QWERTY

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					QWERTY                                                                                                                          1



  QWERTY
  QWERTY (pron.: /ˈkwɜrti/) is the most common
  modern-day keyboard layout. The name comes from
  the first six keys appearing on the top left letter row of
  the keyboard and read from left to right:
  Q-W-E-R-T-Y. The QWERTY design is based on a
  layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter
  and sold to Remington in the same year, when it first
  appeared in typewriters. It became popular with the
  success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, and remains
  in use on electronic keyboards due to the network effect
  of a standard layout and a belief that alternatives fail to
                                                                      A QWERTY keyboard on a laptop computer
  provide very significant advantages.[1] The use and
  adoption of the QWERTY keyboard is often viewed as
  one of the most important case studies in open standards because of the widespread, collective adoption and use of
  the product.[2].


  History and purposes
  Qwerty is still used to this day. This layout was devised and created in the early
  1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived
  in Milwaukee. In October of 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his early
  writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden
  and Samuel W. Soulé.[3]
  The first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows
  of characters arranged alphabetically as follows:[3]
         - 3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
          2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M
  The construction of the "Type Writer" had two flaws that made the product
  susceptible to jams. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or typebars,
  which would clash and jam if neighboring arms were pressed at the same time or
  in rapid succession.[4] Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper
  carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Consequently,
  jams were especially serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap
  by raising the carriage to inspect what he had typed. The solution was to place
  commonly used letter-pairs (like "th" or "st") so that their typebars were not
  neighboring, avoiding jams. Although QWERTY today is considered to slow
  down typists, it was originally designed to speed up typing by preventing               Keys are arranged on diagonal
                                                                                       columns, to give space for the levers.
  jams.[4][5] Every word in the English language contains at least one vowel, but on
  the QWERTY keyboard only the letter "A" is located on the home row, which
  requires the typist's fingers to leave the home row for most words.

  Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the
  original machine's alphabetical key arrangement. The study of letter-pair frequency by educator Amos Densmore,
  brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the arrangement of letters, but was
QWERTY                                                                                                                 2


  later called into question.[6]
  In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left.[7] In April
  1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowels,
  A, E, I, O, U, and Y, to the upper row as follows:[8]
         23456789-
           AEI.?YUO,
         BCDFGHJKLM
         ZXWVTSRQPN
  In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore, successfully sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden
  Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons. The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's
  mechanics and was ultimately presented as follows:[9]
         23456789-,
         QWE.TYIUOP
         ZSDFGHJKLM
         AX&CVBN?;R
  After it purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments which created a keyboard with what is
  essentially the modern QWERTY layout. Their adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place previously
  allotted to the period key. This has been claimed to be done with the purpose of enabling salesmen to impress
  customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER" from one keyboard row but this claim is
  unsubstantiated.[9] Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL.[10]
  The modern layout is:
         1234567890-=
         QWERTYUIOP[]\
         ASDFGHJKL;'
         ZXCVBNM,./
  The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to
  include both upper and lower case letters, via a shift key.
  Much less commented-on than the order of the keys is that the keys are not on a grid, but rather that each column
  slants diagonally; this is because of the mechanical linkages – each key being attached to a lever, and hence the
  offset prevents the levers from running into each other – and has been retained in most electronic keyboards. Some
  keyboards, such as the Kinesis or TypeMatrix, retain the QWERTY layout but arrange the keys in vertical columns,
  to reduce unnecessary lateral finger motion.[11][12]
QWERTY                                                                                                                     3


  Differences from modern layout

  Substituting characters

  The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's
  1878 patent includes a few differences from
  the modern layout, most notably in the
  absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each
  of the remaining numerals shifted one
  position to the left of their modern
  counterparts. The letter M is located at the
  end of the third row to the right of the letter
  L rather than on the fourth row to the right
  of the N, the letters X and C are reversed,
  and most punctuation marks are in different
  positions or are missing entirely.[13] 0 and 1
  were omitted to simplify the design and                      Latham Sholes's 1878 QWERTY keyboard layout
  reduce the manufacturing and maintenance
  costs; they were chosen specifically because they were "redundant" and could be recreated using other keys. Typists
  who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I (or lowercase letter L) for the digit
  one, and the uppercase O for the zero.[14]


