Why Germany And Allies Lose World War

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					Why Germany And Allies Lose World War I


When recalling World War I, many historians believe that Germany became
the underdog of the war. How did they come to this conclusion? According
to one historian, Fritz Fischer, Germany was responsible for World War I.
His theory states that the Mitel Europa is the cause for Germany's loss.
Mitel Europa is the objective of Germany in which they were to expand
their land from the Ukraine on the West, until France on the East. This
idea of Mitel Europa was further demolished in the treaty of Versailles,
when Germany lost much of their domination. In the treaty of Versailles,
Germany lost to their overseas colonies, their army was restricted to
100,000 men, only 6 battleships allowed in their navy, no U-boats or air
force allowed, no General Staff, and Germany and her allies became
publicly responsible for the war. Also, according to the War Guilt Clause
(which was article 231 in the Treaty of Versailles) of 1918, Germany and
her allies were to pay reparations for the war. Overall, Germany was
responsible for the war, and they had more at risk than the other
countries that were involved in World War I. Germany lost the Great War
due to corruption in nationalism, militarism, and internal problems on
the homefront.
In the years 1914 to 1915, German militarism collapsed. By 1914,
mobilization proved to be an immense problem for Germany with the failure
of the Schlieffen Plan. For example, during the Battles of Morhauge and
Frontiers on the Western Front, the Schlieffen Plan failed due to the
trepidation of the commander of the German Army, who was Commander
Moltke. Next, in May 1915, another crisis occurred, propelling the German
loss even further away from a victory. The voyage of the Lusitania was
advertised to Americans as an unsafe passage to Britain. This
advertisement was created by the Germans as a warning to all American
passengers, but the Americans refused to believe it. Because of the
ignorance of many Americans, the journey continued. Sadly, it took just
one torpedo to sink this "?unsinkable ship.' Consequently, Woodrow Wilson
was furious, declaring this as "?an attack against war ethics' due to the
fact that a civilian ship was carrying ammunition. In retaliation, Wilson
then publicly threatened to break diplomatic ties with Germany. With the
sinking of the Lusitania, it was impossible for the United States to
enter the war on the side of the Germans because American lives were
lost, and because there were American lives in jeopardy. Finally, in
December of the same year, Great Britain, Russia, and France met at
Chantilly to coordinate offensives, which left Germany's only ally as
Austria-Hungary.
Between 1916 and 1917, nationalism was affected by the loss of battles.
In 1916, the Great War could be described in two words: bloodshed and
stalemate.
T he Battle of Jutlan was the largest sea battle of the entire war. It
occurred in 1916 and it was seized Germany's only opportunity to destroy
Great Britain's navy. Two new German commanders, Scherer and Hipper,
planned to lure Great Britain into a small area of water where they would
be counterattacked. Unfortunately, the counterattack was doomed from the
beginning because the plans were discovered when a German corpse,
containing the codes of the German army, washed up on the Russian shore.
Because of this disaster, the German navy retreated, not returning again
until 1918. This failure lowered German nationalism. Furthermore, in the
same year, the Battle of Verdun proved to be another unsuccessful attempt
by the Germans to break the stalemate with close to 430,000 Germans dead.
At Verdun, the French turned the Germans away and effectively ended the
German offensive. This had a two-fold effect in that French nationalism
rose and German morale plummeted. In 1917, at the third Battle of Ypres,
better known as Passchendaele, was the last great victory of the German
army. During the battle, there was a massive explosion and twenty
thousand Germans were killed instantly, with the use of one million
pounds of explosives! However, on the battlefield, the Germans were
successful, but by this year, German nationalism proved to be at an all-
time low. Subsequently, in March of 1917, the Zimmermann note, which had
been written by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in
Mexico, was intercepted. The message was decoded by Great Britain and
handed over to the United States. The note clearly stated that if Germany
and the United States were to go to war, Germany would want an alliance
with Mexico and Mexico would gain the territories of Texas, New Mexico,
and Arizona. This attempt by the Germans to distract the United States
just made the United States a stronger enemy against Germany.
By 1918, Germany's loss was inevitable due to internal problems on the
homefront. There were stockpiles of raw materials and the War Raw
Materials Corporation, headed by Walther Rathenau, tried to solve the
problem of lack of materials. Next, the Prussian Law of Siege was passed,
in which military commanders had the power to exempt men from the draft.
The problem was that no able man was exempt from serving the military,
which left a gap in the homefront due to lack of skilled workers at home.
Another dilemma was with The Auxiliary Law, which subjected all other
weaker individuals to work in the factories. However, this law did not
constrict rights and many often left and rallied massive strikes. Later,
the winter of 1918 was known as the Cabbage and Turnip Winter because of
the strict rations placed on the men. The Germans were only rationed to
six ounces of bread in one day, one egg every two weeks, and milk was
virtually nonexistent. Seven hundred and sixty thousand German civilians
would die due to starvation.
On August 8, also known as Black Day, Germans began surrendering by the
thousands. On September 29, Bulgaria asks for an armistice, and Turkey
immediately follows in October. The undeniable end of the German force
occurred on November 4, 1918, when the Italian army wins at Vittori
Veneto. Then, Austria-Hungary surrenders leaving Germany to fight the
world alone. By November 7, the Germans were forced to negotiate with
Foch, who was the leader of the Allied Army, which subsequently led to
the Keil mutiny, in which the German offensive collapsed. The
confirmation of an Allied victory was the appearance of a red flag on the
homefront, and the resignation of the Kaiser.
Afterwards, Germany was left in the hands of the Social Democratic Party
leaders, F. Ebert and P. Scheidemann, who elected M. Erzberger, head of
the Central Party, to agree on the armistice with Foch. Foch was
determined to humiliate the Germans for forcing countries to enter the
war, and forced Erzberger to agree to the following terms: 1. Germany had
to hand over 150,000 machine guns and 1,000 artillery pieces to the
Allies. 2. Germans must disband their navy. 3. Germans had to free all
Allied Prisoners of War. Lastly, Germany had to surrender all bridges
along the Rhine, leaving Germany utterly defenseless. On the eleventh
month of the eleventh day of the eleventh hour, the armistice when into
effect, leaving a silence throughout Europe, and a hush fell over the
German army. The Germans ultimately, brought the war upon themselves and
are responsible for the beginning and results of World War I.

				
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