is important also
for the remaining friends and family to remember the progress and little things they do well
and not dwell on the future or past (NSW Government, n.d.).




A great website that gives you a description of how someone is affected and how their live
changes with ABI is http://www.bmj.com/content/340/bmj.c808.full. I highly recommend
looking at it if you need a story to relate with about the life of a diagnosed ABI person.




                                                                                      8|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Education and care setting:

As ABI can happy at any age after birth it is hard to pin point if they will need education and
if so what type they will need. Students with ABI can face numerous challenges in life
especially in the education field with one of the major troubles being that it complicates the
normal developmental process (BrainLink services limited, 2008). Thus the important
questions that need to be addressed is what does a teacher do to cater for the needs? And
what can parents do to help their children become educated? Care settings like education
can be a hard thing to pin point as it will depend on the age and severity of the brain injury.
Thus the question that needs to be answered is what care settings are there for people with
ABI?




Education:

The school should have a supportive program to help students with ABI ranging from a LSA
and a special needs teacher who can create a program that assists the teacher to moderate
assessment, teaching and strategies to encourage them to learn just like they would for a
student with a learning disability. Thus the most important thing a teacher can be is flexible
and willing to adapt and try new strategies to help all students (Opening all options, n.d.).




Parents will play a major role in the education of their child and thus one of the crucial
things they can do is create a strong bond with the teacher and stay updated with what
their child is learning and what they can do to help. Parents can also work at home or hire
private tutors if they have the money to build on cognitive and developmental skills
including memory and concentration activities which will help them learn and progress
(Opening all options, n.d.).




                                                                                      9|Page
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Care Setting:

The care settings can often be dependent on where you live being city or country with the
city having more resources and carer’s readily available then in the country as well as the
state in which you live. For example NSW Health, Housing NSW and Lifetime care and
support in July 2008 signed with ADHC an interagency agreement to improve access to
service for people with ABI; so NSW may have this but Victoria or the other states may have
different programs and settings (NSW government, 2011).


There are many organisations and establishments such as nursing homes and community
supported share homes that are willing and able to care for diagnosed ABI people; with the
help of other organisations to keep up training and support. For example ABI services in
NSW assess their clients and then provide care from anywhere between 4 to 24 hours a day
to assist them (ABI services pty ltd, n.d).




                                                                                   10 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Support group

There are numerous websites and books that have been created to offer support by putting
you in touch with others who are experiencing or have experienced similar things that you
are going through and will be happy to answer your questions. However it is important to
realise that there are more than just websites and books, you can visit counsellors, other
family members, doctors and neurologists. Below is a number of websites that can help you
find support in your state:

           Support group                   State                Brief description
   1. http://www.abiservices.com. Vic                   1. Offers a number of websites that
       au/support-groups-.html                              will put you in reach with
   2. http://www.brainlink.org.au                           support groups around the state
       /abi-support-info.htm                            2. Offers a friendly approach of
                                                            giving information and has a
                                                            telephone number and email
                                                            that you can access.
   1. http://www.abis.org.au/abo         NSW            1. Offers a wide range of support
       ut/Services/                                         and services within NSW
   2. http://www.biansw.org.au/                         2. Promotes ABI awareness as well
                                                            offers support for families.
   1. http://www.health.qld.gov.a        QLD            1. Aims to find research and spread
       u/abios/asp/support_familie                          awareness while also offering
       s.asp                                                support fact sheets.
   2. http://www.health.qld.gov.a                       2. Offers a wide range of programs
       u/abios/default.asp                                  associated with community
                                                            support
   1. http://www.nican.com.au/se TAS                    1. Provides a range of programs to
       rvice/tasmanian-acquired-                            educate people on ABI will
       brain-injury-service-inc-tas                         building support networks.