  Combined characters
  In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For
  instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on modern keyboards, could be reproduced
  by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace, and a period. A semicolon (;) was produced by
  printing a comma (,) over a colon (:). As the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters (the carriage
  was heavy and optimized to move in the opposite direction), a more professional approach was to block the carriage
  by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position. To make
  this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar.
  The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and
  exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the 1970s.[15]


  Contemporary alternatives
  There was no particular technological requirement for the QWERTY layout[9] since at the time there were ways to
  make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised. Not only were there
  rival machines with "down-stroke" and "frontstroke" positions that gave a visible printing point, the problem of
  typebar clashes could be circumvented completely: examples include Thomas Edison's 1872 electric print-wheel
  device which later became the basis for Teletype machines; Lucien Stephen Crandall's typewriter (the second to
  come onto the American market) whose type was arranged on a cylindrical sleeve; the Hammond typewriter of 1887
  which used a semi-circular "type-shuttle" of hardened rubber (later light metal); and the Blickensderfer typewriter of
  1893 which used a type wheel. The early Blickensderfer's "Ideal" keyboard was also non-QWERTY, instead having
  the sequence "DHIATENSOR" in the home row, these 10 letters being capable of composing 70% of the words in
  the English language.[16]
QWERTY                                                                                                                               4


  Properties
  Alternating hands while typing is a desirable trait in a keyboard design. While one hand types a letter, the other hand
  can prepare to type the next letter making the process faster and more efficient. However, when a string of letters is
  done with the same hand, the chances of stuttering are increased and a rhythm can be broken, thus decreasing speed
  and increasing errors and fatigue. In the QWERTY layout many more words can be spelled using only the left hand
  than the right hand. In fact, thousands of English words can be spelled using only the left hand, while only a couple
  of hundred words can be typed using only the right hand.[17] In addition, most typing strokes are done with the left
  hand in the QWERTY layout. This is helpful for left-handed people but to the disadvantage of right-handed people.


  Computer keyboards
  The first computer terminals such as
  the Teletype were typewriters that
  could produce and be controlled by
  various computer codes. These used
  the QWERTY layouts and added keys
  such as escape (ESC) which had
  special meanings to computers. Later
  keyboards added function keys and
  arrow keys. Since the standardization
  of PC-compatible computers and
  Windows after the 1980s, most             The standard QWERTY keyboard layout used in the US. Some countries, such as the UK
                                             and Canada, use a slightly different QWERTY (the @ and " are switched in the UK); see
  full-sized computer keyboards have
                                                                                  keyboard layout
  followed this standard (see drawing at
  right). This layout has a separate
  numeric keypad for data entry at the right, 12 function keys across the top, and a cursor section to the right and
  center with keys for Insert, Delete, Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down with cursor arrows in an inverted-T
  shape.[18]



  Diacritical marks and international variants
  Different computer operating systems have methods of support for input of different languages such as Chinese,
  Hebrew or Arabic. QWERTY is designed for English, a language without any diacritical marks. QWERTY
  keyboards meet issues when having to type an accent. Until recently, no norm was defined for a standard QWERTY
  keyboard layout allowing the typing of accented characters, apart from the US-International layout.
  Depending on the operating system and sometimes the application program being used, there are many ways to
  generate Latin characters with accents.
QWERTY                                                                                                                         5


  UK-Extended Layout
  Microsoft Windows XP SP2 and above provide the UK-Extended layout that behaves exactly the same as the
  standard UK layout for all the characters it can generate, but can additionally generate a number of diacritical marks,
  useful when working with text in other languages (including Welsh - a UK language). Not all combinations work on
  all keyboards.
  • acute accents (e.g. á) on a, e, i, o, u, w, y, A, E, I, O, U, W, Y are generated by pressing the AltGr key together
    with the letter, or AltGr and apostrophe, followed by the letter (see note below);
  • grave accents (e.g. è) on a, e, i, o, u, w, y, A, E, I, O, U, W, Y are generated by pressing the backquote (`) [which
    is now a dead key], then the letter;
  • circumflex (e.g. â) on a, e, i, o, u, w, y, A, E, I, O, U, W, Y is generated by AltGr and 6, followed by the letter;
  • diaeresis or umlaut (e.g. ö) on a, e, i, o, u, w, y, A, E, I, O, U, W, Y is generated by AltGr and 2, then the letter;
  • tilde (e.g. ã) on a, n, o, A, N, O is generated by AltGr and #, then the letter;
  • cedilla (e.g. ç) under c, C is generated by AltGr and the letter.
  These combinations are designed to be easy to remember, as the circumflex accent (e.g. â) is similar to a caret (^),
  printed above the 6 key; the diaeresis (e.g. ö) is similar to the double-quote (") above 2 on the UK keyboard; the tilde
  (~) is printed on the same key as the #.
  Like US-International, UK-Extended does not cater for many languages written with Latin characters, including
  Romanian and Turkish, or any using different character sets such as Greek and Russian.
  Notes:
  • The AltGr and letter method used for acutes and cedillas does not work for applications which assign shortcut
    menu functions to these key combinations. For acute accents the AltGr and apostrophe method should be used.


