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المصباح المنير في غريب الشرح الكبير

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المصباح المنير في غريب الشرح الكبير Powered By Docstoc
					    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ‬


       ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬




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‫1‬      ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬
                                                                                           ‫- ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ -‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺏ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺍﻷ ﱡ‬
‫ﻭﺏ‬       ‫ﺏ‬                                    ‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻋﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻪ ﺍﻟ ّﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻷ ﱡ ﻟﻠﺪ ﱠﺍ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                             ‫ﺑ ﺑ ﺑ ﺑ ﺑﺔ‬               ‫ﻳﺆﺏ‬       ‫ﺮ‬      ‫ﺏ‬
  ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ " ﺃ ﱠ " ﺍﻟ ّﺟﻞ " َ ُ ﱡ " " ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃ َﺎًﺎ ﻭﺃ َﺎَ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻬﻴﺄ ﻟﻠﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﻭﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷ ﱡ ﻷﻧﻪ  ُﻌ ّ ﺯﺍﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﺸﺘﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻓ ُﻌ  ‬
 ‫ﺠ ﻞ‬                       ‫ﻳ ﺪ‬       ‫ﺏ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬                                                     ‫ﻹﺑ ﻥ‬                 ‫ﺏ‬
 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻷ ّ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﱠﺎ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎ  ‬
   ‫" ﺇّﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻭﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ  َ َﺯْ ُ ُ  ِﻌْﻼ ٌ ﻭَﺻْ ِ ﱠ ٌ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻓﻮﺯﻧ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﻓﻮ ﻧﻪ ﻓ ﻥ ﺃ ﻠﻴﺔ‬                                                             ‫ِﺑ ﻥ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﻓﻌ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ِ ﱠﺎﻝ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻷَ ﺪ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍ َﺑ ُ‬
‫ﺑُ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻫْﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻫْﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻤﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ﱡ ﱠﺎﻧ ﱡ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻻ ﺃ َ ﱢ ُ ُ " ﺃﺑﺪً " ﻓﺎﻷ ُ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬         ‫ﺍ‬      ‫ﻛﻠﻤﻪ‬                 ‫ﺮﻣ ﻲ‬                                     ‫ﺪ‬             ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬           ‫ﺃﺑ ﺪ‬                      ‫ﺑﺩ‬                             ‫ﻟ ﺪ ﻜﻠ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ َ ُﻥْ ﺗ َ ﱠﻤْﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﺮﻙ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " ََ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﺑﺪ‬                  ‫ﺑﺪ‬                      ‫ﺃﺑ ﺩ‬       ‫ﺑﺪ‬           ‫ﻳ ﺑﺪ‬               ‫ﺑﺑ‬
 ‫َﺎَﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ " َﺄِْ ُ " ﻭ " ﻳﺄ ُ ُ " " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻧﻔﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﺶ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " ﺃَ َﺕ "‬
‫ﺶ‬                       ‫ﻔﺮﺱ‬                    ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻮﺵ ﻧﻔﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ َﺍِ ٌ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ ﺍﻟﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻮﺣ  ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ " َﻴْ ُ ﺍ َ َﺍِﺪ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ ُ ِ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻼﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬                                  ‫ﻤﻀﻲ‬                    ‫ﻗ ﺪ ﻷﻭ ﺑ‬
                                                  ‫ﻭ ﺑﺪ ﺒ‬                 ‫ﻳ ﺪﻕ‬
                              ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻸﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ َ ِ ّ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ " ﺃ َﺍِ ُ " ﻟ ُﻌﺪ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ََﺮْ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺃﺑ ﺕ‬
       ‫ﻭﺯ ﻥ‬       ‫ﻷﺑ‬                        ‫ﺗ ﺮ‬         ‫ﺃﺑ ﺗﻪ‬        ‫ﻘ ﺘ‬               ‫ﺑﺑ‬      ‫ﱠ ﻞﺃﺮ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤْ َ َﺑْ ًﺍ ﻣﻦ َﺎَﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻟ ﱠﺤْ ُﻪ " ﻭّﱠﺮْ ُ ُ " " َﺄْﺑﻴ ًﺍ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ " ﻭﺍ َ ُﻮﺭ " ِ َﺍ  ‬
   ‫ﺭ‬            ‫ﻹﺑ ﺭ‬             ‫ﻳﺆﺑ ﻄ ﻌ‬             ‫ﻨ ﻠﺔ‬                   ‫ﻹﺑ ﺭ‬           ‫ﻳﺆﺑ‬
   ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ  ُ َﱠﺮ ﺑﻪ " ﻭﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺨْ َ ُ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ  ُ َﱠﺮ ﺑ َﻠْ ِﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺼﺪ  ‬
        ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭ " ﺗﺄﱠﺮ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ " ُ َﱠﺮ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﺍﻟ ﱢﺠﺴﺘﺎﻧ ّ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎ  ‬
        ‫ﺏ‬        ‫ﻲ‬      ‫ﺴ‬                    ‫ﻳﺆﺑ‬                    ‫ﺑ‬
        ‫ﻪ‬     ‫ﻤ‬     ‫ﺬﻛ ﻓ ﻴ ﺗ‬           ‫ﻳﺆﺑﺮ‬                    ‫ﻘ‬               ‫ﺸﻖ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧْ َ ﱠ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻮﺭ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺷ ﱠﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﻴﻦ " ُ َﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟ ﱠ َﺮ  َ ُﺆَْﻰ ﺑﺸ َﺎﺭﻳﺨ  ‬
    ‫ﺘ ﺢ‬                     ‫ﺦ‬             ‫ﺦ ﻔﺤ‬             ‫ﻃﺤ‬        ‫ﻓﺘ ﻔﺾ ﻄﻴ ﻏ ﻫ‬
‫َ ُﻨْ َ ُ ﻓﻴ ِ ُﺮ  ُﺒﺎﺭ ُﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ  َ ِﻴﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻳ ِ ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻳ ِ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠﻘﻴ ُ ﻭ "‬
                          ‫ﺳ ﺭﺓ ﺳﺪ‬              ‫ﺇﺑﺮ‬           ‫ﻤ ﻴ ﻂ ﺨﻴ ﻁ‬                         ‫ﻹ ﺮﺓ‬
                         ‫ﺍ ِﺑْ َ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟ ِﺨْ َ ُ ﻭﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ِﺪْ َ ٍ ﻭ ِ َﺭ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍ ِﺑْ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻹﻂ‬
   ‫ﻁ‬       ‫ﺭﻓ‬               ‫ﻹﻂ‬              ‫ﻹﻂ‬                        ‫ﻳ ﺬﻛ‬
   ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﺡ ﻭ ُ َ ّﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍ ِﺑْ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ " ﺍ ِﺑْ ُ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ  َ َﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻮ  ‬
                                   ‫ﺣﺘﻰ َ َﻗﺖْ " ِﺑْ ُﻪ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁَﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ِﻤْ ٍ ﻭﺃﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ َﺰْ ُ ُ‬
                                   ‫ﻳ ﻋﻢ‬             ‫ﺣ ﻞ‬          ‫ﺑﻁ‬                ‫ﺇﻄ‬         ‫ﺑﺮ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﺗﺄﺑﻂ‬
  ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺑﻞ " ﻭََﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺟﻌﻠ  ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺇﻄ‬
                                                                                           ‫" ﺗﺤﺖ " ِﺑْ ِﻪ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺃﺑﻖ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َِ َ‬


   ‫2‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺮ‬                                                                    ‫ﺃﻘ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ " َﺑْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺻﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴ  ‬
                          ‫ﻷﻖ‬                               ‫ﻴ‬           ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﺧﻮﻑ ﻭﻻ ﻛ ّ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗّﺪﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ " ﺍ َﺑْ ُ " ﻫﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﻭ "‬
                         ‫ﻔ‬               ‫ﺃﺑ ﻕ‬             ‫ﺑﻖ‬                          ‫ﻹﺑ ﻕ‬
                       ‫ﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻛ ّﺎﺭ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍ ِﺑ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻹﻞ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻤﺎ   ‬
‫ﻒ‬                      ‫ﺳ‬       ‫ﺃﺑ ﻠﺔ ﻏ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻐﺮ ﻧﺤﻮ " َُﻴْ َ ٍ " ﻭ ُﻨﻴﻤﺔ ﻭ ُﻤﻊ ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴ  ‬
                                                           ‫ﻨ‬
                                                         ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺍﻟّﺠﻢ‬
                                                      ‫ﻨﺖ ﻹ ﻞ‬             ‫ﻥ‬     ‫ﺒ‬     ‫ﻹﻞ ﺗ ﻠ‬
                                         ‫" ﻭﺍ ِﺑْ ُ ﻻ َﺼْ ُﺢ ﻟﻠ ُﺴْﺘﺎ ِ ... ﻭﺣ ﱠ ِ ﺍ ِﺑْ ُ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﻥ "‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁﺑﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑﻴ ٌ " ِ َﺍﻥ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ  ُﱢﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻄﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻄﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺬﻟ  ‬
    ‫ﻚ‬                                       ‫ﺛﻨ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻞ ﻭﺯ‬            ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬      ‫ﻓﻌ‬                                     ‫ﻹﻞ‬
 ‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﺑﻘﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻏﻨﺎﻡ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑ ُ " ﺑﻨﺎء ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺊ ﻋﻠﻰ  ِ ِﻞ ﺑﻜﺴ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء ﺇﻻ ﺣﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺇﺑﻞ ﻭ ِﺒﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ َ َﺢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ِﻠْ  ‬
‫ﺰ‬
‫ﺑ ٌ‬                                ‫ﻘﻠ‬           ‫ﺣ‬
    ‫ﻧ ﺮ ﻷﺑ ﻠ‬
 ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ " ﻭَﻬْ ُ ﺍ ُ ُّﺔ "‬
                        ‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻳﻮﻡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻻﺑﻦ‬
  ‫ﺐ‬      ‫ﻣﻌ ﺏ‬                                             ‫ﺑﻨﻮ‬
  ‫ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ " َ َ َ " ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻭﺍﻵﺑﻨﻮﺱ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺧﺸﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ  ُ ﱠﺮ ٌ ﻭﻳﺠﻠ  ‬
                                ‫ﻨﺲ‬                        ‫ﺳﺳ‬
             ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ  َﺄْ َﻢ ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺑ ُ ُ ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻷﺏ‬
‫ﻰ‬                           ‫ﺑء‬               ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻦ‬       ‫ﻨ‬                       ‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻻ ُﻪ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺜّﻰ " ََ َﻳْ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁَﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠ  ‬
 ‫ء‬                                          ‫ﺃ‬                        ‫ﻐ ﺭﺩ‬                 ‫ﺠﺪ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟ َ ﱢ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺻ ّﺮ  ُ ّﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ " ُﺑﻴْﻮ " ﻓﺘﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻓﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻳﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﺗﺪﻏﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ " َُ ﱞ " ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ  ُﺸﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻋﻮﺿﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭ  ‬
 ‫ﻑ‬                         ‫ﺗ‬                          ‫ﺃﺑﻲ‬
            ‫ﺃﺑ ﻩ‬            ‫ﺃﺑ ﻩ‬              ‫ﺎ‬                           ‫ﻷﺏ‬
  ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍ َ ﱡ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘً ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ " ََﺎ ُ " ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ " ََﺎ ُ " ﻭﻣﺮﺭﺕ "‬
   ‫ﺔ‬                                                                        ‫ﺑﺄﺑ ﻩ‬
   ‫ََِﺎ ُ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻳﺪ ﻭﺩﻡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
             ‫ﺑﺄﺑ ﻪ‬            ‫ﺃﺑ ﻩ‬              ‫ﺑ‬                             ‫ﺒ‬
       ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻜ ﱠﺮ ﺃﻋﺮﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ " ﺃ ُﻮﻩ " ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ " ََﺎ ُ " ﻭﻣﺮﺭﺕ " َِِﻴ ِ " ﻭ "‬
    ‫ﻝ‬                         ‫ﻮ‬                               ‫ﻷﺏ‬                ‫ﻷﺑﻮﺓ‬
    ‫ﺍ ُ ُ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ " ﺍ َ ِ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﺧ ّﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎ  ‬
              ‫ﻭﺩ‬                                           ‫ﻷ ء ﻭ‬               ‫ﻮ ﺮﺿ‬
            ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺧ ّﺓ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎﻉ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺑْﻮﺍ ُ " ِﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ  َ ّﺍﻥ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺃﺑ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََﻰ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺄَْﻰ " " َِﺎ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭ " َِﺎء ً " ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺃﺑ ﱞ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋ  ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬           ‫ﻲ‬          ‫ﺏ‬                 ‫ﺇﺑ ﺓ‬       ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺇﺑ ء‬       ‫ﻳﺑ‬
  ‫ﻡ‬                                                ‫ﺫ‬                   ‫ﺄﺑ‬
  ‫ﻭﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻭ " ﺗَﱠﻰ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺅﻩ ﺷﺎ ّ ﻷﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻼ  ‬
    ‫ﱠ‬
    ‫ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺄ ِ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﺇﻻ ﺃﺑﻰ ﻳﺄﺑﻰ ﻭﻋ ّ َ َ ّ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺃ ّ ﺍﻟﺸﻌ ُ ََ ّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘ  ‬
    ‫ﻒ‬              ‫ﺮ ﻳﺄﺙ‬       ‫ﺙ‬           ‫ﺾ ﻳﻌﺾ‬                                ‫ﺕ‬


   ‫3‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺍ‬              ‫ﺴﻰ‬            ‫ﻴ‬                  ‫ﺩ ﺩ‬
  ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭ ﱠ ﻳﻮ ﱡ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻃّﺊ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧ ِ َ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺒﻮ ‬
                                                                                ‫ﻧﺴ ﻳ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ َ َﻰ َﻨْﺴﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ﻴﻮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﺑْ ُ َﺭْﺩ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬
  ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺩﺍ  ‬
    ‫ﻭ ﺩ‬            ‫ﺃﺑ ﻭ ﺩ‬
    ‫" ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " ََﺎ  َﺭْ ُ " ﻭ " ﺑﺎ َﺭْ ُ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺃﺗﻢ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َِ َ‬
                                       ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬              ‫ﺃﺗ ﻣ‬       ‫ﻳ ﺗﻢ‬          ‫ﻳ ﺗﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ " َﺄِْ ُ " ﻭ " َﺄْ ُ ُ " " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ َ ِ َ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ "‬
    ‫ﺮ ﻣ ﺗﻢ‬                                                           ‫ﻣ ﻌ‬          ‫َﻢ‬
  ‫ﻣﺄْﺗ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ  َﻔْ َﻞ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎء ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻌﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷ ّ " َﺄَْ ٌ "‬
        ‫ﻨ‬                                            ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤ ّ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺨﺼﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﻛّﺎ ﻓﻲ "‬
                                                                   ‫ﻨ ﺣﺘ‬                     ‫ﻣ َﻢ‬
                                                                  ‫َﺄْﺗ ِ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣ َﺎ َ ِﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻷﺗ ﻥ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ََﺎ ُ‬
‫ﺃ ﻨ ِ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ََﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ " ﺁ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  َﻨﺎﻕ ﻭَﻋْ ُ  ‬
‫ﻖ‬           ‫ﻋ‬        ‫ﺗﻦ‬                   ‫ﺃﺗ ﻧﺔ‬
   ‫ﺠﺼ ﺔ‬          ‫ﻤ‬                               ‫ﻷﺗ ﻥ‬                  ‫ﺃﺗ ﻦ‬
   ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻠﺤ ّﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟ َ ّﺎﺻ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                   ‫ﻘ‬                                           ‫ﺃﺗ ﺗ ﻦ‬
 ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ " ََﺎِﻴ َ " ﺑﺘﺎءﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜ ّﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺨﻔﻔ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﺃﺗ ﺗ ﻦ‬                                                      ‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﱠﺪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺟﻤﻌﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ " ََﺎِﻴ َ " ﻭ " ﺃﺗ َ "‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺃﺗ ﻧ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ " ُ ُﻮًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﺗ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ََﻰ‬
    ‫ﻝ‬                          ‫ﺃﺗ ﺘﻪ‬                  ‫ﻹﻴﻥ‬                   ‫ﺃﻴ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " ﻳﺄﺗﻲ " " َﺗْ ًﺎ " ﺟﺎء ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺗْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " ََﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻗﺎ  ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                             ‫ﻌ ﻜ‬               ‫ﻟ ﻨ ﺴﻚ‬
                                                          ‫" ... ﻓﺎﺣﺘﻞْ ِ َﻔْ ِ َ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺗْﻲ ﺍﻟ َﺴْ َﺮ "‬
                                                        ‫ﺃﺗ‬                ‫ﺃﻮ‬         ‫ﻳﺗ‬         ‫ﺃﺗ‬
                                                       ‫" ﻭ " ََﺎ " " َﺄْ ُﻮ " " َﺗْ ًﺍ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " ََﻰ‬
           ‫ﺃﺗ‬        ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺃﺗ‬          ‫ﻹ‬           ‫ﻤﺗ‬                             ‫ﺇﻴﻧ‬
‫ ِﺗْ َﺎًﺎ " ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄَْﻰ " ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍ ِﺗْﻴﺎﻥ ﻭ " ََﻰ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣ ﱠ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ََﻰ " " ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ‬
       ‫ﺍ‬                                ‫ﺃﺗ ﻲ‬              ‫ﺕ‬       ‫ﺃﺗ ﻩ‬
       ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻪ ﻭ " ََﺎ ُ " " ﺁ ٍ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻭ " ُِ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺇﺫ ‬
‫ﺗﻤ ّﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﻓﺄﺧﻄﺄ ﻭ " ََﻰ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻬ  ‬
‫ﻮ‬                                         ‫ﺃﺗ‬                               ‫ﺴ‬
     ‫ﺃﺗ ﻲ‬                                        ‫ﺴ‬                        ‫ﺃﺗ ﻲ‬
   ‫" َِ ﱞ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠ ّﻴﻞ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ " َِ ﱞ "‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                           ‫ﻞ ﻲ ﺪ ﺃﺗﻲ‬
                                                                         ‫" ... ﺳﻴ ٌ ﺃﺗ ﱡ ﻣ ّﺓ َِ ﱡ "‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﻱ‬        ‫ﻞ‬          ‫ﻣ‬        ‫ﻣﺘء‬                                     ‫ﻷﺗ ء‬
‫ﻭ " ﺍ ََﺎ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ " ِﻴ َﺎ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ  ِﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺻ ُ " ﻣﻴﺘﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻭ " ﻣﻴﺘﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﻠ ﺎ‬       ‫ﻝ‬
       ‫" ﻓﻘﻠﺐ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﻟﺘﻄﺮﻓﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻣﺤﻼ ٍ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺤ ﱡﻬ ‬
          ‫ﺟ ﻱ‬                            ‫ﺮ‬       ‫ﻣﺘء‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ " ِﻴْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻵﺧ ِ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ  َﺮْ ُ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ "‬


   ‫4‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
      ‫ﺗ‬       ‫ﺃﺗ ﺗﻪ‬                        ‫ﺄﺗ‬                            ‫ﺗﺄﺗ‬            ‫ﻣﺘء‬
‫ِﻴ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " ََﱠﻰ " ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﺴﻬﻞ ﻭﺗﻬﻴﺄ ﻭ " ﺗَﱠﻰ " ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺗﺮﻓﻖ ﻭ " ََﻮْ ُ ُ " " ﺁ ُﻮﻩ " "‬
‫َِﺎ َ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺭﺷﻮﺗﻪ ﻭ " ﺁَﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻣﺎﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺁﺗﻴْ ُ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎَﺐ " ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻄﻄ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬                  ‫ﻤﻜ ﺗ‬       ‫َﺖ‬                ‫ﺪ‬            ‫ﺗ ﺘﻪ‬                        ‫ﺇﺗ ﻭ ﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺠﻮﻣﻪ ﻭ " ﺁﺗﻴ ُﻪ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ  ُﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻭ ‬
‫ﺍ‬              ‫ﺗ‬                                             ‫ﺘ‬
                     ‫ﺔ‬                         ‫ﻣﻮ ﺗ ﺓ‬                ‫ﻭ ﺗ ﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺍَﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ " ُ َﺍَﺎ ً " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨ ِ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ََﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻷﺛ ﺙ‬
                          ‫ﺃﺛ ﺛﺔ‬                               ‫ﺃﺛ ﺛﺔ‬
          ‫ﻣﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ََﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭ " ََﺎَ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺟﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺛْ َﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ " َﺛْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻧﻘﻠﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺛ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ " َﺄْ ُﻮﺭ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻘﻮ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬             ‫ﻣﺛ‬                              ‫ﻷﺮ‬                             ‫ﺃﺮ‬
   ‫ﺛﺭ‬                            ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬                    ‫ﺗ‬                      ‫ﻤ ﺛﺮ‬
 ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ َﺄَْ َﺓ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ  ُﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭ " ََ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁَﺎ ٌ "‬
  ‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﺇﺮ‬                   ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬              ‫ﻷﺛﺮ‬            ‫ﻷﺛ ﺭ ﺓ‬
  ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " ﺍ ََﺎ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ " ﺍ ََ ِ " ﻭﺟﺌﺖ ﻓﻲ " ََ َﻩ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ِﺛْ َﺓ " ﺑﻜﺴ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺒﻌﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻭ " ﺁَﺮْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻓﻀﻠﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄَْ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺍﺳﺘﺒ ﱠ ﺑ  ‬
‫ﺪ ﻪ‬                 ‫ﺘ ﺛﺮ‬                 ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﺛ ﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﻱ‬                  ‫ﺃﺛﺮ‬                ‫ﺗﺛﺮ‬                ‫ﺃﺛ‬                 ‫ﻷﺛﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ ََ َﺓ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭ " َﱠﺮْﺕ " ﻓﻴﻪ " َﺄِْﻴ ًﺍ " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ " ََ ًﺍ " ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺔ " َ ََّ َ " ﺃ  ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﻧﻔﻌﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ َﺛْ ُ‬
     ‫ﺃﻠ‬                       ‫َ ﻠﺔ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﻠﺔ‬
  ‫ﺷﺠﺮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻻ ﺛﻤﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﺛْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮﺕ " ﺍﻷﺛْ َ ُ " ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻧﺤﺖ " َﺛْ َﺔ "‬
       ‫ﺃﺛ ﻝ ﻭ ﻥ‬                                  ‫ﺃ ﻠﺘ‬
       ‫ﻓﻼﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺤﺖ " َﺛْ َ ُﻪ " ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻭ " َُﺎ ٌ " ِﺯﺍ  ‬
                                                                       ‫ﻤ‬
                                                                ‫ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳ ّﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺃﺛﻢ‬
           ‫ﺃﺛ ﻡ‬                   ‫ﺛﻢ‬                             ‫ﻹ‬                     ‫ﺃﺛﻤ‬
   ‫ََ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺛْﻢ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ " َّﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " "‬
                                  ‫ﺃﻤ‬        ‫ﺃﺛ ﺘﻪ‬                     ‫ﺪ‬       ‫ﺃﺛ ﻡ‬         ‫ﺃ ِﻢ‬
  ‫َﺛﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ََﻤْ ُ ُ " " َﺛْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ "‬
 ‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﺃﺛ ﺖ‬                ‫ﺗﺛﻤ‬          ‫ﺃﺛ ﺘ‬                               ‫ﺛ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺛﻤ‬
 ‫ﺁِ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ﺁَﻤْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﺃﻭﻗﻌﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭ " َﱠﻤْ ُﻪ " " َﺄِْﻴ ًﺎ " ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ " َِ ﻤْ َ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺪﺖ‬                  ‫ﺬﺑ ﺘ‬      ‫ﺪ ﺘ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺻ ﱠﻗْ ُﻪ ﻭﻛ ّ ُ ُﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺻ َﻗْ َ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬                        ‫ﻒ‬      ‫ﺗﺄﺛ‬                              ‫ﻷﺛ ﻡ‬
 ‫ﺃﻭ ﻛﺬﺑﺖ ﻭ " ﺍ ََﺎ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺛﻢ ﻭﺟﺰﺍﺅﻩ ﻭ " ََّﻢ " ﻛ ّ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺛﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺝ ﺇﺫ ‬
                                                              ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺝ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﺝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﻔﻆ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻨ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻻﺛْ َﺎﻥ‬
                                           ‫ﺛ ﻨﻰ‬
                                  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ‬
                                                                                              ‫ء ﺃﺟ ﺝ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻣﺎ ٌ ُ َﺎ ٌ‬
                 ‫ﺃ ﺠ‬             ‫ﺆﺝ‬              ‫ﺃﺟﺖ‬                                    ‫ﺮ‬
    ‫ﻣ ّ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ِ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ " ﺗ ُ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " َﺟﻴ ًﺎ " ﺗﻮﻗﺪﺕ ﻭ "‬
    ‫ﻣﺟ ﺝ‬                       ‫ﻳﺟ ﺝ‬                                ‫ﻣﺟ ﺝ ﻣ‬               ‫ﻳﺟ ﺝ‬
  ‫َﺄْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ُ " ﺃ ّﺘﺎﻥ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ُ "‬
  ‫ﻰ‬                                                 ‫ﺟ‬
  ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻺﻧﺎﺙ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ّﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻓﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻠ  ‬


   ‫5‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﺕ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﻭﺕ ﻭﺩﺍﻭ  ‬
        ‫ﻢ‬
        ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻤﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺗ  ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺟﺰﺍ  ‬
                                                  ‫ﻓﻴﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﻭﻣﺄﺟﻮﺝ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﺟﺰء ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺟ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃ َﺮ ﻩ‬
‫ﻭ‬                      ‫ﺪ‬         ‫ﺟﺮ‬                                              ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬
‫ﺍﷲ " َﺟْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻛﻌﺐ ﻭ " ﺁ َ َﻩ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺛﺎﺑﻪ   ‬
                            ‫ﺟﺕ‬                                                    ‫َﺟ ﺕ‬
   ‫" ﺃ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺨﺸﺮﻱ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ "‬
         ‫ﺔ‬                    ‫ﻣﺆ ﺟﺮﺓ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺗﻪ‬                        ‫ﻣﺆ ﺟﺮ‬                ‫ﺟﺮ‬
         ‫ﻣﺆ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ُ َﺍ ِ ٌ " ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ ُ " " ُ َﺍ َ َ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬
       ‫ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺪﺗﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﻭﻷﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﺭﻋﺔ ﺇﻧﻤ ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬             ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﻓﺟ ﺕ‬                       ‫ﻣﺆ ﺟﺮ‬
   ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭ " ُ َﺍ َ َﺓ " ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ " َﺂ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒ َ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻣ  ‬
        ‫ﺮ‬         ‫ﻣﺆ ﺟﺮﺓ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺗﻪ‬                               ‫ﺟﺕ‬
        ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ ُ " " ُ َﺍ َ َ ً " ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼ  ‬
         ‫ﺟ ﺗﻪ‬                                       ‫ﻣ ﺟﺮ‬           ‫ﺟ ﺗﻪ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺆ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
 ‫ﻯ‬                         ‫ﻣﺆ ﺟﺮ‬                       ‫ﻣ ﻌ‬        ‫ﺖ‬                  ‫ﻣ ْﺟﺮ‬
 ‫ُﺆ َ ٌ " ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻌﻠْ ُ ﻓﻬﻮ  ُﻔْ َﻞ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُ َﺍ َ ٌ " ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪ  ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺕ‬                       ‫ﺟﺕ‬
 ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺖ ﺯﻳﺪ ‬
   ‫ﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻴﺖ ﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻛﻴﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺖ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ  ‬
   ‫ﺭ‬                                               ‫ﺟﺕ‬
            ‫ﺟ‬                        ‫ﺃﺟﺮ‬                     ‫ﻷ ﺮﺓ‬                       ‫ﺖ‬
       ‫ﻭﺑﻌ ُ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ " ﺍ ُﺟْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ  ُﻤﻌﺖ "‬
          ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬                 ‫ﻹﺟ ﺭ‬               ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬                                    ‫ﺃ ُﺮ‬
                                                                                          ‫َ‬
       ‫ُﺟ َﺍﺕ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ " ﺍ َﺟْ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ َﺓ " ﻭﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍ ُﺟْ َﺓ "‬
‫ﻢ‬         ‫ﺃ ﺮﺗﻪ‬                       ‫ﺇﺟ ﺭ ﺗﻪ‬                ‫ﻓﻠ‬       ‫ﻓ‬        ‫ﺃﺟ ﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  َﻠْﺲ ﻭ ُ ُﻮﺱ ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻪ " ِ َﺎ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﻱ " ُﺟْ ََ ُ " ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬ  ‬
          ‫ﺘﺟ ﺕ‬                                   ‫ﻌ‬                          ‫ﺃﺟ ﺭﺗ‬
          ‫" ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ُ َﺎ ََﻪ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟ ُﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َﺮْ ُ‬
       ‫ﺃﺟﺮ‬                                       ‫ﻷﺟ ﺮ‬                ‫ﺃﺟ ﺮ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﺗﺨﺬﺗﻪ " َ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ﺍ َ ِﻴ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﺟﻠﻴﺲ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ َ َﺍء "‬
      ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺷﺮﻓﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ُ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﺒﺦ ﺑﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴ  ‬
      ‫ﻒ‬                                ‫ﺪ‬                    ‫ﺟﺮ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺟ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ﺁ ُﺮ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻹﺟ ﺹ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍ ِ ﱠﺎ ُ‬
                                                   ‫ﺇﺟ ﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺪﺩ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ِ ﱠﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﺟ ﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ََ َ‬
   ‫ﻱ‬             ‫ﺃ ﻠﻪ‬                     ‫ﺟﻨ ﻩ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺷﺮﺍ " َﺟْ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ  َ َﺎ ُ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ " َﺟْ ِ ِ " ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃ  ‬
    ‫ﺃﺟﻼ‬               ‫ﺃ‬                ‫ﻞ‬                            ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬
  ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤ ّ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ " َﺟﻞ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ً "‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " ُ ُﻮ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻟﻐﺔ " ََ ﱠﻠْ ُ ُ " " َﺄْ ِﻴ ً " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ " َ َ ً "  ‬
‫ﺃﺟﻼ ﻭ‬                 ‫ﺗﺟ ﻼ‬         ‫ﻭ ﺃﺟ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺃﺟ ﻻ‬       ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬
  ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬                          ‫ﺟ‬        ‫ﻷﺟ‬                                 ‫ﺟﻞ‬
‫" ﺍﻵ ِ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﻞ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ َﻞ " " ﺁ َﺎﻝ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " َ َ ُ "‬
                                                                                           ‫ﻧﻌ‬
                                                                               ‫ﻣﺜﻞ َ َﻢ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬


