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Dutch Oven Cooking - Recreation

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									Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                                    1



    Adventist Youth Honors Answer
    Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking
                                                     Dutch Oven Cooking

                                            Recreation          Skill Level Unknown
                                      North American Division Year of Introduction: 2006


    Contents


    1. Earn the AY Cooking honor.
    The answers for the Cooking honor can be found in the Household Arts section of this wikibook.


    2. Give a brief history of Dutch ovens and their role in American history.
    The first Europeans coming to the Americas brought Dutch ovens with
    them, including Columbus, who had one listed on his manifest, and the
    Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth Rock.
    Dutch ovens were so highly prized in early American history, that
    Martha Washington has been said to have listed her Dutch ovens in her
    will.
    Lewis and Clark brought a Dutch oven with them on their overland
    expedition to the Pacific Ocean. The mountain men that followed them
    into the west used them for cooking and for trade with the Native
    Americans.
    Dutch ovens were also carried on the "chuck wagons" brought along
    on the cattle drives in the late 1800's.
    The Dutch oven shown here was owned by Mrs. Ott, of Petersburg,
    Illinois. It was featured in an article about Abraham Lincoln in
                                                                                     Dutch oven from a photograph made for
    McClure's Magazine [1] in 1896. "These Dutch ovens were in many               McClure's Magazine, January, 1896, Vol. VI. No.
    cases the only cooking utensils used by the early settlers. The meat,                               2
    vegetable, or bread was put into the pot, which was then placed in a
    bed of coals, and coals heaped on the lid."
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                               2


    3. Know the difference between a bread oven, a stew/meat oven, pot/stove top
    oven and a camp oven.
    • Bread ovens are four inches deep. They are more shallow than stew/meat ovens so that the heat from the lid will
      be closer to the bread.
    • Stew/meat ovens are five to seven inches deep.
    • Pot/stove-top ovens have no legs and are used on top of a stove.
    • Camp ovens have long legs so that coals may be heaped beneath them. They also have flanged lids so that coals
      may be heaped on top of them. Camp ovens are used outdoors in campfires, and sometimes indoors in a fireplace.


    4. In what way are ovens sized?
    Dutch ovens are sized by diameter, depth, or capacity:

                                                   Diameter Depth Capacity

                                                      8”            2 quarts.

                                                     10”            4 quarts.

                                                     12”            6 quarts.

                                                              12”   8 quarts.

                                                     14”            8 quarts.

                                                              14”   10 quarts.

                                                     16”            12 quarts.




    5. Know and demonstrate fire and Dutch oven handling safety and the proper
    use of equipment.
    Make sure you are dressed properly when handling Dutch ovens. A heavy apron, leather gloves, and shoes are
    essential. You should also have a fire extinguisher handy. Keep the area free from tripping hazards, and use lid lifters
    and lid stands. You will also need a shovel for moving the hot coals around. Check with local fire officials and get
    any required permits before building a campfire.


    6. What types of fuels are used to cook with an oven?
    1.   Wood
    2.   Charcoal
    3.   Natural gas
    4.   Propane
    5.   Electricity
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                              3


    7. What are the advantages of charcoal over wood as fuel?
    Charcoal briquettes are uniform in size, and are made from a single species of wood. Because of this, they burn more
    evenly, and thus, they produce heat more evenly. Wood on the other hand, comes in non-uniform sizes, and the type
    usually used as firewood is often of more than one species. As a result, it does not heat as evenly as charcoal does.


