The Cuban Missile Crisis by mohannadsoudene


									The Cuban Missile Crisis

 On Monday, October 7, Cuban President Osvaldo Dortic? spoke at the U.N.
General Assembly: "If ... we are attacked, we will defend ourselves. I
repeat, we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have
indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons, which we would have preferred
not to acquire, and which we do not wish to employ."
In the fall of 1962 our world came the closest that there has ever been
to nuclear destruction. Two of the worlds greatest super powers the
United States and the Soviet Union, whom had previously jointed in
coalition against the axis factions in the world wars had inevitably led
themselves into a state of political conflict, referred to as ?he Cold
War. This conflict derived from disagreement over the configuration of
the post-war world, and the stationing of armament in European
Territories. Soviet Union's Premiere, Nikita Khrushchev, feared the worst
as he observed Turkey to the west of the black sea. The Soviets had
become aware of the Jupiter intermediate-ranged ballistic missiles that
the United States had installed within Turkey earlier in the year.
The Soviet Union unlike ocean protected United States had become to feel
threatened by an overwhelming amount of nuclear warheads bordering their
territories, and began to plot a defensive retaliation. It was decided by
Premiere Khrushchev to begin construction of a larger offensive ballistic
missile program, one that would achieve the ability to launch a
successful nuclear strike on America if it became necessary. Yet due to
economic, and limited technological resources this was not currently
possible, because of this they sought the aid of the only communist
territory near the the United States, Cuba.
Cuba, who had recently been taken over by Fidel Castro, had as well began
growing tensions with the United States. Some notable examples of these
tensions would be Castro's confiscation of private property in the
Caribbean, alliance with the Soviet Union, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion,
? failed attempt to overthrow Castro by CIA trained former Cuban
militants, whom had been recently exiled. A negotiation would seem to
work in great favor of both Cuba and the USSR, this would promise the
protection for Cuba against an inevitable future invasion, and would
grant the Soviets the ability to defend themselves from America by way of
nuclear war.
The Soviets began to implement their plans in coordination with Cuba in
utmost secrecy. Hoping to correct what he saw as a strategic imbalance
with the United States, Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev began
secretly deploying medium range ballistic missiles (MRBM) and
intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM) to Fidel Castro's Cuba. Once
operational, these nuclear-armed weapons could have been used cities and
military targets in most of the continental United States.
The soviets disguised their intentions by using cargo ships to transport
jets, missiles, and troops to Cuba. But as the ships exited the deep
Atlantic, and began nearing Caribbean waters, they noticed that they were
being observed by low flying American surveillance aircraft's. Several
pictures are taken of these ships by U.S. Jets. The photographs taken of
these ships were then immediately rushed to Washington D.C. For analysts
to dissect. The results from the film confirmed that the soviets were
supplying Cuba with trucks, aircraft and men.
Soon following these photographs on October 15, 1962 a U-2 reconnaissance
aircraft piloted by Richard Heyser, revealed several SS-4 nuclear
missiles in Cuba. Further confirmations were made to support the
photographs when the analysts compared measurements of the cylindrical
objects to the size of the current Soviet ballistic missiles, and a
positive identification was made, several Soviet SS-4 Ballistic Missile
was in fact in Cuba. Shortly after learning about the weapons of mass
destruction, President Kennedy organized the Executive committee or ?x-
Comm,a group of twelve most important advisers to help manage the crisis.
President Kennedy's first solution was to destroy the missile sites
before they were built, and begin to ready U.S. Forces for a full scale
invasion of Cuba. Yet the United States was not currently aware of the
short ranged nuclear weapons, and nuclear submarines patrolling Cuba,
capable of decimating any unprepared invading force. They were also did
not know that some of the missile sites were already operational. After
days of intense debate, and pressure from the military and government,
the president finally decided to order a naval quarantine around the
borders of Cuba. Despite being pressured by Senate leaders to call for
air strikes, President Kennedy addresses the people and declares his
resolve by an implementation of naval blockade only.
On October 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy declared to our nation
that the Soviet Union was installing secret missile bases in Cuba. The
president proclaimed that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be
regarded as an attack on the United States by the Soviet Union and
demanded that the Soviets remove all of their offensive weapons from
Cuba. On October 25, the president pulled the quarantine line back and
raised military readiness to DEFCON 2. The following day the executive
committee heard from Khrushchev in an emotional letter proposing the
removal of Soviet missiles, and personnel, if the U.S. would promise not
to invade Cuba.
Then on October 27, one of the U-2 spy planes was shot down over Cuba and
the Executive Committee received a second letter from Khrushchev
demanding the removal of U.S. Missiles in Turkey in exchange for Cuba.
Then finally on October 28 just six days after the president addressed
the nation, Khrushchev announced that he would stop the construction of
installations in Cuba and return the missiles to the Soviet Union, as
long as the United States would honor their terms by not invading Cuba.
total nuclear commitment scion* a plan to attack the entire communist
world. Tution, that the U.S. Removes blockade and promises not to attack
Cuba. Major Rudolf Anderson flies off to take pictures and was shot down
by soviet anti aircraft missile.
On october 28 kruschev announces a message to kenedy that they will
withdraw the warheads from cuba if the United states honors their terms.
Ending the crisis.
Height of the cold war ld
In his memoirs published in 1970, Khrushchev wrote, ?n addition to
protecting Cuba, our missiles would have equalized what the West likes to
call ?he balance of power.?[6]
The Soviets, thus, decided to place medium- (MRBM) and intermediate-range
ballistic (IRBM) missile

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