The Cuban Missile Crisis On Monday, October 7, Cuban President Osvaldo Dortic? spoke at the U.N. General Assembly: "If ... we are attacked, we will defend ourselves. I repeat, we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons, which we would have preferred not to acquire, and which we do not wish to employ." In the fall of 1962 our world came the closest that there has ever been to nuclear destruction. Two of the worlds greatest super powers the United States and the Soviet Union, whom had previously jointed in coalition against the axis factions in the world wars had inevitably led themselves into a state of political conflict, referred to as ?he Cold War. This conflict derived from disagreement over the configuration of the post-war world, and the stationing of armament in European Territories. Soviet Union's Premiere, Nikita Khrushchev, feared the worst as he observed Turkey to the west of the black sea. The Soviets had become aware of the Jupiter intermediate-ranged ballistic missiles that the United States had installed within Turkey earlier in the year. The Soviet Union unlike ocean protected United States had become to feel threatened by an overwhelming amount of nuclear warheads bordering their territories, and began to plot a defensive retaliation. It was decided by Premiere Khrushchev to begin construction of a larger offensive ballistic missile program, one that would achieve the ability to launch a successful nuclear strike on America if it became necessary. Yet due to economic, and limited technological resources this was not currently possible, because of this they sought the aid of the only communist territory near the the United States, Cuba. Cuba, who had recently been taken over by Fidel Castro, had as well began growing tensions with the United States. Some notable examples of these tensions would be Castro's confiscation of private property in the Caribbean, alliance with the Soviet Union, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion, ? failed attempt to overthrow Castro by CIA trained former Cuban militants, whom had been recently exiled. A negotiation would seem to work in great favor of both Cuba and the USSR, this would promise the protection for Cuba against an inevitable future invasion, and would grant the Soviets the ability to defend themselves from America by way of nuclear war. The Soviets began to implement their plans in coordination with Cuba in utmost secrecy. Hoping to correct what he saw as a strategic imbalance with the United States, Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev began secretly deploying medium range ballistic missiles (MRBM) and intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM) to Fidel Castro's Cuba. Once operational, these nuclear-armed weapons could have been used cities and military targets in most of the continental United States. The soviets disguised their intentions by using cargo ships to transport jets, missiles, and troops to Cuba. But as the ships exited the deep Atlantic, and began nearing Caribbean waters, they noticed that they were being observed by low flying American surveillance aircraft's. Several pictures are taken of these ships by U.S. Jets. The photographs taken of these ships were then immediately rushed to Washington D.C. For analysts to dissect. The results from the film confirmed that the soviets were supplying Cuba with trucks, aircraft and men. Soon following these photographs on October 15, 1962 a U-2 reconnaissance aircraft piloted by Richard Heyser, revealed several SS-4 nuclear missiles in Cuba. Further confirmations were made to support the photographs when the analysts compared measurements of the cylindrical objects to the size of the current Soviet ballistic missiles, and a positive identification was made, several Soviet SS-4 Ballistic Missile was in fact in Cuba. Shortly after learning about the weapons of mass destruction, President Kennedy organized the Executive committee or ?x- Comm,a group of twelve most important advisers to help manage the crisis. President Kennedy's first solution was to destroy the missile sites before they were built, and begin to ready U.S. Forces for a full scale invasion of Cuba. Yet the United States was not currently aware of the short ranged nuclear weapons, and nuclear submarines patrolling Cuba, capable of decimating any unprepared invading force. They were also did not know that some of the missile sites were already operational. After days of intense debate, and pressure from the military and government, the president finally decided to order a naval quarantine around the borders of Cuba. Despite being pressured by Senate leaders to call for air strikes, President Kennedy addresses the people and declares his resolve by an implementation of naval blockade only. On October 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy declared to our nation that the Soviet Union was installing secret missile bases in Cuba. The president proclaimed that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be regarded as an attack on the United States by the Soviet Union and demanded that the Soviets remove all of their offensive weapons from Cuba. On October 25, the president pulled the quarantine line back and raised military readiness to DEFCON 2. The following day the executive committee heard from Khrushchev in an emotional letter proposing the removal of Soviet missiles, and personnel, if the U.S. would promise not to invade Cuba. Then on October 27, one of the U-2 spy planes was shot down over Cuba and the Executive Committee received a second letter from Khrushchev demanding the removal of U.S. Missiles in Turkey in exchange for Cuba. Then finally on October 28 just six days after the president addressed the nation, Khrushchev announced that he would stop the construction of installations in Cuba and return the missiles to the Soviet Union, as long as the United States would honor their terms by not invading Cuba. total nuclear commitment scion* a plan to attack the entire communist world. Tution, that the U.S. Removes blockade and promises not to attack Cuba. Major Rudolf Anderson flies off to take pictures and was shot down by soviet anti aircraft missile. On october 28 kruschev announces a message to kenedy that they will withdraw the warheads from cuba if the United states honors their terms. Ending the crisis. Height of the cold war ld In his memoirs published in 1970, Khrushchev wrote, ?n addition to protecting Cuba, our missiles would have equalized what the West likes to call ?he balance of power.? The Soviets, thus, decided to place medium- (MRBM) and intermediate-range ballistic (IRBM) missile
"The Cuban Missile Crisis"