  ‫6‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷﺟﻤ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ َ َ َﺔ‬
          ‫ﻷﺟ‬                    ‫ﺟﻡ‬                          ‫ﺃﺟﻢ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺐ ﻭ " ﺍﻵ َﺎ ُ " ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ُﻢ "‬
                                                       ‫ﻋﻨ‬         ‫ﺟﻡ‬
                                               ‫ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻦ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُ ُﻖ ﻭﺃﻋﻨﺎﻕ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ َﻦ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺟ َ‬
               ‫ﻦ‬                                              ‫ﺃﺟ ﻧ‬         ‫ﺃ ﻨ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " َﺟْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻮًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁﺟ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ء‬                ‫ﻹﺟ ﻧﺔ‬                                        ‫ﺃﺟﻦ‬            ‫ﺃﺟﻨ‬       ‫ﺃﺟﻦ‬
       ‫َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ ﱠﺎَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻧﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬                                    ‫ﻹ ﺠ ﻧﺔ‬             ‫ﺃﺟ ﻦ‬
  ‫ﻳﻐﺴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺎﺟﻴ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ ِﻧْ َﺎ َ ُ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺛ  ‬
          ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺱ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻗﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ "‬
                                                             ‫ﻳﺤﻮﻁ‬                  ‫ﻷﺟ ﻦ‬
                                       ‫ﺍ َ َﺎﺟﻴ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺎ  ُ َ ّ ُ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﺽ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ُ ٌُ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬
   ‫ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ  - ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺳﻨ  ‬
       ‫ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﻭﻟﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺲ‬
                                          ‫ﻭﺣﺪ‬             ‫ﻮ ﺣﺪ‬                ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬
                          ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " َ َ ٌ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍﻟ َﺍ ِ ِ " ﻓﺄﺻﻠﻪ " َ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺣ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ِﻦ‬
      ‫ﺇﺣﻦ‬                      ‫ﻹ ﻨﺔ‬                                         ‫ﻳ ﺣﻦ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺄْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺣﻘﺪ ﻭﺃﺿﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺣْ َ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ٌ "‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺳ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭ ِﺪﺭ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ َ ﺬﻩ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺧ َ ُ‬
          ‫ﺃﺧﺬ‬       ‫ﺺ‬              ‫ﺃﺧﺬ‬                        ‫ﻹ ﺬ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﺬ‬
        ‫ﺑﻴﺪﻩ " َﺧْ ًﺍ " ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺧْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻗ ّ ﻭ " َ َ َ "‬
 ‫ﻪ‬              ‫ﺃﺧﺬﻩ‬                         ‫ﺃﺧﺬﻩ‬                          ‫ﻡ‬           ‫ﺨﻄ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺎ ِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﺴﻜﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﺎﻗﺒ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                         ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﺧ‬                       ‫ﺪ ﻣﺆ ﺧﺬﺓ‬              ‫ﺧ ﺬﻩ‬
 ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " ﺁ َ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ " ُ َﺍ َ َ ً " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ " ﺁ ِﺬْ " ﺑﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐ  ‬
                                                                               ‫ﻭ ﺧ ﺬﻩ‬
                                                                               ‫" ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺍ َ َ ُ‬
      ‫ﻭﺧ‬                                      ‫ﻳﻮ ﺧﺬﻛﻢ ﷲ‬                               ‫ﻣﻮ ﺧﺬﺓ‬
‫  ُ َﺍ َ َ ً " ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ " ﻻ  ُ َﺍ ِ ُ ُ ُ ﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ " َﺍ ِﺬْ " "‬
  ‫ﻝ‬         ‫ﺗ ﺫ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﺬ‬                                ‫ﺃﺧ ﺗﻪ‬
  ‫ﻭ " َ َﺬْ ُ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺧﻴ ٌ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻻﱢﺨﺎ ُ " ﺍﻓﺘﻌﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﻣﻦ " ﺍ َﺧْ ِ " ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﺋ َ َ ُﻭﺍ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﺛﻢ ﻟّﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺃﺩﻏﻤﻮ ‬
       ‫ﺍ‬                 ‫ﻴ‬                                     ‫ﺘﺨﺬ‬               ‫ﻷ ﺬ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                                                                      ‫ﺗﺨ‬
   ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ " ﺍّ َﺬﻭﺍ " ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻭﻟﻤﺎ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﻮﻫﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻓﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻨ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ " َ ِﺬْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ " َﺨْﺬﺍ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎ  ‬
       ‫ء‬                 ‫ﺗ‬                                                  ‫ﺗﺨ ﺕ‬
                                                                               ‫ﻭ ﺗﺨ ﺕ‬
                                                                   ‫ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻧﻬﺎ " ََ ِﺬْ ُ " ﻣﺎﻻ ﻛﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺁﺧ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ِﺮ ﺓ‬
       ‫ﺢ‬            ‫ﻷ ﺧﺮ‬                                              ‫ﺪ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َﻭﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻓﺼ  ‬
    ‫ّ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ُﺆْ ِ َ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺜﻘﻞ ﻟﺨﺎء ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌ  ‬
    ‫ﺪ‬                                                         ‫ﻣ ﺧﺮﺓ‬


   ‫7‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﻱ‬                             ‫ﺼ‬                               ‫ﻣ ﺧﺮ‬
   ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﺤﻨﺎ ﻭ " ُﺆْ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺪﻍ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬ  ‬
   ‫ﻣ ﺧﺮ‬                                                    ‫ﻣ ﺧﺮ‬
 ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ " ُﺆْ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻻ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ " ُﺆْ ِ ُ "‬
      ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻓﺄﻓﻬﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻭ " ُﺆ ﱠﺮ " ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴ  ‬
      ‫ﻞ‬             ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﻣ ﺧ‬
     ‫ﻷﺧﺮ‬           ‫ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬            ‫ﺪ‬     ‫ﺃﺧ ﺗﻪ‬                ‫ﻣﺆﺧ‬
   ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻭﺿﺮﺑﺖ " ُ َ ﱠﺮ " ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺮ ُ ُ " ﺿ ّ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻪ " َ ََ ﱠ َ " ﻭ " ﺍ َ ِ ُ "‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﺮﺡ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﺪﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﺍﻷﺧﺮ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻜﻤ ‬
    ‫ﺧﺮ‬                    ‫ﺪ‬           ‫ﻧ‬                    ‫ﻥ ﺧ‬
  ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎﻋﺰ " ﺇ ﱠ ﺍﻷ ِﺮ ﺯﻧﻰ " ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻛﺄﱠﻪ ﻣﻄﺮﻭﺩ ﻭﻣ ّ ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭ " ﺍﻷ ِﻴ ُ "‬
      ‫ﺔ‬                                                          ‫ﺧﺮ‬
      ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ِ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﻳﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                     ‫ﺧﺮ ﻥ‬                            ‫ﺧﺮ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﺖ " ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﺧﺮﻭﺟﺎ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻻ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ " ﺁ ِ َﺍ ِ " ﺩﺧﻮﻻ ﻭﺧﺮﻭﺟﺎ ﻭﻧﺼﺒﻬﻤ ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ﺁ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻗﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬                                     ‫ﺧﺮ‬           ‫ﺧﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﺮ‬              ‫ﺮ‬                                                    ‫ﺧﺮ‬          ‫ﺼﻐ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱠﺎﻧﻲ " ﺍﻵ َ ُ " ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﻴﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭ " ﺁﺧ ُ " ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭ " ﺁﺧ ُ " ﻛﺬ ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺃﻱ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                ‫ﻞ‬       ‫ﻃﻤ‬          ‫ﺧﺮ ﻳ‬         ‫ﻒ ﺧ ﺪﻩ‬        ‫ﻘﺮ‬       ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬
                              ‫" ﺇﻟﻰ َ َ ٍ ﻗﺪ ﻋ ﱠ َ ﺍﻟﺴﻴ ُ  َ ﱠ ُ ... ﻭﺁ َ ُ َﻬْﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ  َ َﺎﺭ ﻗﺘﻴ ِ "‬
 ‫ﻞ ﷲ ﺃ ﺮ ﻛ ٌ‬
 ‫ﺓ‬                            ‫ﻓﺌﺔ ﺗﻘ ﺗﻞ‬                                        ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ُﺧْ َﻯ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ِ َ ٌ  ُ َﺎِ ُ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺒﻴ ِ ﺍ ِ ﻭُﺧْ َﻯ  َﺎﻓﺮ  ‬
                           ‫ﺧﺮ‬          ‫ﻳ‬            ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬
       ‫" ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻭ " ﺍ ُﺧْ َﻯ " ﻛﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﻭ ُﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻵ َ ُ " ﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ "‬
                                                                                 ‫ﻷﻭ ﺧﺮ‬
               ‫ﺍ َ َﺍ ِ ِ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻻ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺒﺮﺍ‬
      ‫ﺚ‬
      ‫ﻟﻪ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧ  ‬
   ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﻟﻪ ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺟﻤ  ‬
   ‫ﻊ‬
        ‫ﺃ ﺮﻳ ﺕ‬          ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﻟﻪ ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ ُﺧْ َﻯ " " ُﺧْ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺧ‬                                ‫ﺃ ﺮﻳ‬                   ‫ﻛ‬        ‫ﻛ‬      ‫ﻛ‬        ‫ﺃﺧﺮ‬
‫ُ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﺒﺮﻯ ﻭ ُﺒﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ُﺒﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ " ُﺧْ ََﺎﺕ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ " ﺍﻵ ِﺮ "‬
      ‫ﻲ‬                          ‫ﻣ‬                                  ‫ﻷﺧ‬
      ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻭ " ﺍ َ ِﻴﺮ " ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺎ ّﻲ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ " ﺑﺎﻵ ِ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ِ َ ِ " ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪ  ‬
       ‫ﻡ‬               ‫ﺧﺮﺓ‬            ‫ﺧﺮ‬
      ‫ﻰ‬                ‫ﻷﺧﺮ‬               ‫ﻷﻭ ﺧ‬             ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺧﺮ‬
      ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻵ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵﺧ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ِﺮ " ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " ﺍ ُ ُ ُ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﺒﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﻷﺧﺮﺓ‬                     ‫ﺑﺄﺧﺮﺓ‬                   ‫ﻷﺧ‬                        ‫ﻷﺧﺮﺓ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺧﺮ ﻭ " ﺍ َ َ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍ َ ِﻴﺮ " ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﺎء " َِ َ َ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻭ " ﺍ َ ِ َ ُ "‬
                                    ‫ﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﻧﻈﺮ‬                                        ‫ﻓﻌﻠ‬
                                   ‫" ﻋﻠﻰ  َ ِ َﺔ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺘﻪ " ﺑَ ِ َ ٍ ﻭَ ِ َﺓ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻷﺥ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬                   ‫ﺃﺧﻮ‬
  ‫ﻻﻣﻪ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻭﺗﺮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َﺍﻥ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤ  ‬
  ‫ّ‬
  ‫ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ِﺧْ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﺧْ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻗ  ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬                                  ‫ﺇ ﻮﻥ‬           ‫ﺇ ﻮﺓ‬              ‫ﺃﺧ ﻥ‬
   ‫ﻮ‬      ‫ﺃﺧﻮ ﺕ‬               ‫ﺃ ﺖ‬            ‫ﻞ‬
   ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ " ﺁﺧﺎء " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺁﺑﺎء ﺃﻗ ّ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ُﺧْ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َ َ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﻫ  ‬
      ‫ﻪ‬          ‫ﺕ‬       ‫ﺃﺧ‬
      ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺃﺧﻮ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ " ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻘﻲ " َ َﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻮ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺜﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻭ‬          ‫ﺧ ﻐ‬                          ‫ﺼ‬              ‫ﺮ‬         ‫ﺮ‬       ‫ﺧ‬
   ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺘﻪ " ﺑﺄ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﺑﺸ ّ ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺃﺧﻮ ﺍﻟ ﱢﺪﻕ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " ﺃ ُﻮ ﺍﻟ ِﻨﻰ " ﺃﻱ ﺫ  ‬


  ‫8‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺖ‬                                                ‫ﺣﻤ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻰ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء " ُ ﱠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﻳﻦ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﺄﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﻼ‬
 ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎء ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺬ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺜ  ‬
       ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻊ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎء ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻊ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﻡ‬
    ‫ﺧﻴ‬
 ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ِ ﱠﺔ "‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺪ‬
        ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺗﺪ ﻣﺪﻗﻮﻕ ﻭﺗﺸﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬
       ‫ٍ‬
       ‫ﺍ َ َﺍﺧﻲ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " ﺃﻭﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﺍ  ‬
       ‫ﺹ‬                  ‫ﺥ‬                                                      ‫ﻷﻭ‬
‫ﻭ‬                 ‫ﺧﻴ‬                 ‫ﺗ ﺧﻴﺔ‬        ‫ﺪﺑ‬       ‫ﺧﺖ‬                         ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛ ّ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﻘﻞ ﻭ " ﺃ ﱠﻴْ ُ " ﻟﻠ ّﺍﱠﺔ " َﺄْ ِ َ ً " ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻟﻬﺎ " ﺁ ِ َﺔ " ﻭﺭﺑﻄﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻬﺎ   ‬
      ‫ﺪ‬                               ‫ﺧﺖ‬                                      ‫َﺄﺧ ﺖ‬
      ‫" ﺗَ ﱠﻴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﺼﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻴْ ُ " ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﻴﻦ ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻣﻤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﻗ  ‬
      ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺍ َﻴْ ُ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﺳﻴﺖ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ّ ّﻴ  ‬
      ‫ﺴﻜ ﺖ‬                                       ‫ﻭﺧ ﺖ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺧﺬ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﺩ ﺘ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﺑْ ُﻪ‬
   ‫ﻷﺩﺏ‬                                                     ‫ﻋﻠ ﺘ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﺑ‬
‫َﺩًْﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ  َ ﱠﻤ ُﻪ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ " ﺍ َ َ ُ  "‬
  ‫ﻱ‬                                           ‫ﻳﺘﺨﺮﺝ‬                  ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫" ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ﱢ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩﺓ َ َ َ ﱠ ُ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮ  ‬
           ‫ﺗﺩﺒ‬           ‫ﺃﺩ ﺘ‬                         ‫ﺩﺏ‬                         ‫ﻓ ﻷﺩﺏ‬
        ‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩ " َﺎ َ َ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺑْ ُﻪ " " َﺄْ ِﻳ ًﺎ "‬
   ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ ﱠﺑْ ُ ُ " " َﺄْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﺎءﺗﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬                                          ‫ﺗﺩﺒ‬          ‫ﺃﺩ ﺘﻪ‬
  ‫ﺩﺏ‬                                                       ‫ﺃ ﺑ‬      ‫ﺃﺩﺏ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " َﺩًْﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺻﻨﻴﻌﺎ ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ ِ ٌ "‬
                                                                 ‫ﻃﺮ ﻓﺔ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ  َ َ َ ُ‬
                                  ‫ﻳ ﺘﻘﺮ‬          ‫ﺩﺏ‬      ‫ﺮ‬          ‫ﺘ ﺓ ﻋ ﺠ ﻔﻠ‬
                                ‫" ﻧﺤﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸْ َﺎ ِ ﻧﺪْ ُﻮ ﺍﻟ َ َ َﻰ ... ﻻ ﺗ َﻯ ﺍﻵ ِ َ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ َﻨْ َ ِ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻡ‬                                     ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻢ‬
 ‫ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻞ  ُ َ ﱢ ُ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺍﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮ  ‬
                                                                   ‫ﻢ‬       ‫ﻤ ﺩﺑ‬
                                                      ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻴﻊ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ َُﺔ " ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ُﺩْ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷ ﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺃ ﺭ‬               ‫ﺩ‬                      ‫ﺩﺭ‬          ‫ﺃﺩﺭ‬           ‫ﺨ ﻴ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺥ ﺍﻟ ُﺼْ َﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ِ َ " " ﻳﺄْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ َﺭ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﺩْ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺣ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭ ُﻤْﺮ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﺩ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﻣْ ُ‬
      ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ َﺩْ ًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﺻﻠﺤ ُ ﻭﺃﱠﻔﺖ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ  ُﺆْ َﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻤﺎ ﺃ  ‬
      ‫ﻱ‬           ‫ﻳ ﺩ‬                             ‫ﺖ ﻟ‬                    ‫ﺃ ﻣ‬
      ‫ﺍ‬               ‫ﺩ ﺘ‬         ‫ﺰ‬        ‫ﺃﺩ ﺖ‬                ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﺩ ﺖ‬
      ‫ﻳﺪﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺢ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺔ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻣْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﺒ َ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻣْ ُﻪ " ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﺇﺫ ‬
      ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺃﺩﻡ‬                                            ‫ﻹﺩ ﻡ‬         ‫ﻡ‬
      ‫ﺃﺻﻠﺤﺖ ﺇﺳﺎﻏﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺩﺍ ِ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺗﺪﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﺋﻌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﻣﺪﺍ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬          ‫ﻗ‬        ‫ﺩﻡ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺁ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﻔْﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻭ " ﺍ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺑﻮﻍ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﻳ  ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬                                             ‫ﺃﺩ‬
                                              ‫َ َﻡ‬                           ‫ﻷﺩ ﻢ‬


  ‫9‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﺮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻭ ُ ُﺩ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﺩ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ﱠﻯ‬
         ‫ﻮ َ‬
         ‫ﻱ‬              ‫ﺪ‬         ‫ﺩ‬         ‫ﻷﺩ ء‬                        ‫ﺔ‬                ‫ﺔ‬
         ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧ َ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺄﺩﻳ ً ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻭ " ﺁ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻗ ِ  ‬
      ‫ﻷﺩ ﺓ‬           ‫ﻣ ﺩ‬      ‫ﺴﻼ‬                    ‫ﺴﻜ‬               ‫ﻣ ﺩ‬
    ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺆْ ٍ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ّ ّﻴﺖ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺡ " ُﺆْ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ُ "‬
  ‫ﺢ‬        ‫ﻷﺩ ﻭ‬                ‫ﻤ ﻬ‬               ‫ﻹ ﺩ ﺍﺓ‬          ‫ﺃﺩﻭ ﺕ‬
  ‫ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﻭَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟ ِﻄْ َﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " ﺍ َ َﺍ َﻯ " ﺑﻔﺘ  ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺃﺫ ﺠ‬
                                                                                               ‫َ ُﺭْﺑﻴ َﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺰ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ "‬
                                                                    ‫ﻢ‬           ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ُ ﺠ‬  ‫ﺫ‬
                                                  ‫ﺁ َﺭﺑﻴ َﺎﻥ " ﺑﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺿ ّ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺇ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ِﺫْ‬
                             ‫ﺮﻣﻨ‬
         ‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺫ ﺟﺌﺘﻨﻲ ﻷﻛ ِ َ ﱠﻚ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺠﻲء ﻋﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻛﺮﺍﻡ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃﺫ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ ِﻧْ ُ‬
                                ‫ﺇ ﻧ‬                 ‫ﻹ ﻥ‬
                 ‫ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ ِﺫْ ُ " ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ " ِﺫًْﺎ " ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‬
 ‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭ " َ ِﻧْ ُ " ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺄْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﻳﺤﺬﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔ ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                                 ‫ﻣﺫ ﻥ‬                              ‫ﺃﺫ ﺖ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                          ‫ﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ " ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺫﻭ ُ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺭ ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﺤﺠﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
  ‫ﻭ " َ ِﻧْ ُ " ﻟﻠﺸﻲء " َ ًَﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﻌﺖ ﻭ " َ ِﻧْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﻌﺪ  ‬
  ‫ﻯ‬                       ‫ﺃﺫ ﺖ‬                             ‫ﺃ ﺫﻧ‬           ‫ﺃﺫ ﺖ‬
‫ﻝ‬                             ‫ﻭﺃﺫﻥ‬             ‫ﺗﺄﺫ ﺖ‬           ‫ﺇ ﻧ‬        ‫ﺫ ﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﻧْ ُ ُ " " ِﻳْﺬﺍًﺎ " ﻭ " ََ ﱠﻧْ ُ " ﺃﻋﻠﻤﺖ " ََ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺫﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬                         ‫ﺃﺫ ﻥ‬                               ‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﺃﺫ ﻥ‬           ‫ﺑﺮﻱ‬
 ‫ﺍﺑﻦ َ ّ ﱢ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻌﺼ ُ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ " ُ ﱢ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮ  ‬
       ‫ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ " َﺍ َ َﺍ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ  َ ﱠ َ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﱠ  ‬
       ‫ﻉ‬
       ‫ﺩَ‬             ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬                                          ‫ﻭ ﻷﺫ ﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺩﺍﻋﺎ ﻭﺳ ﱠﻢ ﺳﻼﻣﺎ ﻭﻛ ﱠﻢ ﻛﻼﻣﺎ ﻭﺯ ﱠﺝ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﺎ ﻭﺟ ّﺰ  َﻬﺎﺯﺍ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ُ ُ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔ ‬
‫ﺎ‬                     ‫ﻷﺫ ﻥ‬            ‫ﻬ ﺟ‬             ‫ﻭ‬          ‫ﻠ‬          ‫ﻠ‬
  ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻵ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻄﺎﻧﺔ ﻫﻮ " ُ ُ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                 ‫ﺃﺫ ﻥ‬                                      ‫ﺫﻥ‬
           ‫ﻓ ﻠﻪ‬                     ‫ﺇ ﻧﻪ ﺄﺫ‬                       ‫ﺘ ﺫ ﺘﻪ‬
       ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َﻧْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ " ِﺫَْ ُ " ﻓَ ِﻥ ﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻟﻲ  ِﻌْ َ َ ﻭ "‬
        ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺌْ ََ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺂ ِ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻋﻠ  ‬
        ‫ﻰ‬              ‫ﻣ ﺫﻥ‬                                                        ‫ﻤ ﺬﻧﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ﺫﻱ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
                   ‫ﻗ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺫ‬                      ‫ﺬ‬                       ‫ﺃﺫ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ًﻯ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻗ ِﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُﻞْ  ُ َ َ ًﻯ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺬﺭ ﻭ "‬
  ‫ﺫ ﺘﻪ‬                            ‫ﻢ‬         ‫ﺃﺫ‬                            ‫ﺃﺫ‬            ‫ﺃ ﺫﻱ‬
‫َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َ ًﻯ " ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋ ٍ ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﻳْ ُ ُ "‬
                                                            ‫ﻓﺘﺄﺫ‬               ‫ﻷﺫﻳﺔ‬           ‫ِﺬء‬
                                                      ‫" ﺇﻳْ َﺍ ً " ﻭ " ﺍ َ ِﱠ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ " َ ََ ﱠﻯ " ﻫﻮ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫َ‬
‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ " ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ " ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺮﻓﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ  ُﺴْ َﻘْ َ َ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺌ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬                                       ‫ﻳ ﺘ ﺒﻞ‬


  ‫01‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                      ‫ﺮ ﺒ ﺮ‬
   ‫ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻚ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻗﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﻤ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ ُ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﺣﻤﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﺪﻣﺖْ‬        ‫ﺇ ﺗﺼ ﻬ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ " ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺎء ﻓﻴﺠﺎﺯﻯ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭِﻥْ  ُ ِﺒْ ُﻢ  َ ﱢ َ ٌ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻗ ﱠ َ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                             ‫ﻫ ﻳ ﻨﻄ ﻥ‬              ‫ﺪﻬ‬
‫ﺃﻳْ ِﻳ ِﻢْ ﺇﺫﺍ  ُﻢْ َﻘْ َ ُﻮ َ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘ  ‬
 ‫ﻟﻢ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻚ ﺛﻢ ﺳﻜﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﺇ  ‬
 ‫ﻻ‬
  ‫ﻖ‬          ‫ﺮ ﺒ ﺮ‬
  ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻴﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﻤ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ ُ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬
   ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻴﻘﻦ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎء ﺯﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎء ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻥ ﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﺗ ﺘ ُ‬
 ‫ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ " ﺇﺫﺍ " ﻭ " ِﻥْ " ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " ِ َﻥْ " ﻓﺤﺮﻑ ﺟﺰﺍء ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻓﺄﺓ ﻗﻴﻞ  ُﻜْ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺐ‬                                  ‫ﺇﺫ‬                          ‫ﺇ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬                                                                         ‫ﺗ ﺘﺐ‬
   ‫ُﻜْ َ ُ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                         ‫ﺇ‬                              ‫ﻣ‬       ‫ﺇﺫ‬
  ‫ﺃﻗﻮﻡ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ " ِ َﻥْ ﺃﻛﺮ َﻚ " ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ِﺫْ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﻚ ﻭﻟﻠﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬ ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺇﺫ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﻓﻲ "ﻭﺑﻴﻦ " ِ َﺍ ‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺴﻦ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍ ََ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻷﺭﺏ‬
        ‫ﻤ ﺭﺏ‬                                           ‫ﻤَ‬
                                                       ‫ﺭ‬                     ‫ﻹ ﺑﺔ‬
  ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺭَْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ُﺑﺔ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َﺂ ِ ُ " ﻭ "‬
                                       ‫ﺃﺭﺏ‬                                    ‫ﻷﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍ َ َ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
      ‫ﺭﺏ‬                                                  ‫ﻹﺏ‬                     ‫ﺭﺏ‬
    ‫ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺭْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ َﺍ ٌ "‬
       ‫ﺓ‬                             ‫ﻠﻜﻜ ﻹ ﺑﻪ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﻤ‬       ‫ﺣ‬
       ‫ﻣﺜﻞ  ِﻤْﻞ ﻭَﺣْ َﺎﻝ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣ َ َ ُﻢ  ِﺭِْ ِ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮ  ‬
  ‫ﺩ‬                      ‫ﺭﺏ‬        ‫ﻥ‬         ‫ﻣﺭ‬
  ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻗﻄﻊ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻠﺢ  َﺄْ ِﺏ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇ ﱠ " ﻣﺄْ ِ َ " ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼ  ‬
    ‫ﺲ‬                                                          ‫ﺣ ﺮﻣ‬
    ‫ﺍﻷﺯﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ  َﻀْ َ َﻮْﺕ  ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻠﻘﻴ  ‬
‫ﻳ ﺮﺏ‬        ‫ﻳ ﺠ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﺎء ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺳﺒﺄ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺄ ﺑﻦ َﺸْ ُﺐ ﺑﻦ َﻌْ ُ  ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻣ ﺭﺏ‬          ‫ﻗ ﻄ‬
                               ‫ﺑﻦ  َﺤْ َﺎﻥ ﻭ " َﺄْ ِ ُ " ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﺸﻰ‬
                                                                     ‫ﻌﺮﻡ‬             ‫ﻣ ﺭﺏ ﻋﻔ‬
                                                                   ‫" ... ﻭ َﺄْ ِ ُ  َ ﱠﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ َ ِ ُ "‬
  ‫ﻒ‬
  ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴ  ‬
           ‫ﺔ‬
           ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﺻﻠﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍ َﺭ ُﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭ " ﺍ َﺭَْﺎﻥ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  ُﺴْ َﺎﻥ ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬           ‫ﻋ ﻔ‬             ‫ﻷﺑ‬                              ‫ﻷﺑ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻌﺮﺑ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُﻮﻥ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻤ ﺟﺌ ﺔ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ِ َ ُ‬
        ‫ﻦ‬                                                                     ‫ﺟﺌ‬
        ‫ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻳﺮ ِ ُﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺆﺧﺮﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﺎﺑﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﻲ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺃﺭﺝ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َِ َ‬


