Churchill And His Achievements Introduction He is a man, whose name has been already engraved deeply in the history, with his passion, his tenacity, his splendid speech skill and affection on cigars, and most significantly, with his trademark V sign symbolizing victory; a man who was the prime minister and also a noble prize winner; a man being made the only the second Honorably Citizen of United States; a man ranked as the most great British celebrity. Yes, he is Winston Churchill; a person has witnessed the dramatic change of the Great Empire from a vast, global, powerful empire to a declining British Commonwealth of independent nations; a leader arousing the confidence of the whole nation to fight with the Nazi regime and won the ultimate triumph; a name earning numerous admirations. What made Churchill so outstanding? The answer lies in his belief: the unwavering belief of win, the strong desire for victory mingled with the determination of defending the honor of the nation. Time is of no account with great beliefs and they are imperishable. Anyone can dislike Churchill but can not alter his belief, because it is not exploitable. Churchill was born for victory. Overwhelmingly strong passion and admiration for Churchill govern me to write this paper, mainly for analyzing Churchill in terms of leadership. The structure of this paper is the following: The brief introduction of Churchill and his achievements, the analysis of the leadership traits of Churchill, the analysis of the leadership behavior of Churchill, and the application of Churchill’s leadership in the hospitality industry. 1.1Brief introduction of Churchill and his achievements: Early life: a lonely childhood On November 30th 1874, Churchill was born in the Blenheim Palace, his home also a brilliantly splendid place. Churchill inherited his name from his honorable ancestor John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough as well as an exceptional army general. Churchill’ father is Lord Randolph Churchill, a member in parliament, and his mother Jennie Jerome, a graceful lady and meanwhile the daughter of an American millionaire. Yet Churchill’s closest companion was not his mother, nor his father, but his nanny named Anne Everest, called “Woom” by Churchill and giving him meticulous care. Because his father, busy of dealing the politic affairs, and his mother, busy of leading a glamorous life, shared too little time with him and sent him to a boarding school. Even in the holidays, Churchill rarely stayed with his parents for they always were traveling abroad then. Most of the time, he spent his vacation with Anne, in the Blenheim Palace. The usual way for Churchill to communicate with his mother was keeping correspondence. Nevertheless, the distance alienation can not resist his admiration to his parents, especially his mother. Like he said“She shone for me like the evening star. I loved her dearly-but at a distance.” Independent and rebellious by nature, Churchill generally did poorly in school. So his father, seeing his interest in military, decided to further his career in the army. Whatever it was bound to or merely a coincidence, Churchill stepped into the warfield, beginning his glorious life. Lonely as Churchill was in childhood, it is the solitude that nurtures his tremendous forbearance. Service in army and his beginning political career In 1893, Churchill entered in the Sandhurst and at the age of 21, he formally launched on a military career as an officer in the Fourth Hussars in a cavalry regime. Meanwhile, he also charged for the role of journalist responding for writing some articles for a London newspaper. In 1899, he was dispatched to Durban, a port in the British colony of Natal, on the east coast of southern Africa. During the trip he encountered the ambush of the Boers and the train was derailed. Churchill helped the wounded, clamed down the terrified civilian train engineer and assisted him to remove some of the derailed cars from the track, demonstrating tremendous valor and leadership gift. Back home, Churchill ran in the general election of 1900, finally winning a seat by a narrow margin and following his father, becoming a politician, at the age of 26. However, it was bound to be unusual for Churchill’s politician’s career compared with his father. In 1904, he changed his flag into the Liberal Party, originally his opposition, irritating some of his old friends and the Conservative colleagues. In 1908, Churchill became one of the youngest senior cabinet ministers in British history. In 1911, Churchill was appointed first lord of the admiralty, in charge of Britain navy. In 1918, Lloyd George named Churchill secretary of state for war and air. Consecutively promoted to the critical positions, Churchill successively took substantial and incredible actions: For the sake of the compassion of the criminals, he introduced a number of reforms to the prison system, which naturally gained objections from his opponents. Lust for battle, Churchill once fully supported the Dardanelles strategy in cabinet meetings. However, the disastrous failure of this campaign made him the “public attack target”. What is more, his decisive impulse on the sign of the Anglo-Irish Treaty pulled him to the teeth of the storm. Before Churchill actual stepped into the center of the stage of the history, he manifested his incredible political talent as well as his obstinate and unruly characteristic. Yet it is his characteristic that inflicts his temporary exile from the parliament. In October, 1922, he lost his position in the new election as he noted: “In the twinkling of an eye, I found myself without an office, without a seat, without a party, and without an appendix.” Between the two World Wars: the wilderness years The Churchill’s life is similar to a