The Cold War In Detail The Cold War took place between 1944 and 1991 and was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, as well as economic competition that remained after World War II had ended. This conflict took place primarily between the Soviet Union and the Western world. Although warfare as such never ensued between the main participants, conflict was expressed through military partnerships, strategic traditional force deployments, aid and protection to third party states seen as vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, a nuclear arms race, and the Space Race (Bevo74, 2010) Proxy wars are wars waged by opposing powers using third party troops as substitutes for fighting to minimize their own troop losses and thus remain the dominant force in the war. War could be defined as a conflict of interest between two or more nations around the world followed by a threat of battle breaking out between the troops of said nations. Thus war doesn't necessarily imply actual fighting between two opposing forces, but rather the threat of an immanent assault on either one or both of these forces. With Germany defeated (Andromeda Oxford Ltd., 1993: 763) after the Second World War, the leaders of the 3 big nations involved came together at the Yalta Conference in 1945 to come to terms about the peace that were to follow. Stalin announced that he would wage war against Japan three months after Germany's initial surrender and that exiled Poles would be allowed to become a part of the government he had set up in Poland (Black, 1999: 52), while the Allies occupy certain areas within Germany to remain in control of the country. A Declaration on Liberated Europe was made in which was pledged that democratic elections would be made in countries that have been freed from German control. This however never came to pass. The Soviet alliance forced most German troops out of Eastern Europe and established a pro-Communist government in Poland. Stalin built the Iron Curtain during 1945-1946, cutting Europe in half with a barrier that ran a thousand miles between the Baltic and Adriatic oceans. Five months later another conference was held in Potsdam, Roosevelt had died and President S. Truman had taken up office. Stalin was furious that Truman hadn t informed him of the development of the atomic bomb (Black, 1999: 52), and thus the "Grand Alliance" that had dominated the battlefield and claimed total victory in World War 2, fell apart as Europe became politically and ideologically divided (World Book Inc., 2003: 8). The Cold War had begun. During the Cold War various revolutions took place. One of the most renowned being the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (Byrne, 2002), where the revolution was crushed after imminent triumph seemed at hand. Soviet troops were being pushed back with daily household appliances before gaining victory over the uprising against the regime, which started twelve days prior to this massive defeat. According to Byrne (2002) The defeat of the Hungarian revolution was one of the darkest moments of the Cold War. A triumph from this revolution could have tipped the scales on the war causing it to end sooner than it did. As with all wars, the Cold War was a clash of ideologies between two opposing sides, Capitalism of the West in direct contrast to the Communist ideology of the East (Thinkquest.org, 2010). Both saw each other as suspicious and believed that their own ideology was superior to the others. Thus both parties aimed for world domination which would lead to all countries following the same system. In November 1958 an attempt to remove United States, Great Britain and French troops from Berlin was made and the fore mentioned parties received six-month ultimatums by Khrushchev. His attempts to free Berlin were unsuccessful and his ultimatum was formerly rejected by NATO and he was forced to withdraw it at the Geneva Convention (Bevo74, 2010). The last major incident of the Cold War took place in Berlin during 1961. Hundreds of thousands of Germans emigrated from East Germany to West Germany through loopholes. In June of 1961 a new ultimatum was issued that demanded the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin, governed by the four powers of World War 2. In the following years the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) continually power and by 1989 the Soviet system was on the brink of collapse. A final coup d' tat by the USSR failed and left them fatally weakened. The USSR was officially dissolved on 25 December 1991 (Bevo74, 2010). As with all wars, the Cold War also had its share of propaganda. According to the World English Dictionary propaganda can be defined as the organized dissemination of information, allegations, etc, to assist or damage the cause of a government, movement, etc (2010). Thus propaganda is always one sided, regardless of the position it is viewed from. Propaganda has a variety of sub categories and could be seen as a collective term for different approaches to illustrate an idea or message, often being rumours or allegations, but also a call to arms in certain situations. This essay will now discuss the six different techniques used in propaganda to spark interest within the viewer. The six techniques include: rhetoric questions, patriotism, stereotyping, hate speech, heroism and demonisation. Rhetoric questions are used by designers to get the reader to think for themselves rather than just spoon feeding them ideas. Although they are questions, no answers are expected from the viewer. The following image is an example of rhetoric propaganda: The image consists of people being assaulted and/or murdered with the US flag burning in the background. The burning flag indicates the fall of the US government and with it all hopes of peace. The loss of peace is illustrated by the civilians being attacked by soldiers, trained fighters and cold blooded murderers. The label at the bottom tells the viewer what America under communism would look like, giving the viewer an idea and then asking a