  International variants
  Minor changes to the arrangement are made for other
  languages. There are a large number of different
  keyboard layouts used for different languages written
  in Latin script. They can be divided into three main
  families according to where the Q, A, Z, M, and Y keys
  are placed on the keyboard. These are usually named
  after the first six letters.


  Alternatives to QWERTY
  Several alternatives to QWERTY have been developed
  over the years, claimed by their designers and users to
  be more efficient, intuitive and ergonomic.
  Nevertheless, none has seen widespread adoption,
  partly due to the sheer dominance of available
  keyboards and training.[19] Although studies have           Keyboard layout#QWERTY-based layouts for Latin scriptDifferent
                                                                               keyboard layouts in Europe:
  shown the superiority in typing speed afforded by
                                                                  QWERTY  QWERTZ  AZERTY  National layouts  Non-Latin
  alternative keyboard layouts[20] economists Stan                                       scripts
  Liebowitz and Stephen E Margolis have claimed that
  these studies are flawed and more rigorous studies are inconclusive as to whether they actually offer any real
  benefits.[1] The most widely used such alternative is the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard; another increasingly popular
QWERTY                                                                                                                      6


  alternative is Colemak, which is based partly on QWERTY and is therefore easier for an existing QWERTY typist to
  learn while offering several optimisations.[21] Most modern computer operating systems support this and other
  alternative mappings with appropriate special mode settings, but few keyboards are manufactured with keys labeled
  according to this standard.


  Comparison to other keyboard input systems
  DVORAK and QWERTY have been compared by some people to other systems which involve keyboard input
  systems, namely Stenotype and its implementations e.g. opensource PLOVER [22]. There are numerous advantages
  to using these systems (namely a 700% increase in efficiency over QWERTY [23]) but they are fundamentally
  different from ordinary typing. Words are input by pressing on several keys and releasing simultaneously but don't
  require the keys to be pressed down in any order. Neither is the spacebar used. There is a learning hurdle in that hunt
  and peck does not work. However, it is easy to write at 180-300 wpm. It is worth noting that PLOVER stenotype
  theory required a stenotype machine prior to 2010; due to the inherent difficulties of chording QWERTY was
  invented to allow cheap machines to be made that didn't jam up; stenotype was invented for maximum speed and
  accuracy.
  The first typed shorthand machines appeared around 1880, roughly current with QWERTY, but the first stenotype
  machines appeared in 1913. Also, these machines' output needed to be interpreted by a trained professional,
  comparable to reading Gregg shorthand, which was very much in vogue at the time and taught publicly until the
  1980s. Gregg shorthand also didn't require much more than training and a pen, however machines gradually gained
  traction in the courtroom. Modern PLOVER immediately provides translated output, making it very much like other
  keyboard setups that immediately produce legible work.


  Half QWERTY
  A half QWERTY keyboard is a combination of an alpha-numeric
  keypad and a QWERTY keypad, designed for mobile phones.[24] In a
  half QWERTY keyboard, two characters share the same key, which
  reduces the number of keys and increases the surface area of each key,
  useful for mobile phones that have little space for keys.[24] It means
  that 'Q' and 'W' will share the same key and the user has to press the
  key once to type 'Q' and twice to type 'W'.