rollercoaster, with thrilling ups and many downs. After his lost in the election, he retrieved back to the Conservatives and gained a position of Chancellor of the Exchequer, the post Lord Randolph had once held, by the appointment of the new Conservative prime minister, Stanley Baldwin. But before long, due to the bifurcation in a crucial problem with the parliament, Churchill was secluded from the core members of the party and in the later election failed to earn a cabinet position. From then on, he went into the “Wildness years”. Although he was peripheral to the inner circle of the decision-makers, Churchill could not put down his consideration of the fate of the Britain. At that time, Hitler and his Nazi regime were gaining influences domestically, causing Churchill’s attention. He made all his efforts to warn the government to arm itself, becoming one of a very few voices to sound the alarm. Yet most British were apathetic about the issue and some of them even abhorred him, stating that what Churchill’s doing was out of the tune of time. Despite the block, Churchill continued making endeavor to summon the public awareness of the looming danger and need for military preparations through speeches in the House. Other parliament members, however, gave a deaf ear to it. They simply thought all the people, including Hitler, did not want to experience the war again. Not until the Czechoslovakia was trampled by the Germany troop, did the Prime Minister of Britain and his people realize the severity of this problem. Nevertheless, apparently it was too late. Role as the wartime prime minister: his finest hour After this incident, Prime Minister Chamberlain named Churchill to his former post, first lord of the admiralty, and to a place in the war cabinet. However, due to the lost of the preemptive opportunity, the failure of the initial major campaign in the war for Britain was inevitable. As the frustration spread nationally, British people finally realized it was time to make a difference. On May 10th, 1940, Chamberlain resigned and Churchill became the Prime Minister due to the claim of the people. Immediately after the evacuation at Dunkirk, Churchill delivered a speech at the House of Commons. He vowed “We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight in the seas and oceans…… we shall fight in the field and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” A week later, British declared the war to Germany. Although British especially London was afflicted by the excessive bomb of German air force, Churchill turned the tide via his exceedingly incredible analysis ability of the messages and of course, the bolded British pilots. The British Emperor Air Force stroke the German air force in the most critical point of the battle, becoming the turning point of the British Battle. After then, on account of the judgment that the President D. Roosevelt won’t sit out the war, Churchill vigorously persuaded him to involve in the war, keeping informing him of the developments. Besides, Churchill’s stunt, his passionate speech, made a vital role in building relationship with Roosevelt. U.S war correspondent Edward R. Murrow observed that one of Churchill’s greatest achievements was that he “mobilized the English language and sent it into the battle.”(Celia & Jonathan, 2003) Eventually, the two leaders signed the Atlantic Charter, committing both countries to democratic ideals and issuing a warning to Japan to halt expansion. Exceedingly exceptional oratory skill also helped Churchill to find another alley---Russia. His renowned speech on Hitler's invasion of the U.S.S.R., via the radio, gave hope to enormous Russian citizens, aggravated Hitler and moved Stalin. Soon after the Tehran meeting, the Allied swept the Germans potently. On May 1st 1945, Hitler committed suicide, knowing his cause was defeated. A week later, the German surrendered. That afternoon, Churchill addressed a huge crowd of cheering Londoners: “This is your victory…Everyone, man or woman, has done their best.” The postwar years Holding a winging heart and assured faith for victory, Churchill called the general election after war. But this time reality strongly hit him and his speculation of the election turned out to be false. He lost the election, grieving last long. He left and murmured: “Ingratitude towards great man is the mark of a strong people.” After then, Churchill remained the leader of the Conservative Party. In 1946, he initially projected the warn of “an iron curtain”, suggesting that democracies including the United States, Britain, and members of the British Commonwealth should cooperate and stand together so that no one would attack them. In the1950 general election, the Labor government barely held onto power and finally lost the advantage in the following year. In 1951, the Conservatives returned to power and Churchill, a month before his seventy-seven birthday, regained the prime minister. However, being an old age and appearing to be ageing rapidly, Churchill resigned in 1954, bearing the pressure from the members of the parliament and his wife. As a matter of fact, Churchill did not find happiness in his final years for the sake of the recurrence of the depression that had plagued him throughout his life. In January 24th, 1965, the seventieth anniversary of his father’s death, Churchill died, with his wife, children, and grandchildren nearby. While his coffin lay in Westminster Hall, two hundred thousand people filed by. Finally, a special train took the coffin to Churchill’s resting place in Bladon churchyard, near Blenheim, next to his father, his mother, and his brother. Leadership traits of Churchill Decisiveness May be granted by the loneness of the childhood, Churchill is extremely independent, which brings up his amazing decisiveness