Ancient Greece by mamapeirong

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									Ancient Greek and
Roman Architecture
    Architectural History
         ACT 322
       Doris Kemp
                    Topics
   Greek Characteristics
   Greek Temples
   Formal Orders
   Doric Order
   Doric Order Architecture
   Ionic Order
   Ionic Order Architecture
                         Ancient Greece:
                         Characteristics
   Greek civilization
       Began to take shape following the collapse of the
        Minoan-Mycenaean civilization
            c. 1100 – 800 B.C.
       The interaction of two distinct peoples
            Dorians
                 Invaders from the north
                 Militant, disciplined people with a powerful sense of tribal order
            Ionians
                 Driven across the Aegean Sea
                 Less militant and more interested in trade
                      Ancient Greece:
                      Characteristics
   800 B.C.
     The two cultures had mingled and became a single
      society
     Called themselves Hellenes
            Considered anyone who did not speak Greek as
             barbarians
       Political society was local, or city oriented, rather
        than national or kingdom oriented
                      Ancient Greece:
                      Characteristics
   Greek Periods
       Archaic Period
            700 – 480 B.C.
       Classical Period
            480 – 323 B.C.
       Architecturally, these periods were focused on
        colonizing areas outside of Greece
            Some of the best surviving ancient Greek structures are
             located in Italy and Sicily
                    Ancient Greece:
                    Characteristics
   Greeks are considered the last of the megalithic
    architects
   Greek architects were not as interested in
    tombs and grandeur palaces as other civilizations
       Greeks were more fascinated and devoted a great
        deal of time to civic architecture
          Theatres
          Council Halls

          Public porticos
                    Ancient Greece:
                    Greek Temples
   Greek temples
     Considered the most important form of Greek
      architectural contributions
     Temple features:
         Lavished the finest building materials
         Stood as symbolic dwellings of the deity for whom they
          were built
         Early temples featured rectangular interiors called a cella

         An entrance porch with two columns standing between
          two projecting walls
                 Ancient Greece:
                 Greek Temples
   Early Greek temples and later Greek temples are
    very similar in that they maintain the same
    structure
   Differences:
     Early Greek temples featured animal sacrificial alters
     Later temples replaced the sacrificial altars with
      statues of the god for which the temple was
      dedicated
                Ancient Greece:
                Formal Orders
   Classical Greek temples are characterized by
    three formal orders
     Doric Order
     Ionic Order

     Corinthian Order
                    Ancient Greece:
                     Doric Order
   Doric Order
       Doric order features:
          Rows of columns on high steps
          Columns supported by a lintel
          Triangular crown fronting the saddle roof

       Doric order temples
          Basilica
          Temple of Hera II (Poseidon)
          Temple of Concord
          The Parthenon
                Ancient Greece:
            Doric Order Architecture
   Basilica
       c. 530 B.C.
       Located in southern Italy
       Not an ideal Doric temple
        but shares many features




                                    Photo: Sullivan
                Ancient Greece:
            Doric Order Architecture
   Temple of Hera II
       Also known as the
        Poseidon’s Temple
       Neighbor to the Basilica
       Very close to the Doric
        design
       Built around 450 B.C.




                                   Photo: Sullivan
                 Ancient Greece:
             Doric Order Architecture
   Temple of Concord
       Located in Agrigento,
        Sicily
       High Classic Period
       c. 430 B.C.
       Shows a progression of
        Greek architectural ability
        over time



                                      Photo: Sullivan
                  Ancient Greece:
              Doric Order Architecture
   Parthenon
       Ideal creation of the High Classic Doric
       Located on the Athenian Acropolis
       The dominating structure of the Acropolis
       Was constructed between 447 and 438 B.C.
       Has been maintained as a religious structure by many cultures
            Romans
            Byzantines
            Catholics
            Turks
    Ancient Greece:
Doric Order Architecture




         Photo: Sullivan
                  Ancient Greece:
              Doric Order Architecture
   Parthenon
       1687 A.D.
            Used by the Turks as an
             ammo dump
            An explosion destroyed
             much of the building
       The Parthenon originally
        housed a giant gold statue
        of the Greek god Athena


                                       Photo: Sullivan
    Ancient Greece:
Doric Order Architecture




         Photo: Sullivan
                     Ancient Greece:
                    Ionic Architecture
   Ionic Order
     Originated in the Aegean coastal lands of the Ionian
      Sea
     Ionians gained influence from the great Egyptian
      structures
     Little remains of the grand Ionic order temples
            Remains mainly consist of bases and a few columns
       First Ionic temples begin to appear around 600 B.C.
            Highest concentration located at Samos and Ephesus
                Ancient Greece:
            Ionic Order Architecture
   Temple of Artemis
       Located at Ephesus
       Considered one of the
        Seven Wonders of the
        Ancient World
       Among the first Ionic
        Order temples




                                Photo: Sullivan
    Ancient Greece:
Ionic Order Architecture




             Photo: Sullivan
                 Ancient Greece:
             Ionic Order Architecture
   Temple of Athena Nike
       c. 420 B.C.
       Located in the Athenian
        Acropolis
       The earliest known Ionic
        temple in the Acropolis




                                   Photo: Sullivan
                  Ancient Greece:
              Ionic Order Architecture
   Erechtheum
     c. 420 B.C.
     Located in the Acropolis

     Built on one of Greece’s most sacred sites
            Atop what the Greek’s believed was a rock bearing the
             mark of Poseidon's trident
       Housed the tomb of Cecrops
            The founder of Athens
    Ancient Greece:
Ionic Order Architecture




         Photo: Sullivan
                   Ancient Greece:
               Ionic Order Architecture
   Propylaea
       The grand entrance to the
        Acropolis
       Was constructed at great
        expense to the Greeks
            Constructed of marble
             which was somewhat
             scarce
       Has undergone many
        transformations through
        the centuries
                                     Photo: Sullivan
  Ancient Greece:
Ionic Order Temples




       Photo: Sullivan
                     References
   Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/
   http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
   Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to
    Postmodernity
   Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture
Ancient Greek and
Roman Architecture
    Architectural History
         ACT 322
       Doris Kemp

								
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