CHAPTER 23: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Chapter 23/ Section 1
Industrial Revolution is defined as the change from hand to machine labor and all the social, political and economic changes that resulted. This transition began in England around 1750. A lengthy discussion of the change that is brought about during and as a result of this unit is very important. Life before the slow pace dominates this time. The population was rural and goods were produced slowly. After this change, the pace of life as well as the volume of production is increased dramatically. TEXTILE INDUSTRY Elements of the industry before automation: Shearing/ Boiling/ Carding/ Spinning Drawing of a spinning wheel. The cotton cloth is woven on a loom in which a shuttle travels back and forth leaving thread behind. Drawing of a loom and overhead of a shuttle. The woof is then beaten down for a tight cloth. DOMESTIC INDUSTRY (cottage industry)- There was a network of workers, they set their own hours, work was done in the worker’s home, hand or muscle power was used and the smaller profits were paid to the workers for product produced. Each little house had a spinning wheel and some even had a loom. Village life revolved around crops to eat and wool and coal. Wool for clothing and coal for heat were the primary products.
Chapter 23/ Section 2- The Beginnings of Change
TEXTILE INDUSTRY Traditionally, the cotton is picked and cleaned by hand. It is then spun into thread, also by hand. The thread is then woven on a loom into cloth as a shuttle travels back and forth leaving thread behind creating cloth. Several inventions create revolutions in the industry 1733- John Kay’s flying shuttle. This invention moved the shuttle two to three times faster than by hand. 1760’s- James Hargreaves’s spinning jenny allows for multiple threads to be spun at one time. 1768 Richard Arkwright’s water frame is a spinning machine powered by water. Samuel Crompton invents the Cotton mule that combined the spinning jenny and the water frame. 1787 Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom. 1793 Eli Whitney’s cotton gin cleans the cotton much faster Innovation and competition replace traditional methods. Great Britain leads the way in the Industrial Revolution for several reasons: 1. Land England has natural resources such as coal, iron ore and excellent harbors. 2. Labor Workers are available because of changes in agriculture. 3. Capital England’s wealthy were willing to invest in expensive machines and factories. 4. Management English society was not as rigid as other European societies. Men of the gentry would not lose honor if they went into business 5. Government England’s limited monarchy favored commercial interests and provided stability. Definitions Enclosure movement
Capital Natural Resources Entrepreneurs
A British movement to enclose public and private land which in turn pushed the British peasants from their countryside homes to the cities to eventually provide manual labor for the factories The term for money invested in labor, machines and raw materials in a business. This could include any of the following: Harbors, rivers, coal and iron. Risk taking business people who allowed the Industrial Revolution to take off in Europe, as they were willing to take the financial risk associated with starting factories. An organized method of production which brought workers and machines together under the control of managers.
INDUSTRY Other industries also experience innovation and invention similar to the textile industry James Watt Henry Cort William Kelley and Henry Bessemer Richard Trevithick Robert Fulton Steam Engine Coal in steel industry Steel Making process Land steam carriage Steamboat 1781 1783 Mid-1800’s 1801 1807
FACTORY SYSTEM Iron Industry Corts coal aided stronger Iron Bessemer’s steel is sturdy, workable material. Better roads and canals allow the transport of materials and goods in ways unknown before. Because of stronger steel and the need for moveable power, steam power becomes more available. Inventors Robert Fulton develops the steamboat and Richard Trevithick developed the steam-powered cars
Class Notes: Ch. 23/ Sect. 3- The Growth of Industry
Samuel Slater story article and worksheet Summary: In 1789 he left Britain with the plans for a textile factory in his head. This is the theft of industrial secrets. The spread of industry by the 1870’s included France, Germany and the United States that were as industrialized as Great Britain. Definitions: Capitalism: Private firms own the means of productions for example machinery, land and the workplace. Industrialists practiced industrial capitalism (continual expansion and investment in business). Mass Production: including assembly lines, interchangeable parts and division of labor allows for mass production. Example: Henry Ford and his 1913 Model T production line (use overhead and transparency) Partnerships: Two or more entrepreneurs go into business with their own capital. Corporations: extends partnership by selling shares in their business. Business Cycles: As industries became more specific they began to rely on each other e.g. One Company makes parts that another company needs. A slow down in the second company will result in a slowdown in first business, and so on and so on. Businesses became tied together, relying on each other. Cycles in business are a “boom” and “bust”. A total bust is a called a depression. Stress the changes that this large number of inventions would have created in society. Every part of a person’s life would be affected by the changes in society: Communications 1830’s 1895 1876 Electricity 1831 1877 1879 Engines 1880’s 1880’s 1890’s 1903 Gottlieb Daimler Rudolf Diesel Ferdinand Von Zeppelin The Wright Brothers Internal combustion engine/ gas Internal combustion engine/ oil Dirigible Flight
Samuel Morse Guglielmo Marconi Alexander Graham Bell
Telegraph Wireless telegraph Telephone
Michael Faraday Thomas Edison Thomas Edison
Electric motor Phonograph Light bulb
Class Notes: Chapter 23/ Section 4: A New Society
Definitions: Labor Union: Collective Bargaining: Association of workers who perform the same type of labor. the process by which union members and employers to discuss problems and reach agreement.
Concept: The rise of the middle class. Education was the key and political actions followed. Life for the working class was to protest the working conditions so the workers organized themselves. Strikes and sit down strikes were used. Labor Unions spring up to combat the working conditions for the workers and improve the wages and working conditions. Collective bargaining used to mediate the problems. Concept: Change Business owners vs. Reformers. Economic thinkers supported the ideas of the business owners. Business believed in Laissez-faire. In French this means, “let do” or let alone by the government. Business wanted to be free of regulation. This is supported the thinking of Adam Smith in his book Wealth of Nations (1776) in which he outlines the idea that the economy is governed by an “invisible hand” which is attached to the market.