  ‫11‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                        ‫ﺗﻌ‬                     ‫ﺃﺭﺝ‬            ‫ﺃﺭﺟ‬
          ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ َ ِﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺣﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ ﱠﺧْ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﺭ ﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮ ٌ‬
‫ﺏ‬                                 ‫ﻄ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘ ّﺎﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ  ُ َ ﱠ  ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠﺧْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ِﻳ ُ " ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬                ‫ﺘ ﺭﺦ‬                        ‫ﻭﺭ ﺖ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬                                                             ‫ﺒﻴﻨﺔ‬        ‫ﺃﺭ ﺖ‬
  ‫ﻭ " َ ﱠﺧْ َ " ﺍﻟ َّ َ َ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﺎ ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃ  ‬
        ‫ﻥ‬                               ‫ﻚ‬
        ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺗﻲ ﺑﺼ ّ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎ  ‬
        ‫ﻦ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣ  ‬
‫ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ  - ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻨ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬                                         ‫ﻣﻴ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻷﻧﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃ ّ ﱠﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻏﻴﺮﻫ  ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻓﺘﻤﺴﻜﻮﺍ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ‬
                            ‫ﻞ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻝ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺴﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻗ ّ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺎ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺯ‬
                 ‫ﻋﺴ‬       ‫ﻋ‬                                      ‫ﻗ ﻞ‬            ‫ﺃﺯ‬
  ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ " ُﺭْ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ " ُﻔْ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ " ﺿﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻟﻼﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﺴْﺮ ﻭ ُ ُﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ "‬
  ‫ﺭﺯ‬
‫ﺿﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ " ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺴﺔ " " ُ ﱞ "‬
                                                                                 ‫ﻗ‬
                                                                              ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻫﻤﺰ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  ُﻔْﻞ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺵ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃﺭْ ُ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻭﺵ " ﻣﺜﻞ  َﻠْﺲ ﻭ  ُ ُﻮﺱ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠﺷْ ُ " ﺑﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬      ‫ﺃﺭ ﺖ‬                          ‫ﻓﻠ‬        ‫ﻓ‬          ‫ﺃﺭ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﺄْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺴﺪﺕ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺻﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                                                                ‫ﺗﺭﺸ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺮﺵ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻫﱠ َ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺽ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻷﺭْ ُ‬
        ‫ﻷ‬                                                      ‫ﺃﺭﺿ ﻥ‬             ‫ﺆﻧ ﺔ‬
 ‫ﻣ ﱠَﺜ ٌ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ ُﻮ َ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﺳﻤﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َﺭْﺽ " "‬
        ‫ﻞ‬                              ‫ﻓﻌ‬      ‫ﻓ‬         ‫ﻓﻠ‬           ‫ﻷﺭ‬             ‫ﺭ‬
        ‫ﺍﻷ َﺍﺿﻲ " ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ُﻭﺽ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُ ُﻮﺱ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ  َﻌْﻞ  َ َﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ " ﺃﺭﺽ " " ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ " ﻭﺃﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬               ‫ﺽ‬         ‫ﻛ‬
   ‫ﻭﺃﻫﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺫ ّﺮﺕ " ﺍﻷﺭ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻋﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬                          ‫ﺃ ِﺿ‬                     ‫ﺩﻭﻳ‬     ‫ﻷﺭﺿ‬
   ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁ ﻭ " ﺍ َ َ َﺔ " ُ َﱠﺒﺔ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ُﺭ َﺖ " ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮ  ‬
          ‫ﻗﺼﺒ ﻗﺼﺐ ﻗﺼﺒ ﺕ‬                     ‫ﺃﺭﺿ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺃﺭﺽ‬        ‫ﺭﺿ‬                 ‫ﺭ‬
          ‫ﻓﻬﻲ " ﻣﺄْ ُﻭﺿﺔ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻷ َ َﺔ " " َ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  َ َ َﺔ ﻭ َ َ ٍ ﻭ  َ َ َﺎ ٍ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷ ﻓﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ُﺭْ َ ُ‬
‫ﻪ‬                          ‫ﻏ ﻓ ﻏﺮ‬              ‫ﺃﺭﻑ‬                              ‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﺮْ َﺔ ﻭ ُ َﻑ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻨ  ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺃﺭﻑ‬
                                                   ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﻢ ﻭ " ُ ﱢ َ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺷﻔﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﺭﻙ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََ َ‬
             ‫ﺭﻋ‬           ‫ﺃﺭﻛ‬                                             ‫ﺃﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ " ُ ُﻭﻛﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻭ " َ َ َﺖ " ﺍﻹﺑﻞ  َ َﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻙ ﻓﻬﻲ "‬


  ‫21‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
    ‫ﺃﺭ ﻛﺔ‬                              ‫ﺤ‬             ‫ﻷﺭ ﻙ‬           ‫ﻷﻭ ﺭﻙ‬                  ‫ﺭﻛ‬
  ‫ﺁ ِ َﺔ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ُ " ﺷﺠﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ َﻤﺾ ﻳﺴﺘﺎﻙ ﺑﻘﻀﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ َﺍ َ ٌ "‬
       ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺼﺎﻥ ﺧ ّﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺛﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﻗﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬                            ‫ﻮ‬
                                  ‫ﺔ‬             ‫ﻷﺭ ﻙ‬
                   ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺮ ﻳﻤﻸ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻒ ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺮﻓ َ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻵﺭ ﱡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻱ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﺭ‬          ‫ﻷﻭ ﻱ‬                    ‫ﻴﺔ‬
 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺤﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﺧ ﱠ ُ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ َﺍﺭ ﱡ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ِﻱ " ﻣ ‬
 ‫ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺧّﺔ ﻭ " ََ ﱠﻯ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ُﺭْ ِﱠ ُ " ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠ  ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬          ‫ﻷ ﻭ ﻳﺔ‬                                ‫ﺗﺄﺭ‬       ‫ﻴ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ  ُﻌْ ِ ﱠﺔ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َﺭﺍﻭ ﱡ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " َﺭْ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺃ ﻭﻯ‬                  ‫ﻷ ﻱ‬                          ‫ﻓ ﻠﻴ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺳ ﺮ‬
                                                                     ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ  َﻜْ َﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ِﺰ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌْ َﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺎ‬       ‫ﻣ ﺯﺐ‬                     ‫ﺐ‬                               ‫ﻤ ﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻴﺰﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺎء ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ " ﻣﺂﺯﻳ ُ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " َﻴﺎ ِﻳ ُ " ﻭﺭﺑﻤ ‬
      ‫ﻣ ﺯﺏ‬             ‫ﻣ ﻟﺪ‬                                          ‫ﻭﺯ‬             ‫ﻣﻮ‬
    ‫ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َﺍﺯﻳﺐ " ﻣﻦ " َ َﺏ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ  ُﻮﱠ ٌ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِﺮْ َﺍ ٌ "‬
                                        ‫ﺴﻜ‬
                                      ‫ﺑﺮﺍء ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺯﺍﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ّ ّﻴﺖ‬
     ‫ﻣ ﺭﺏ‬             ‫ﻣﺯ‬          ‫ﻤﺰ‬                                                ‫ﻔﺮ ﺃ‬
   ‫ﻭﺍﻟ َ ﱠﺍء ﻭَﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﻟﻠ ِﺌْ َﺍﺏ " " ِﺮْ َﺍﺏ " ﻭ " ِﺰْ َﺍ ٌ "‬
                                                         ‫ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‬
                                            ‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭَ َ َ ُ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻷﺯ ﺝ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍ ََ ُ‬
 ‫ﺯ ٌ‬
 ‫ﺝ‬                       ‫ﻷﺯﺝ‬                               ‫ﺗﺯﺠ‬          ‫ﺃﺯ ﺘﻪ‬              ‫ﻳﻨ‬
 ‫ﺑﻴﺖ  ُﺒْ َﻰ ﻃﻮﻻ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺟْ َ ُ " " َﺄْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ َﺍ  ‬
                                                                                ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍ َﺯْ ُ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻷﺩ‬
                                                  ‫ﺷﻨ‬                        ‫ﻓﺲ‬
       ‫ﻣﺜﻞ  َﻠْ ٍ ﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺯﺩ  َ ُﻮﺃﺓ ﻭﺃﺯﺩ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺯﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﺩ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺯﺫ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻵ َﺍ ُ‬
 ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﺎءﺕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﻗﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
  ‫ﺓ‬                       ‫ﺧﺗ‬
  ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ  َﺎَﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ  ‬
                                                               ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺫ ﻷ ﺮ‬                ‫ﻳ ﺮﺱ‬
                                                                    ‫" ... َﻐْ ِ ُ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍ َ ﻭﺍ َ ﻋْ َﺍﻓﺎ "‬
                                                             ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻵﺯﺍﺫ ﻓﺨﻔﻒ ﻟﻠﻮﺯﻥ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻹﺯ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ " ﺁ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﺣْ ِ َﺓ ﻭ ُ ُﺮ ﻭ ُ َ ﱠ  ‬
‫ﻤﺮ ﺣﻤ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬                                   ‫ﺃﺯﺭ‬                  ‫ﺯﺭﺓ‬
                                                        ‫ﻹﺯ ﺭ‬             ‫ﻹﺯ ﺭ‬
                                           ‫ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ " ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                  ‫ﺴ ﻦ ﻡ ﻨ ﺮ‬                   ‫ﻧ‬
                                                               ‫" ... ﺃّﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ّﺎﻋﻴ َ ﻳﻮ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻜْ َﺍ "‬
 ‫ﻣ ﺮﻡ‬         ‫ﻗﺮ‬     ‫ﻣﺤ‬                                  ‫ﻤ ﺰﺭ‬            ‫ﺇﺯ ﺭ‬               ‫ﺃﻧﺚ‬
 ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ُّ َ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ِ َﺍ َﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺌْ َ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﺤﺎﻑ ﻭ ِﻠْ َﻒ ﻭ ِ َﺍﻡ ﻭ  ِﻘْ َ  ‬


  ‫31‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬                                          ‫ﺗﺰ ﺕ‬            ‫ﺯ‬              ‫ﻣ ﻮ‬
   ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺩ ﻭ ِﻘْ َﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﻣﺂ ِﺭ " ﻭ " ﺍﱠ َﺭْ ُ " ﻟﺒﺴﺖ ﺍﻹﺯﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺻ  ‬
            ‫ﺯﺗ‬          ‫ﺭ‬                           ‫ﺗﺯﺮ‬                 ‫ﺃﺯ ﺕ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺎء ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻠﺖ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ " َﺄْ ِﻳ ًﺍ " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻹﺯﺍ ِ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺭْ ُﻪ " "‬
                                                           ‫ﻷﺭ‬                             ‫ﻣﺆ ﺯﺭﺓ‬
                                                 ‫ُ َﺍ َ َ ً " ﺃﻋﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ َﺯْ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﺯﻑ‬
                              ‫ﺃ ﺯﻓﺖ ﺯﻓﺔ‬                       ‫ﺃﺯ ﻓ‬       ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬             ‫ﺯﻓ‬
                ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻞ " ﺃ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ َ ِ َ ﻭ " ُ ُﻭ ًﺎ " ﺩﻧﺎ ﻭﻗﺮﺏ " ﻭَ ِ َ ِ ﺍﻵ ِ َ ُ " ﺩﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺃﺯﻡ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ََ َ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬           ‫ﺃﻣ‬        ‫ﺃﺯﻡ‬            ‫ﺾ‬      ‫ﺃ ﻣ‬                     ‫ﺃﻣ‬
       ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺯْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ " ُﺯﻭ ًﺎ " ﻋ ّ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " َﺯْ ًﺎ " ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﻋ  ‬
        ‫ﻦ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻌﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﺪﺓ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄ ّ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍ َﺯْ ُ " ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺤﻂ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺯْ َ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬          ‫ﻷ ﻣﺔ‬                 ‫ﺪ‬              ‫ﺃﺯﻡ‬                     ‫ﻷﻡ‬                ‫ﺐ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                  ‫ﻣ ﺠ‬            ‫ﻤﺯ‬           ‫ﻞ‬                          ‫ﺃﺯﻣ‬       ‫ﺃﺯﻡ‬
  ‫ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ِﻡ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  َﺴْ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﺑﻴ  ‬
‫ﻊ‬                                          ‫ﻣ ﺯﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ " َﺄْ ِ ٌ " ﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺹ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿ  ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻣ ﺯﻣ‬
                                                                ‫" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺮ " َﺄْ َ َﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻹﺯ ء‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺑﺈﺯ ﺋ‬
                                                                  ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﺍء ﻭﻫﻮ " ِِ َﺍِﻪ‬
     ‫ﺇ ﺅ‬                                                      ‫ﺇﺯ ء‬
    ‫" ﺃﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺫﻳﻪ ﻭﻫﻢ " ِ َﺍ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺼﻠﺤﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ " ِﺯﺍ ُﻩ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻹ ﺐ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ِﺳْ ُ‬
   ‫ﻢ‬                                            ‫ﻹ ﺒﻴ ﺵ‬           ‫ﻹ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺷﻌﺮ ﺍ ِﺳْﺖ ﻭﺍ ِﺳْ ِ ُﻮ ُ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺿ  ‬
   ‫ﺑ ﻗﻄ ﺎ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺛﻢ ﺷﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ِﺰْﺭ  َ ُﻮﻧ ‬
                                  ‫ﻄ‬                               ‫ﺐ‬      ‫ﻳ ﻤ‬
                               ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ  ُﺴ ﱡﻮﻧﻪ ﺣ ّ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺰﺭ ﻗ ُﻮﻧﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻹ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ِﺳْ ُ‬
                                                       ‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬
                                                ‫ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻻﻣﻪ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ  َ َ ٌ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻹ ﺘﺮ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍ ِﺳْ َﺒْ َﻕ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻏﻠﻴﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺒﺎﺝ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻷ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ُﺳْﺘﺎﺫ‬
   ‫ﻻ‬
   ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﺔ   ‬
                                                        ‫ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻣﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺳ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻷ َﺪ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﺪ‬                                         ‫ﺃﺳ‬        ‫ﺃﺳ ﺩ‬
   ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ُﺪ " ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻷﺳ ُ " ﻟﻠﺬﻛ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬        ‫ﺃ ﺳﺪ‬                                                              ‫ﻷ ﺳﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ " ﺍ َ َ ُ " ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﺤﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ " َ َ َﺓ " ﻭﻧﻘ  ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻣﻦ " ﺍ َ َﺪ " " َ َ َﺓ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺋﺎﺏ ﺫﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺜﻠ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                     ‫ﺃ ﺳﺪ‬       ‫ﻷﺳ‬


  ‫41‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﺃﺳ ﺪ ﻭ‬          ‫ﺘ‬                        ‫ﻣﺘ ﺳ ﺪ‬                   ‫ﺃﺳ ﺪ‬        ‫ﺃﺳ‬
 ‫ﻭ " َ َﺪ " " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﺃﻱ " ُ َﺄ ﱢ ٌ " ﺟﺮﻱء ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﻋّﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ َ ِﻴ ٍ "  ‬
         ‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﺳﺪ‬                ‫ﺇﺴﺩ‬                    ‫ﺳﺪ‬        ‫ﺿﺮﻱ‬             ‫ﺘ ﺳﺪ‬
         ‫" ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ " ﺍﺟﺘﺮﺃ ﻭ َ ِ َ ﻭ " ﺁ َ َ " ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " ِﻳْ َﺎ ًﺍ " ﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﻭ " ﺁ َ َ " ﻛﻠﺒﻪ ﻗﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﻪ‬      ‫ﻲ‬     ‫ﺃ ﺳﺪ‬                              ‫ﻳ‬             ‫ﺪ‬
    ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﻣﺆﺳ ٌ " ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ُﺸْﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺪ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻩ ﻭﻳﻐﺮﻳﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ٌ " ﺣ ّ ﺗﺴﻤﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﺪ‬            ‫ﻤ ﺳﺪﺓ‬              ‫ﺴ ﻱ‬         ‫ﺃﺳ‬
   ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺑﻤﺼﻐﺮﻩ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ " ﺃﺑﻮ ُ َﻴﺪ ﺍﻟ ّﺎﻋﺪ ّ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ َ َ ُ " ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺳ  ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻤﻌﺎ ﻟﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺃﺳ ﺗﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﺮْ ُ ُ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                       ‫ﺃﺳ ﺮ‬              ‫ﺃﺳ ﺮ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬
‫َﺳْ ًﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻷﻥ ﻓﻌﻴﻼ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺟﺎﺭﻳ ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻟﺤﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺘﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬             ‫ﺃﺳ ﺭ‬          ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬       ‫ﻷﺳ‬                                    ‫ﻷﺳ ﺮ‬
       ‫" ﺍ َ ِﻴ َﺓ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ ِﻴﺮ " َﺳْ َﻯ " ﻭ " َ َﺎ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻣﺜ  ‬
    ‫ﺷ ﺪ ﻧ ﺃ ﺮﻫ‬                                      ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬          ‫ﺃﺳﺮﻩ‬           ‫ﺳﻜ‬     ‫َ ﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻜْ َﻯ ﻭ ُ َﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ " َﺳْ ًﺍ " ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﺧﻠﻘﺎ ﺣﺴﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭ َ َﺩَْﺎ َﺳْ َ ُﻢْ "‬
  ‫ﺃﻱ ﻗﻮﻳﻨﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﻢ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﻭ " ُﺳْ َﺓ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬                                         ‫ﺳﺕ‬
       ‫ﺇ ﺳ ﺭﻩ ﻱ‬                   ‫ﻷﺳ‬                ‫ﻘﺪ‬                ‫ﻹﺳ ﺭ‬         ‫ﻏ ْﻓ ﺭ ﻄﻪ‬
       ‫ُﺮ َﺔ  َﻫْ ُ ُ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟ ِ ّ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺍ َ ِﻴﺮ " ﻭﺣﻠﻠﺖ " ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺃ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺑﺄ ﺮ‬        ‫ﺧ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻓﻜﻜﺘﻪ ﻭ ُﺬْﻩ " َِﺳْ ِﻩ " ﺃﻱ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﺱ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ُ ﱡ‬
    ‫ﻋ ّ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﻔْﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُ  ‬
    ‫ﺲ‬          ‫ﺇﺳ ﺱ‬                         ‫ﻗ‬        ‫ﺳﺱ‬
              ‫ﺃﺳ ﺘ‬         ‫ﻋﻨ‬               ‫ﺃﺳﺲ‬                  ‫ﻷﺳ ﺱ‬           ‫ﻋﺴ‬
             ‫" ﻭ ِ َﺎﺱ ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭ ُ ُﻖ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺴْ ُﻪ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺃﺳ ﺳ‬
                                                                  ‫"  ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎ " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ " َ َﺎ ًﺎ"‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﺳﻒ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ ِ َ‬
                ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺃ ﺳﻒ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺳﻒ‬                  ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬             ‫ﺃﺳﻔ‬
    ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ َ ِ َ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻭﺗﻠﻬﻒ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﻣﺜ ُ ﻏﻀﺐ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ  "‬
                                                          ‫ﺘﻪ‬                        ‫ﺪ‬
                                                          ‫" ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁﺳﻔْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍ ِﺳْ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻹ ﻜﺔ‬
      ‫ﺇ ﺳﻚ‬             ‫ﺇ ﻜﺘ ﻥ‬                                                  ‫ﺳ ﺭﺓ‬
    ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  ِﺪْ َ ٍ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ " ِﺳْ َ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ٌ "‬
      ‫ﺃﺳﻜ‬                           ‫ﺸ‬                      ‫ﻹ ﻜﺘ‬                   ‫ﺳﺪﺭ‬
   ‫ﻣﺜﻞ  ِ َ ٍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ " ﺍ ِﺳْ َ َﺎﻥ " ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱡﻔْﺮﺍﻥ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ُ ِ َﺖ "‬
         ‫ﻣﺳ ﻛ‬                                           ‫ﺄﻬ‬
        ‫" ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﻄَﺗْ َﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻓﻀﺔ ﻓﺄﺻﺎﺑﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺄْ ُﻮ َﺔ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ُ َﺎ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺃﺳ ﻣﺔ‬
                        ‫ﻢ‬
    ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻻﺳْ ُ " ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ "‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺳ ﻮ‬ ‫ِ‬
                                                                                      ‫ُﻤْ ٌ " ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺳ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃ َﻦ‬
  ‫ﻰ‬      ‫ﺳﻦ‬             ‫ﻳ‬                         ‫ﺳﻦ‬                       ‫ﺃﺳ ﻧ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " ُ ُﻮًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭ " ﻳﺄ ِ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﻢ  ُﺸﺮﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻋﻠ  ‬
                               ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬        ‫ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺒ‬           ‫ﺃ ﺳﻦ‬           ‫ﺃ ﺳﻨ‬      ‫ﺃ ﺳﻦ‬
                           ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ َ ِ َ َ َ ًﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ َ ِ ٌ ﻟﻐﺔ‬


  ‫51‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                              ‫ِ ﻮﺓ‬  ‫ﻹ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍ ُﺳْ َ ُ‬
    ‫ﺃﺳ‬      ‫ﺃ ﺳﻲ‬               ‫ﺘﺴ ﺖ‬                 ‫ﺗﺄﺳ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﻭ " ََ ﱠﻴْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺋْ َ َﻴْ ُ " ﺍﻓﺘﺪﻳﺖ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ ًﻰ "‬
      ‫ﺳﺘ‬                            ‫ﺃﺳ ﺕ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﺳﻲ‬        ‫ﺗﻌﺐ ﺣﺰﻥ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ َ ِ َ  َ ِ َ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ﱞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺰﻳﻦ ﻭ " َ َﻮْ ُ " ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﺻﻠﺤﺖ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻴْ ُﻪ "‬
            ‫" ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺳﻮﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺍ َﻴْ ُ ُ‬
            ‫ﻭ ﺳ ﺘﻪ‬                                                        ‫ﺪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺃﺷﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َِ‬
                ‫ﺃﺷﺮ‬                              ‫ﺑﻄﺮ‬                ‫ﺃﺷﺮ‬            ‫ﺃﺷﺮ‬
   ‫َ َ ًﺍ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ َ ِ َ ﻭﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺸﻜﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﺔ " "‬
  ‫ﻣﺷ ﺮ‬                             ‫ﻤ ﺸﺭ‬                           ‫ﻘ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬
‫َﺷْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺷ ﱠﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺌْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺂ ِﻴ ُ "‬
                                                            ‫ﻣ ﺷ ﺭﺓ‬                 ‫ﺷﺮ‬
                                               ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﺔ " َﺄْ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻳﻤ ﻨﻚ ﺷﺮ‬              ‫ﻧ ﺷﺮ‬
                                                               ‫" ... ﺃَﺎ ِ َ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ َ ِﻴ ُ َ ﺁ ِ َﻩ "‬
‫ﻝ‬                                       ‫ﺴ‬
‫ﻓﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﻐﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ّﻜﻴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮ  ‬
                                      ‫ﻣ ﺷ ﺭﺓ‬                 ‫ﺪ ﺷﺮﺓ‬
      ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻤﻨﻪ ﻳ ٌ " ﺁ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َﺄْ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ "‬
       ‫ُ‬
       ‫ﺓ‬         ‫ﺃﺷﺮﺕ‬                                           ‫ﺭ‬    ‫ﻤ‬       ‫ﺔ‬         ‫ﻭﺷ ﺕ‬
       ‫َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒ َ " ﺑﺎﻟ ِﻴﺸﺎ ِ " ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎﺩ ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃ  ‬
                    ‫ﺭﺓ‬          ‫ﺷ ﺓ‬      ‫ﻟﻌﻨ‬
                    ‫ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻘﺖ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ  ُ ِ َﺖ ﺍﻵ ِﺮ ُ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺄﺷﻮ َ ُ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻹ ﻔ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺍ ِﺷْ َﻰ‬
   ‫ﺇ ﻌﻞ‬                               ‫ﺫ ﺮ‬         ‫ﻓ ﻠ‬
   ‫ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﺎﻑ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ  ِﻌْ َﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ  ِﻛْ َﻯ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﺣﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ِﻓْ َ  ‬
                         ‫ﺇ ﻴﻦ‬             ‫ﺇ ﺒ  ‬       ‫ﻹ ﻔ‬           ‫ﺇﻌ‬
                ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ِﻓْ َﻞ ﺇﻻ " ﺍ ِﺷْ َﻰ " ﻭِﺻْ َﻊٌ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ ِﺑْ َ ُ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ‬
                   ‫ﻷﺷ‬                                               ‫ﻋﺪﻥ ﺇ ﻴﻦ ﻳﻨ ﻥ‬
                ‫َ َ ُ ِﺑْ َ َ ﻭ ُّﻮ ُ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍ َ َﺎﻓﻲ‬
                                                                                             ‫ِ ﻨﻥ‬   ‫ﻹ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺍ ُﺷْ َﺎ ُ‬
‫ﻩ‬        ‫ﺤ ﺽ ﺗﺄﺷﻦ‬                                ‫ﻓ‬          ‫ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ  ُ َ ﱠ ٌ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ  ُﻌْﻼﻥ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ﻭ ََ ﱠ َ ﻏﺴﻞ ﻳﺪ  ‬
                                                                                            ‫ِ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﻹ‬
                                                                                       ‫" " ﺑﺎ ُﺷْﻨﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺍ ِﺻْ َﺒْ ُ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﻹ ﻄﻞ‬
‫ﻻ‬                                                    ‫ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬                     ‫ﺪ ﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻠ ﱠﻭﺍ ِ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ  ُ َ ﱠ ٌ ﻭﻫﻤﺰﺗﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺇ  ‬
                                                    ‫ﺇ ﻄ ﺕ‬
                                                    ‫" ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﺻْ َﺒْﻼ ٌ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﺻْ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                 ‫ﺘ ﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻱ ﺛﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺘ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                                  ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻷﺏ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭ  ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺔ  َ ُ َ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺻﻴﻞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻠْ ُ  ‬
‫ﺃﺻ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺃ‬       ‫ﺷﺮﻑ‬                        ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬         ‫ﺃﺻ ﻝ‬
         ‫ﻝ‬                ‫ﻞ‬                                  ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬               ‫ﺗ ﻼ‬
         ‫" " َﺄْﺻﻴ ً " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ " َﺻْ ً " ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎ ﻳﺒﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻻ " ﺃﺻْ َ " ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻗﺎ  ‬
                  ‫ﻞ‬                              ‫ﻞ‬                ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬
      ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ " ﺍ َﺻْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼْ ُ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ " ﺍﻷﺻ ٌ " ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭ "‬
  ‫ﺻﻝ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬                                            ‫ﻲ‬        ‫ﺻﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷ ِﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﺸ ّ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺻْ ُ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ "‬