  Displaced QWERTY
  Also designed for mobile devices, the displaced QWERTY layout
  allows for the increase of button area by over 40% while keeping the
  same candybar form factor. Entering, spacing and deleting are handled
  by gestures over the text area, reducing the keyboard's screen footprint.
  The layout is essentially a rearrangement of keys on the right half of
  the keyboard under those on the left and, as such, should present a          The Nokia E55 uses a half QWERTY keyboard
  gentler learning curve to touch typists. It was first seen on the iPhone                       layout.
  application "LittlePad".
QWERTY                                                                                                                                            7


  References
  [1] Liebowitz, Stan; Margolis, Stephen E. (1990), "The Fable of the Keys", Journal of Law and Economics 33 (1): 1–26, doi:10.1086/467198
  [2] "Casson and Ryan, Open Standards, Open Source Adoption in the Public Sector, and Their Relationship to Microsoft’s Market Dominance"
      (http:/ / papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=1656616). Papers.ssrn.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  [3] US 79868 (http:/ / worldwide. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US79868), Sholes, C. Latham; Carlos Glidden & Samuel W.
      Soule, "Improvement in Type-writing Machines", issued July 14, 1868
  [4] Rehr, Darryl, Why QWERTY was Invented (http:/ / home. earthlink. net/ ~dcrehr/ whyqwert. html),
  [5] Rehr, Darryl. "Consider QWERTY" (http:/ / home. earthlink. net/ ~dcrehr/ whyqwert. html). . Retrieved 12 December 2011. "QWERTY's
      effect, by reducing those annoying clashes, was to speed up typing rather than slow it down."
  [6] Koichi Yasuoka: The Truth of QWERTY (http:/ / yasuoka. blogspot. com/ 2006/ 08/ sholes-discovered-that-many-english. html), entry dated
      August 01, 2006.
  [7] Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: Myth of QWERTY Keyboard, Tokyo: NTT Publishing, 2008. pp.12-20 (http:/ / books. google. com/
      books?id=tEsAMggMKoMC& pg=PA8)
  [8] Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: Myth of QWERTY Keyboard, Tokyo: NTT Publishing, 2008. pp.24-25 (http:/ / books. google. com/
      books?id=tEsAMggMKoMC& pg=PA20)
  [9] Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: On the Prehistory of QWERTY (http:/ / kanji. zinbun. kyoto-u. ac. jp/ ~yasuoka/ publications/ PreQWERTY.
      html), ZINBUN, No.42, pp.161-174, 2011.
  [10] David, Paul A. (1985), "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY", American Economic Review (American Economic Association) 75 (2):
      332–337, JSTOR 1805621
  [11] Kinesis – Ergonomic Benefits of the Contoured Keyboard (http:/ / www. kinesis-ergo. com/ benefits. htm) – Vertical key layout
  [12] Why TypeMatrix 2030 (http:/ / typematrix. com/ 2030/ why. php)
  [13] US 207559 (http:/ / worldwide. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US207559), Sholes, Christopher Latham, issued August 27,
      1878
  [14] Weller, Charles Edward (1918), The early history of the typewriter (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ earlyhistorytyp00wellgoog), La
      Porte, Indiana: Chase & Shepard, printers,
  [15] See for example the Olivetti Lettera 36 (http:/ / www. mrmartinweb. com/ type. htm#olivetti), introduced in 1972
  [16] Shermer, Michael (2008). The mind of the market. Macmillan. p. 50. ISBN 0-8050-7832-0.
  [17] Diamond, Jared (April 1997), "The Curse of QWERTY" (http:/ / discovermagazine. com/ 1997/ apr/ thecurseofqwerty1099/ ), Discover, ,
      retrieved 2009-04-29, "More than 3,000 English words utilize QWERTY's left hand alone, and about 300 the right hand alone."
  [18] Castillo, M. (2). "QWERTY, @, &, #". American Journal of Neuroradiology 32: 613.
  [19] Gould, Stephen Jay (1987) "The Panda's Thumb of Technology." (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=pzj90slTTEIC& pg=PA59) Natural
      History 96 (1): 14-23; Reprinted in Bully for Brontosaurus. New York: W.W. Norton. 1992, pp. 59-75.
  [20] Paul David, "Understanding the economics of QWERTY: the necessity of history", Economic history and the modern economist, 1986
  [21] Krzywinski, Martin. "Colemak - Popular Alternative" (http:/ / mkweb. bcgsc. ca/ carpalx/ ?colemak). Carpalx - keyboard layout optimizer.
      Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre. . Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  [22] http:/ / plover. stenoknight. com/
  [23] http:/ / plover. stenoknight. com/ 2010/ 05/ ergonomic-argument. html
  [24] "Half-QWERTY keyboard layout - Mobile terms glossary" (http:/ / www. gsmarena. com/ glossary. php3?term=half-qwerty-keyboard).
      GSMArena.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-31.



