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Biodegradable and sustainable fibres

Description:    With increasing concerns regarding the effect the textile industry is having on the environment,
                more and more textile researchers, producers and manufacturers are looking to biodegradable and
                sustainable fibres as an effective way of reducing the impact textiles have on the environment. The
                emphasis in 'Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres' is on textiles that are beneficial by their
                biodegradation and come from sustainable sources.

                'Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres' opens with a discussion of microbial processes in fibre
                degradation. It then moves on to discuss the major fibre types, including bast fibres, alginates,
                cellulose and speciality biodegradable fibres, such as lyocell, poly(lactic acid) and
                poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s. The development of synthetic silks is covered along with biodegradable
                natural fibre composites, nonwovens, and geotextiles. The final chapter looks at the history and
                future of soya bean protein fibres.

                'Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres' is a comprehensive monograph providing essential reference
                for anyone interested in the area and environmental issues relating to textiles including fibre and
                textile scientists and students, textile technologists, manufacturers, and forensic specialists in
                industry and academia.

                Key Features:

                - Indispensable new book on this hot topic
                - Discusses the major fibre types, inlcuding bast fibres
                - Looks at biodegradable and sustainable fibres as an effective way of reducing the harm disposed
                textiles have on the environment
                - Edited by a leading authority in the field with contributions form experts worldwide

                About the editor

                Richard Blackburn is a Senior Lecturer in Textile and Colour Chemistry at the University of Leeds.
                His research interests include thermodynamics and kinetics of application of colorants to synthetic
                and natural fibre substrates, synthesis and processing of biodegradable and sustainable fibres,
                chemicals from renewable resources, and life cycle analysis. He is the leader of the Green
                Chemistry Group in the Centre for Technical Textiles at the University of Leeds and he has
                contributed numerous papers to internationally leading journals.



Contents:       Introduction
                R S Blackburn, University of Leeds, UK

                Microbial processes in the degradation of fibers
                P M Fedorak, University of Alberta, Canada
                 - Introduction
                 - Background and terminology
                 - Incubation conditions used for studying biodegradation of fibers and films
                 - Sources of microorganisms and enzymes for laboratory incubations
                 - Analytical methods used to assess biodegradation of fibers and films
                 - Examples of types of bonds that are susceptible to enzymatic attack
                 - Future trends
                 - Acknowledgements
                 - References

                Bast fibres (flax, hemp, jute, ramie, kenaf, abaca)
                R Kozlowski, P Baraniecki and J Barriga-Bedoya, Institute of Natural Fibres, Poland
                 - Introduction
                 - Flax
-   Hemp
-   Jute
-   Ramie
-   Kenaf
-   Abaca
-   Comparison of fibre properties
-   References

Alginate fibres
P J Brown and J M Muri, Clemson University, USA.
 - Introduction
 - The chemical nature of alginate materials
 - Physical properties of alginate based materials
 - Industrial applications of alginates
 - Fabrication of alginates as useful flexible substrates in medical textile based products
 - Alginates in bioengineering
 - References

Cellulosic fibres and fabric processing
D Ciechañska, Institute of Chemical Fibres, Poland and P Nousiainen, Tampere University of
Technology, USA
 - Introduction
 - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
 - The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions on wood and cellulose
 - Biodegradability of cellulose fibres in textile blends
 - Biotechnology for manufacture and modification of cellulosic fibres
 - Enzyme applications in fabric and dyestuff processing
 - Hygienic and medical fibres
 - Future trends of cellulosic fibres
 - References

Lyocell fibres
P White, M Hayhurst, J Taylor and A Slater, Tencel Ltd, Derby, UK
 - Introduction
 - Process description
 - Lyocell sustainability
 - Lyocell fibre properties
 - Lyocell in textiles
 - Lyocell – a versatile, high performance fibre for nonwovens
 - Marketing
 - The future
 - Useful references for further information

Polylactic and acid fibres
D Farrington, Cargill-Dow, LLC, USA and R S Blackburn, University of Leeds, UK
 - Introduction
 - Chemistry and manufacture of PLA polymer resin
 - PLA fibre properties
 - Applications
 - Environmental sustainability
 - PLA fibres and the future
 - References

Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) and poly(caprolactane)
I Chodák, Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia, and R S Blackburn,
University of Leeds, UK
 - Introduction
 - PHA-based oriented structures
 - Poly(caprolactone)-based fibres
 - Structure of drawn fibers
 - Thermal properties
 - Enzymatic and hydrolytic degradation
 - Other biodegradable and sustainable polyesters
- Application of polyester-based biodegradable fibres
- Future trends and concluding remarks
- References

The route to synthetic silks
F Vollrath and A Sponner, Department of Zoology, UK
 - Introduction
 - Silk structures
 - Development of fibre: the feedstock
 - Development of fibre: Spinning
 - Performance characteristics
 - Applications
 - Future trends
 - Acknowledgments
 - References and sources of further information

Biodegradable natural fiber composites
A N Netravali, Cornell University, USA
 - Introduction
 - Biodegradable fibers
 - Biodegradable resins
 - Soy protein based green composites
 - Conclusion and future trends
 - Acknowledgments
 - References

Biodegradable nonwovens
G Bhat and H Rong, The University of Tennessee, USA
 - Introduction
 - Nonwoven fabrics
 - Fiber consumption in nonwovens
 - Web formation methods
 - Web bonding techniques
 - Technology and relative production rate
 - Recent research on biodegradable nonwovens
 - Applications of biodegradable nonwovens
 - Flushable nonwovens
 - Leading producers of nonwovens
 - Sources of further information and advice
 - References

Natural geotextiles
C Lawrence, University of Leeds, UK and B Collier, University of Tennessee, USA
 - Introduction
 - Fundamental aspects of geotextiles
 - Fibres used for natural geotextile products
 - Fibre extraction and preparation
 - Production of natural geotextile products
 - Measurement of the properties of natural geotextiles
 - References

Conversion of cellulose, chitin and chitosan to filaments with simple salt solutions
H S Whang and N Aminuddin, Fiber and Polymer Science Program, M Frey, Cornell University, S M
Hudson and J A Cuculo, Fiber and Polymer Science Program, USA
 - Introduction
 - Cellulose in liquid ammonia/ammonium thiocyanate solutions
 - Fibers from chitin and chitosan
 - Future trends
 - Sources of further information
 - References

Soya bean protein fibres – past, present and future
M M Brooks, University of Southampton, UK
            -   Introduction
            -   The soya bean plant
            -   Naming regenerated protein fibres
            -   The need for new fibre sources
            -   Generalised method for producing soya bean fibre in the mid-twentieth century
            -   Contemporary research into alternative protein fibre sources
            -   Contemporary methods for producing fibres from soya bean protein
            -   Fibre characteristics
            -   Identifying soya bean protein fibres
            -   Degradation behaviour
            -   A truly biodegradable and ecological fibre? Conclusion
            -   Acknowledgements
            -   References




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