 ‫61‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
        ‫ﺱ‬                                                                 ‫ﻷﺻﻠﺔ‬
        ‫ﻭ " ﺍ َ َ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺥ ﺗﺜﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭ  ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬
                                                                                ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ‬
                                                                       ‫ﻷﺻﻞ‬        ‫ﺃﺻﻠﺔ‬         ‫ﺪ‬
                                                                     ‫" ... ﺍﻗ ُﺭْ ﻟﻪ َ َ َ ٌ ﻣﻦ ﺍ َ َ ِ "‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                                 ‫ﺘ ﺻﻞ‬                      ‫ﺻ‬             ‫ﺘﺻ ﺘ‬
   ‫ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َﻠْ ُﻪ " ﻗﻠﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﺄ ُﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻬﻢ ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ‬
       ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ " َﺻْ ً " ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ " َﺻْ ً " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻗ ّ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺑ  ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬                       ‫ﻂ‬                    ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬                ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬
                        ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻹﻃ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ‬
  ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻜ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟ ّﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤْ ُ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒ  ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬                           ‫ﻢ‬         ‫ﺸ‬      ‫ﺇﻃ ﺭ‬                      ‫ﻞ‬
                      ‫ﻭ ﻹﻃ ﺭ‬               ‫ﻳﻘﺺ‬                ‫ﺺ‬      ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡ ﱠ ِ ﻓﻲ ﻗ ّ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ  ُ َ ﱡ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﺪ َ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﻨﻮ ﻓﻼﻥ "‬
                       ‫ﻋ‬                ‫ﺃﻃﺮ‬       ‫ﺃﻃﺮﻩ‬                ‫ﻠ‬                 ‫ﺇﻃ ﺭ‬
                    ‫ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻟﺒﻨﻲ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣّﻮﺍ ﺣﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " " َ َ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ  َﻄﻔﻪ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺄﻓﻮﺥ‬
   ‫ﻳ ﻌ ﻝ‬                                                                   ‫ﻳ ﻤﺰ‬
   ‫ُﻬْ َ ُ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﺏ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﻤﺰ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻫﻤﺰﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ َﻔْ ُﻮ  ‬
  ‫ﻳﻔ ﺘﻪ‬               ‫ﻓﻋ‬                                ‫ﺧ‬                 ‫ﺃﻓ ﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺨْ ُ ُ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺿﺮﺑﺖ ﻳﺄﻓﻮ َﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ  َﺎ ُﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺨْ ُ ُ "‬
                             ‫ﺪ‬      ‫ﻳ ﻠﺐ‬          ‫ﺥ‬                            ‫ﻴﻓ ﺥ‬
                  ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﻳﺎﻓﻮ ٌ " ﺣﺘﻰ َﺼْ ُ َ ﻭﻳﺸﺘ ّ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻷﻓ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ ُ ُﻖ‬
   ‫ﻓ ﻲ ﺩ ﻰ‬                             ‫ﻕ‬
   ‫ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁﻓﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ " ﺃ ُﻘ ﱞ " ﺭ ّﺍ ﺇﻟ  ‬
           ‫ﺴﻜﻴﺖ‬                                                ‫ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‬
           ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َ ِ ﱞ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ّ ّ ِ ِ‬
    ‫ﻓﻕ‬                      ‫ﻕ‬                    ‫ﺃﻓﻘﻲ‬         ‫ﺃﻓ ﻲ‬
  ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ " ُ ُﻘ ﱞ " " ﻭَ َ ِ ﱡ " ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﻵﻓﺎ ِ " ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﻵ َﺎ ِ "‬
      ‫ﻷ ﻖ‬                                                ‫ﻲ‬
    ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁﻓﺎﻗ ّ " ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺗﻤﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎء ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻓﻴ ُ "‬
  ‫ّ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟ ِﻠﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺑﻐﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻷﻓﻴ ُ " ﺍﻷﺩﻳ ُ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘ ّ ﺩﺑﻐﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗ  ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬             ‫ﻢ‬            ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﻖ‬                       ‫ﺃﻓﻖ‬                       ‫ﺠ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﺣﻤ ﱠ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺩﻳﻢ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻘْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ " َﻓْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ  ََﻐْ ُ ُ " ﻓﺎ َ ِﻴ ُ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬             ‫ﻷﻓ ﻖ‬        ‫ﺩﺑ ﺘﻪ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﻘ‬             ‫ﺃﻓ ﺖ‬                    ‫ﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻓﻚ‬
           ‫ﺃﻓ ﻙ‬              ‫ﺃﻓ ﻙ‬         ‫ﺃﻓ ﻙ‬                        ‫ﺇﻜ‬                   ‫ﻳ ِﻚ‬
 ‫َﺄْﻓ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ " ِﻓْ ًﺎ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ  "‬
          ‫ﺃﻓﻚ‬                         ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﺃ ﻓ ﺘﻪ‬                 ‫ﺃﻓ ﻛﺔ‬
          ‫" ﻫﺎء ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺎ َ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭ " َ َﻜْ ُ ُ " ﺻﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﻛ ّ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ " ُ ِ َ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﻓﻞ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََ َ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﻓْ ً " ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﻌﺪ ﻏﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َ َ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺇﺫ ‬
   ‫ﺍ‬                  ‫ﺃﻓﻞ‬                                     ‫ﺃﻓ ﻻ‬         ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬              ‫ﺇﻓ ﻝ‬              ‫ﺃﻓ ﻠﺔ‬                         ‫ﻔﺼ ﻞ‬        ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬
 ‫ﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻓﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ُ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﻝ‬             ‫ﻔ ﺘﻲ‬       ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬                                            ‫ﻹﻓ ﻝ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺽ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻓﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ " ﺍ َﻓﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟ َ ِ ﱡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
      ‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﻓﻝ‬         ‫ﻷﻓ ﻞ‬                                    ‫ﺃ ﻬ‬
    ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ َﺷْ ُﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ ِﻴ ِ " " ﺇ َﺎ ٌ " " ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺎ ُ "‬


  ‫71‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺻﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷﻗﻂ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ َِ ُ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬                     ‫ﻳ ﺼﻞ‬                ‫ﻳ ﺒﺦ‬                    ‫ﻳ ﺘﺨ ﺬ‬
   ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ  ُ ﱠ َ ُ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻴﺾ ُﻄْ َ ُ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺣﺘﻰ َﻤْ ُ َ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴ  ‬
  ‫ﺼﻐ ﻲ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻛﺒﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎﺋ  ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻔﺮ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ َ ﱠﺍء‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﻛ ﺗ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ﱠﺪْ ُﻪ‬
                                 ‫ﺘ‬              ‫ﻛ ﺗ‬                         ‫ﻓﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬         ‫ﺗﻛ ﺪ‬
    ‫َﺄْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " " َ ََ ﱠ َ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ " ﻭ ﱠﺪْ ُﻪ " ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ " "‬
                                                                                  ‫ﻲ‬
       ‫ﻟﻔﻈ ّ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺟﺎء ﺯﻳﺪ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻭ "‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                                                          ‫ﻱ‬
 ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮ ّ " ﻧﺤﻮ ﺟﺎء ﺯﻳﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺗﻪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯ ﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺟﺎء ﻏﻼﻣ  ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ُﻛْ َﺓ‬
‫ﻪ‬                    ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬             ‫ﺃﻛ ﺕ‬                    ‫ﺣﻔ‬      ‫ﺣ ﺮ‬           ‫ﺃﻛ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َﺮ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﻔْ َﺓ ﻭ  ُ َﺮ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ " َﻛْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺷﻘﻘﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﻛﺮ‬                 ‫ﺃﻛﺮﺓ‬                          ‫ﺃﻛ‬                       ‫ﺽ‬       ‫ﺃﻛ ﺕ‬
 ‫ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻷﺭ َ ﺣﺮﺛﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َ ﱠﺎﺭ " ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ " ﺁ ِ ٍ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻛﻔﺮ‬
                                                                                ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  َ َ َﺓ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻹﻛ ﻑ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ‬
              ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﻛ ﺘﻪ‬          ‫ﺣﻤﺮ‬                        ‫ﺃﻛ ﻒ‬
  ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ  ُ ُ ٌ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻔْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ "‬
                                                                   ‫ﻮﻛ ﻑ‬            ‫ﻹﻛ ﻑ‬
                       ‫ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺗﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍ َﻛْ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬
       ‫ﻭ‬           ‫ﻷﻛﻞ‬                                             ‫ﺃﻛﻞ‬
       ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ " َ َ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ُ ُ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ   ‬
  ‫ﺢ‬        ‫ﻤ ﻛﻠ‬                                        ‫ﻷ ﻠﺔ‬                                   ‫ﺇ‬
  ‫ِﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻝ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻛْ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ َ َﺔ " ﺑﻔﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﻊ‬            ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬         ‫ﺮﻣ ﻲ‬                     ‫ﻤﻛ ﻝ‬                     ‫ﻤﻛ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ُﻮﻝ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠﺎﻧ ﱡ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻛْ ُ " ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻠ  ‬
                                                        ‫ﻞ‬
                                                        ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻀﻐﻪ ﻓﺒﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄﻛ ٍ‬
    ‫ﻢ‬                                       ‫ﺗﺴﻤ‬                  ‫ﻷﻛ ﻟﺔ‬
    ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭ " ﺍ َ ُﻮَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ُ َ ﱠﻦ ﻭﺗﻐﺰﻝ ﻟﺘﺬﺑﺢ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺴﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﺋ  ‬
    ‫ﻛﻞ ﺑ ﻀ‬                             ‫ﺃﻛ ﻠﺔ‬                               ‫ﻷﻛ ﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍ َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻓﻌﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ " ﺃ َ َ َﻌْ َﻬﺎ "‬
             ‫ﺃﻛ ﻠ‬               ‫ﺗ‬       ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻠ‬                    ‫ﺃﻛ ﻼ‬             ‫ﺃﻛﻠﺖ‬
 ‫ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ " َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ َﺖ " ﺗﺤﺎﱠﺖ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻗﻄﺖ ﻭ " َ َ َﺘْﻬﺎ " ﺍﻷﻛﻠﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻷﻛﻤﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍ ََ َ ُ‬
‫ﺗ ّ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺍﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻏﻠﻆ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻐﻠ  ‬
‫ﻆ‬                                                                                ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬          ‫ﺇﻛ ﻡ‬       ‫ﻷﻛﻢ‬            ‫ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻗ ﺼﺐ ﻗﺼﺒ ﺕ‬                   ‫ﺃﻛﻤ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺃﻛﻢ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  َ َ َ ٍ ﻭ َ َ ٍ ﻭ َ َ َﺎ ٍ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ َ ِ " " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒ  ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻖ‬          ‫ﻛﻡ‬         ‫ﻷﻛﻢ‬                                   ‫ﺃﻛﻢ‬       ‫ﻹﻛ ﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ِ " " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ ُ ُ ِ " " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُ ُ  ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻭ ﺃﻋﻨﺎﻕ‬


  ‫81‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻟﺐ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
                    ‫ﺗﺄﻟﺒ‬               ‫ﺃﻟ ﺒ ﻬ‬                         ‫ﺃﺒ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﻟْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺟﻤﻌﻬﻢ ﻭ " ََ َ ُﻢ " ﻃﺮﺩﻫﻢ ﻭ " ََﱠ ُﻮﺍ " ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ "‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺇﺐ‬
                                            ‫ِﻟْ ٌ " ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻟﻐﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺖ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻟ َ‬
                     ‫ﺃ ﺘﻪ‬                                                 ‫ﺃﺘ‬
                     ‫" ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﻟْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﻟ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﻟ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َِﻔْ ُ ُ‬
                 ‫ﻷ ﻔﺔ‬                   ‫ﻷﻔ‬                              ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬              ‫ﺇﻔ‬
‫ِﻟْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ  َ ِ َ ﺃﻧﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﺒﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ ُﻟْ َﺔ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻟْ َ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ  "‬
  ‫ﻢ‬           ‫ﻒ‬                   ‫ﺃﻟ ﻒ‬                                       ‫ﺘ ﻑ‬
  ‫" ﺍﻻﺋْ ِﻼ ِ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َِﻴ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻢ ﻭ " ﺁﻟ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺎﻟ  ‬
‫ﺃﺅ ﻟﻔ ُ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺃ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُ ﱠﺎﺭ ﻭ " ﺁَﻔْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ " ِﻳْﻼ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺖ ﻭ " ﺁَﻔْ ُ ُ " " ُ َﺍِ ُ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﻟ ﺘﻪ‬                         ‫ﺇ ﻓ‬               ‫ﻟ ﺖ‬          ‫ﻛﻔ‬         ‫ﻷﻑ‬
                        ‫ﺇﻔ‬         ‫ﺃﻟ ﺘ‬                                 ‫ﺇ ﻓ‬        ‫ﻣﺆ ﻟﻔﺔ‬
 ‫" " ُ َﺍَ َ ً " ﻭ " ِﻻ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭ " َِﻔْ ُﻪ " " ِﻟْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ "‬
‫ﺍﻟ َﺄَْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ " َﺄَْ ُ ُ " ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ " ََﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻭﺗﺤﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﻭ " َﱠﻔْ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻟ ُ‬                                     ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻒ‬               ‫ﻳ ﻟﻔﻪ‬                    ‫ﻤ ﻟﻒ‬
                                                        ‫ﻤﺆﻟﻔﺔ‬              ‫ﺗﻟ ﻔ‬
‫" ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ " َﺄِْﻴ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﱠ َ ُ " ﻗﻠﻮﺑﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﻠﻮﺑﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ  -‬
   ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﱠﻔ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻄﻴﻪ ﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻷﺫﺍ  ‬
   ‫ﻩ‬                                                               ‫ﻤﺆﻟ ﺔ‬
‫ﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﻃﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬
   ‫ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﺸ ‬
        ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻟْ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ  ‬
        ‫ﺩ‬                    ‫ﻷﻒ‬
‫ﻮ‬                              ‫َﻒ‬                                 ‫ﻑ‬          ‫ﺃﻟ ﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺁﻻ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻷﻟْ ُ " ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺜﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫ  ‬
        ‫" ﺍ َﻟ ُ " ﻭﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺁﻻﻑ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺰ ّﺎﺝ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ " ﺃﻟْ ُ " ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻟﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
        ‫ﻰ‬                     ‫ﻒ‬                   ‫ﺟ‬                              ‫ﻷﻒ‬
         ‫ﺑﺨ ﺴﺔ ﻑ‬                       ‫ﻷﻒ‬                            ‫ﻷﻒ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍ َﻟْ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺬﻛﻴﺮ " ﺍ َﻟْ ِ " ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ِ َﻤْ َ ِ ﺁﻻ ٍ "‬
                                                                 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻟ ﻚ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
              ‫ﻣ ﻟﻚ‬                                ‫ﺃﻟ ﻛ‬                     ‫ﻜ‬
              ‫" ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " ﺃﻟْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ " َﺄْ ُ ٌ‬
‫ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭ " َﺄَْ َ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﻻﻣﻬﺎ ﺗﻀﻢ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﻤﻼِ َ ُ " ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ " ﺍ ُ ُﻮ  ‬
‫ﻙ‬
‫ﻷﻟ ِ‬                      ‫ﺋﻜﺔ‬                                         ‫ﻣ ﻟﻜﺔ‬             ‫ﻢ‬
‫ﻰ‬                      ‫ﻣ ﻔﻞ‬             ‫ﻣ ﻙ‬             ‫ﻣ ﻠﻚ‬              ‫ﻤﻟ‬
‫" ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ َﺄَْﻚ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ " َﻸْ ٌ " ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ  َﻌْ َ ٌ ﻓﻨﻘﻠﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺇﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﻟﺄﻙ‬                                           ‫ﻥ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻓﻮﺯﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﻞ ﻓﺈ ﱠ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ " ََ َ " ﺇﺫ ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺳﻞ " َ َﻠَْﻙ " ﻣﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻨﻘﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺯﻧﻪ  َ َ ٌ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﻴ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬             ‫ﻣﻔﻞ‬                                                    ‫ﻓﻤ ﺄ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺇﻻ‬
    ‫ء‬                                                      ‫ﻡ‬
    ‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻧﺤﻮ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ُ ﺇﻻ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﺰﻳﺪﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻰ‬                                                                      ‫ﻜ‬
  ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﻟ ِﻦْ " ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺜﺎء ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻤﺎﺭﺍ ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠ  ‬


  ‫91‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺫ‬      ‫ﻘ ﺑ‬        ‫ﺩﺓ‬           ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺃ ﺄﻟﻜ‬        ‫ﻗ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﻤﺎﺭﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُﻞْ ﻻ َﺳَْ ُ ُﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺟْ ًﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻤﻮ ﱠ َ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ُﺮَْﻰ " ﺇ  ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                                           ‫ﺔ‬
   ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻟﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺆﻟ ً ﺃﺟﺮﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺩ  ‬
    ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺑﻰ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ " ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ِ َ ً ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠ ﱠﺎ ِ ﻋﻠﻴ ُﻢ  ُ ﱠ ً ﺇ  ‬
    ‫ﻜ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻻ‬           ‫ﻨﺱ‬           ‫ﻟﺌﻼ‬
                                                                           ‫ﻇﻠﻤ‬
            ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ  َ َ ُﻮﺍ " ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻇﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻭﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
             ‫ﻻ‬                                                           ‫ﻔﻗ ﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟ َﺮْ َﺪﺍ ِ ... " ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ " ﺇ ﱠ " ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ  "‬
    ‫ﺮ‬     ‫ﻜ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺣﻤﻠﺖ " ﺇﻻ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻣﻨ ّﺮ ﻏﻴ  ‬
                                                       ‫ﷲ‬      ‫ﺔ‬      ‫ﻟ ﻛ ﻥ ﻓ ﻬﻤ‬
                                           ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭ ﻧﺤﻮ " َﻮْ  َﺎ َ  ِﻴ ِ َﺎ ﺁﻟﻬ ٌ ﺇﻻ ﺍ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﷲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻟﻢ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
             ‫ﺘﺄﻟﻢ‬         ‫ﺇ ﻣ‬        ‫ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬                   ‫ﺃﻟﻤ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " ََ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ ُ َ َﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁﻟﻤ ُ ُ " " ِﻳْﻼ ًﺎ " " ﻓ ََﱠ َ " ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺏ "‬
‫َِﻴ ٌ " ﻣﺆﻟﻢ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻟﻤﺖ ﺭﺃﺳﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭ ِﻌْﺖ ﺭﺃﺳﻚ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻭ " ََﻤْ َﻢْ " ﺟﺒﻞ ﺑﺘﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                   ‫ﺃﻟ ﻠ‬                      ‫ﺟ‬                               ‫ﺃﻟ ﻢ‬
   ‫ﺖ‬                                ‫ﻠ‬
   ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌّﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻟﻤﻠﻤ  ‬
‫ﺝ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺣﺮ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                        ‫ﺃﻟ ﻠ‬                 ‫ﻟ ﻌ ﻤﻴ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺪﺣﺮﺝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺘﻨﻊ ِﻠْ َﻠ ِ ﱠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭ " ََﻤْ َﻢْ " ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﻛﻨﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻝ ﻣ  ‬
                                                             ‫ﻳﻠ ﻠ‬
               ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﺎء ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻤْ َﻢْ " ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺃﻟﻪ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َِ َ‬
                                        ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻪ‬                                        ‫ﻳ ﻟﻪ‬
         ‫َﺄَْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﻻﻫﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ " ََﱠ َ " ﺗﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺒﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﷲ  "‬
   ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁﻟﻬﺔ " "‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻹﻟﻪ‬
                                                           ‫ﻓﺎ َِ ُ " ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻭﺑﺴﺎﻁ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﺒﺴﻮﻁ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " ﺍ ُ " ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲء ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻢ‬                                 ‫ﷲ‬
                                 ‫ﺇ ﻩ‬
  ‫ﻟﺰﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ " ِﻻ ٌ " ﻓﺪﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻓﺒﻘﻲ "‬
       ‫ﻰ‬               ‫ﻟﻼﻩ ﺄ‬                                                   ‫ﻹﻪ‬
       ‫ﺍ ِﻟ ُ " ﺛﻢ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻓﺒﻘﻲ " ﺃِ َ ُ " ﻓَﺳﻜﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻼء ﺍﻷﻭﻟ  ‬
‫ﷲ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺩﻏﻤﺖ ﻭﻓﺨﻢ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺮ ﻗﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻻ ﻭﺍ  ‬
‫ﺎ‬          ‫ﺪ‬                                                         ‫ﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺑ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺑ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻬ ‬
       ‫ﺾ‬                                              ‫ﻞ‬
       ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻳﺠ ّ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺑﻌ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻴﺘﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻓﻼ ﺟﺰﻱ ﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻭﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬
                                                   ‫ﻳ ﻟﻪ‬       ‫ﺃﻟﻪ‬      ‫ﻢ‬
              ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻫ ّ ﻭ " َِ َ " " َﺄَْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺤﻴﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻳﻮﻟﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﻟ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻷ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ َِﻰ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬
  ‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻵﻻء " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻜ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                     ‫ﻷ ﻴﺔ‬
  ‫ﺃﺑﺪﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺎء ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻘﺎﻻ ﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻫﻤﺰﺗﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻟْ َ ُ " ﺃﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ  ‬
       ‫ﺕ‬                               ‫ﻟﻴﺔ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺃﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺠﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﺠﺪﺍ  ‬


  ‫02‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
          ‫ﺃﻟ ﻰ‬                                                          ‫ﺃﻴﻥ‬
        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ " َﻟْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺑﺈﺛﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ " ﻭَِ َ "‬
        ‫ﺱ‬                          ‫ﺃﻴﻥ‬                                     ‫ﺶ ﺃﻟ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒ ُ " ًَﻰ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻋﻈﻤﺖ ﺃﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﻟْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎ  ‬
 ‫ء‬                            ‫ﺃ ﻴ ﻧﺔ‬                                        ‫ﻟ‬
 ‫ﻭﺳﻤﻊ " ﺁَﻰ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻧﻌﺠﺔ " َﻟْ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " ﺁﻟﻰ " ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ  ‬
                   ‫ﻷﻟﻴﺔ‬                           ‫ﺃ ﻴ ﻧﺔ‬
  ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ " َﻟْ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭ " ﺍ َِ ﱠ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺃ ﻳ‬
                                                               ‫َﻻَﺎ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                     ‫ﻷﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺕ‬                               ‫ﻆ‬      ‫ﻗ ﻞ ﻷ ﻳ‬
                                   ‫" ... َﻠﻴ ُ ﺍ َﻻَﺎ ﺣﺎﻓ ٌ ﻟﻴﻤﻴﻨﻪ ... ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍ ََ ﱠ ُ َ ﱠ ِ "‬
                  ‫ﺘﻠ‬             ‫ﺗﺄﻟ‬       ‫ﻣ ﻝ‬                                 ‫ﺇ ء‬
          ‫ﻭ " ﺁﻟﻰ " " ِﻳْﻼ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺁﺗﻰ ﺇﻳﺘﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻠﻒ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺆْ ٍ " ﻭ " ََﱠﻰ " ﻭ " ﺍﺋْ َ َﻰ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺮﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗ  ‬
 ‫ﺪ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ‬
   ‫ﺖ‬
   ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺮ ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻳﺎء ﻭﺟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﻓﻠﻮ ﺑﻘﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ " ِﻻ ٌ " ﻻﻟﺘﺒﺲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ " ِﻟ ِ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺱ‬                                 ‫ﺇﻪ‬                  ‫ﺇ ﻩ‬
‫ﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻲ ﺛﻢ ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻟﻴﺠﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎ  ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ ﺃﻧﻬﻢ ﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻟﻴﻔﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﺑﻴ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺮ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻳﺎ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻴﺮ ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﻭﺧﺜﻌﻢ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻛﻨﺎﻧﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫ  ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺮ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻛ ّ ﻳﺎء ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﺒﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﻻﻙ ﻭﻋﻼﻙ ﻭﻟﺪﺍ  ‬
‫ﻙ‬                                                              ‫ﻞ‬
                                                            ‫ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                         ‫ﻃ ﺭ ﻋ ﻫﻦ ﻓ ﻄ ﻋ ﻫ‬
                                                                      ‫" ... َﺎ ُﻭﺍ  َﻼ ُ ﱠ  َ ِﺮْ  َﻼ َﺎ "‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ " ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭ َ َﻴْ َﺎ َِﻰ َﻨﻲ ِﺳْ َﺍِﻴ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﺇ ﺮﺋ َ‬       ‫ﻗﻀ ﻨ ﺇﻟ ﺑ‬
   ‫ﺒ ِ‬
   ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻗﻀﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﻋﻨﺪ " ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُ ﱠ  َ ِ ﱡ َﺎ َِﻰ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ  ‬
   ‫ﺖ‬         ‫ﺛﻢ ﻣﺤﻠﻬ ﺇﻟ‬
   ‫ﻱ‬               ‫ﻲ‬                                         ‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬            ‫ﻌﺘ ﻖ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﺛﻢ  َ ِ ﱡ ﻧﺤﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﻖ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺷﻬﻰ ﺇﻟ ّ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ  ‬
    ‫ﻻ‬
    ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ   ‬
                                                        ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎء ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍ ََ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻷﻣ ﺪ‬
                                              ‫ﺃﻣ ﺪ‬      ‫ﺃﻣﺪ‬                  ‫ﺃﻣ ﺪﻩ‬
                            ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻠﻎ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻏﻀﺐ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
       ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ " َ َﺎ َﻣْ ُ  ِﺮْ َﻮْ َ ِ َ ِﻴ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺍ َﻣْ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﺐ‬              ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬           ‫ﻭﻣ ﺃ ﺮ ﻓ ﻋ ﻥ ﺑﺮﺷ ﺪ‬                       ‫ﺃﻣ ﺭ‬
 ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍ َﻣْ ِ " " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                                   ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮ‬        ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬                          ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮ‬
 ‫ﻑ‬                                   ‫ﻮ‬
 ‫ﻳﺼﺤﺤﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺣ ّﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﺎﺭ  ‬


  ‫12‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                        ‫ﻣ ﺿﻴﺔ‬
    ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻋﻴﺸﻪ ﺭﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ  َﺮْ ِ ﱠ ٌ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻮﺍﻋﻞ "‬
    ‫ﺓ‬                                                          ‫ﻣ‬             ‫ﺮ‬
    ‫ﻓﺄﻭﺍﻣ ُ " ﺟﻤﻊ " ﻣﺄْ ُﻮﺭ " ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ  ‬
 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﻠﺖ " ُﺮْ ُ " ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﻧﻈﻴﺮﻩ ﻛﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺬ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺭ  ‬
 ‫ﺩ‬
 ‫ّ‬                                                     ‫ﻣ ﻩ‬
                                                    ‫ﻣ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﻭﺃْ ُﺮْ " ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺧﺬ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ "‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃﻣ ﺗ‬
                                                                                 ‫َ َﺮْ ُﻪ " ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬      ‫ﻣ ﺗ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ ﺟﻴﺪﺗﺎﻥ " ﻭﺁ َﺮْ ُﻪ " ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﺃﻣﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﺎﻭﺭﺗﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﻣْ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ " ﻋﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻰ‬      ‫ﺃﻣﺮ‬                               ‫ﻹﻣ ﺭﺓ‬            ‫ﻹ ﺮﺓ‬                     ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ﻣ ﺗ‬                              ‫ﻷﻣﺮ ء‬                 ‫ﺃﻣ ﺮ‬                      ‫ﻳ ﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﺄْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ ُ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺃ ﱠﺮْ ُﻪ "‬
‫" ﺗﺄْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " " ﻭﺍ ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻲ " َﻣْ َ ٌ " ﻻ ﺃﻋﺼﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ  ‬
‫ﺓ‬                               ‫ﺃ ﺮﺓ‬                                  ‫ﻹﻣ ﺭﺓ‬            ‫َﻣﺮ‬
     ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬       ‫ﺃﻣ ﺗﻪ‬                                                   ‫ﻳ ﻣﺮ‬              ‫ﺃﻣﺮ‬
  ‫" ﻭَ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺄْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " " َﻣْ ًﺍ "‬
    ‫ﺲ‬          ‫ﺃﻣ ﺭ‬                                     ‫ﻷ ﺮ‬           ‫ﻣ ﺗﻪ‬
    ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ﺁ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠ  ‬
             ‫ﺘﻤﺮ‬              ‫ﻫﻢ‬            ‫ﺘﻤﺮ‬                         ‫ﺘﻤﺮ‬             ‫ﺃﻣ ﺗ‬
         ‫ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ " ﻭَ َﺮْ ُﻪ " " ﻓﺎﺋْ َ َ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺳﻤﻊ ﻭﺃﻃﺎﻉ " ﻭﺍﺋْ َ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء  َ ﱠ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺋْ َ َ ُﻭﺍ "‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                                       ‫ﻷ ﺮﻦ‬                    ‫ﺮﻦ‬
 ‫ﺗﺸﺎﻭﺭﻭﺍ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ " ﺍﻷﻣْ َﻳْ ِ " ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ " ﺍ َﻣْ َﻳْ ِ " ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻬ ‬
        ‫ﻋﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻧﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﺮ‬
   ‫ﻲ‬
   ‫ﻟﻸﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻟﺒﻘ  ‬
    ‫ﻮ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺍ ﻟﻼﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﻣﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓ  ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺃ ﺲ‬
                                                                                                          ‫َﻣْ ِ‬
  ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﻚ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺴ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬
                                       ‫ﺲ‬
             ‫ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﺑﻪ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻣْ ُ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺒ‬
                                ‫" ... ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻋﺠ ًﺎ ﻣﺬ ﺃﻣﺴﺎ ... ﻋﺠﺎﺋﺰﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺧﻤﺴﺎ "‬
                                                                                                          ‫َﻣﻠْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺃ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                              ‫ﺗﺮﻗﺒﺘ‬
             ‫ﺃﻣﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻃﻠﺐ  ُ َ ﱠ َ ُﻪ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻫﻴﺮ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺃ ﺟ ﻭ ﻣﻞ ﺃ ﺗ ﻧﻮ ﻣﻮﺩﺗ‬
                                                                     ‫" ... َﺭْ ُﻮ  َﺁ ُ ُ َﻥْ َﺪْ ُ َ  َ َ ﱠ ُﻬﺎ "‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " َ َﻠْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻃﻤﻌﺖ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬ ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                     ‫ﺃﻣ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬
 ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﺏ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎء ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻤﻊ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺎﻑ ﺃ  ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬                                                            ‫ﻣ ﻟﻪ‬
  ‫ﻻ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﺄ ُﻮ ُ ُ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣ  ‬
          ‫ﻞ‬           ‫ﻣﻣ ﻝ‬             ‫ﻣﻞ‬
          ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺯﻫﻴﺮ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻊ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ " ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻠْ ُ ُ " " َﺄْ ِﻴﻼ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻓ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                                           ‫ﺗﻣ‬        ‫ﺃﻣ ﺘﻪ‬