  External links
  • Article on QWERTY and Path Dependence from EH.NET's Encyclopedia (http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/
    puffert.path.dependence)
  • QWERTY Keyboard History (http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/qwerty.htm)
  • QWERTY Keyboard in Mobiles (http://www.bakwaash.com/2011/07/05/mobile-phone-termonologies/)
Christopher Latham Sholes                                                                                                    8



    Christopher Latham Sholes
                                              Christopher Latham Sholes




                                Born          February 14, 1819
                                              Mooresburg, Montour County, Pennsylvania, United States

                                Died          February 17, 1890 (aged 71)

                                Resting place Forest Home Cemetery, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A [1]

                                Nationality   American

                                Known for                                   [1]
                                              "The Father of the typewriter"


    Christopher Latham Sholes[2] (February 14, 1819 – February 17, 1890) was an American inventor who invented
    the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today.[3] He was also a newspaper publisher and
    Wisconsin politician.


    Youth and political career
    Born in Mooresburg, Pennsylvania, Sholes moved to nearby Danville as a teenager, where he worked as an
    apprentice to a printer. After completing his apprenticeship, Sholes moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1837. He
    became a newspaper publisher and politician, serving in the Wisconsin State Senate 1848-1849, 1856–1857, and the
    Wisconsin State Assembly 1852-1853.[4][5] He was instrumental in the successful movement to abolish capital
    punishment in Wisconsin: his newspaper, The Kenosha Telegraph, reported on the trial of John McCaffary in 1851,
    and then in 1853 he led the campaign in the Wisconsin State Assembly.[6] He was the younger brother of Charles
    Sholes (1816–1867) who was a newspaper publisher and politician who served in both houses of the Wisconsin State
    Legislature and as mayor of Kenosha, Wisconsin.[7]


    The "Voree Plates"
    In 1845, Sholes was working as editor of the Southport Telegraph, a small newspaper in Kenosha, Wisconsin.
    During this time he heard about the alleged discovery of the Voree Record, a set of three minuscule brass plates
    unearthed by James J. Strang, a would-be successor to the murdered Latter Day Saint prophet Joseph Smith, Jr.[8]
    Strang asserted that this proved that he was a true prophet of God, and he invited the public to call upon him and see
    the plates for themselves. Sholes accordingly visited Strang, examined his "Voree Record," and wrote an article
    about their meeting. He indicated that while he could not accept Strang's plates or his prophetic claims, Strang
    himself seemed to be "honest and earnest" and his disciples were "among the most honest and intelligent men in the
    neighborhood." As for the "record" itself, Sholes indicated that he was "content to have no opinion about it."[9]
Christopher Latham Sholes                                                                                                           9


    Inventing the typewriter
    Typewriters had been invented as early as 1714 by
    Henry Mill and reinvented in various forms throughout
    the 1800s. It was to be Sholes, however, who invented
    the first one to be commercially successful.
    Sholes had moved to Milwaukee and became the editor
    of a newspaper. Following a strike by compositors at
    his printing press, he tried building a machine for
    typesetting, but this was a failure and he quickly
    abandoned the idea. He arrived at the typewriter
    through a different route. His initial goal was to create
    a machine to number pages of a book, tickets, and so
    on. He began work on this at Kleinsteubers machine
    shop in Milwaukee, together with a fellow printer
    Samuel W. Soule, and they patented a numbering
    machine on November 13, 1866.[10]

    Sholes and Soule showed their machine to Carlos
    Glidden, a lawyer and amateur inventor at the machine
    shop working on a mechanical plow, who wondered if
    the machine could not be made to produce letters and         John Pratt's Pterotype, the inspiration for Sholes in July 1867.
    words as well. Further inspiration came in July 1867,
    when Sholes came across a short note in Scientific
    American[11] describing the "Pterotype", a prototype
    typewriter that had been invented by John Pratt. From
    the description, Sholes decided that the Pterotype was
    too complex and set out to make his own machine,
    whose name he got from the article: the typewriting
    machine, or typewriter.