                                                                                    11 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

   2. http://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au                2. Aims to promote ABI awareness
       /service_information/service                while help those who know
       s_files/brain_injury_associati              someone or diagnosed with ABI
       on_of_tasmania_inc.
   1. http://sa.gov.au/subject/Co        S.A    1. Gives a wealth of knowledge
       mmunity+Support/Disability/                 about ABI and gives a list of who
       Disability+types/Acquired+br                can support you
       ain+injury                               2. Has great information on what
   2. http://www.cyh.com/Health                    to expect and has links to put
       Topics/HealthTopicDetails.as                you in touch with SA support
       px?p=114&np=306&id=1880                     agencies.
   1. http://www.bcl.com.au/dar          N.T    1. Offers a wide range of support
       win/help/disability.htm                     groups that could help with a
                                                   person diagnosed with ABI.
   1. http://www.nican.com.au/se W.A            1. Provides information on a
       rvice/headwest-brain-injury-                supportive group called head
       association-wa-inc                          west who work with families to
                                                   address issues and problems.




                                                                         12 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

References:

ABI Service Guide Initiative. (n.d.). ABI Services Guide. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.abiservices.com.au/support-groups-.html




ABI services pty ltd. (n.d.). ABI services- our services. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.abis.org.au/about/Services/




BCL. (n.d.). Disability services Darwin and Northern Territory. Retrieved September 30, 2011
from: http://www.bcl.com.au/darwin/help/disability.htm




Brian Injury Association of NSW. (n.d.). Introduction. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.biansw.org.au/




Brain Injury Australia. (n.d.). About Acquired Brain Injury. Retrieved September 25, 2011
from:
http://www.bia.net.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=19




BrainLink services limited. (2008). Children and young people with ABI. Retrieved September
25, 2011 from: http://www.brainlink.org.au/children-young-people_with-abi.htm




BrainLink services limited. (2011). ABI support info. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.brainlink.org.au/abi-support-info.htm



                                                                                   13 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Commonwealth of Australia. (2009). Effective workplace communication with employees
with acquired brain injury. Retrieved September 25, 2011 from:
http://www.facs.gov.au/sa/disability/pubs/documents/consumertrainingsupportproducts/e
mployers/acquired_brain_injury/sec3.htm




Department of Health and Human resources Tasmania. (n.d.) Brain Injury association of
Tasmania. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/service_information/services_files/brain_injury_association_of
_tasmania_inc.




Freudenrich, G., Boyd, R. (n.d.). How Your Brain Works. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from:
http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/brain-intro.gif




Government of South Australia. (n.d.). Acquired Brain Injury. Retrieved September 30, 2011
from:
http://sa.gov.au/subject/Community+Support/Disability/Disability+types/Acquired+brain+in
jury




Government of South Australia. (2010). Acquired Brain injury. Retrieved September 30,
2011 from:
http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetails.aspx?p=114&np=306&id=1880




Kat, L. (2009). A patients journal Acquired Brain Injury. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.bmj.com/content/340/bmj.c808.full



                                                                                 14 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

Nican. (n.d.). Headwest- Brain injury association of WA.Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.nican.com.au/service/headwest-brain-injury-association-wa-inc




NICAN. (N.D.).TASMANIAN ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY SERVICE INC. (TAS). Retrieved September 30, 2011
from: http://www.nican.com.au/service/tasmanian-acquired-brain-injury-service-inc-tas




NSW government. (2011). Acquired Brain Injury. Retrieved September 28, 2011 from:
http://www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/individuals/support/everyday_living_support/acquired_brain
_injury




NSW government. (n.d.). People with ABI. Retrieved September 29, 2011 from:
http://www.abistafftraining.info/Content/1_Intro_l.html




Opening all options. (n.d.). Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). Retrieved September 25, 2011 from:
http://www.adcet.edu.au/oao/view.aspx?id=4354




Queensland Government. (2010). Support for families. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from:
http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/support_families.asp




Queensland Government. (2011). The acquired brain injury outreach service. Retrieved
September 30, 2011 from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/default.asp




                                                                                   15 | P a g e
EDAC225: Family studies and Disability
Student: Jason Kinnane S00077739
Information pack
Tutor: Carolyn Harkness
             th
Due date: 30 of October
www.wix.com/jasekinnane/acquired-brain-injury

State Government of Victoria. (2011). Acquired Brain Damage. Retrieved September 26,
2011 from:
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/acquired_brain_injury?op
en




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