Agriculture and Rural Land Use by zhangsshaohui123

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									       AGRICULTURE
   AND RURAL LAND USE….
• Things to realize….
• Crop products are BASED ON
  CLIMATE
• There are 2 primary methods of
  farming: subsistence and commercial
• Modern agriculture is becoming more
  industrialized and specialized
           A note about what we eat…
• There are 30,000
  species of plants on     • Of the 3000 fruits known
  earth –we eat about        to be consumable, we
  20…                        eat about 2 dozen of
                             them
• Specifically the big 3
  wheat, corn, rice        • Meats – we eat 3-4 of
  account for ½ of what      those available pork,
  we eat                     beef, chicken…
                           • Why do we settle for so
                             little when there is such
                             variety out there??
                           • Thank you to
                             AGRIBUSINESS!
                      INTRODUCTION
A. the deliberate tending of
    crops and livestock in order
    to produce food and fiber
B. Less than 2% of Americans
    are farmers – HOW MUCH
    OF 300 MILLION IS 2%?
    1. Agricultural production is
   at an all-time high
    2. Mechanization and farm D. Most food humans
   consolidation has forced        eat comes directly
   small farmers off the land      or indirectly from
                                   the soil
C. Culture dictates how land is
   divided and for what           1. Farming has been
   purposes                        the basis of
1. Islam and Judaism avoid         existence all over
                                   the world
   pork/Hindus do not consume
   beef
Key contribution of agriculture
is it allowed people to settle
permanently in one location with
the assurance that food would be
available
           The Agri-Geographers
• JohannVon Thunen – His model of agricultural land
  use was created before industrialization. He was
  German farmer and amateur economist
• Norman Borlaug – This Aggie prof created the Green
  Revolution and high yield grains.
• Esther Boserup – Says larger populations stimulate
  economic growth and farming will increase to meet
  pop. needs. (Sort of Anti-Malthus…)
• Walter Christaller – Central Place Theory, agricultural
  areas of are part of a ‘market region’, distances b/t
  settlements follows a regular pattern (hexagons)
• Colin Renfrew – Says agriculture centers helped to
  spread languages across the world.
            Terms for you….
• AGRIBUSINESS – set of economic and
  political relationships that organizes agro-food
  production from the development of seeds to
  the retailing and consumption of the
  agricultural product
• Example: Tyson, Conagra, Perdue
            Vertical integration
• A single firm takes    • Example: Conagra is an
  control of several       international
  stages in the            corporation that owns
  production process       grain companies,
  (fertilizers, seeds,     feedlots, meat-
  processing plant,        processing, ahd
  grocery store…).         wholesale distribution
                           facilities.
                         • Tyson (Why has
                           chicken become sooo
                           popular since the
                           1980’s???)
         Horizontal integration
• Process where
                        • What have been the
  smaller enterprises
                          implications of this
  are merged to
                          process in American
  create larger units
                          agriculture?
  (consolidating
  adjacent farms)       • What has protected
                          European farmers from
• Results in
                          the American scale of
  disappearance of
                          horizontal integration???
  small, family run
  farms.
                 Food chain
 • 5 central and connected agricultural sectors with 4
   contextual elements acting as external mediating
   forces on agricultural products.
5 Sectors                     4 External Mediating
• Inputs                      Forces
• Production
                              •State
• Product Processing
                              •International trade
• Distribution                •Physical environment
• Consumption                 •Credit and finance
               Food regime
Specific set of links
  that exist among      • What are
  food production and     agricultural
  consumption and         SUBSIDIES and
  capital investment      how do they affect
  and accumulation        farming and food
  opportunities           prices???
        AGRICULTURE
    AND RURAL LAND USE….
• Things to realize….
• Crop products are BASED ON CLIMATE
• There are 2 primary methods of farming:
  subsistence and commercial
• Modern agriculture is becoming more
  industrialized and specialized
     HUNTERS & GATHERERS
A. Only about 250,000 people throughout the world
   now
(San in Southern Africa, Aboriginial people of
   Australia, Native Americans of Brazil, Papua New
   Guinea tribes….)
B. Hunting is done with poisoned spears, bows &
   arrows, clubs, and sticks; may even poison a water
   supply and track the animals
C. Overcome great odds everyday for survival
1. Drought is the worst enemy
2. Must have a working knowledge of every berry,
   nut, root, seed, and beetle
D. Tools – from clubs to spears to axes, the
   controlled use of fire, baskets for collecting
   berries,
   primitive rafts for the fishermen, metal working
   – early evidence of copper, gold, and iron being
   hammered into arrowheads
I. FIRST AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION –
Plants/Seeds

A. 10,000-12,000 years ago, closely aligned with
  the declining Ice Age, accompanied by a modest
  population explosion

B. Hearths or source region of plant
  domestication and specific products – SEE
  CHAPTER 10!
• A. ANIMAL DOMESTICATION
• No firm date as to when domestication
  occurred
• Goats, pigs, and sheep rapidly incorporated
  into captivity
   SEAsia – pigs, water buffalo, chickens
   SAsia – cattle, elephant
   SWAsia – goat, sheep, camel
   Inner Asia – yak, horse, goat, sheep,
       reindeer
   Mesoamerica – llama, alpaca, pig, turkey

   ***Different species in different areas***
       B. DIFFUSION OF
        AGRICULTURE
 Blurred the original spatial patterns
Great emphasis on inhabited areas of Eurasia
 Less on Americas-Australia-Africa
Areas that had agriculture and domesticated
animals developed quicker
 C. SUBSISTENCE FARMING –
 growing only enough to survive
1. Shifting cultivation
   interpreted as
   slash-and-burn
   Seems less
   efficient
• But is less
   damaging to soil,
   Uses substantially
   less energy
           C. SUBSISTENCE FARMING
2. Alternatives – European powers
  sometimes in their zeal to help….
  A. forced subsistence farmers to sell excess
  thereby increasing cash reserves
  B. devote some land for cash crops
  (Ethiopian cotton, Brazilian coffee,
  Colombian tobacco, Australian wool,
  Argentinean beef)
  C. Conducted soil surveys, built irrigation
  systems, lent money for start up costs
             Resulting in…
1.    severe famine
2.    changing of the entire economic
    system to a more intensive farming
    and cash cropping
3. inequitable resource/land
    distribution system leading to a very
    wealthy , elite class and poor people
    being left behind
          D. SECOND AGRICULTURAL
                REVOLUTION
1. Agriculture                2. Productivity
  underwent significant         increased to meet
  change during the 17th        demand
  and 18th centuries          • Machines/tractors
                                doing the work
• tools & equipment, soil       instead of humans
  preparation,
                              • *von Thunen (1783-
  fertilization, crop care,     1850) Spatial Model
  techniques in                 of Farming (p 399)
  harvesting improved,
  food storage
    E. THIRD AGRICULTURAL
         REVOLUTION:
1. Also known as the      2. First experimented
   “Green Revolution”       with in the Philippines
• Laboratories and plant • Scientists crossed a
   nurseries                dwarf Chinese variety
• biotechnology and         of rice with an
   genetic engineering      Indonesian variety and
• higher yielding strains   got IT8
   of grain               • Bigger “head” of rice
                          • Stronger stem – would
                            not break
                          • Better yields
  3. Other crops
  • Wheat, corn, tomatoes, bananas
    have benefited
  • Methods for fattening livestock
    faster
4. Results
•famines have been abated
•But genetic products require more fertilization and
      pesticides
•Reduces the organic matter in the soil and leads to
      groundwater pollution
•Some farmers do not have access or money for
      genetic seeds and so they are at a
      competitive disadvantage

								
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