in his decision making. Especially when he went through the water and fire, underwent the difficulties and misunderstanding and saw the dramatic change of the world, experience made the decisiveness part of his blood and in some sense; he always made the decision spontaneously and extemporaneously. A good case to illustrate this point is Churchill’s abandonment of the Coventry city in the Second World War. On November 14th, 1941, Churchill secretly received an emergency message from the British decipher experts. According to this message, the German air force was going to bomb the Coventry city, the biggest armament manufacturing center of Britain located in the middle England, tonight, naming this action “the sonata of moonlight”. Instinct told Churchill this message was authentic. However, in order to get the initiative strategically, Churchill decided to sacrifice the Coventry city to save the whole Britain especially London, painfully but on purposely concealing the message. Disaster fell down on the Coventry city, yet in a long run, Churchill effectively held the initiative and it turned out to be the turning point of the British Battle. Great impromptu decision-making needs flexibility, judgment, courage and most importantly, the willingness to take the risks, and it made great leaders. Churchill indisputably belongs to this kind of leaders, for he dared to pay the price of the decisions he made, and anticipated that the price will be paid off. Action For the great leaders, merely making decisions is inadequate. Productivity will not come into being unless the decisions are transformed into actions. Churchill, in some sense, has the instinct and extraordinary ability to put orders into action, in a seemingly impelling way. A typical example for demonstrating this point is Churchill’s setting of the “War Room” and request of a “small book”. When Churchill became the Prime Minister, instead of summoning the Parliament to hold meetings, he transformed the period library in Admiralty House into a War Room, specifically charging the war affairs. This room was manned by him nearly 24 hours a day and full of curtained authorized maps. The staff was required not only constantly updating the positions of the vessels on the map, but reports were continually generated on attacks. He slept on the floor directly above the War Room and was known to start his day with a visit a little after seven in his colorful dressing gown. When a crisis struck, Churchill and his staff could get a visual snapshot and promptly take action. Using one sentence to summarize, it is “Churchill’s method was about creating an environment that emphasizes actions and results.”(Celia & Jonathan, 2003) Beside the setting of the War Room, within one month of becoming First Lord, Churchill require the creation of a Statistical Branch, the purpose of which was grouping all Admiralty statistics and presenting them in a increasingly simplified and graphic form. Namely, this form was called a “small book” by Churchill, and via the book, Churchill can systematically gather information and tackle with them effectively. Just exactly like Celia said “Great leaders area hungry for strategic information about their organizations or businesses. They aren’t satisfied with the way things were done before.”(Celia, 2003) Both the War Room and the “small book” gave Churchill a nearly real-time view of operations and weekly-updating important statistics. Based on them, Churchill can take actions precisely, instantly and efficiently. Long vision There is a kind of great leaders always seeing the panorama of the things; seemingly their eyesight reaches beyond the sky and beneath the earth. Churchill, harboring a long vision, is a representative of them. Actually his decisiveness and actions all serve his long vision. And similarly, this ability of him derives from his talent as the above mentioned twos. His long vision firstly and obviously embodies in his eager implement of the new military armament. Early in the broke out of World War ?, Churchill had been an enthusiastic supporter of the development of tanks which were considered as “ugly strange iron box” by other parliament members. However, the tide turned against Germans in the later campaign was mainly attributed to the new tanks. Tanks are armored vehicles and nearly versatile in all kinds of terrain. Particularly in World War ?, tanks have become the backbone of the military power of Britain, testifying the Churchill’s foresight. Beside tanks, in World War ?,when he found in British navy not a single ship was equipped with radar, he immediately minuted the appropriate admiral that the technology should be installed in all naval ships, adding, “those engaged in U-boat fighting is of high priority.” Actually Churchill’s vision in military is prelude of his ability. Politically, his long vision is even more stunting. In 1930’s, when nearly all the politicians and parliament leaders underestimated the impact of Nazi and compromised the sin made by the Hitler, Churchill, on the contrary, predicted the Hitler’s ambition of conquest the European and did whatever he can to tear up Hitler’s seemingly “peace and kind” face. Delivering speech in the parliament, writing articles, addressing speech in public and radio, Churchill used all his ways to point out the malevolent purpose of Hitler’s regime, calmly and objectively foretelling the possibility of the breakout of the war. His warning, being indifferent by most people, became reality in 1938. What was not worse, Churchill has done a lot; at least, he became war time Prime Minister. In some sense, his vision saved him as well as the whole nation. Perseverance. No one can imagine how supreme challenge Churchill faced when he made decisions, take actions or exert his vision