harmless question that starts the thought process, making the viewer believe that this is exactly what communism is about. Patriotism focuses on calling a citizen to arms and or to subtly force them into siding with their country even if they might not agree with the current system. It calls on a person s sense of loyalty to their country and fellow citizens and it is thus a powerful technique to use. The above images are examples of patriotism. Figure 2 is a poster of the all renowned Uncle Sam calling US citizens to arms. It is thus recruiting soldiers for the US armies by using a known figure head as the subject calling the people to arms. People are familiar with this symbol and are thus more easily persuaded to put their lives on the line for something they connect with. Figure 3 on the other hand plays on the loyalty of the Soviet citizens, telling them to reject capitalism and to rather remain sided with the communist system. It depicts Uncle Sam as an angry old man trying to force Capitalism on a Russian citizen, who blatantly refuses to accept it. Stereotyping can be defined as a simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in common by members of a group (2010). While stereotyping can be advantageous for gaining the loyalty of the viewer towards your cause, either out of fear or anger towards the opposing force s troops and/or system, it remains a double edged sword. The viewer can be offended by the stereotype portrayed, be it racial or something else, and might even become a supporter of the opposing force s ideology. Stereotypes transcend wars, making them even more lethal to unborn generations that didn t have anything to do with the conflict in the first place. This gives rise to racism and a divide between ethnic groups and could lead to even more conflict in the long run. Figure 4 shows the Allied alliance represented by three greedy women busy milking the Middle East for oil as well as blood. The Soviets successfully portray the Allied Alliance as greedy and cold hearted, thus stereotyping all Americans and their allies as greedy and cold hearted. This inspires local citizens to defend themselves against these greedy monsters which wished to invade their homes to milk their belongings. Figure 5 on the other hand is a stereotypical image from the other side of the fence. The US portrays the soviets as stone cold rapists in the cover of this novel. Even though it might be true of a select few, all soviet men were seen as rapists and feared as such. Men from the Allied alliance countries took up arms to protect their women and their children against these rapists in fear of being overrun by these immoral savages. This image burns deep into the mind, scarring it and leaving a big empty space for distrust of soviets within the minds of the US citizens. This stereotype could easily be carried over from generation to generation resulting in conflict born from lies and deception. Hate speech is a direct assault against any person/ faction it is aimed at. This mostly consists of name calling and can be used to make the enemy seem weak and completely crazy in the eyes of the viewer. It deals the first blow in the mind of the viewer bringing forth the feeling of being superior compared to the enemy. It can be used to invoke anger and frustration at what s happening on the battlefield and in doing so could convince many a young male citizen to act rashly and join the armies to defeat the hated enemy. Figure 6 depicts a U.S. soldier flying over a dropped missile and raging fire with wings as though he was the bomber plane that delivered this capsule of death. The text at the top states that this is the Carrion- Crow's Wings, in other words, the bringer or messenger of death. Thus U.S. soldiers are compared to disease ridden birds that have no soul and live to cause despair where ever they go. The David s Star on the helmet indicates that this image is specifically aimed at two different forces that are very much the same to the soviet alliance. The U.S. and Israel are both being compared to the birds carrion-crows. This image doesn t contain hate speech in its truest form, but that one little statement at the top of the page denotes vast amounts of loathing from the artist. A common technique used in propaganda to win people for the cause is to give them a sense that in siding with the cause, they would become heroes, or closely related to. Heroism plays on the viewer s ego and boosts it by placing the viewer in the shoes of a national hero that served his country with honour. The Civil Defence male in figure 7 comes across has a hero because the angle of the picture makes him seem monumental. The outline serving followed by a bright red highlighted you makes the viewer seem exceptionally important and thus raises the hero status of the Civil Defence workers even more in the eyes of the viewer. Figure 8 is a communist poster monumentalizing the leader of the revolution or faction against the governing circle of dictators, indicating that their leader is more important than the great minds that run things from a save haven. Demonisation is to represent something as evil by changing their physical features to represent something that is feared and/or ugly. Figure 9 shows Uncle Sam sitting in a ring of nuclear detonators with an evil grin on his face, indicating that the U.S. takes pleasure in testing their extremely dangerous weapons which could potentially harm anyone that enter the area for decades after initial testing. Uncle Sam had been given a long pointy nose, sharp chin and triangular eyes giving him an evil frown as seen in comics and cartoons. In figure 10 a Soviet backed machete wielding aggressor tries to gain influence in the Philippines which appear as blood splatters at his feet indicating that even though this man doesn t look like a demon, he remains a cold blooded killer that would do anything to gain power and then keep it. Thus all six propaganda techniques have been discussed and accompanied with images. As for what role propaganda served in the cold war.