  ‫22‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻤﺎ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬      ‫ﺧ ﺮ‬                                  ‫ﺠﺱ‬                    ‫ﺃﻣﻞ‬
 ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﻑ " ﺇﻳ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻟﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ " َﻄْ ٌ " ﻭﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ " ﻭﺳْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ََ ﱠﻠْ ُ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻲء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺪﺑﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﺓ‬                                      ‫ﺸ‬      ‫ﺗﺄﻣ ﺖ‬          ‫ﻮﺱ‬
                                                                               ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﻣﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﱠ ُ‬
      ‫ﺇﻣ ﻣﺔ‬           ‫ﺃﻡ‬        ‫ﺃﻣﻪ‬                   ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻤﻪ‬          ‫ﻣﻤﻪ‬                          ‫ﻣ‬
    ‫ﺃ ّﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻭ " ﺃ ﱠ َ ُ " ﻭ " ََ ﱠ َ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺑﻪ " ِ َﺎ َ ً "‬
                                            ‫ﻣﺔ‬             ‫ﺠ‬     ‫ﺃﻣﻪ‬
         ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﺷ ّﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺁ ﱠ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ "‬
‫ﻊ‬     ‫ﺑ ﺩﻭ ﺏ‬              ‫ﺃﻭ ﻡ‬       ‫ﻷﻭ‬                                          ‫ﻣ ﻣ ﻣﺔ‬
‫َﺄْ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍ ُ َﻟﻰ " َ َﺍ ﱞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺍﱠﺔ ﻭ َ َﺍ ﱠ ﻭﺟﻤ  ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ " َﺄْ ُﻮ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻣﺎﻍ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺷ ّ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﺝ ﻗﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﺪ‬           ‫ﺪ‬                          ‫ﻣﻣ ﻣﺕ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬              ‫ﺒﺮ ﺯ‬
  ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻳﺼﻌﻖ ﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺪ ﻭﻟﺮﻏﺎء ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺍﻟ ُ ُﻭ َ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
                ‫ﺠ‬              ‫ﻷﻣﺔ‬                      ‫ﻋﺪﻱ‬
 ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ  ُ ِ ﱢ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ " ﺍ َ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸ ّﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﻰ‬             ‫ﺃﻣﻢ‬                                      ‫ﻷﻣﺔ‬                         ‫ﻹﻣﺔ‬
   ‫ﺍ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻻ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﻋﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﻡ ﺪﻣ ﻍ‬              ‫ﺃﻣ ﻢ‬         ‫ﻣﻣ ﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺃ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ ِ "‬
       ‫ﺍ‬       ‫ﺃﻣﻬﺔ‬                           ‫ﻡ‬               ‫ﺃﻡ ﺸ ء‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻌﻪ ﻭ " ُ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻲ ِ " ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻷ ّ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ " ُ ﱠ َ ٌ " ﻭﻟﻬﺬ ‬
  ‫ﺓ‬                           ‫ﺃﻣ ﺕ‬          ‫ﻥ‬                         ‫ﺃﻣﻬ ﺕ‬
  ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ُ ﱠ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺃ ﱠ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ " ُ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩ  ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ " ُ ﱠ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ " ُ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬               ‫ﺃﻣ ﺕ‬                     ‫ﺃﻣﻬ ﺕ‬
        ‫ﺃﻣﻬﺔ‬          ‫ﺃﻣﺔ‬                           ‫ﺃﻡ‬
    ‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ " ُ ﱞ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ " ُ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ﱠ َ ٌ " "‬
 ‫ﻓﺎ ُ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ﱠﺎ ُ " ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻟﻸﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭ  ‬
 ‫ﻻ‬                                                       ‫ﻷﻣ ﺕ‬           ‫ﻷﻣﻬ ﺕ‬
            ‫ﺃﻡ ﻘ‬           ‫ﺃﻡ ﻜ ﺏ‬                                           ‫ﺃﻡ ﻜ ﺏ‬
  ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ " ُ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ِﺘﺎ ِ " ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﺤﺔ " ُ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ِﺘﺎ ِ " ﻭ " ُ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ُﺮْﺁﻥ " ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﺍ ُ ﱠ ُ " َﺗْ َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍ ُ ﱠ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ  َﺎﻟﻢ ﺩﻫﺮ  ‬
       ‫ﻩ‬        ‫ﻋ‬        ‫ﻷﻣﺔ‬                             ‫ﺃﻣﻢ‬                  ‫ﻷﻣﺔ ﺃ ﺒ ﻉ‬
  ‫ﻡ‬                                                       ‫ﻷ ﻣﻲ‬        ‫ﺑﻌ ﻤﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮﺩ ِ ِﻠ ِ ِ ﻭ " ﺍ ُ ﱢ ﱡ " ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﻷ ﱢ "‬
 ‫ﺏ‬      ‫ﻣﺔ‬                                    ‫ﻣﻪ‬
 ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺗﻪ ﺃ ﱡ ُ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃ ﱠ ِ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﻹﻣ ﻡ‬                             ‫ﻹﻣ ﻡ‬                   ‫ﻹﻣ ﻡ‬
 ‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻣﻴﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ء‬               ‫ﻧﺚ ﺇﻣ ﻡ‬
 ‫ﻳﺆﺗﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﱢ َ " ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﻻ‬        ‫ﻹﻣ ﻡ‬                                                    ‫ﺓ ﺇﻣ ﻣﺔ‬
    ‫ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ُ " ِ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ َ " ﺍﺳﻢ   ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﺪﻭﺩ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻨ ‬
    ‫ﻲ‬                                                  ‫ﻭﺻﻲ‬                        ‫ﺮﺓ‬
    ‫ﺍﻣْ َﺃ ٌ ﻭﺃﻣﻴﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻓﻼﻧﺔ  َ ِ ﱡ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻭﻓﻼﻧﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻞ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓ  ‬
                                                        ‫ﻤ‬
                                ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻓﻠ ﱠﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺟﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء‬
 ‫ﺍ‬                ‫ﺃﺓ ﻓ ﻧﺔ‬                 ‫ﻣ ﺫﻥ‬               ‫ﻣ ﺿﻌ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﺮ‬
 ‫َﺟْ َﻭْﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻲ  َﻮْ ِ ِﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ  ُﺆ ِ ُ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻣْﺮَ ُ ﻭ ُﻼَ ٌ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬ ‬
  ‫ﺍ‬            ‫ﻜﺒﺮ ﻧﺬ ﺮ ﻟ ﺒﺸﺮ‬              ‫ﻧﻬ ﻹ ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﺇﱠ َﺎ  ِﺣْ َﻯ ﺍﻟ ُ َ ِ َ ِﻳ ًﺍ ِﻠْ َ َ ِ " ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻧﺬﻳﺮ ‬


  ‫32‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                           ‫ﺻﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻹﺣﺪﻯ ﺛﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺨﻄﺄ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻭ ِ ﱠ ٌ ﻭﻭﻛﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻬ ‬
‫ﻡ‬                                                                        ‫ﻆ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣ ّ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎ  ‬
   ‫" ﺃِ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ َﺃْ َﻤ ٌ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﺄﺩ ِ َ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ  ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                                         ‫ﻏﻤﺖ‬                  ‫ﺃﻣ ﺔ‬             ‫َﺋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻦ‬                    ‫ﻳ ﺴﻬﻠﻬ‬                      ‫ﻣﺤﻘﻘﺔ‬                 ‫ﻳ‬     ‫ﻘﺮ ء‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠﺍ ِ ﻣﻦ  ُﺒْﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ  ُ َ ﱠ َ ً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ُ َ ﱢ ُ َﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﺗﻢ‬                                                                        ‫ﻨ‬
 ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺤﺎﺓ ﻳﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎ ﻳﺎء ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﺪﻩ ﻟﺤﻨﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭ " ﺃَْ ﱠ "‬
 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻗْ َ َﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " ُﺆَْ ﱞ " ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ " ُﺆَْ ﱞ ِﻪ " ﻓﺎﻟ ﱢ َ َ ﻓﺎ َ ُ ُ ﻭ ﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻣﺎﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬             ‫ﺼﻠﺔ ﺭﻗﺔ‬               ‫ﻣ ﺗﻢ ﺑ‬                    ‫ﻣ ﺗﻢ‬                     ‫ﺘﺪ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬                        ‫ﻣ ﺘ ﺒﻠ‬                      ‫ﺃﻣ ﻡ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﻖ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺎ ﻭ " َ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ  ُﺴْ َﻘْ ُ ُﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻗ  ‬
                              ‫ﻷﻣ ﻡ‬
                    ‫ﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺬﻛﻴﺮ " ﺍ َ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﺗﺄﻧﻴﺜﻪ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺃ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻭَﻡْ‬
            ‫ﺍ‬
            ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺧﺒﺮ ‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮ " ِﱠ َﺎ  ِِ ٌ َﻡْ  َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻫﻞ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻤﺮ  ‬
    ‫ﻭ‬                                   ‫ﺇﻧﻬ ﻹﺑﻞ ﺃ ﺷ ء‬
       ‫ﺔ‬
       ‫ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﻼﻣﺎ ﺗﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻻ‬
   ‫ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻼﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭ  ‬
   ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺈ  ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬
‫ﺐ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻼ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻡ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺃﻡ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻄﻠ  ‬
     ‫ﻢ‬
     ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻠ  ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻳ‬
                                                          ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻭَﺴْﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ﻣﻦ‬
        ‫ﻳ ﺘ ﻤﻞ ﻲ‬            ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺎ ﻣ ﻰ‬            ‫ﻞ ﺳﻠ ﻣ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻣﻦ‬         ‫ﺪ ﺃ ﻨ‬
        ‫ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺳ ٌ " َﻣْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺜ ُ  َ ِﻢ  ِﻨْﻪ ﻭﺯﻧً ﻭ َﻌْﻨ ً ﻭﺍﻷﺻ ُ ﺃﻥ  ُﺴْ َﻌْ َ َ ﻓ  ‬
                 ‫ﻣ ﺘﻪ‬          ‫ﻤ ﻓﻘ‬            ‫ﻥ‬         ‫ﻳ ﺪ‬             ‫ﺴﻪ‬        ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺪ‬           ‫ﺳﻜﻮ‬
       ‫ُ ُ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ َ َ َ ﱢﻯ ﺑﻨﻔْ ِ ِ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﻭ ُﻌْ ﱠﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﺎ ٍ ﺑﺎﻟﻬْ َﺰﺓ  َﻴ َﺎﻝ " ﺁ َﻨْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ "‬
                            ‫ﺃ ﻣﻦ‬        ‫ﺃﻣ ﻦ‬                ‫ﺘﻤ ﺘﻪ‬                           ‫ﺗﻤ ﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺃَ ِﻨْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺃﺋْ َ َﻨْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻃﻤﺄﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﻣﺖ‬                      ‫ﺭ‬       ‫ﺲ‬                  ‫ﻣﻣ ﻥ‬             ‫ﺃﻣ ﻦ‬         ‫ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺄْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴْ َ ﻟﻪ ﻏﻮ ٌ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻜﺮ ﻳﺨﺸﻰ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻨْ ُ " ﺍﻷﺳﻴ  ‬
          ‫ﺃ ﻣﻦ‬                  ‫ِﻤﻧ‬             ‫ﻣﺖ‬
        ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﺄﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻨْ ُ " ﺑﺎﷲ " ﺇﻳْ َﺎًﺎ " ﺃﺳﻠﻤﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " َ ِ َ "‬
   ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ " َ َﺎَ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻧ  ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬                                                      ‫ﺃﻣ ﻦ‬           ‫ﺃﻣ ﻧﺔ‬
 ‫ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ ُ " َ َﺎَﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ  ‬
 ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ّ‬                                                    ‫ﺃﻣ ﻦ‬         ‫ﻊ ﺃﻣ ﻧ ﺕ‬
                  ‫ﺘﺠ‬      ‫ﻓ ﻋ ﻞ ﻣ ﻨ ﻟ ﻬﻢ‬                 ‫ﻤﺔ‬
           ‫ﺇﺷﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﻠ َ ٌ ﻋﻠﻰ  َﺎ ِﻴ ٍ ﻭ َﻌْ َﺎﻩ ﺍﱠﻠ ُ ﱠ ﺍﺳْ َ ِﺐْ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬
  ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ  َ ِﻟ َ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳ ٌ ﻣﻦ َﺳْ َﺎ ِ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟْ َﻮْ ُﻮ  ‬
  ‫ﺩ‬
  ‫ﻤ ﺟ ُ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﻤء‬        ‫ﻢ‬                              ‫ﻛﺬ ﻚ‬
   ‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﻮ‬                                           ‫ﻥ ﺘ‬
   ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﺻْﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﺃ ﱠ ﺍﻟﱠﺸْﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ  ُ َ ٌ ﻭﻫ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻗﺪﻳ ٌ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻳﺤﻴﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺁ ِﻴ َ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﺎﺻﻴﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﺘﻮﻫﻢ ﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬                          ‫ﻣﻦ‬                                              ‫ﻢ‬
    ‫ﺔ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧ  ‬


  ‫42‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
        ‫ﻲ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻻ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﻴ  ‬
               ‫ﺗﻣﻨ‬                     ‫ﺃﻣ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﻗﺎﺻﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻓﺎﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻨْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء " َﺄْ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻗﻠﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ "‬
                    ‫ﺁ ِﻴ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ ُ " ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍ َ َﺎﻥ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ " ﺇﻟﻴﻪ  َ َﻞ ﻓﻲ َ َﺎِ ِ‬
                    ‫ﺃﻣ ﻧﻪ‬       ‫ﺩﺧ‬          ‫ﺘ ﻣﻦ‬              ‫ﻷﻣ‬              ‫ﺘ ﻣﻨﻪ‬               ‫ﻣﻦ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺍ ََ ُ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﻷﻣﺔ‬
    ‫ﺓ‬              ‫ﻝ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ‬               ‫ﺘ‬       ‫ﺗﺮ ﱠ‬
                                                ‫ﺩ‬                       ‫ﻭ‬        ‫ﻼﻡ‬
    ‫ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟ ّ ِ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍ ٌ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻣﻮﺓ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ  ُ َ ﱠ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎ ُ " ُ َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻣﻴﻮ  ‬
‫ﺇﻣ ٌ‬
‫ء‬                     ‫ﻡ‬                             ‫ﺃﻣﺘ ﻥ‬               ‫ﻞ‬       ‫ﺳﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮ  ُ ﱠ َ ﺍﻟﺮﺟْ ُ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ " َ َ َﺎ ِ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ ٍ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺽ ﻭ " ِ َﺎ  ‬
‫" ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  ِ َﺎ ٍ ﻭ " ِﻣْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ َﺍ ُ ﺇﺳْﻼ ٍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َﺍ ٍ " ِﺜﺎ ُ ﺳﻨﻮﺍ ٍ ﻭﺍﻟّ ِﺒْ ُ ﺇﻟﻰ " ُ َ ﱠ  ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻴ َ‬         ‫ﺕ ﻨﺴ ﺔ‬            ‫ﺃﻣﻮ ﺕ ﻣ ﻝ‬                   ‫ﻡ‬      ‫ﺇ ﻮﻥ ﺯﻥ‬               ‫ﻛﺘ ﺏ‬
‫" ﺃ َ ِ ﱡ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻭ " ََ ﱠﻴْ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻣ ً‬                                                                     ‫ﻣﻮﻱ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻫﻲ‬      ‫ﺗﺄﻣ‬        ‫ﺗ‬        ‫ﺃﻣﺔ‬
                                                                 ‫" " َ َ ً " ﺍﺗﺨﺬ ُﻬﺎ ﻭ " ََ ﱠﺖْ " ِ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻷﺜ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍ ُﻧْ َﻰ‬
      ‫ﺃﻧﺚ‬           ‫ﺚ ﻼﻑ ﺘ ﻛ‬                  ‫ﻷﻧ ﺛ ﻲ‬                        ‫ﺇﻧ ﺙ‬
    ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ َِﺎ ٌ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍ ََﺎِ ﱡ " ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴ ُ ﺧ َ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬ ِﻴﺮ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﱠ َ "‬
  ‫ﻢ‬                                                                     ‫ﺗﻧ ﺜ‬
  ‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ " َﺄِْﻴ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻟﺤﻘﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﻪ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳ  ‬
                                      ‫ﻣﺆﻧﺜﺎ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺎء ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺗﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                            ‫ﻭ ﺃ ﺽ ﺃ ﻘﻞ ﺇ ﻘ ﻟ‬
                                                                        ‫" ... َﻻ َﺭْ َ َﺑْ َ َ ِﺑْ َﺎَﻬﺎ "‬
         ‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻘﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇ  ‬
         ‫ﻥ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻃﻠﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻣﺆﻭﻝ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭ "‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺨ ﻴﺘ ﻥ‬          ‫ﻷ ﺜﻴ ﻥ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺍ ُﻧْ َ َﺎ ِ " ﺍﻟ ُﺼْ َ َﺎ ِ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃﻧ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َِﺴْ ُ‬
   ‫ﻷﻧﺲ‬                        ‫ﻷﺲ‬                                           ‫َﺴ‬  ‫ﺃ‬
 ‫ﺑﻪ " ِﻧْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ " ﺍ ُﻧْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ََ ُ "‬
                               ‫ﻷﻧ ﺲ‬          ‫ﻤ ﻐ‬
          ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑ ُﺼ ﱠﺮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍ َِﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻭ "‬
  ‫ﻤّ‬
  ‫ﺍﺳْ َﺄَْﺴْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ََﱠﺴْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻜﻦ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﻔﺮ ﻭ " ﺁَﺴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟ َ  ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﻧ ﺖ‬                                         ‫ﺗﺄﻧ ﺖ‬            ‫ﺘﻧ ﺖ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻧ ﺘﻪ‬          ‫ﺼ ﺗ ﻪ ﻋﻠ ﺘ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺃﺑْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " َ ِﻤْ ُﻪ ﻭ " ﺁَﺴْ ُ ُ ‬
               ‫ﻣ‬       ‫ﺳﺄ‬          ‫ﺐ‬               ‫ﻹ ﺴﻲ ﻣ ﻦ‬                       ‫ﻹﺲ‬
       ‫ ﺍ ِﻧْ ُ " ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻦ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﻧْ ِ ﱡ " ِ َ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧ ُ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﻭ َﻴَﺗﻲ ﺗﻤﺎ ُﻪ ﻓﻲ " ﻭ‬
‫ﺟﻨﺲ ﻊ‬                 ‫ﻹ ﺴ ﻥ ﻣﻦ‬                 ‫ﻋﻠ ﻣ‬          ‫ﺃ‬            ‫ﺇ ﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺸﻲ ﻭ " ِﻧْ ِ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺱ ﻣﺎ َﻗﺒﻞ  َ َﻴْﻚ  ِﻨْﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﻧْ َﺎ ُ " ِ َ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﺳﻢ  ِ َ ٍ ﻳﻘ  ‬
       ‫ﻥ‬                                      ‫ﻒ‬       ‫ﺠ ﻊ‬                   ‫ﺬﻛﺮ ﻷ‬
       ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ِ ﻭﺍ ُﻧﺜْﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟ َﻤْ ِ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠ َ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                                 ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﺲ‬
       ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧْ ِ ﻓﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﺻ ّ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣ  ‬
‫ﻬ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻰ‬                      ‫ﻥ‬                       ‫ﻌﻥ‬             ‫ﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ٌ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺇﻓْ َﺎ ُ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﻴﺎ ٌ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻭﻟ َﺬﺍ  ُ َ ﱠ ﺇﻟ  ‬
‫ﺃﻧ ﺳ ﻲ ﻭ‬                      ‫ﺣﺪﻗ‬            ‫ﺇﺴﻥ‬            ‫ﻝ ﺃﻧ ﺴ ﻴ ﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎ ُ " َُﻴْ ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﻧْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ  َ َ َﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ " ََﺎ ِ ﱞ "  ‬
‫" ﺍ َُﺎ ُ " ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻌﺎ ّ ِ َ ّ ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ  ُﺸْ َ ُ  ِ َ ﺍﻹِﺲ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺠﻮ ُ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔً ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﺎ‬                 ‫ﺯ‬          ‫ﻝ ﺑﻀﻢ ﻔ ء ﻣ ﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻧ‬                         ‫ﻷﻧ ﺱ‬


  ‫52‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺲ‬          ‫ﻨ ﺱ ﻟﻐ ﻥ ﻤﻌ ﻰ‬                     ‫ﻷﻧ ﺱ‬                 ‫ﻨﺱ ﻦ‬
  ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ َ ﻭﻋ ِ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻥ " ﺍ َُﺎ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ َ " ُ َﺘﺎ ِ ﺑ ِ َﻨْ ً ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻟﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟ ُ ﻷﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱠَﺎ ِ  ُﺨْﺘ ِ َﺘﺎ ِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺷْ ِ َﺎﻕ ﻛﻤﺎ  َ َﺄْﺗ  ‬
  ‫ﺳﻴ ﻲ‬            ‫ﺘﻘ‬          ‫ﺩﺗ ﻥ ﻣ ﻠ ﻔ ﻥ‬                 ‫ﻪ‬
                                                  ‫ﻓﻲ " ﻧﻮﺱ " ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ َﻐْ ِﻴ ٌ ﻭﻫﻮ  ِﻼ ٌ ﺍ َﺻْ ِ‬
                                                  ‫ﺧ ﻑ ﻷ ﻞ‬           ‫ﺗ ﻴﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃﻧ ﻒ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َِ َ‬
        ‫ﻮ‬      ‫ﺘ ﻜﻒ‬                        ‫ﻷﻧﻔﺔ‬                           ‫ﺃﻧ ﻔ‬
        ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ََ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ ََ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﺃﻱ " ﺍﺳْ َﻨْ َ َ " ﻭﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                              ‫ﺃﻧ ﺖ‬                                ‫ﺃﻧ ﻒ‬
  ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻭ " َِ َ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻨﺰﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ " َِﻔْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺮﻫﺖ ﻣ ‬
      ‫ﺱ‬           ‫ﻧﻒ‬          ‫ﺃﻧ ﻑ‬                   ‫ﻑ‬                       ‫ﻷﻒ‬
      ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻧْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻄﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁﻧﺎ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺁ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﻮ  ‬
                                     ‫ﺃﻧ ﻒ‬                             ‫ﺃﻒ‬
  ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻭ " َﻧْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺿﺔ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺖ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺮﻉ ﻭ "‬
                                            ‫ﺗﻨ ﺘﻪ‬                                     ‫ﺘﻧ ﺖ‬
                                     ‫ﺍﺳْ َﺄَْﻔْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﺪﺃﺗﻪ ﻭ " ﺃَْ َﻔْ ُ ُ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃﻧﻖ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َِ َ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                          ‫ﺃﻧ ﺖ‬                                    ‫ﺃﻧﻘ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ََ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺭﺍﻉ ﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﺠﺐ ﻭ " َِﻘْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﺃﻋﺠﺒﺖ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ  ‬
                      ‫ﺗﺄﻧﻖ‬                            ‫ﺃﻧ ﻖ‬            ‫ﻧ ﻘﻨ‬
      ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁَ َ ِﻲ " ﻭﺷﻲء " َِﻴ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺠﻴﺐ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " ََﱠ َ " ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﻤﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻧ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻵ ُﻚ‬
‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﻧﻚ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺺ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ﺍﻵ ُ ُ " ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻗﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﻧﻚ ﻭﺍﻵﺟﺮ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﺧﻔﻒ ﻭﺁﻣﻞ ﻭﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺄﻋﺠﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻷﻧ ﻡ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ََﺎ ُ‬
                                                          ‫ﻷﻧ ﻡ‬
                          ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍ ََﺎ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َﱠ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺃﻥ‬
                      ‫ﻥ‬             ‫ﻮ‬            ‫ﺃﻧ ﻧ‬        ‫ﺃﻧ ﻨ‬             ‫ﻳﺌﻦ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َ ِ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ " َِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َُﺎًﺎ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺻ ﱠﺕ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ " ﺁ ﱞ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ "‬
      ‫ﻰ‬                                                                      ‫ﻧﺔ‬
      ‫ﺁﱠ ٌ " ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﺒﻴﻚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﺤﺖ ﻋﻠ  ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺇﱠﻤ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻭِﻧ َﺎ‬
                             ‫ِﻥ‬           ‫ﻣ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺩﺕ " َﺎ " ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺇ ﱠ " ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ "‬
                                                                           ‫ﺇﻧﻤ ﺼﺪﻗ ﺕ ﻔﻘﺮ ء‬
                                                                ‫ِﱠ َﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ َﺎ ُ ﻟﻠ ُ َ َﺍ ِ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺯﻳ  ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﻣﺪﻱ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﻴﺌﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﻴﺮ  ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﻴﺌﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼ  ‬
‫ﻑ‬
                         ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺎ‬           ‫ﺖ‬                                                           ‫ﺇ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " ِﻥْ " ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﻥ ﻗﻤ ُ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻬ ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬
 ‫ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺧﻲ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺃ  ‬


 ‫62‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
     ‫ﻱ‬
     ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺎ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻧﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮ  ‬
  ‫ﺍ‬
  ‫ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺖ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺫ ‬
       ‫ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﻃﻴﻦ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺣﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬ  ‬
       ‫ﻩ‬               ‫ﺮ‬
       ‫ﺮ‬      ‫ﺮ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻝ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺮ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﺴ  ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﻤ ّ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ " ِﻥْ " ﻭﺑﻴﻦ " ِ َﺍ " ﻓﺠﻌﻞ " ِﻥْ " ﻟﻠﻤﻤﻜﻦ   ‬
‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﺇ‬           ‫ﺇﺫ‬             ‫ﺇ‬                         ‫ﺮ‬
 ‫" ﺇ َﺍ " ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎء ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺟﺎء ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺠﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻓﺘﻜﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬                                                                            ‫ِﺫ‬
  ‫ﺕ‬                                                            ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺻ ّ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﺠﺰﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺇﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﻮﻅ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﻜﻮ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬                                                             ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺃﻱ ﺻ ّ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻡ ﻋﺠﺰﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻌ  ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                                  ‫ﺺ‬
   ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻗﻌﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﻮﻅ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻣ ‬
   ‫ﻖ‬
   ‫ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠ  ‬
 ‫ﺺ‬
 ‫ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴ  ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺘﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ ّ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﻪ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻗﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                              ‫ﺺ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬
       ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﺗﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺯﻭﻗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓ  ‬
                            ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                     ‫ﻋ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺓ ﻭﺇ ﻣ ﻤ ﺭﻫ ﺧﺮﺑ‬
                                                                  ‫" ... َﺎ ِﺩْ  َ َﺍ َ  َِﻥْ  َﻌْ ُﻮ ُ َﺎ  َ َِﺎ "‬
  ‫ﻪ‬
  ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻷﻓﻌﻠﻨ  ‬
       ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻚ ﻟﻤﻦ ﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﻫ  ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻋﻠﻤﺘﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫ  ‬
                                                                           ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﻣﻪ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬
 ‫ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺍﺑﻨﻲ ﻓﺄﻃﻌﻨﻲ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻚ ﻗﻠﺖ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺍﺑﻨﻲ ﻭﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷ  ‬
                                                                     ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻴﻊ ﻓﺎﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺆﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﻧ‬
                                                                                                            ‫ﺃﱠﻰ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬               ‫ء‬
 ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻖ " ﺍﻵﻧﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻫ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﻧ‬
                                                                                                            ‫ﺇﱢﻲ‬
   ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻭ " ﺇﻧْ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ " ﺗﺄّﻰ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﻤﻜﺚ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺠﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳ  ‬
   ‫ﻢ‬                               ‫ﻧ‬                  ‫ﻲ‬
‫ﻊ‬       ‫ﻷﻭ ﻧ‬                                    ‫ﻧﻴﺔ‬           ‫ﻹﻧ ء‬                    ‫ﺃﻧ ﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ " ََﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﺼﺎﺓ ﻭ " ﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵِ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎء ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺍِﻲ " ﺟﻤ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬               ‫ﺃﻴ‬             ‫ﺃﻧ‬                                    ‫ﻹﻧ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻭ " ﺍ َِﻰ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻀﺞ ﻭ " ََﻰ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء َﻧْ َﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺩﻧ ‬
   ‫ﺃﻟ ﻳ ِ‬
   ‫ﻭﻗﺮﺏ ﻭﺣﻀﺮ ﻭ " ََﻰ " ﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﻓﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََﻢْ َﺄْ  ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬                                                                    ‫ﺃﻧ‬
   ‫ﺏ‬          ‫ﺃﻨ‬                       ‫ﻥ‬                 ‫ﻟﻠ ﺬ ﻦ ﻣﻨ ﺃ ﺗ ﺸ ﻊ ﻗﻠ ﺑﻬ ﻟ ﺬ ﺮ ﷲ‬
   ‫ِ ﱠ ِﻳ َ ﺁ َ ُﻮﺍ َﻥْ َﺨْ َ َ  ُ ُﻮ ُ ُﻢْ ِ ِﻛْ ِ ﺍ ِ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ " ﺁ َ " ﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ " َﻳْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎ  ‬


  ‫72‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                         ‫ﻷﻧ ء‬                  ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﻧ ﺘﻪ‬
              ‫ﺑﺎﻉ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺁَﻴْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺃﺧﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍ ََﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻼﻡ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻹﻫ ﺏ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺑﻎ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ﺍ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﺪ  ‬
       ‫ﻩ‬                                     ‫ﻹﻫ ﺏ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬                             ‫ﺃﻫﺐ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﻤﺎ ﺇﻫﺎﺏ ﺩﺑﻎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺇﻻ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﻋﻤﺎﺩ ﻭﻋﻤﺪ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﻫﺎﺏ ﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ  ‬
‫ﺐ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻫ َ‬                                                  ‫ﺃﻫﺐ‬         ‫ﺇﻫ ﺏ‬
                                      ‫ﺃﻫﺐ‬                    ‫ﻷ ﺒﺔ‬
                      ‫" ﻟﻠﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ُﻫْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ َﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﻫ َ‬
           ‫ﺃﻫ ﺖ‬                ‫ﻫﻠﺔ‬               ‫ﻫﻞ‬                               ‫ﺃﻫ ﻻ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ُ ُﻮ ً ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺄﻫﻠﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺮﻳﺔ " ﺁ ِ َ ٌ " ﻋﺎﻣﺮﺓ ﻭ " َ َﻠْ ُ "‬
         ‫ﺗﺄﻫﻞ‬                  ‫ﺃﻫ ﻻ‬       ‫ﻳ ﻫﻞ‬          ‫ﻳ ﻫﻞ‬              ‫ﺃﻫﻞ‬
       ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺃﻧﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺄْ َ ُ " ﻭ " َﺄْ ِ ُ " " ُ ُﻮ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ َ "‬
  ‫ﻖ‬                                       ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬                      ‫ﻷ ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍ َﻫْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻫْ ُ " ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﻷ ﻠ ﻥ‬                                  ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬                          ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻭ " َﻫْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻃﻨﻪ ﻭ " َﻫْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺼﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َﻫْ ُﻮ َ "‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                                                      ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬          ‫ﻷﻫ ﻟ‬
  ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍ َ َﺎِﻲ " ﻭ " َﻫْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍء ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺭﻓﻌ  ‬
          ‫ﺃ ﻞ‬                                    ‫ﻷ ﻠﻲ‬
        ‫ﺧﺒﺮ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻫْ ِ ﱡ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ " َﻫْ ٌ "‬
‫ﻼ‬                                  ‫ﺃ ﻠ ﻭ ﺳ ﻠ ﻣ ﺣﺒ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻛﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َﻫْ ًﺎ  َ َﻬْ ًﺎ ﻭ َﺮْ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﻗﻮﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﻼ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻌﺎ ﺳﻬ  ‬
                                 ‫ﻹﻫ َﺔ‬                                      ‫ﺎ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌً ﻓﺎﺑﺴﻂ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺄﻧﺲ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﺣﺶ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺎﻟ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﺍﺏ ﻭ "‬
                                                          ‫ﺘ ﻫﻞ‬                         ‫ﺘ ﻫﻠﻬ‬
                                            ‫ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ َﺎ " ﺃﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﺳْ َﺄْ َ َ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺁ َ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺏ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬      ‫ﺏ‬         ‫ﺋﺐ‬                   ‫ﻹﻳ ﺏ‬               ‫ﻣﺑ‬         ‫ﺃ ﺑ‬      ‫ﻳﺌ ﺏ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔﺮﻩ " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻭًْﺎ " ﻭ " َﺂًﺎ " ﺭﺟﻊ ﻭ " ﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺁ َ " ﺇﻟ  ‬
                         ‫ﺑﺖ‬                ‫ﺃﻭ ﺏ‬
                        ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ "ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﺗﺎﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺁَ ِ ‬
   ‫ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻓﻐﺮﺑﺖ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺄْﻭﻳ ُ " ﺳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﺎ ُﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ " َﻭْ ٍ " ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻛ  ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬              ‫ﺃﺏ‬              ‫ء‬                 ‫ﺘ ﺐ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺞ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻓ ّ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺁﺩﻩ‬
                       ‫ﺍ‬         ‫ﺩﻩ‬                               ‫ﺩ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺩ‬        ‫ﻳﺌ ﺩ‬
        ‫َ ُﻮ ُﻩ " " َﻭْ ًﺍ " ﺃﺛﻘﻠﻪ " ﻓﺎﻧﺎ َ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺛﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺁ َ ُ " " ﺃﻭْﺩً " ﻋﻄﻔﻪ ﻭﺣﻨﺎﻩ "‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍ َِﱡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻹﻭ ﺯ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ِ َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ  ‬
‫ﺯ‬
‫ﻭﱞ‬                   ‫ﺇﻭﺯﺓ‬
   ‫" ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ﱡﻭ َ " ﻭﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﻮ‬      ‫ﺇﻭﺯ ﻥ‬                                                          ‫ﻭﺯﺓ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺫ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺷﺎ ّ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻵ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺱ‬
                                         ‫ﻷﺱ‬            ‫ﺳﺔ‬
            ‫ﺷﺠﺮ ﻋﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ﺁ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍ َﻭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﺋﺐ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﻤﺼﻐﺮﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬


  ‫82‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻓﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻵ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﻝ‬                        ‫ﺇﻒ‬         ‫ﻓﺕ‬
       ‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﻳ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮ  ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬                                              ‫ﻣﺌ ﻑ‬            ‫ﻓﺔ‬
   ‫ﺃﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ " ﺍﻵ َ ُ " ﻭﺷﻲء " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﺄﻭﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤ  ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺣﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺛﻮ  ‬
   ‫ﺏ‬
  ‫ﺩ‬
  ‫ﻣﺼﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺼﻮﻭﻥ ﻭﻣﺴﻚ ﻣﺪﻭﻑ ﻭﻣﺪﻭﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮ  ‬
                                                               ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺁﻝ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ﻳ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻭ ً " ﻭ " َﺂﻻ " ﺭﺟﻊ ﻭ " ﺍ َِﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                  ‫ﻹﻳ ﻝ‬                ‫ﻣ‬       ‫ﺃﻻ‬       ‫ﺌ ﻝ‬
                ‫ﻝ‬                           ‫ﻤ ﺋﻞ‬                         ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " ﺁ َ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻮِْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " ﺁ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ "‬
                       ‫ﻝ‬                                                     ‫ﺇﻳ َﺔ‬
 ‫َِﺎﻟ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻭ " ﺁ َ " ﺭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‬
    ‫ﻪ‬                                                 ‫ﻝ‬                      ‫ﻹﻳ ﻟﺔ‬
    ‫ﺍ َِﺎَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻵ َ " ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺫﻭﻭ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻴﺘ  ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ " َ َ ٌ " ﺗﺤﺮﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                     ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬
    ‫ﻼ‬                ‫ﻝ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻠﻴﻮﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺏ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ " ﺁ ٍ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﺮ ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ ُ ُ " ﺑﻞ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﺫ   ‬
       ‫ﻻ‬                                                                   ‫ﻟﻪ‬
    ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻳﻌﻀﺪﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻤﺎﻉ ﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺃﺻﻞ " ﺍﻵ ُ " ﺃﻫﻞ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪ  ‬
    ‫ﻝ‬
    ‫ّ‬                             ‫ﻝ‬
                                  ‫ﻝ‬          ‫ﺃﻫ ﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ُ َﻴْ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻵ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻭ "‬
                                              ‫ﻥ‬                              ‫ﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﻔﺘﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ﺛﺎ ٍ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻫﻮ "‬
                                                                                                ‫" ﺍ َﱠ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻷﻭ ﻝ‬
    ‫ﻷﻭﻝ‬
  ‫ﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻔﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ " ﺍ َ ﱠ ُ "‬
  ‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻲء ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﺗﻠﺪﻩ ﺍ َ َ ُ  ُ ﱡ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻠﺪﻩ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻭﻟﺪ  ‬
   ‫ﺕ‬                                                                 ‫ﻷﻣﺔ ﺣﺮ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬                     ‫ﻷ ﻟ‬                                    ‫ﻥ‬
    ‫ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺃ ﱠ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻫﻲ " ﺍ ُﻭَْﻰ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟ َﻮْ َ َ ﺍ ُﻭَْﻰ " ﺃﻱ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺫﺍﻗﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫ ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                                 ‫ﻤ ﺗﺔ ﻷ ﻟ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﺇ ﺪﻫ ﱠ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﻳﻐﺴﻞ ﺳﺒﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ " ُﻭﻻ ُ ﱠ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ " ُﺧْ َﺍ ُ ﱠ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ " ِﺣْ َﺍ ُ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                        ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﻫﻦ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﻫﻦ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫" ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻪ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺨﺮﻳﺠﻬ ‬
  ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻦ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ   ‬
  ‫ﻻ‬
   ‫ﻷﻭ ﺋﻞ‬           ‫ﻷﻭﻝ‬                ‫ﻷﻭﻝ‬           ‫ﻷ ﻟﻴ ﺕ‬               ‫ﻷ ﻟ‬
 ‫ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻭﻕ ﻭﺗﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ ُﻭَْﻰ " ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺍ ُﻭَْ َﺎ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍ ُ َ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ " ﺍ ُ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ َ َﺍِ ُ "‬
       ‫ﻝ‬       ‫ﻔ ﺮ ﻭﻟﻴ ﻝ ﻋ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭﺍﻟ َﺠْ ِ  ََ َﺎ ٍ  َﺸْ ٍ " ﻭﻗﻮ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ " ﺍﻟ َﺸْ ُ ﺍ َ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻮﻋﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﻭﻭ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                                ‫ﻌ ﺮ ﻷﻭﻝ‬


  ‫92‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
         ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺔ‬
       ‫ﻓﻘﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺃﺩﻏﻢ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﺮﺃ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺜﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠَ ٌ "‬
 ‫ﻦ‬
 ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺿﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻘﻘﻮﻥ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻝ ﻳﺆﻭﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻭﺟﺎء ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺷﻲء ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺗﻠﺪﻩ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ  ‬
       ‫ء‬
 ‫ﻩ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺷﻲء ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ  ‬
  ‫ﺍ‬
  ‫ﻛﺴﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﻛﺴﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﺃﻭﻝ ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺗﻴﻦ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻭ ‬
    ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻏﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺃﻭﺃﻝ ﺑﻬﻤﺰ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴ  ‬
    ‫ﻒ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                                ‫ﺃﻭ ﺋﻞ‬               ‫ﻷﻭ ﺋﻞ‬
  ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻏﻤﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ َ َﺍِ ُ " ﻭﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ " َ َﺍِ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻳ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬                                       ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬                                         ‫ء‬
  ‫ﺟﺎ ُﻭﺍ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻣﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻛﺒ  ‬
        ‫ﻭﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﻓﻲ " َ ﱠ َ " ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻓﻌ  ‬
        ‫ﻞ‬                                                          ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺜﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭﻻ َ ُﻮ ُﻮﺍ َ ﱠ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬
   ‫ﺗﻜ ﻧ ﺃﻭ َ‬
    ‫َﺎ ِ ٍ ِ ِ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ " ََ َ ِ َﱠ ُﻢْ َﺣْ َ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬               ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬         ‫ﻷﻭﻝ‬               ‫ﻭﻟ ﺘﺠ ﺪ ﻧ ﻬ ﺃ ﺮ ﺹ ﻨ ﺱ‬                  ‫ﻛ ﻓﺮ ﺑﻪ‬
    ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﻟﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﺖ " َ ﱠ ُ "‬
               ‫ﻓﺄﻭﻝ‬                             ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬                   ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬
 ‫ﺩﺧﻮﻻ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﺩﺧﻮﻻ ﻭ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﺩﺧﻮﻻ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ " َ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬                                   ‫ﺃﻭﻝ‬
   ‫ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻧﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺐ " َ ﱠ ُ " ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺁﺑ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬
 ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻤﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻮﻋﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﻮﻥ ﻟﻘﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺎ  ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺻﺮﻓﺖ ﻭﺟﺎﺯ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬
  ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻷﻭ ﻥ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍ َ َﺍ ُ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ َِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺁ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻭًْﺎ " ﺭﻓ  ‬
   ‫ﻖ‬       ‫ﺃ ﻧ‬      ‫ﻳﺌ ﻥ‬               ‫ﻥ‬         ‫ﻭﻧﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " ﺍ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺆﺯﺝ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺟﺔ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻟﺸﻲء ﻓﻬﻮ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻟ  ‬
‫ﺇﻭ ﻥ ﻪ‬                                                                 ‫ﻷﻭ ﻥ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                ‫ﻥ‬                                           ‫ﻹﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭ " ﺍ ِﻳْ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺴﺮﻯ " ﻭﺍﻵ َ " ﻇﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻓﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﻭﻟﺰﻡ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻣ ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﻳﺸﺮﻛﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‬
  ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺁﻥ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﻒ‬
                                                   ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﻩ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺁٍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎء ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﻴﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻊ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﺷﻔﺎﻕ   ‬
‫ﻭ‬                                                                      ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ء‬                                                                           ‫ﺃ ﻩ‬
   ‫" َﻭْ ِ " ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎ  ‬
                                                                            ‫ﺗﺄﻭﻩ‬
                                                      ‫ﻓﺘﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻊ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬


  ‫03‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺃ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َﻭْ‬
    ‫ﻚﻻ‬                                                    ‫ﻹﻬﻡ‬              ‫ﺸﻚ‬
    ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑْ َﺎ ُ " ﻧﺤﻮ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ   ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬
       ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻬﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻳﺠﺎﺯ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻓ  ‬
         ‫ﻭ‬
         ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﻴﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮ  ‬
                     ‫ﺃ‬                        ‫ﺃ‬
 ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻷﻥ " َﻭْ " ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ " َﻡْ " ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
 ‫ﻓﻤﺮﺗﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ " َﻭْ " ﻓﻤﺎ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ " َِﻭْ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺐ‬                                     ‫ﺑﺄ‬                             ‫ﺃ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺯﻳ  ‬
   ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﺟﻬﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺑﺄﻡ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃ  ‬
   ‫ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤ ‬
   ‫ﻡ‬
   ‫ﻣﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃ  ‬
     ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻓﺎﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃ  ‬
     ‫ﻡ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻹﺑ ﺣ ﺔ‬
                                                                    ‫" ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ " ﺍ َِﺎ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﻥ‬                        ‫ﺧ‬        ‫ﺘ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﻗﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﻌﺪ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺨْﻴﻴ ُ " ﻧﺤﻮ  ُﺬْ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃ  ‬
‫ﺍ‬                                                 ‫ﺘ ﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻔ ِﻴ ُ " ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺁﻛﻞ ﻫﺬ ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                      ‫ﻷ ﻖ ﺃ ﺗ ﺤﺪﺭ‬              ‫ﺗ ﻬﺾ‬           ‫ﻛﺄﻥ ﻨﺠ ﻡ ﻋ ﻥ ﻜ‬
                                    ‫" ََ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ﱡ ُﻮ َ  ُﻴﻮ ُ ﺍﻟ ِﻼ ... ﺏ َﻨْ َ َ ﻓﻲ ﺍ ُﻓْ ِ َﻭْ َﻨْ َ ِ ُ "‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ َﺎ َ َﺎ َﺄْ ُ َﺎ َ َﺎًﺎ َﻭْ  ُﻢْ  َﺎِ ُﻮ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎ  ‬
‫ء‬         ‫ﻓﺠ ء ﻫ ﺑ ﺳ ﻨ ﺑ ﻴ ﺗ ﺃ ﻫ ﻗ ﺋ ﻠ ﻥ‬
    ‫ﺍ‬                   ‫ﺩﻋ ﻧ ﻟﺠ ﺒﻪ ﺃ ﻗ ﻋﺪ ﺃ ﻗ ﺋ ﻤ‬
    ‫ﺑﺄﺳﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻧﻬﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ " َ َﺎَﺎ ِ َﻨْ ِ ِ َﻭْ  َﺎ ِ ًﺍ َﻭْ  َﺎِ ًﺎ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻛﺬ ‬
       ‫ﻭﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻗﻼﻝ ﻫﺠﺮ ﺗﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ ﻗﺮﺑﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺑﺘﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬                                         ‫ﺮ‬
  ‫ﻭﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳ َ ﻗﻼﻝ ﻫﺠﺮ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘ  ‬
       ‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﻊ  ِﺮَْ َﻴْﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ َ َ ُ  ِﺮَْ َﻴﻦ ﻭﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﻚ‬                         ‫ﻳﺴﻊ ﻗ ﺑﺘ‬                ‫ﻗ ﺑﺘ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬                                                           ‫ﻚ‬
       ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺯ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻓ  ‬
   ‫ء‬
   ‫ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺼﻔﺎ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻭﺷﻲ  ‬
  ‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻧﺼﻔ ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
                                             ‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻗﺮﺑﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺑﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺷﻴﺌﺎ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺃﻭ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َ َﻯ‬
   ‫ﻤﻭ‬                                 ‫ﺪ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﻳ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ ﻳﺄﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ " ُﻭًْﺎ " ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻋ ّﻱ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﺃﻭﻯ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ َﻯ "‬
   ‫ﻞ‬                                         ‫ﻣﻭ‬                      ‫ﻞ‬
   ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻟﻜ ّ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻜﻨﻪ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ " َﺄْ ِﻯ " ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺷﺎﺫﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘ  ‬
    ‫ﺪ ﻲ‬               ‫ﻭﺖ‬
    ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﺄﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺄﻭﻱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭ " ﺁ َﻳْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻓ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ " َ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺿﺮﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻬ  ‬
   ‫ﻢ‬                   ‫ﺃﻭ ﺘﻪ‬


  ‫13‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﺐ‬                              ‫ﻦ ﻭ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ ُ ﺁ َﻯ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺋ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                                                             ‫ﻭ‬
 ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺬﺋﺐ " ﺁ َﻯ " ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻸﺳﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﻭﻟﻠﻀﺒﻊ ﺃﻡ ﻋﺎﻣ  ‬
‫ﻯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﻭﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﺋﺐ ﺑﻞ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﺑﻨﺎ ﺁﻭ  ‬
‫ﻳ ٌ‬
‫ﺕ‬          ‫ﻱ‬                      ‫ﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺁﻭﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻵَ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺁ ٌ " " ﻭﺁَﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻭ‬                              ‫ﻳﺔ‬                                        ‫ﻳﺔ‬
  ‫" ﻭ " ﺍﻵَ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻵَ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺍ  ‬
      ‫ء‬
      ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻳﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺷﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻮﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻻﻣﻪ ﻳﺎﺁﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻴﻴﺖ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍ  ‬
                                                     ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺁﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻓﺤﺬﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔﺎ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺁَ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺩ‬
                                                               ‫ﺪ‬             ‫ﺩ‬          ‫ﺃﺪ‬        ‫ﻳﺌ ﺪ‬
                                                         ‫َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻳْ ًﺍ " ﻭ " ﺁ ًﺍ " ﻗﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
                                         ‫ﺃﻳﺪﻙ ﷲ ﺗ ﻳ ﺪ‬                                     ‫ﺃﻳ‬
                                       ‫"  َﱢﺪْ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َﱠ َ َ ﺍ ُ َﺄِْﻴ ًﺍ"‬
                                                                                                         ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺃﻳﺲ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                                       ‫ﺃﻳ ﺴ‬
‫ََ ًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻳﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮ  ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺌﺲ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺁ َ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺽ‬
                                                                          ‫ﺃﻀ‬        ‫ﻳﺌ ﺾ‬
‫َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻳْ ًﺎ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺎﻉ ﻳﺒﻴﻊ ﺑﻴﻌﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻮﺩﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ  "‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﻷﻚ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺍ َﻳْ ُ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺃ ﻜﺔ‬
                                        ‫ﺷﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﻳْ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻙ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﻷﱠ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﻳ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺍ ُِﻞ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ  ‬
                                        ‫ﺃ ﻠﺔ‬                           ‫ﺇ ﻴ‬          ‫ﻷﻳ ﻞ‬
                      ‫" ﺍ ََﺎﻳﻴ ُ " ﻭ " ِﻳﻠْ َﺎء " ﻣﻤﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " َﻳْ َ ٌ " ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺱ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﻭِﻳ َﺎ ٌ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺇ ْﻠ ﻕ‬
  ‫ﺩ‬
  ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺗﺘﺎﺧﻢ ﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺵ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﻳﻼﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼ  ‬
                                                    ‫ﺇ ﻠ ﻗﻲ‬
                  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ " ِﻳْ َﺎ ِ ﱞ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺍﻷّ ُ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﻳﻢ‬
   ‫ﻳﻢ‬                                             ‫ﺼ ﻲ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺏ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻐﺎﻧ ﱡ ﻭﺳﻮﺍء ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ " ﺃّ ٌ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻳﻢ‬
                                                                             ‫ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " ﺃّ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                               ‫ﻭﻧ ﻮ ﻥ ﺳ ﺪ ﻟ ﺲ ﻓ ﻬﻦ ﺃﻳﻢ‬                  ‫ﺄ ﻨ ﻭﻗ ﻣ ﻧﺴ ء ﻛﺜ ﺮﺓ‬
                             ‫" ﻓ ُﺑْ َﺎ  َ َﺪْ ﺁ َﺖْ ِ َﺎ ٌ  َ ِﻴ َ ٌ ...  َِﺴْ َﺍ ُ  َﻌْ ٍ َﻴْ َ  ِﻴ ِ ﱠ َّ ٌ "‬
‫ﺃﻳﻤ ٌ‬
‫ﺔ‬                                                          ‫ﺃﻳﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻼﻧﺔ " َّ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺑﻜﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻴﺒﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " َِ ّ  ‬
 ‫ﻻ‬              ‫ﺗﺄﻳﻢ‬                ‫ﻷ ﻤﺔ‬                         ‫ﻳﺌ ﻢ‬       ‫ﻡ‬
 ‫" ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ " ﻭ " ﺁ َ " " َ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺎﺭ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻳْ َ ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " ََﱠ َ " ﻣﻜﺚ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺎ   ‬


 ‫23‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺖ‬       ‫ﺃﻤﻥ‬                                                         ‫ﻣ ﻳﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ "  َﺄَْ َ ٌ " ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﺘﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﺑﻼ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َﻳْ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺎﺗ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َﻳْ َﻰ " ﻣﺎﺕ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ " ََﺎ َﻰ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺳﻜﺮ  ‬
   ‫ﻯ‬                          ‫ﺃﻳ ﻣ‬                              ‫ﺃﻤ‬
        ‫ﺖ‬
        ‫ﻭﺳﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻰ ﺃﻳﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻨﻘﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺛﻢ ﻗﻠﺒ  ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﻓﺘﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔﺎ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺁ َ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﻥ‬
                              ‫ﺋﻦ‬                                         ‫ﺃﻨ‬        ‫ﻳﺌ ﻦ‬
    ‫َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻳْ ًﺎ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻥ ﻳﺤﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ  "‬
                ‫ﺃﻟ ﻳ ﻥ ﻟ ﻠ ﺬ ﻦ ﻣ ﻨ‬                          ‫ﻳ‬            ‫ﻳﻧ‬        ‫ﺃﻧ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ََﻰ " " َﺄِْﻲ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺮﻯ َﺴْﺮﻱ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " ََﻢْ َﺄْ ِ ِ ﱠ ِﻳ َ ﺁ َ ُﻮﺍ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                           ‫ﻗ ﺃﻧ ﻟ ﻴ‬        ‫ﺑ‬     ‫ﻭﺃ ﺼﺮ ﻋ ﻟ‬             ‫ﺃﻟﻤ ﻳﺌ ﻟ ﺃ ﺗﺠﻠ ﻋﻤ ﻳﺘ‬
                        ‫" ََ ﱠﺎ َ ِﻦْ ِﻲ َﻥْ  ُ َ ﱠﻰ  َ َﺎَ ِﻲ ...  َُﻗْ ِ َ  َﻦْ َﻴْﻠﻰ َﻠﻰْ  َﺪْ ََﻰ ِ َﺎ "‬
    ‫ﻓﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺁ َ " " َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻳْ ًﺎ " ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺁِ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " َﻳْ َ " ﻇﺮ  ‬
    ‫ﻑ‬      ‫ﺃﻦ‬                   ‫ﺋﻦ‬                ‫ﺃﻨ‬        ‫ﻳﺌ ﻦ‬       ‫ﻥ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺘﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻳﺰﺍﺩ ﻣ ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺃﻳ ﻥ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻓﻲ "ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺃﻗﻢ ﻭ " َﱠﺎ َ ‬
        ‫ﻱ‬                                                                  ‫ﻓﻌ ﻝ‬
‫  َ ﱠﺎ َ " ﻭﺟﺎﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﺘﻰ ﻭﺃ ّ " ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬
 ‫ﻻ‬                                                       ‫ﺃﻳ ﻥ‬        ‫ﺃﻦ‬
 ‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﻭﻓﻲ " َﻳْ َ " ﻭ " َﱠﺎ َ " ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺗﻪ ﻻ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺇ  ‬
                                  ‫ﺑﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﻠﺲ ﺃﺟﻠﺲ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻮﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺇﻪ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ِﻳْ ِ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬                                                   ‫ﺇﻪ‬
    ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻙ " ِﻳ ِ " ﺑﻼ ﺗﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻤ ‬
            ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﺘﻪ ﺑﻜﻼﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻧﻮﻧﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﻜﻴﺮ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                                                                       ‫ﻱ‬
  ‫ﺃ ّ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺠﻬﻮ  ‬
         ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﻤﺖ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻠﺖ ﺃﻱ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺟﺎء ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻌ  ‬
         ‫ﺾ‬
       ‫ﺏ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﺗﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﺿﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻀﺮﺏ ﺭﺟﻼ ﺃﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﺃﻱ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺟﺎء ﻓﺄﻛﺮﻣﻪ ﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭ  ‬
    ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻟﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻼﺓ ﻭ َ َﻦْ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻃﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻗﻀﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ  ‬
    ‫ﺓ‬                                  ‫ﻗﻌ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                  ‫ﺃﻳﻤ ﺇﻫ ﺏ ﺩﺑﻎ ﻓﻘ ﻃﻬﺮ‬                             ‫ﻣ‬
   ‫ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﺗﺰﺍﺩ " َﺎ " ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ " َﱡ َﺎ ِ َﺎ ٍ  ُِ َ  َ َﺪْ  َ ُ َ " ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻬ ‬
    ‫ﻥ‬
    ‫ﻟﻔﻈﺎ ﺃﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻇﺮﻑ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺇ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺼﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻷﻧﻬ ‬
 ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻫﺎء ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃﻱ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺟﺎء ﻭﺃﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﺓ‬
       ‫ﻝ‬       ‫ﺑﺄﻱ ﺃ ﺽ ﺗﻤ ﺕ‬                     ‫ﻓﺄﻱ ﻳ ﺕ ﷲ ﺗ ﻜﺮ ﻥ‬                                ‫ﻣ‬
       ‫ﻗﺎ َﺖْ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََ ﱠ ﺁَﺎ ِ ﺍ ِ  ُﻨْ ِ ُﻭ َ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َِ ﱢ َﺭْ ٍ َ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ‬
                                                                      ‫ﻦﻫﺪ‬             ‫ﺑﺄﻱ ﻣﺸ ﺌﺔ ﻋ‬
                                                                    ‫" ... َِ ﱢ  َ ِﻴ َ ِ  َﻤْﺮﻭ ﺑْ ِ  ِﻨْ ٍ "‬
         ‫ﺫ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﺃ ﺽ ﺗﻤ ﺕ‬                                ‫ﻱ‬
       ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺃ ّ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎ ّ " َِﱠ ِ َﺭْ ٍ َ ُﻮ ُ "‬