    For this project, Soule was again enlisted, and Glidden
    joined them as a third partner who provided the funds.
    The Scientific American article (unillustrated) had
    figuratively used the phrase "literary piano"; the first
                                                                            Wisconsin Historical Marker
    model that the trio built had a keyboard literally
    resembling a piano. It had black keys and white keys,
    laid out in two rows. It did not contain keys for the numerals 0 or 1 because the letters O and I were deemed
    sufficient:

      3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
     2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M


    With the first row made of ivory and the second of ebony, the rest of the framework being wooden. It was in this
    form that Sholes, Glidden and Soule were granted patents for their invention on June 23, 1868[12] and July 14.[13]
    The first document to be produced on a typewriter was a contract that Sholes had written, in his capacity as the
    Comptroller for the city of Milwaukee. Machines similar to Sholes's had been previously used by the blind for
    embossing, but by Sholes's time the inked ribbon had been invented, which made typewriting in its current form
Christopher Latham Sholes                                                                                                     10


    possible.[10]
    At this stage, the Sholes-Glidden-Soule typewriter was only one among dozens of similar inventions. They wrote
    hundreds of letters on their machine to various people, one of whom was James Densmore of Meadville,
    Pennsylvania. Densmore foresaw that the typewriter would be highly profitable, and offered to buy a share of the
    patent, without even having laid eyes on the machine. The trio immediately sold him one-fourth of the patent in
    return for his paying all their expenses so far. When Densmore eventually examined the machine in March 1867, he
    declared that it was good for nothing in its current form, and urged them to start improving it. Discouraged, Soule
    and Glidden left the project, leaving Sholes and Densmore in sole possession of the patent.
    Realizing that stenographers would be among the first and most important users of the machine, and therefore best in
    a position to judge its suitability, they sent experimental versions to a few stenographers. The most important of
    them was James O. Clephane, of Washington D.C., who tried the instruments as no one else had tried them,
    subjecting them to such unsparing tests that he destroyed them, one after another, as fast as they could be made and
    sent to him. His judgments were similarly caustic, causing Sholes to lose his patience and temper. But Densmore
    insisted that this was exactly what they needed:[10][14]
          "This candid fault-finding is just what we need. We had better have it now than after we begin manufacturing.
          Where Clephane points out a weak lever or rod let us make it strong. Where a spacer or an inker works stiffly,
          let us make it work smoothly. Then, depend upon Clephane for all the praise we deserve."
    Sholes took this advice and set to improve the machine
    at every iteration, until they were satisfied that
    Clephane had taught them everything he could. By this
    time, they had manufactured 50 machines or so, at an
    average cost of $250. They decided to have the
    machine examined by an expert mechanic, who
    directed them to E. Remington and Sons (which later
    became the Remington Arms Company), manufacturers
    of firearms, sewing machines, and farm tools. In early
    1873 they approached Remington, who decided to buy
    the patent from them. Sholes sold his half for $12,000,
    while Densmore, still a stronger believer in the
    machine, insisted on a royalty, which would eventually
    fetch him $1.5 million.[10]

    Sholes returned to Milwaukee and continued to work
    on new improvements for the typewriter throughout the
    1870s, which included the QWERTY keyboard
    (1873).[15] James Densmore had suggested splitting up          Sholes typewriter, 1873. Museum, Buffalo and Erie County
                                                                                       Historical Society.
    commonly used letter combinations in order to solve a
    jamming problem caused by the slow method of
    recovering from a keystroke: weights, not springs, returned all parts to the "rest" position. This concept was later
    refined by Sholes and the resulting QWERTY layout is still used today on both typewriters and English language
    computer keyboards, although the jamming problem no longer exists.

    Sholes died on February 17, 1890 after battling tuberculosis for nine years, and is buried at Forest Home Cemetery in
    Milwaukee.
Christopher Latham Sholes                                                                                                                              11