    8. How do you control temperature?
    The easiest way to control the temperature of a Dutch oven is by using the right number of charcoal briquettes for the
    desired temperature. In general, you should put one third of the total briquettes beneath the Dutch oven, and the
    remaining two-thirds on the lid. The number of briquettes required to achieve a temperature of 325°F (160°C) is
    twice the pot's diameter as measured in inches (or 8/10 times its diameter as measured in centimeters). So if you have
    a 12" (30 cm) pot, you will need 24 briquettes. Eight of them will go beneath the pot (one third of 24 is 8), and 16 go
    on the lid (two-thirds of 24 is 16). For higher temperatures, add three more briquettes - one to the bottom, two to the
    lid. Every time three briquettes are added, the temperature will increase by 25° to 30° F (14° to 16° C).
    Note that these numbers are only a rule-of-thumb. There are many other variables that can affect the temperature
    inside a Dutch oven, including the outside temperature, whether the oven is in the sun or shade, the amount of wind,
    and the amount of metal the oven is made from. You will need to experiment with your oven to master temperature
    control.

                                                    Number of Charcoal Briquettes

                                        Oven Diameter 300°F 325°F 350°F 375°F 400°F

                                        8 inches         12     15     18     21    24

                                        10 inches        18     21     24     27    30

                                        12 inches        21     24     27     30    33

                                        14 inches        24     27     30     33    36

                                        16 inches        30     33     36     39    41




    9. What do ashes do to the efficiency of the coals?
    Ash decreases the efficiency of the coals because it acts as an insulator. It should be brushed off with a small wisk
    broom often when cooking.


    10. If using wood, what types are best for cooking?
    In general, hardwoods such as oak, hickory, ash, and mesquite are better than softwoods such as pine. Be careful
    when using mesquite though, as it burns very hot. Hardwoods also produce less smoke than softwoods, and
    softwoods are more likely to leave a creosote residue on the oven.
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                                4


    11. Demonstrate how to properly season a new Dutch oven.
    New Dutch ovens are often coated with wax, and this must be removed as the first step in seasoning it. To do this,
    wash the Dutch oven (and the lid!) using hot soapy water inside and out, and rinse it thoroughly, also in hot water.
    Dry the oven with a towel. Then wipe the entire oven down with cooking oil or shortening (use a high quality
    cooking oil such as olive oil or vegetable oil). Be sure the coat all surfaces of the oven, inside and out, including the
    lid and the legs.
    The next step is to "bake" your Dutch oven upside-down for an hour at 350°F (175°C). Put the lid on top of the
    Dutch oven's legs when doing this. A regular kitchen oven can be used, but be warned - this will fill your house with
    smoke! Open two windows - one in the kitchen, and one elsewhere. Put a fan on the kitchen window sill to blow the
    air out of the kitchen. It would be better (for the occupants of the house) to do this on an outdoor gas barbecue grill
    (the kind with a cover). After one hour, turn off the heat and let the oven cool. When it cools, it is ready to use. Do
    not cook any acidic foods (such as tomatoes) the first two or three times after seasoning the oven, as this may break
    down the baked-on oil coating.


    12. Demonstrate how to properly clean a Dutch oven after each use.
    To clean the Dutch oven, simply wipe it down with a clean paper towel. If food is stuck to the oven, bring one or two
    cups of water to a boil in the oven and scrape the food off with a rubber spatula. Do not use soap, metal scouring
    pads, or metal utensils on a cast-iron Dutch oven or you will have to re-season it! It's OK to use soap on an
    aluminum Dutch oven.


    13. Demonstrate how to properly transport Dutch ovens.
    Transport your Dutch oven in a cardboard box, a wooden crate, or in a carrying case to protect it from damage.


    14. Demonstrate how to properly store a Dutch oven for a short term and long
    term.
    Use a paper towel to lightly coat the Dutch oven inside and out (including the legs and lid). Lay a single paper towel
    flat in the bottom of the oven. Fold a paper towel into a one-ich (2.5 cm) wide strip and place it on the rim of the
    Dutch oven to form a spacer so that the lid does not fit tightly. Be sure to use a whole paper towel. This is to allow
    air to circulate inside the oven and prevent the oil coating inside the oven from becoming rancid. If the coating does
    become rancid, you will need to strip it and re-season it. To strip an oven, place it upside-down in a self-cleaning
    kitchen oven with the lid placed on top of the legs. Set the kitchen oven on self clean for two hours. Do not cook
    food in a rancid oven, or you will end up with rancid-tasting food! Do not store the Dutch oven in a damp area.