on the followers. One thing back up him honestly, supporting him to pass the dark valley of his life and vanquish numerous difficulties. That is fortitude, also his token. Like his own words “Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never---in nothing, great or small, large or petty---never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.” Churchill’s perseverance initially lies on his unwavering request and expression of the victory. As a matter of fact, when Churchill newly took over the parliament, the situation of British was desperate: Of the hundreds of thousands of British and French troops trapped at Dunkirk, he himself believed that fewer than 30,000 might have a chance to escape. However hard and brutal the fact was, Churchill confronted with it and repeated one sentence “You ask what is our aim, I can answer in one word: victory, victory at all cost, victory in spite of all terror, victory.” That faith brought up the miraculous Dunkirk evacuation. Strong perseverance not only exists in the insistence, sometimes, also shines in the change and abandonment. Churchill, using his own words, belonged to the most stubborn anti-communist and will last long forever. Yet when he was informed of Hitler’s invasion of the Russia, he immediately told his Private Secretary, John Colville, to advise the BBC he would broadcast at nine that night. In this world-famous speech on Hitler's invasion of the U.S.S.R., Churchill appealed the British people as well as the Americans to giving a hand for the Russian people, despite of the difference in the political standpoint and forget about the animosity. “No one has been a more consistent opponent of Communism than I have for the last twenty - five years. I will unsay no word that I have spoken about it. But all this fades away before the spectacle which is now unfolding. The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies, flashes away.” These powerful and sincere sentences with overwhelmingly strong emotions moved Russian people into tears, witnessing Churchill’s stunting perseverance of change if needed. Oratory Of all the talents bestowed upon Churchill, there is one shining brightest, like the gift of divine: his incredibly mastering in speech. How many times Churchill used his soaring speech, so passionate, heartshaking, and eloquent, as a “weapon” to fight with the enemy and protect the honor of the nation. On his Prime Minister inaugural speech, Churchill humbly but firmly addressed that “I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this government: 'I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.'”, sufficiently demonstrating his serenity and determination. Confronting with the Nazis’ invasion of Russia, Churchill boldly shouted out “if Hitler imagines that his attack on Soviet Russia will cause the slightest divergence of aims or slackening of effort in the great democracies who are resolved upon his doom, he is woefully mistaken. On the contrary, we shall be fortified and encouraged in our efforts to rescue mankind from his tyranny. We shall be strengthened and not weakened in determination and in resources.” In Cambridge, he finished his last speech in one sentence: “Never give up.”, perfectly annotating his faith of life. His speeches were full of power, wisdom, linguistic beauty and articulation, inspiring and patenting. Actually his oratory art derived from his reflection and diligent study. Eventually his speeches perpetually engraved into the history, becoming the wealth of human beings. Churchill’s speeches impenetrate his whole life, motivating his partners and followers, and leading the British people to the victory. Churchill’s leadership behaviors Directive leadership behavior: Undoubtedly, Churchill belongs to the typical directive leaders, in some sense, even going far beyond that. Somewhat, Churchill is an egotistic person and always behaves indifferent with other’s opinion, actually he never learned to listen to other people’s opinions. He appreciated the quick and direct responses from the followers, valuing the efficiency most. No matter taking a hard line to appease the strike chaos of the miners when he was the leader of Liberal Party, sparing no efforts to advance the social reform when he was the president of the board of trade, or fighting hard for the Dardanelles strategy in cabinet meetings when he was the first lord of the admiralty, Churchill knew accurately what the tasks were and assigned responsibility to the followers. Upon he reached the Prime Minister, his directive style as well approached the summit. Being exceptionally vigorous in making strategies and issuing orders, Churchill made his target very explicit: Victory. Setting up the War Room, decoding the enemy’s message, forcing pilots of the British air force compulsively to take off three times a day for the sake of the inferior strength in quantity and standing his ground to support the Russia, Churchill drastically executed his plan focusing on his goal and set specific expectations of the followers. In the execution process, he gave priority to effectiveness and direct communications. Once a course of action was agreed upon, Churchill saw no reason to delay. “He finished everything before he went to bed,” recalled Colonel Ian Jacob. (Celia, 2003) It was his directive behaviors that made him the quintessential man of action, and successful in the World War ?. Charismatic leadership behavior: Strictly speaking, Churchill did not completely fit the traditional definition of a Charismatic leader. However, some of his essence and abilities still made him a Charismatic leader. Inside his frosty appearance, it was a sensitive and amorous heart. Churchill was stubborn in nature, but it did not mean he was apathetic of others’ feelings or behaved indifferent: London was suffered from consecutive 57 days bomb from the German air force during the British Battle. Almost weekly, Churchill himself went to the streets for inspection, seeing the citizens’ living conditions. When he saw a number of British flags sticking into the ruins, he could not help weeping, which moved even some senior men into tears; he was exceedingly dynamic and full of self- confidence: From 1938 to 1943, Busying running about the war affairs, he had traveled 111,000 miles by sea and air. No matter how difficulty the situation was, his beaming smile and bulldog glare, his defiance and, of course, his never giving up attitude with physical and mental energy all symbolized his self-confidence, motivating his people to advance for victory; he is a genius of making speeches: His passionate and inspirational speeches not only inspired the British people, but millions of Russians and Americans to fight with Nazis. So many pieces of his speeches, going along with his famous “V” sign, integrated into his own image and left in people’s memory permanently; he demonstrated long vision: the precise prediction of Hitler’s peril, the strife of the big powers after the war and the expansion of the “iron curtain”. Despite his bad and sometime uncontrollable temper, Churchill has the “magic”, no matter in what way, to summon the emotion of the followers and encourage their mettle, revealing irresistible charisma. 4.0 Churchill’s leadership in hospitality industry: Theoretically Churchill’s leadership style and behavior can perfectly apply to the hospitality industry for he emphasized on the efficiency and task-oriented. Therefore, the hotel GMs can benefit a lot from learning from Churchill. If Churchill worked in the leading position in a hotel, the first thing he will do is conducting a reform thoroughly, mainly on the implement of the new technology. Just like he was eager on the propaganda of the implement of the new seaplane and tanks in World War ?, radars in the World War ?,Churchill will advocate the usage of the latest PMS and POS system in hotel, whatever cost will pay. For Churchill can foresee the function of these new systems in the future, being bold to take the risks and cost. Churchill’s splendid oratory skills also make a difference in the hotel. As long as he was able to inspire the whole nation to go for the victory, motivating the hotel staff is a piece of cake for him. It is a common sense that working in hotel always means heavy schedule, high pressure and numerous difficulties especially for the line department members. Undisputedly, this scenario can easily wear down the workers’ passion and gradually inflict them physically and mentally. Consequently, Churchill’s inspirational speeches will play a pun role both as a motivation and a remedy, encouraging the staff as well as alleviating their dismay and pain. What is more, Churchill’s eloquence also works in the dealing with the relationship with public, no matter the investors or the community. Based on his outstanding communication skills, it is superbly easy for him to persuade the investors to give financial support for the hotel like he presented five budgets with five long and entertaining speeches to the parliament. Of course, if the hotel participates a local community charity event, undoubtedly Churchill’s speech is bound to be the climax. Also, for the sake of the labor-intensive trait of the hospitality industry, Churchill’s directive leading style can be very effective. Particularly for the big hotel chains, the big number of staff and the complicated hierarchy require the simple and directive leading model: the GM of the big brand is expected to concentrate on the main goal and the important issues, regardless of the trifles. When it comes to the emergency of the hotel, such as merge, acquisition or big accident, the value of Churchill’s resolute leading approach even become inestimable. However, there is a limitation of Churchill’s leading style applying in hospitality industry: his elusory adamancy. As I mentioned above, lifelong, Churchill failed to learn how to genuinely listen to others. This is certainly a substantial limitation in the operation of a hotel, because different with the political affairs, the development of a hotel in some degree is the development of its staff. Only by listening to other’s idea and opinions, can a hotel GM make comprehensive and constructive decision for the hotel as well as the staff. And it also relates to the individual development of the staff. As a consequence, the lack of the listening skills will prevent him from making considerate decision about the followers if Churchill takes charge of a hotel. 5.0 Conclusion: All in all, Churchill’s life is splendid, as a man, a father, a leader, and a celebrity. From his up and down, full of hardship but gritty and successful life, Churchill’s unique charm of personality, idiosyncrasy and iron will manifest thoroughly, annotating the definition of a great leader. With or without Churchill, the fate of the Britain would be different: he accelerated the pace of the World War ?, protecting even carrying forward the honor of the nation. In some sense, he affected the history of the world. Margaret Thatcher once commented Churchill: “He was, in that overused but inevitable phrase, ‘larger than life.’ A leader. A man among man.” The stunting beautiful Blenheim Palace was still there, but its host Churchill has gone, only leaving a statue. His soul, spirit and magnificent accomplishments left there as the statue, forever. Nowadays, when the numerous admirers of Churchill go to the palace, they can still strongly feel his power, hear his vigorous and firm voice and touch his tenacity. As if he was still alive and driving people to achieve one after another victory.