    Notes
    [1] Weller, Charles Edward (1918). The Early History of the Typewriter. Chase & Shepard, printers. p. 75.
    [2] In his time, Sholes went by the names "C. Latham Sholes", "Latham Sholes", or "C. L. Sholes", but never "Christopher Sholes" or
        "Christopher L. Sholes".
    [3] "Early Typewriter History," http:/ / www. mit. edu/ ~jcb/ Dvorak/ history. html.
    [4] "Sholes, Christopher Pichon 1819 - 1890" (http:/ / www. wisconsinhistory. org/ dictionary/ index. asp?action=view& term_id=1741&
        keyword=sholes). Wisconsinhistory.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.
    [5] http:/ / www. legis. state. wi. us/ lrb/ pubs/ ib/ 99ib1. pdf
    [6] "A Brief History of Wisconsin's Death Penalty" (http:/ / www. wisbar. org/ AM/ Template. cfm?Section=Home& CONTENTID=50092&
        TEMPLATE=/ CM/ ContentDisplay. cfm). Wisbar.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.
    [7] "Sholes, Charles Clark 1816 - 1867" (http:/ / www. wisconsinhistory. org/ dictionary/ index. asp?action=view& term_id=2625&
        keyword=sholes). Wisconsinhistory.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.
    [8] See "Voree Plates" at http:/ / www. strangite. org/ Plates. htm.
    [9] Fitzpatrick, Doyle, The King Strang Story (National Heritage, 1970), pp. 36-37.
    [10] Iles, George (1912), Leading American Inventors (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ leadingamericani00ilesrich), New York: Henry Holt
        and Company,
    [11] "Type Writing Machine." (http:/ / cdl. library. cornell. edu/ cgi-bin/ moa/ pageviewer?frames=1& coll=moa& view=50& root=/ moa/ scia/
        scia1017/ & tif=00011. TIF& cite=http:/ / cdl. library. cornell. edu/ cgi-bin/ moa/ moa-cgi?notisid=ABF2204-1017-3), Scientific American,
        New (New York) 17 (1): 3, 1867-07-06, , retrieved 2009-01-14
    [12] "#79265" (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=t7YAAAAAEBAJ). Google.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.
    [13] "#79868" (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=ErkAAAAAEBAJ). Google.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.
    [14] Mares, G.C. (1909), The history of the typewriter, successor to the pen: An illustrated account of the origin, rise, and development of the
        writing machine, London: Guilbert Putnam Reprinted by Post-era Books, Arcadia, CA, 1985.
    [15] "The Sholes (QWERTY) Keyboard" (http:/ / cs. ttu. ee/ kursused/ itv0010/ maxmon/ 1874ad. htm). Cs.ttu.ee. . Retrieved 2011-10-12.



    References
    • Darryl Rehr. "The First Typewriter" (http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/firsttw.html). The QWERTY
      Connection. Retrieved May 11, 2005.
    • Who invented the typewriter? (http://www.typewriter.be/missinvention.htm)
    • Sholes and Glidden typewriter (http://www.typewriter.be/missindustry.htm)
    • US 79265 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US79265), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1868
    • US 79868 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US79868), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1868
    • US 182511 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US182511), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1876
    • US 199382 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US199382), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1878
    • US 200321 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US200321), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1878
    • US 207557 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US207557), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1878
    • US 207558 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US207558), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1878
    • US 207559 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US207559), Sholes, C. L., issued
      1878
Christopher Latham Sholes                                                                                   12


    External links
    • Christopher Latham Sholes, The Wisconsin State Historical Society (http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/
      dictionary/index.asp?action=view&term_id=1741&keyword=sholes)
    • Christopher Latham Sholes (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7656870) at Find A
      Grave
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                                      13



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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors                                                                                                                                                         14



    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    Image:QWERTY keyboard.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:QWERTY_keyboard.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
    MichaelMaggs
    File:Continental Standard typewriter keyboard - key detail.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Continental_Standard_typewriter_keyboard_-_key_detail.jpg  License:
    Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Continental_Standard_typewriter_keyboard.jpg: Sommeregger derivative work: Nils von Barth (nbarth) (talk)
    Image:QWERTY 1878.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:QWERTY_1878.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: C.L. Sholes
    Image:Qwerty.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Qwerty.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Azaghal of Belegost,
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    anonymous edits
    File:Latin keyboard layouts by country in Europe map.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Latin_keyboard_layouts_by_country_in_Europe_map.PNG  License:
    Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Любослов Езыкин
    Image:Nokia E55 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nokia_E55_01.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: James Nash
    File:Sholes.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sholes.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iles, George
    File:Pterotype.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pterotype.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: George Carl Mares
    File:Invention of the Typewriter.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Invention_of_the_Typewriter.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
    User:Sulfur
    File:Sholes typewriter.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sholes_typewriter.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: George Iles
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