    15. Cook one of each category using Dutch ovens:
    We include at least one recipe for each category here, but if you have a favorite, please feel free to add it.


    Soup/Stew
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                                                          5


                                                                      Vegetarian Chili

               Ingredients                                                                 Procedure

   •    1 pound Hamburger Substitute      1. Spray the inside of the Dutch Oven and the underside of the lid with Cooking Spray.
   •    1 Bell Pepper (red, green, or     2. Peel the onion and slice it into small pieces.
        yellow)                           3. Cut up the bell pepper, discarding the core and the seeds.
   •    2 cups water                      4. Melt the butter in the Dutch Oven and sauté the onion and pepper until the onion is transparent.
   •    2 tablespoons Chili Powder        5. Add the water, beans, tomatoes, hamburger substitute, and chili powder and stir well.
   •    1 15 oz can Kidney Beans          6. Cover, and place the Dutch Oven on a bed of coals, or suspend on a tripod over a campfire. There is no
   •    1 large Onion                        need to put coals on the lid.
   •    2 tablespoons Butter              7. Heat for about 30 minutes, stirring often.
   •    1 30 oz can diced Tomatoes        Serves 6-8
   •    Cooking spray



       Casserole

                                                                   Green Bean Casserole

              Ingredients                                                                 Procedure

   •    10 3/4 oz can Condensed         1. Spray the inside of the Dutch Oven and the underside of the lid with Cooking Spray.
        Cream of Mushroom Soup          2. Drain the Green Beans.
   •    2 15 oz cans of cut Green       3. Combine the Cream of Mushroom Soup, Green Beans, Milk, Pepper, and half the French-fried Onions in the
        Beans                              Dutch Oven. Mix well with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon (a rubber spatula also works well for getting all
   •    1/2 cup Milk                       the soup out of the can).
   •    1/2 teaspoon Black Pepper       4. Bake for about 30 minutes at 350°F, rotating the lid and the oven every ten minutes.
   •    1 1/3 cups French-fried         5. Remove the lid from the Dutch Oven and add the remaining French-fried Onions to the top of the casserole.
        Onions                          6. Return the lid to the Dutch Oven and bake for an additional five minutes.
   •    Cooking spray                   Serves 6



       Vegetable

                                                                     Butternut Squash

           Ingredients                                                                 Procedure

   •    1 Butternut Squash     1. Spray the inside of a Dutch Oven and the underside of the lid with cooking spray.
   •    4 tablespoons Maple    2. Slice the butternut squash in half lengthwise.
        Syrup                  3. Using a spoon, scoop out the seeds and discard them.
   •    4 tablespoons Butter   4. Place the squash halves in the dutch oven, cut side up. You may have to place the large end of one half next to the
   •    Cooking Spray             small end of the other to make them fit.
                               5. Slice the butter in to pats and place them on the squash halves.
                               6. Put the lid on and bake for 45 minutes at 350°F.
                               7. Remove the squashes from the dutch oven and drizzle maple syrup on them.
                               Serves 2-4



       Bread
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                                                           6


                                                                        White Bread

        Ingredients                                                                Procedure

   •    1/2 cup milk    1. Heat the milk until it forms a skim on the surface (it should not boil).
   •    3 Tbsp butter   2. Add the butter, salt, and sugar to the milk and mix with a whisk until the butter melts.
   •    2 tsp salt      3. In a mixing bowl, dissolve the yeast in the water (the water must be very warm). The whisk helps here too.
   •    1/4 cup sugar   4. Combine the milk mixture with the water, mix with the whisk.
   •    1 1/2 cups      5. Put the whisk aside.
        very warm       6. Add the flour to the liquid. Powder your hands with flour and mix the dough with your hands, or use a dough hook at low
        water              speed for one minute. As you mix the flour, it should just clean off the sides of the mixing bowl. Add more water or more
   •    1 package          flour to get the dough to the right consistency. It works best if the dough is just dry enough to handle with floured hands.
        yeast           7. If using a dough hook, knead for two more minutes at the next speed level. Otherwise, sprinkle flour the the work surface,
   •    3 1/2 cups         dump the dough ball onto it and knead vigorously for five minutes. Kneading is done by folding the dough in half,
        bread flour        flattening, rotating 90°, and repeating over and over again.
   •    cooking spray   8. Grease the mixing bowl with cooking spray.
                        9. Form the dough into a large ball and return it to the mixing bowl, smooth side down. Turn the dough ball over until all sides
                           are coated with the cooking spray. Leave the smooth side up.
                        10. Cover the dough in the mixing bowl with cellophane.
                        11. Allow dough to rise for about an hour. It should double in size.
                        12. Dump the dough ball onto a clean work surface, flatten, and cut in half.
                        13. Refrigerate one half, or bake both halves in two Dutch ovens.
                        14. Spray the inside of the Dutch Oven and the underside of the lid with Cooking Spray.
                        15. Place the dough ball in the Dutch Oven, smooth side up and centered. The sides of the dough ball should not touch the
                           sides of the oven.
                        16. Bake at 375°F for 25 to 30 minutes.
                        17. Spread butter on the top surface of the loaf and allow it to cool five minutes before cutting.
                        Serves 8-10.



       Dessert

                                                                      Peach Cobbler

               Ingredients                                                                 Procedure

   •    cooking spray                    1.   Spray the inside of the Dutch Oven and the underside of the lid with cooking spray.
   •    29 oz can peaches                2.   Pour the peaches (syrup and all) into the dutch oven.
   •    Box of yellow cake mix           3.   Sprinkle the cake mix over the top
   •    1 Tbsp butter                    4.   Place pats of butter on top of the cake mix.
                                         5.   Cover, and bake for about 30 minutes at 350°F.
                                         Serves 6-8
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking                                                             7


    16. Cook with the lid only as a griddle.
    The lid can be used as a griddle if it is turned upside-down and placed on a heat source. The advantage of this
    technique is that the lid is slightly bowl-shaped, so even if it is not perfectly level, whatever you are cooking
    (pancakes anyone?) tends to stay in the griddle instead of spilling out.


    17. Name the six different ways to cook in a Dutch oven.
    You can use a Dutch oven for frying, deep frying, baking, boiling, stewing, and roasting.


    18. What is meant by stack cooking?
    Stack cooking is the practice of stacking up to four Dutch ovens one on top of another, and cooking a different item
    in each one. This conserves fuel, but one must be very careful to not overturn the stack or all of the food will be
    ruined. A disadvantage of stack cooking is that if the bottom oven needs to be checked, all the ones on top of it must
    be moved first.
    In non-stack Dutch oven cooking, it is normal to rotate the oven every 10 to 15 minutes so that the heat is evenly
    distributed. However, this is not practical in stack cooking. Instead, it suffices to simply move the coals around on
    each layer.


    References
    • www.pathfinderpathways.com [2]
    • Byron's Dutch Oven Cooking Page [3]


    References
    [1] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 13637
    [2] http:/ / www. pathfinderpathways. com/ dutch_oven_cooking. htm
    [3] http:/ / papadutch. home. comcast. net/
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                      8



    Article Sources and Contributors
    Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Dutch Oven Cooking  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2053274  Contributors: Avicennasis, Ewen, Herbythyme, Jguk,
    Jomegat




    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    Image:Dutch_Oven_-McClures_Magazine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dutch_Oven_-McClures_Magazine.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
    Amada44, Anna Frodesiak, BWikipedianer0001, Conscious, Howcheng, Jomegat, NJR ZA, Webaware




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