  ‫33‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺟ ﺭ ﺗﻚ ﺗ ﻚ ﻤ ﺻﻴﺔ‬
                                                                   ‫" ... َﱠ ُ  َﺎ َﺍِ َ ِﻠْ َ ﺍﻟ ُﻮ ِ َ ُ "‬
         ‫ﺯ‬
         ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ ﻓﺎﻷﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﺼﺢ ﻭﺗﺠﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ ﺑﺄﻳﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺄﻳﺘﻬﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻭﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﻱ‬
 ‫ﱡ‬
                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ ﺑﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃ ّ ﺟﺎﺭﻳ ٍ‬
                                                 ‫ﺔ‬      ‫ﻱ‬
                                                                                         ‫- - ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                             ‫ﻣﺜﻘﻞ‬          ‫ﺑﺒ ﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻢ َ ﱠﺎ ِ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ  ُ َ ّ ُ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻧﻮﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻮﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﺎ  ‬
                                           ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﻢ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺄﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑّﺎﻧﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺒﺎء ﻣﻮﺣﺪ  ‬
‫ﺓ‬                                                               ‫ﺒ‬
       ‫ﻮ‬                                          ‫ﺑﺒ ﺏ‬
       ‫ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺘﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻫ  ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ  َﺎَﻮْﻳ ِ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬                    ‫ﺧﻟ ﻪ‬
                                   ‫ﺒ‬    ‫ﺒ‬
                            ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﺑّﺔ ﻭﺑّﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺒْ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﺮ‬
 ‫ﺲ‬                                            ‫ﺑﺒ ﺭ‬
 ‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﺩﺧﻴﻼ ﻭﻟﻴ  ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍْﻟ َﺒْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒﻐء‬
 ‫ﻰ‬
 ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﻛﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜ  ‬
                                  ‫ﺑ ﻐﻭﺕ‬                        ‫ﻐء‬                ‫ﺑﻐء‬
             ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺒْ َﺎ ُ " ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭ " ﺑﺒ َﺎ ُ " ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺒْ َﺎ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﺤﺮﺍء ﻭﺻﺤﺮﺍﻭﺍﺕ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َﱠ ُ‬
   ‫ﺑﺖ‬                               ‫ﻓ ﺒﺖ‬                                           ‫ﺑﺘ‬
‫َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻭﻉ " َﺎﻧْ َ ﱠ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﺍﻧﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " َ ﱠ  "‬
   ‫ﺑﺘﻬ‬         ‫ﺑﺘﺔ‬                                     ‫ﻣ ﺘ ﺗﺔ‬
‫" ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺒْ ُﻮَ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﺒﺘﻮﺕ ﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻃﻠﻘﺔ " َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ َﺎ "‬
  ‫ﻲ‬                                            ‫ﺃﺑﺖ‬                            ‫َﺘﺔ‬
  ‫" ﺑ ﱠ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻌﺔ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ " ﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛ  ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﻻﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠ " ﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ " ﻭﻃﻼﻕ " َﺎ ﱞ " ﻭ " ُ ِ ﱞ " ﻗﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬      ‫ﻣﺒﺖ‬         ‫ﺑﺕ‬            ‫ﺃﺑﺖ‬              ‫ﺑﺖ‬
         ‫ﺗﺒﺖ‬                        ‫ﺑﺘ‬        ‫ﺑﺘﺔ‬
       ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺭﺟﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻻ ﺃﻓﻌﻠﻪ " َ ﱠ ً " ﻭ " َ ﱠﺖْ " ﻳﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻒ " َ ِ ﱡ "‬
    ‫ﺑ ﺗﺔ‬        ‫ﺑﺘﺔ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﺗﺔ‬        ‫ﺑﺘﺔ‬                      ‫ﺑﺘ ﺗ‬
  ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻻ ﻏﻴﺮ " ُ ُﻮًﺎ " ﺻﺪﻗﺖ ﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺎﱠ ٌ " ﻭﺣﻠﻒ ﻳﻤﻴﻨﺎ " َ ﱠ ً " ﻭ " َﺎﱠ ً "‬
                                                            ‫ﺃﺑ ﺘ ﻬ‬              ‫ﺑﺖ‬
                                           ‫ﺃﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻭ " َﱠ َ َﺎ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺑﺘ َﻩ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َ َﺮ ُ‬
 ‫ﺑﺘ َ‬
 ‫ﺑﺘﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﻧﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ " ﺍﻟ َﺒْ ُﻮ َ ِ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ " ُ ِ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                             ‫ﻤ ﺘ ﺭﺓ‬


  ‫43‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
           ‫ﺑﺮ‬                ‫ﺑﺘ‬           ‫ﺗﻌ‬        ‫ﻳ ﺘﺮ‬        ‫ﺑﺘﺮ‬
       ‫" ﺫﻧﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻻﺯﻣﻪ " َ ِ َ " " َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﺏ َ ِﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺃَْ ُﺮ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺘْ َﺍء "‬
   ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﺘْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ " َ َ َ ُ " " َﺘْ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻃﻠﻘﻬ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                               ‫ﺑﻼ‬        ‫ﺑﺘﻠﻪ‬                             ‫ﺑﺮ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺗﺒﺘﻞ‬          ‫ﺑﺘﺔ ﺑ ﻠﺔ‬
                                      ‫ﻃﻠﻘﺔ " َ ﱠ ً َﺘْ َ ً " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻔﺮﻍ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺚ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َ ﱠ‬
 ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﻢ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺫﺍﻋﻪ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻩ ﻭ " َ  ‬
 ‫ﺚ‬
 ‫ﺑ ﱠ‬                                ‫ﺑﺚ‬                          ‫ﺑﺜ‬
                ‫ﺃﺑﺜﻪ‬       ‫ﺑﺚ ﻟ ﺮ‬
   ‫" ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " َ ﱠ " ﺍِﺴ ّ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑﺜﺮ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ََ َ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ " َﺜْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺗ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                                                    ‫ﺑﺮ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                  ‫ﺑﺜﺮ‬       ‫ﺑﺜﺮ‬                             ‫ﺑﺜ ﺭ‬                 ‫ﺑ ﺮﺓ‬
        ‫" َﺜْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺗﻤﻮﺭ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                      ‫ﺑﺜﺮ‬                              ‫ﺑﺜﺮ ﺕ‬               ‫ﺑﺜﺮﺓ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺐ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ   ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺒﺜﺮ‬
                                                                                   ‫" ﺗ َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﺗﻨﻔﻂ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺜ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﻘْ ُ‬
    ‫ﺒﺜﻖ‬               ‫ﻓ ﺒﺜﻖ‬                                                     ‫ﺑﻘ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " َﺜْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ " َﺎﻧْ َ َ َ " ﻫﻮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِ ُ "‬
                                                                                ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺪﺭ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﺠ ﺢ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َ َ‬
  ‫ﺃ ﺠﺤﻪ‬               ‫ﺑﺠ ﺖ‬                  ‫ﺗ ﺒﺠ ﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َ َﺤْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺑْ َ ُ ُ "‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻈﻤﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺑ َ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺠﺴْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " َﺠْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ " َﺎﻧْ َ َ َ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻔﺘﺢ " َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                 ‫ﺑﺠ ﻠﺔ‬                           ‫ﻓ ﺒﺠﺲ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﺴ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬       ‫ﺑ ﻠﺔ‬                                                   ‫ﺑﺠ ﻠ ﻲ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ " َ َ ِ ﱞ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭ " َﺠْ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎ  ‬
              ‫ﻗ ﺗ‬        ‫ﺗ ﺠ ﻼ ﻋﻈﻤ‬            ‫ﺑﺠ ﺘﻪ‬                                      ‫ﺔ‬
             ‫ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻴﻠ ٌ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻠْ ُ ُ " " َﺒْ ِﻴ ً " َ ﱠ ُﺘﻪ ﻭﻭ ﱠﺮْ ُﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺤْ ٌ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬                                                  ‫ﺑﺤﺖ‬
 ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻲ " َ ُ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺃﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ " َﺤْ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺮ  ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﻚ " َﺤْ ٌ " ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻇﻠﻢ " َﺤْ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺻﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻃﻌﺎﻡ " َﺤْ ٌ " ﻻ ﺇﺩﺍ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬                                 ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬
                                                                      ‫ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺑﺮﺩ " َﺤْ ٌ " ﻗﻮﻱ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َ َ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ " َﺤْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﻰ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺣﻔﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َ َ َ  ‬
‫ﺚ‬
‫ﻓﺒﻌ َ‬                                 ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬                            ‫ﺑ ﺜ‬
                                                                        ‫" ﺍ ُ  ُ َﺍًﺎ َﺒْ َ ُ  ِﻲ ﺍ َﺭْ ِ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻷ ﺽ‬      ‫ﷲ ﻏﺮ ﺑ ﻳ ﺤﺚ ﻓ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ َﺤْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬                              ‫ﺑﺤ ﺭ ﺳﻤﻰ‬             ‫ﺃ ﺤﺮ‬          ‫ﺑﺤ ﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ ُ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ُ ّ َ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻﺗﺴﺎﻋﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﺮﺱ " َﺤْ ٌ "‬


  ‫53‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
              ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﻧﻲ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺣﺮ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻱ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺓ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺤْ َﺍِ ﱞ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ "‬
‫ﺍﻟ َﺤْ َﺍِ ﱡ " ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺤﺮ  ‬
‫ﻱ‬                                                                     ‫ﺒ ﺮ ﻧﻲ‬
  ‫ﻮ‬                                            ‫ﺒ ﺮﻥ‬
  ‫ﻻﻟﺘﺒﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺤْ َﺍ ِ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻫ  ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻨﻰ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻊ ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻣﻄﻠﻘ ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
       ‫ﺕ‬
       ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﺄﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍ  ‬
  ‫ﺒﺤ ﺮ ﺓ‬                               ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬            ‫ﺑﺤ ﺕ ﺃ ﺫ ﻥ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ " َﺤْ َﺍِ ﱞ " ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ُ ُ َ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ " َﺤْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺷﻘﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ "‬
                                       ‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻘﻮﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
 ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺘﺠﺖ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺑﻄﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﺲ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﺫﺑﺤﻮﻩ ﻭﺃﻛﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺷﻘﻮﺍ ﺃﺫﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻴﺮﺓ ﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺘﺠﺖ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺑﻄﻦ ﺷﻘﻮﺍ ﺃﺫﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﺐ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬ ‬
                                                              ‫ﻭﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺤﻴﺮﺓ ﻧﻘﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻨﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺤْ َ ٌ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                             ‫ﺑﺤ ﻨﺔ‬
  ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺑﺤﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎ " ُ َﻴْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺑﺎﻟ ﻤﺼﻐﺮ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﻨ  ‬
        ‫ﺓ‬                      ‫ﺑﺤ ﻨﺔ‬
        ‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺤﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ُ َﻴْ َ ُ " ﻟﻘﺐ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ  ‬
                                              ‫ﻭﻧﺴﺐ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺪﻱ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺨْ ُ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﺒ ﺖ ﻓ ﻗﺼ ﻉ ﺨﻠ ﺞ‬
                                                              ‫" ... َ َ ُ ﺍﻟ ُﺨْ ِ  ِﻲ  ِ َﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ َ َﻨْ ِ "‬
 ‫ﺐ‬                          ‫ﺨ ِﻲ‬                                    ‫ﺑ ﺘﻲ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ " ُﺨْ ِ ﱞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻭﻡ ﻭﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺍﻟﺒ َﺎﺗ ّ " ﻭﻳﺨﻔﻒ ﻭﻳﺜﻘﻞ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺨْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﻆ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻓ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                                 ‫ﺒ ﺖ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺒ ﺖ‬
                                                  ‫ﻛﻮﻥ " ﺍﻟ ُﺨْ ِ " ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺗﻲ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺑ ٍ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺦ‬
          ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺨﻔﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺨ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺒ ُﻮ ُ‬
 ‫ء‬    ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺑﺨ ﺭ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺃ ﺨﺮﺓ‬                      ‫ﺒﺨ ﺭ‬
 ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺩﺧﻨﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﺨﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺎ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﻛ ّ ﺷﻲ  ‬
    ‫ﻞ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬             ‫ﺑﺨﺮﺕ‬          ‫ﺑﺨ ﺭ‬
    ‫ﻳﺴﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻯ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ " َﺨْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
               ‫ﺃ ﺨﺮ‬                                      ‫ﺑﺨﺮ‬            ‫ﺑﺨﺮ‬
    ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﻔﻢ " َ َ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺃﻧﺘﻨﺖ ﺭﻳﺤﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ "‬
                                                                       ‫ﺑﺨﺮ‬              ‫ﺑ ْﺮ ء‬
                                                ‫َﺨ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺑ َﺴﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺨ َ ُ‬
            ‫ﻭ ﺗ ﺨﺴ‬                                                                 ‫ﺑ ْﺴ‬
       ‫َﺨ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻧﻘﺼﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َﻻ َﺒْ َ ُﻮﺍ  "‬


  ‫63‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
           ‫ﻝ‬           ‫ﺑ ﺲ‬                   ‫ﺑ ﺴ‬             ‫ﺑﺨ ﺖ‬            ‫ﻨ ﺱ ﺃ ﻴ ءﻫ‬
           ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ َ َﺷْ َﺎ َ ُﻢْ " ﻭ " َ َﺴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻞ " َﺨْ ًﺎ " ﻧﻘﺼﺘﻪ ﻭﺛﻤﻦ " َﺨْ ٌ " ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻗﺎ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                             ‫ﺑﺨ ﺘ ﻬ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﺴ‬             ‫ﺑﺨ ﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺴﻄﻲ " َ َﺴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ " َﺨْ ًﺎ " ﻓﻘﺄﺗﻬﺎ ﻭ " َ َﺼْ ُ َﺎ " ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻹﺻﺒﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ  ‬
                                                                          ‫ﺑﺨ ﺘ ﻬ‬
                                            ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ " َ َﺴْ ُ َﺎ " ﻭﺑﺨﺼﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﺴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑ َﻊ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﺨ َ‬
    ‫ﺩ‬         ‫ﺑﺨ ﻋ‬                ‫ﺑ َﻊ‬                                      ‫ﺑ ﺎ‬
    ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ " َﺨْﻌً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﻆ ﻭ " َﺨ َ " ﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﺍﻧﻘﺎ  ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑ ُﻞ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ِ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﺨ َ‬
 ‫َﺨ ًﺎ ﻭ ُﺨْ ًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﻗﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َﺨْ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َﻼ  ‬
 ‫ء‬
 ‫ﺑﺨ ُ‬              ‫ﺑﺨ ﻞ‬                    ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬                                ‫ﺑ َﻠ ﺑ ﻠ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺑ ﺧﻞ‬
                                                                         ‫" ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺫﻭ ﺑﺨﻞ‬
      ‫ﺃ ﺨ ﺘﻪ‬                                                                    ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬
‫ ﺍﻟ ُﺨْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻠْ ُ ُ " " ﻭ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﺑﺨﻴﻼ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻻ ﺑ ّ‬
     ‫ﺑﺪ‬            ‫ﺑﺪ ﺕ‬
  ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻣﺤﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭ " َ َﺩْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ‪‬ﺍ "‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ " ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                                 ‫ﺘﺒ ﺪ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َ ََ‬
   ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " ﺇﻟﻴﻪ " ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻭﻓ  ‬
   ‫ﻲ‬                             ‫ﺑﺪ ﺭ‬         ‫ﻣﺒ ﺩﺭﺓ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺩﺭ‬          ‫ﺑﺪ ﺭ‬
     ‫ﺒ ﺩﺭﺓ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﺩﺭﺓ‬              ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‬          ‫ﻭ ﺗ ﻛ ﻠ ﻫ ﺇ ﺮ ﻓ ﻭﺑ ﺪ ﺭ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َﻻ َﺄْ ُ ُﻮ َﺎ ِﺳْ َﺍ ًﺎ  َِ َﺍ ًﺍ " ﻭ " َ َ َﺕْ " ﻣﻨﻪ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ " ﻏﻀﺐ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َ ُ "‬
   ‫ﻮ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺭ‬                                  ‫ﺑﻮ ﺩﺭ‬          ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " َ َ َﺕْ " " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ ﺃﻱ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻫ  ‬
     ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬                                      ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬             ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‬
   ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ " َﺪْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺛﻢ ﻷﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َﺪْ ٌ "‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳ  ‬
    ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬
 ‫ﻓﺮﺳﺨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺑﺌﺮ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﻤﻴﺖ " َﺪْ ًﺍ "‬
       ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ " َﺪْ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍ ِﺪ ﱡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﻏﻔﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺪ  ‬
       ‫ﺭ‬                         ‫ﻗ ﻯ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬                       ‫َ ﺪﺭ‬
       ‫ﻣﺎﺅﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﻏﻔﺎﺭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺒﻴْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﺍﺱ ﻓﻴ  ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻮﺏ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺃ َﻉ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﺑْﺪ َ‬
            ‫ﺘﺪ ﺘﻪ‬                     ‫ﺃﺪ ﺖ‬                              ‫ﺇﺪﻋ‬
          ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ " ِﺑْ َﺍ ًﺎ " ﺧﻠﻘﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻋْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﻋْ ُ ُ "‬
‫ﺔ‬          ‫ﺘﺪ ﻉ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺟﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ " ِﺪْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻻﺑْ ِ َﺍ ِ " ﻛﺎﻟﺮﻓﻌ  ‬
  ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺛﻢ ﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻏﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬
  ‫ﻁ‬
  ‫ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻓﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﺣﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧﻼ  ‬


  ‫73‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻣ ﺘﺪ ٌ‬
‫ﻉ‬                                                                ‫ﺑ ﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﻼﻥ " ِﺪْ ٌ " ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ُﺒْ َ ِ  ‬
‫" ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻜﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻩ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠ  ‬
‫ﺐ‬                                                                      ‫ﺒﺪ ﻊ‬
‫ﷲ‬                                        ‫ﻗ ﻣ ﻛ ﺖ ﺑ ﻋ ﻣﻦ ﺮﺳﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُﻞْ  َﺎ  ُﻨْ ُ ِﺪْ ًﺎ  ِ َ ﺍﻟ ﱡ ُ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍ  ‬
       ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺑﻞ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻣﺒﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﺬﺭﻳﻦ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﻋﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻰ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻫﺪﺍﻫﻢ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﺪﻕ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻨْ ُ ُ‬
       ‫ﻢ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺷﺠﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﺠﻠﻮﺯ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻴ  ‬
                                       ‫ﻓ ﻌﻞ‬                                   ‫ﺒ ﺪﻕ‬           ‫ﻠ‬
                       ‫ﺍﻟﺠّﻮﺯ " ﺍﻟ ُﻨْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻧﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻓﻮﺯﻧﻪ  ُﻨْ ُ ٌ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                                                      ‫ﻞ‬         ‫ﻞ ﻓﻮ ﻧﻪ ﻓ ﻞ‬
 ‫ﻛﺎﻷﺻْ ِ  َ َﺯْ ُ ُ  ُﻌْﻠ ٌ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛ ّ ﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﻌﻞ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﻤﺎ ﺃ  ‬
         ‫ﻪ‬                                 ‫ﺒ ﺪﻕ‬
         ‫ﻛﺴﺮﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻌﻴﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻨْ ُ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻦ ﻭﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﺑ  ‬
                                                 ‫" ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ " ُﻨْ ُ َ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ ُ‬
                                                 ‫ﺒﻨ ﺩﻕ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﺪﻗﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺪﻝ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َ ُ‬
          ‫ﺃ ﺪ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺃﺪﻝ‬                            ‫ﺒﺪ ﻞ‬                   ‫ﺒ ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺪْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻟْ ُ ُ " ﺑﻜﺬﺍ "‬
‫ﻭ‬                            ‫ﺗﺪﻼ‬          ‫ﺑﺪ ﺘﻪ‬                                          ‫ﺇﺪ‬
‫ِﺑْ َﺍﻻ " ﻧﺤﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻟْ ُ ُ " " َﺒْ ِﻳ ً " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻏﻴﺮﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍ   ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬     ‫ﻴ‬                                                            ‫ﺑﺪﻝ‬
       ‫" َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻭﺻّﺮ ﻭﻗ  ‬
        ‫ﺏ‬                                         ‫ﺑﺪﻝ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﺪﻝ‬
        ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭ  ‬
‫ﻌﻞ‬               ‫ﻋﺴ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺇ ﻃﻠﻘﻜﻦ ﺃ ﻳﺒﺪﻟﻪ َ ﻭ ﺟ ﺧ ﺮ ﻣ ﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ " َ َﻰ  َﱡ ُ ِﻥْ  َﱠ َ ُ ﱠ َﻥْ ُ َ َّ ُ ﺃﺯْ َﺍ ًﺎ  َﻴْ ًﺍ  ِﻨْ ُ ﱠ " ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﻓ ّ  ‬
‫ﻭ " َ َﻟْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺑﻐﻴﺮﻩ " ُﺑْ ُ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﻟْ ُ ُ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ََ  ‬
‫ﺔ‬
‫ﻤ ﺒ ﺩﻟ ُ‬                          ‫ﺘ ﺪ ﺘﻪ‬                           ‫ﺃ ﺪﻟﻪ‬                     ‫ﺑﺪ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫" ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺪﻥ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                             ‫ﺒ‬                ‫ﺸﻮ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻯ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻋّﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣ ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬                                                  ‫ﻷﺪﻥ‬
  ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﺔ " ﺍ َﺑْ َﺍ ِ " ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺛﻢ ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﻷﻧﻬ  ‬
  ‫ﺑﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﻧﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘ  ‬
  ‫ﻊ‬                               ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                   ‫ﺒﺪﻧﺔ‬            ‫ﺃﺪﻥ‬                           ‫ﻤ‬
 ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜ ّﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﺭﻳﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ََ ُ " ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﺑﻘﺮﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ ََ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ " ﺍﻟ َ ََ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﺒ ﺪﻧ ُ‬                                 ‫ﺒﺪﻧﺔ‬
 ‫" ﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َِ َﺍ  َ َ َﺖْ  ُ ُﻮ ُ َﺎ " ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﺑﺪﻧﻬ ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                       ‫ﻓﺈﺫ ﻭﺟﺒ ﺟﻨ ﺑﻬ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬
  ‫ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﺤﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺗﺠﺰﺉ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌ  ‬
  ‫ﻰ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻍ ﻋﻄﻔﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬
‫ﻙ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺹ  - ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﻧﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻟﺠﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻧﺸﺘﺮ  ‬


  ‫83‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻭﺭ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻔﻬﻤﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ ََﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺕ‬
 ‫ﺑ ﺪﻧ ٌ‬
                                                                ‫ﺑ ﻥ‬
                                           ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ " ُﺪْ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ‬
  ‫ﺒﺪﻧﺔ‬                                                ‫ﺑﺪ ﻦ‬           ‫ﺒﺪﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻛﺄﻥ " ﺍﻟ ُ ُ َ " ﺟﻤﻊ " َ ِﻳ ٍ " ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺬﻳﺮ ﻭﻧﺬﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ " ﺍﻟ َ ََ ُ "‬
    ‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ‬                        ‫ﺑﺪ ﻧ‬      ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " ُ ُﻭًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻋﻈﻢ " َ َ ُ ُ "‬
        ‫ﻛ‬               ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬                                       ‫ﺑ ﺩﻥ‬
   ‫ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻟﺤﻤﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ﱠ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺍﻛﻊ ﻭﺭ ّﻊ ﻭ "‬
     ‫ﺗ ﺪﻳ‬       ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬         ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬              ‫ﺑﺪ ﻦ‬                              ‫ﺑﺪ ﻧﺔ‬       ‫ﺑﺪﻥ‬
 ‫َ ُ َ " " َ َﺍَ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " " َﺒْ ًِﻨﺎ "‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻦ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﺃﺳ ّ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ََ َُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺪﻫﻪ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬            ‫ﺑﺪ ﻬﺔ‬                  ‫ﻣﺒ ﺩﻫﺔ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺩﻫﻪ‬                                ‫ﺑ ﻫ‬
       ‫َﺪْ ًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺑﻐﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﺎﺟﺄﻩ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ ُ " " ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ِﻳ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻷﻧﻬ ‬
                                                                   ‫" ﺗﺒﻐﺖ ﻭﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍِ ُ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺒﺪ ﺋﻪ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺑﺪ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َ َﺍ‬
                     ‫ﺑﺪ‬         ‫ﺃﺪﺘ‬                                ‫ﺑﺩ‬                ‫ﺑﺪﻭ‬        ‫ﻳﺪ‬
  ‫َﺒْ ُﻭ " " ُ ُ ّﺍ " ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﻳْ ُﻪ " ﻭ " َ َﺍ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ " "‬
         ‫ﺮ‬                     ‫ﺒ ﻭ‬                 ‫ﺑﺩ‬                                   ‫ﺑ ﺪ ﻭﺓ‬
         ‫ِ َﺍ َ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻟﻠﺤﻀ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬      ‫ﺑﺪ‬        ‫ﺒ ﺩﻳﺔ‬               ‫ﺒﻮ ﺩ‬                              ‫ﺒ ﺩﻳﺔ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َِ ِ " ﺑﺪﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِﻱ " ﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َِ ِ " ﻭ " َ َﺍ " ﻟ  ‬
            ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭ " َ َﺃْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲ  ‬
            ‫ء‬        ‫ﺑﺪ ﺕ‬                  ‫ﺒﺪ ء‬
‫ﻭ‬                     ‫ﺃﺪﺕ‬                      ‫ﺘﺪ ﺕ‬            ‫ﻞ‬             ‫ﺑ ء‬       ‫ﺃ ﺪﺃ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء " َﺑْ َُ " " ِﺪْ ًﺍ " ﺑﻬﻤﺰ ﺍﻟﻜ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﺃْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺃْ ُ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ   ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                ‫ﺒ ﺃﺓ‬                              ‫ﺺ‬                            ‫ﺒﺪ ﻳﺔ‬
  ‫" ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺎء ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻋﺎﻣﻲ ﻧ ّ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺮﻱ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪَْ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻟﻚ " ﺍﻟ َﺪَْ ُ " ﺃﻱ " ﺍﻻﺑْ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﻥ " َﺪْ ُ " ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ء‬                     ‫ﺘﺪ ء‬               ‫ﺒ ﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻢ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺪﺃﻫ‬                         ‫ﺑﺪﺃ‬                        ‫ﺘﺪ ء‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ " ﺍﺑْ ِ َﺍ ِ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ﻭ " َ ََ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻭ " َﺑْ ََ ُﻢْ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺧﻠﻘﻬ  ‬
       ‫ﺒﺪ‬                                            ‫ﺑ ﺪﺉ‬                        ‫ﺑﺪﺃ‬
    ‫ﻭ " َ ََ " ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺮ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ِ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺣﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﺉ "‬
                                                 ‫ﺃ ﺪ ﺗﻪ‬                      ‫ﺑﺪﺃ‬
                                        ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻴﺐ ﻭ " َ ََ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺣﺪﺙ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺃْ ُ ُ " ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺒﺫﺠﻥ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِﻧْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻳﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ََِ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺬﺥ‬
         ‫ﺑﺬﺥ‬            ‫ﺑﻮ ﺫﺥ‬               ‫ﺑ ﺫﺥ‬                ‫ﺑﺬﺧ‬                  ‫ﻳ ﺬﺥ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻞ " َﺒْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻃﺎﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ِ َ "‬
                                                  ‫ﺑ ﺧ‬             ‫ﺑﺬ ﺖ‬
                              ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻜﺒﺮ ﻭ " َ َﺧْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺬْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺷﻘﻘﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﺬ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َﺭْ ُ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                ‫ﺒ ﺭ‬                                                ‫ﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻟﻘﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺬْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺬﻭﺭ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺇﻣ ‬
          ‫ﺏ‬            ‫ﺒ ﺭ‬
          ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮ ﻭﻧﺴﺞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ " ﺍﻟ َﺬْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻮ  ‬


  ‫93‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻞ‬                                                       ‫َﺭ‬  ‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﺤﻨﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺰْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺣﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻧﻘ  ‬
 ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺣ ّ " ُﺒْ َ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺬْ ٌ " ﻭﺑﺰﺭ ﻭ " َ َﺭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺭْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬           ‫ﺑﺬ ﺗﻪ‬                       ‫ﺑﺬ ﺕ‬               ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬           ‫ﺐ ﻳ ﺬﺭ‬
                                      ‫ﺘﺬﺮ‬                          ‫ﻓﺘﺒﺬﺭ‬
    ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ " َ َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻫﻮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻖ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺒْ ِﻳ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺒ ﺭﻗﺔ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻭﺍﻟ َﺬْ َ َ ُ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺳﺔ‬
           ‫ﻗﻴﻞ  ُ َ ﱠﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻬﻤﺎ  َ ِﻴﻌ ً‬
           ‫ﺟﻤ ﺎ‬                                                               ‫ﻣﻌﺮ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﺫﻕ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻃﺒﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺐ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﻃﺒﺦ ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ ََ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻪ‬
              ‫ﺑﺬﻝ‬                          ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻪ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ﻻ‬
‫َﺬْ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺳﻤﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻄﺎﻩ ﻭ " َ ََ ُ " ﺃﺑﺎﺣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻴﺐ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﻭ " "‬
   ‫ﺍﺑْ َ ََ ُ " ﻟﺒﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺬَْ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻬﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺏ‬                               ‫ﺒ ﻟﺔ‬                                          ‫ﺘﺬﻟﻪ‬
‫ء‬        ‫ﺘﺬ ﺖ‬                                 ‫ﺑﺬ ﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻃﻴﺔ " َ َﻟْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺑﺬﻟﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺃﺻﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﻟْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲ  ‬
                                       ‫ﺘﺒﺬﻝ‬                             ‫ﻤ ﺬﻟﺔ‬
                         ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻬﻨﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺒْ ََ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ﱡ ُ " ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﻭﻥ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺬ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َ َﺍ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                                                  ‫ﺑﺬ ء‬        ‫ﻳﺬ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﺒْ ُﻭ " " َ َﺍ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﺳﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻓﺤﺶ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺻﺪﻗ ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﺑﺬﻭ‬         ‫ﺑﺬﻯ‬                ‫ﺃﺬ‬               ‫ﺑﺬﻳﺔ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﺬﻯ‬
   ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ﱞ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ ِﱠ ٌ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﺢ‬             ‫ﺑﺬ ﺓ‬          ‫ﺑﺬ ء‬                     ‫ﻳ ﺬﺃ‬       ‫ﺑﺬﺃ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ ََ " " َﺒْ َُ " ﻣﻬﻤﻮﺯ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﻤﺎ " َ َﺍ ً " ﻭ " َ َﺍء ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﻭﻓﺘ  ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺑﺬﺃ ﻪ‬
                                              ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َ ََﺗْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﺯﺩﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﻔﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ﺑﻂ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮَْ ُ‬
   ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻼﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﺴﻤﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺒ ﺗﻜ ﻥ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻟ َﺮَْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                            ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺯﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﺴﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻙ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻪ‬
                                                                                               ‫ِ ﺗﺏ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮَْﺎ ُ‬
                                         ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻓﺮﺗﺎﺏ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﺛﻦ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ُ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺑﻨﺪﻕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻴﺪ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬
  ‫ﺤ ﻓﺮ‬                        ‫ﻤ ﺴﻢ‬         ‫ﻒ‬                        ‫ﻈﻔﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺨ ّ " ﺍﻟ َﻨْ ِ ُ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺮ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ُ "‬
       ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﻤ ﻠﺐ‬                                       ‫ﻈﻒ‬
       ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻒ " ﺍﻟ ﱢﻠْ ُ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ " ﺍﻟ ِﺨْ َ ُ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﻏﻴ  ‬
                                      ‫ﺒ ﺛﻦ‬                     ‫ﺒ ﺛﻦ‬
                     ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻫﺎ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬


  ‫04‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺒ ﺫ ﻥ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﻭْ ُ‬
   ‫ﺑ ﺫ ﻧﺔ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ِﺮْ َﻭَْ ٌ "‬
        ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺮْ ََ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﻭْ ِ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼ  ‬
        ‫ﻑ‬              ‫ﺒ ﺫ ﻥ‬                            ‫ﺑ ﺫﻧﺔ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺫﻥ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺫﻭﻥ ﻧﻮﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﺮﺑ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺒ ﺫ ﻥ‬
                           ‫ﻓﻘﻴﺎﺱ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﻭْ ِ " ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺒ ﺳﻡ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                             ‫ﺭ‬           ‫ﺐ‬
                        ‫ﺩﺍء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻄ ّ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺭﻡ ﺣﺎّ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
         ‫ء‬              ‫ﺳﻢ‬        ‫ﺒ ﺳﻡ ﻣ ﺮ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻰ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ " ﺍْﻟ ِﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ُﻌْ ﱠﺏ ﻭﺑﺮْ ِ َ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﻣﺒ ﺴﻢ‬           ‫ﻣﺒ ﺳﻢ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺴﻡ‬           ‫ﺑ ﺳﻡ‬
 ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِﺮْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﻠْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ " ُ َﺮْ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ َﻠْ َ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
 ‫ﺲ‬                                                                         ‫ﻹﺮﺴ‬
 ‫ﺍ ِﺑْ ِﻳ ِﻢْ " ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻳﻤﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺇﻓﻌﻴﻠﻞ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺇﻫﻠﻴﻠﺞ ﻭﺇﻃﺮﻳﻔﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜ  ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ ِﻴ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻃﻞ‬
 ‫ﻱ‬       ‫ﺒ ﻃﻞ‬
 ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻞ " ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻃﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﺑﺎﻃﻴﻞ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ ِﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬ  ‬
                    ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻮﻝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺘﺮ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻋﺎﻣﻲ ﻟﻔﻘﺪ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻧﺲ‬
                                                                ‫ﺒﺮ ﻧﺲ‬
                                                                ‫" ﻗﻠﻨﺴﻮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍِ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑ ﺝ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ُﺮْ ُ‬
                                                                ‫ﺒﺝ‬           ‫ﻭﻩ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺄ َﺍ ُ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺏ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬                              ‫ﺗﺒﺮﺟﺖ‬           ‫ﺃﺮﺝ‬            ‫ﺑﺮ ﺝ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺯﻳﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺤﺎﺳﻨﻬ ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻟﻸﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺒ ﺟﺱ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َﺎ ُ‬
                       ‫" ﻏﺮﺽ ﻳﻌﻠﻖ ﻭﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺃﻇﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﻟﺪﺍ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َ َﺍ ِﻴ ُ‬
                       ‫ﺑﺮ ﺟ ﺲ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺒﺮ ﺟ ﻢ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻭﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ ُ‬
                                                 ‫ﻒ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻜ ّ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻔﻪ ﻧﺸﺰﺕ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ "‬
  ‫ﺑ ﺪﻗﺔ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺟ ﻤﺔ‬                               ‫ﺮﻭ ﺟﻢ‬                    ‫َﺮ ﺟﻢ ﺭء ﺱ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َﺍ ِ ُ " ُ ُﻭ ُ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﺑﻄﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُﺮْ ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﻨْ ُ َ ٍ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺮ ﺡ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َِ َ‬
         ‫ﺒ ﺭﺣﺔ‬                                                ‫ﺑﺮ ﺣ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻳﺒﺮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " َ َﺍ ًﺎ " ﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َ ً "‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ﻓﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻟﻘﺮﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ﻓﻌﻠﻨﺎ "‬
  ‫ﻢ‬           ‫ﺑﺮﺡ‬           ‫ﺑ ﺭﺡ‬                                       ‫ﺑﺮﺣﺖ‬          ‫ﺒ ﺭﺣﺔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َ ً " ﻭ " َ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺣﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﻔﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻣﺎ " َ ِ َ " ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻟ  ‬


  ‫14‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                    ‫ﺑﺮﺡ ﺨﻔ ء‬                                               ‫ﻣ ﺑﺮﺡ‬
 ‫ﻳﻔﺎﺭﻗﻪ ﻭ " َﺎ َ ِ َ " ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻇﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻭ " َ ِ َ ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭ "‬
        ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺒﺮ ﺡ‬          ‫ﺪ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮﺡ‬                        ‫ﺗﺮﺤ‬                   ‫ﺑﺮﺡ‬
        ‫َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ " َﺒْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﻭﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺷ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                                     ‫ﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺳﺘﺮﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                                                 ‫ﺒ ﺩ‬
                                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺩَْﺎ " ﺩﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻨﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " َﺑْ َ ُﻭﺍ " ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻬ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺃ ﺮﺩ‬                                                        ‫ﺃﺮ ﻧ‬         ‫ﺮ‬
             ‫ﺑﺮﺩ‬
           ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺎء ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﻭ " َ ُ َ "‬
          ‫ﻞ‬              ‫ﺑﺮﺩ ﺑ ﺩ‬                                            ‫ﺑﺮ ﺩﺓ‬
          ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ُ ُﻭ َ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻜﻨﺖ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " َ َ َ َﺮْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬               ‫ﻣﺮ ﺩ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺭﺩ‬           ‫ﺑﺮ ﺗﻪ‬                 ‫ﺑﺮﺩ‬
   ‫ﻓﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭ " َ َﺩْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " " َﺒْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭ  ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﻞ‬
                                                  ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                 ‫ﺳﺘ ﺮﺩ ﺃ ﺒ ﺩ ﻭﺗ ﻜ ﺑﻮ ﻛﻴ‬                       ‫ﺮﻛ ﺏ ﻓﺈﻧﻬ‬         ‫ﻭﻋ ﻄ ﻗﻠ ﺻ ﻓ‬
                               ‫"   َ َ ﱢﻞْ  َ ُﻮ ِﻲ  ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ ِ  َِﱠ َﺎ ...  َ َﺒْ ُ ُ َﻛْ َﺎ ًﺍ  َ ُﺒْ ِﻲ َ َﺍ ِ َﺎ"‬
‫ﻤﺒ ﺭ ﺩ ﻭ‬                              ‫ﻤ ﺮﺩ‬                    ‫ﺑﺮ ﺕ‬                          ‫ﺑﺮ ﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻭ " َ ﱠﺩْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " َ َﺩْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﺓ " ﺑﺎﻟ ِﺒْ َ ِ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ ُ "  ‬
    ‫" ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ِ ﱡ " ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﺒﺮﺩ‬            ‫ﺒ ﺩ‬                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺩﻱ‬
           ‫ﺒﺮﺩﺓ‬                 ‫ﺐ‬           ‫ﺐ‬
         ‫ﺷﻲء ﻳﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺣ ّ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺣ ّ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻥ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ "‬
‫ﻥ‬       ‫ﺒﺮ ﺩ‬                                                 ‫ﺗ ﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ " َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻀﺞ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻭ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
     ‫ﻝ‬                  ‫ﺮﻳ ﺪ‬            ‫ﺒ‬
     ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺍء ﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟ َﺮﻭﺩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺒ َِ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮ  ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                           ‫ﺤﻤ ﺑﺮ ﺪ ﻤ ﺕ‬
        ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ " ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠﻰ َ ِﻳ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻮْ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻄﻌﻬ ‬
        ‫ﻦ‬                                     ‫ﺑﺮ ﺪ‬
        ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻴﻼ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﺴﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻣ  ‬
        ‫ﻑ‬        ‫ﺑﺮ ﺩ‬         ‫ﺃﺮﺩ‬                         ‫ﺒ‬                  ‫ﺑﺮﺩ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍْﻟ ُﺮْﺩ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻀﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ُﺮْ ُ  َﺼْ ٍ " ﻭ " ُﺮْ ُ  َﺷْ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َ ُ " ﻛﺴﺎء ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺴﺎ  ‬
  ‫ء‬                            ‫ﺒ ﺩﺓ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺩﻭ ﻲ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺩﻋ ﺐ‬
      ‫ﺒ ﺩﻱ‬                                       ‫ﺃﺑ ﺑ ﺩ ﺓ‬
    ‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ُﻮ  ُﺮْ َ َ " ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ِ ﱡ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺒ ﺫﻋ ﺔ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َ َ ُ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                            ‫ﺒﺮ ﺫﻉ‬
  ‫ﺣﻠﺲ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨ ‬
                                                     ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺝ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺱ‬
                                                                                                                   ‫َﺮ‬
                                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺒ ﱡ‬
‫ﺑﺮ ٌ‬
‫ﺓ‬                             ‫ﺒﺮ‬                                ‫ﺒﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠﱠ ُ " ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُ ﱠ  ‬
‫" ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َ َ ﱡ " " ِ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺑﱞ‬                              ‫ﺑﺮ‬      ‫ﻳﺒﺮ‬             ‫ﺑﺮ‬                            ‫ﺒﺮ‬
         ‫ﻊ‬       ‫ﺃﺮﺭ‬                                                       ‫ﺑﺭ‬
         ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭ " َﺎ ﱞ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺟﺮ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤ  ‬
 ‫ﻙ‬                   ‫ﺻﺪ ﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺕ‬                                            ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺓ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻛﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺫﻥ " َ َﻗْ َ ﻭَ ِﺭْ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺻﺪﻗﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ  ‬
          ‫ﺑﺮ ﺕ‬             ‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺻﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﺭﺍ ﺩﻋﺎء ﻟﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺩﻋﺎء ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑ ّ ﻋﻤﻠﻚ ﻭ " َ ِﺭْ َ " ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻱ "‬


   ‫24‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                               ‫ﺑﺮ ﺭ‬          ‫ﺑﺮ‬      ‫ﺃﺑ ﱠ ﻩ‬
  ‫ََﺮ ُ " " ِ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﺃﺣﺴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﻓﻘﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻫﻪ ﻭ "‬
‫ﻪ‬                                 ‫ﺑﺭ‬         ‫ﺑﺮ‬                ‫ﺑﺮ‬                   ‫ﺞ‬       ‫ﺑﺮ‬
‫َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ " َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ﱞ " ﻭ " َﺎ ﱞ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴ  ‬
    ‫ﻯ‬      ‫ﺑﺮ ﺭ‬        ‫ﺞ ﻳﺒﺮ‬                    ‫ﺑﺮ‬                                   ‫ﺞ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ " َ َ ﱡﻩ " " ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﺃ  ‬
                                                      ‫ﺃﺑﺮ‬                       ‫ﺑﺮ ﺕ‬
                                                     ‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ "ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻭ " َ ِﺭْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ " ََ ﱡ ‬
       ‫ﺃﺮ‬                                   ‫ﺑﺭ‬         ‫ﺑﺮ‬                                ‫ﺑﺮ ﺭ‬
‫  ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺪﻗﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ " َ ﱞ " ﻭ " َﺎ ﱞ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑ ﱠ " ﺍﷲ "‬
         ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺒﺮ ﺮ‬          ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﻤﺒﺮﺓ‬                           ‫ﺃﺮ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺞ‬
         ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﺛﻤ  ‬
                                                           ‫ﺑﺮ ﺮﺓ‬                   ‫ﺪ‬
                                        ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﻭﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ ِﻳ َ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ‬
          ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟ َﺮَْ ُ ﺑﺒﺎءﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺗﻴﻦ ﻭﺭﺍءﻳﻦ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻛﺎﻷﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻓ  ‬
          ‫ﻲ‬                                                                 ‫ﺒ ﺑﺮ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺒﺮ ﺑﺮﺓ‬
                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍْﻟ َ َﺍِ َ ُ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                            ‫ﺑﺮﺯ‬
                                                                                                            ‫َ ََ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﺯْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺒْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﻫﺬ ‬
‫ﺍ‬      ‫ﻣﺮﺯ‬              ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﺗﻪ‬                                                   ‫ﺑﺮ ﺯ‬
   ‫ء‬                                 ‫ﻟﺒﺮ ﺯ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﺎءﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻭ " ﺍَ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍَ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﺛﻢ ﻛﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﻲ‬                                             ‫ﻟﺒﺮ ﺯ‬
                 ‫ﺑﺮ ﺯ‬         ‫ﻣﺒ ﺭﺯﺓ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﺭﺯ‬         ‫ﺗﻐﻮﻁ‬                ‫ﺗﺒﺮﺯ‬
        ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺎﺋﻂ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ " ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ًﺍ " ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
‫ﻢ‬                        ‫َ ﺯﺓ‬               ‫ﺑﺯ‬            ‫ﺑﺮ ﺯﺓ‬              ‫ﺑﺮﺯ‬         ‫ﻣﺒ ﺭﺯ‬
‫ُ َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ " َ َﺍ َ ٌ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺮْ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ﺑﺮْ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﺨ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                    ‫ﺑ ﺯﺓ‬
 ‫ﻭﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻋﻔﻴﻒ ﺟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َﺮْ َ ٌ " ﻋﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺒﺮﺯ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﻭﻫ  ‬
        ‫ﻉ‬       ‫ﺗ ﺮﺰ‬                        ‫ﺑﺮﺯ‬                 ‫ﺪ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﺳﻨﺖ ﻭﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺣ ّ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺠﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ " َﺒْ ِﻳ ًﺍ " ﺑﺮ  ‬
     ‫ﻹﺮﺰ‬                                       ‫ﺗ ﺮﺰ‬               ‫ﺑﺮﺯ‬
   ‫ﻭﻓﺎﻕ ﻧﻈﺮﺍءﻩ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ " َﺒْ ِﻳ ًﺍ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﺒﺔ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑْ ِﻳ ُ "‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﺺ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺮ ﺵ‬
                        ‫ﺑﺵ‬               ‫ﺑ ﺷء‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮﺵ‬             ‫ﺑﺮﺷ‬       ‫ﻳ َﺵ‬
  ‫َﺒْﺮ ُ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﺮْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﺹ ﺑﺮﺻﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ  "‬
                                                                        ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺹ ﻭﺑﺮﺻﺎء ﻭﺑﺮﺹ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺮﺹ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َِ َ‬
        ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺑ ﺹ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺻء‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮﺹ‬                           ‫ﺑﺮﺻ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﺮْ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
   ‫ﺊ‬                                              ‫ﺳ ﻡ ﺃ ﺮﺹ‬
   ‫ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭ " َﺎ ٌ َﺑْ َ َ " ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻍ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﻌﻼ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﺿﻔﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﺑﻨﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﻴ  ‬
‫ﺳﻣ ﺃﺮ َ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺎ ‪‬ﺎ َﺑْ َ  ‬
‫ﺹ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                   ‫ﺴﻮ ﻡ‬                                               ‫ﺳﻮ ﻡ ﺃ ﺮﺹ‬
  ‫" ﻭ " َ َﺍ ﱞ َﺑْ َ َ " ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺣﺬﻓﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻘﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﻫﺆﻻء " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍ ﱡ " ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺣﺬﻓﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻭ  ‬
                                                                         ‫" ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ " ﺍﻟ ِ َ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍ ََﺎ ِ ُ‬
                                                                         ‫ﻷﺑ ﺭ ﺹ‬          ‫ﺒﺮﺻﺔ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑﺮ ﻉ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ََ َ‬


   ‫34‬                    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻭ‬                                                  ‫ﺑﺮﻉ‬                 ‫ﻳ ﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺒْ َ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﺑﺮﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﺃ  ‬
    ‫ﻓ ﻮﻝ ﺢ‬               ‫ﺑ ﻭﻉ‬                                   ‫ﺗﺒﺮﻉ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺭﻉ‬
    ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻮﺿﺎ ﻭ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻋﻠﻰ  َﻌْ َ َ ﺑﻔﺘ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻭﺍﺷﻖ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺧﻄﺄ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟ  ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺧ ﻭﻉ‬
                                                            ‫ﻓﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺇﻻ " ِﺮْ َ ٌ " ﻧﺒﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬
                                                 ‫ﺫ ﻭﺩ‬          ‫ﻋ ﻮﺭ‬        ‫ﺩ‬          ‫ِ ﻮﺩ‬
   ‫ ﻋﺘْ َ ٌ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍ ٍ ﻭ " ِﺘْ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﺭْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺛﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ " ﻭ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﻻ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮ ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺮْ َ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻋﻢ‬
‫ﺮ‬              ‫ﺒ ﻋ ﻡ‬                ‫ﺒ ﻋ ﻡ‬                                       ‫ﺑ ﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺖ " َﺮْ َ َ ً " ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺍﺭﺕ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻪ ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺭﻗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻛﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻫ  ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺒ ﻋﻢ‬
                                               ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﺯﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﺘﺢ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒ ﻕ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ‬
          ‫ﺒ ﻕ‬                         ‫ﺑﺮﻗ ﻧ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﻗ‬              ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺖ‬
    ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " َ َ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ " ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺝ‬                                        ‫ﺒﺮ ﻕ‬          ‫ﺮ‬             ‫ﺃ ﺮﻕ‬                ‫ﺑﺮﻕ‬
   ‫َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺃﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺸ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺍ ُ " ﺩﺍﺑﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭ  ‬
                                  ‫" ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑْ ِﻳ ُ " ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ ََﺎ ِﻳ ُ‬
                                  ‫ﻷﺑ ﺭ ﻖ‬                           ‫ﻹﺮﻖ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑ ﻗﻊ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ُﺮْ ُ ُ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                ‫ﺑﻗ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﻭ " َﺮْ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻟﺒﺴﺘﻬ ‬
                             ‫" " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ َ " ﻭ " َ َﺮْ َ َﺖْ " ﻫﻲ ﻟﺒﺴﺖ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ َ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ ُ‬
                             ‫ﺒﺮ ﻗﻊ‬                  ‫ﺒ ﻗﻊ‬                     ‫ﺗﺒ ﻗﻌ‬           ‫ﺒ ﻗﻊ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺮ ﻙ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ََ َ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ " ُ ُﻭ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " َﺮْ ِ ِ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺪﺭﻩ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻛْ ُ ُ " ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﻮ‬                    ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﺘﻪ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﻛﻪ‬                            ‫ﺑﺮ ﻛ‬
      ‫ﻤﺒ ﺭﻙ‬                                        ‫ﻤ ﺮﻙ‬             ‫ﻓ ﺮﻙ‬       ‫ﺃﻧ ﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ " ََﺨْ ُ ُ " " َﺒ َ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺒْ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ ُ " ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺾ‬           ‫ﺭﻃ ﺒ‬          ‫ﺒﺮﻛﺔ‬                           ‫ﺑﺮﻙ‬                           ‫ﺑ ﻛﺔ‬
   ‫ِﺮْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﺪﺭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  ُ َ َﺔ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﺑﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎء ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﻰ‬           ‫ﺑ ﺭﻙ‬                         ‫ﺒﺮﻛﺔ‬                        ‫ﺑﺮﻙ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ " ُ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِ ﱠﺎ  ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤ ﻴ ُ‬                                                  ‫ﻣﺒ ﺭﻙ‬              ‫ﻣﺒ ﺭﻙ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬                                             ‫ﻓﻌ‬         ‫ﺒﺮ ﻛ ﻥ‬            ‫ﻤ ﺒ ﺭﻛ ﺕ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ َ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ  َ ﱠﻼﻥ ﺑﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻛﺴﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻋ  ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬                 ‫ﺑ ﻧﻜ ﻥ‬                                   ‫ﺑﺮﻛ ﻧﻲ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ ﱠ َﺎِ ّ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ " َﺮَْ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻠﻼﻥ ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
                                                            ‫ﺯﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻋﺴﻘﻼﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒ ﻣﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َ ُ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﺮْ َ ٌ ﻭ ُ ُ ٌ ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء َ َ ًﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻬ  ‬
‫ﻮ‬          ‫ﺑﺮﻣ‬            ‫ﺑﺮﻡ‬         ‫ﺑﺮ ﻡ‬       ‫ﻏ ﻓﺔ ﻏﺮﻑ‬               ‫ﺑﺮﻡ‬
 ‫ﺗﺒﺮ َ‬
 ‫" ﺑ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺠﺮ  َ ِﺮً ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﺠﺮ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﻣْ ُ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ  ‬
 ‫ﻡ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﺘﻪ‬                                                ‫ﺿﺠ ﺍ‬             ‫َﺮﻡ‬
              ‫ﺃﺮ ﺖ‬               ‫ﻓ ﺒ َﻡ‬                ‫ﺇﺮﻣ‬                ‫ﺃﺮ ﺖ‬            ‫ﺑﺮﻡ‬
‫" ﻣﺜﻞ " َ ِ َ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ " ِﺑْ َﺍ ًﺎ " ﺃﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ " َﺎﻧْ َﺮ َ " ﻫﻮ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺩﺑﺮﺗﻪ‬


  ‫44‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻧﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺮِْ ﱠ ُ‬
 ‫ﻩ‬                                                  ‫ﺒ ﻧﻲ‬
 ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺇﻧﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺮِْ ﱡ " ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻴﻠﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎ  ‬
            ‫ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻗﺎﻝ " ﺑﺮ " ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ " ﻧﻲ " ﺟﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺩﺧﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻳﺮﻦ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺒْ ِﻳ ُ‬
       ‫ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﺮﺑﻪ ﻛﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟ  ‬
       ‫ﻢ‬
                                                                      ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                  ‫ﻳ ﻀﺪ‬                               ‫ﻳ ﻘﺪ‬           ‫ﻳ ﻄﻦ‬
  ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ " َﻘْ ِﻴ ُ " ﻭ " َﻌْ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺴﻞ ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭ " َﻌْ ِﻴ ُ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻟﻬ ‬
 ‫ﻊ‬
 ‫ﻟﺒﻦ ﻟﺰﺝ ﻭﺯﻫﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﻣﻞ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻄﻠ  ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺣﺴﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻣﻀﺖ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ُﺮْ َ ٌ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺑ ﻫﺔ‬
   ‫ﻲ‬                     ‫ﺑﺮﻫ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺑﺮﻩ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﻭﺇﻳﻀﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻴ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻫﻥ‬
‫ﺍ‬     ‫ﺃ ﺮﻩ‬                                 ‫ﺑ ﻫﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺇﺫ ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﻫﻦ‬
 ‫ﺟﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺤﺠﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺨﺸﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ "‬
       ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ َ َﻫْ َ َ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬           ‫ﻖ‬                                  ‫ﺒﺮ ﺮﻫﺔ‬                      ‫ﺒ ﻫﻥ‬
‫ﺳ ﺮ ُ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﻹﺿﺎءﺗﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺟﺎء " ﺑﺎﻟ ُﺮْ َﺎ ِ " ﻭ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻣﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻭ " َﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ  َﻜْ َﺍ  ‬
‫ﻥ‬                ‫ﺑ ﻫﻥ‬                 ‫ﺑ ﻫﻦ‬          ‫ﺒ ﻫﻥ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ ُ َﺮْ َﺎ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻤ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                                    ‫ﺃ ﺮﻫﺔ‬                      ‫ﻦﺑ ﻫﻥ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﺒ ﻫﻤﺔ‬                         ‫ﺑ ﻫ ﻤﺔ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻫﻢ‬
  ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺮْ َ َ ً " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺳﻜﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬               ‫ﺑﺮ ﻤ‬                                                ‫ﺒﺮ ﻫﻤﺔ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ َ ُ " ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺯﻫﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ " ِ َﻫْ َﻦ " ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺗﺸﺒ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                               ‫ﺑ ﻫﻤﻲ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺮْ َ ِ ﱞ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻫﻤﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﺣﻜﻤﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ " ُﺮْ ُﻤﺎﻥ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣ ّﺪ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻ ّ ﺫﻟ  ‬
       ‫ﺢ ﻚ‬                                     ‫ﻬ‬                ‫ﺑ ﻫ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء ﻭﻳﺤﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﻟﺤﻮ  ‬
‫ﺍﻷ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻯ ٌ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻓﺈﻳﻼﻣﻪ ﻇﻠﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬                                     ‫ء‬
  ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺴﺨﺮ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻤ ‬
   ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺴﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻠﻮ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻤﻮﺕ ﺣﺘﻒ ﺃﻧﻔﻪ ﻣ  ‬
   ‫ﻊ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻠﻪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﻼء ﺍﻷﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺣﺎﺏ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻓﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻓﻴﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﻩ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺑﺎء ﻭﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎء ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﺫﺑﺤﻪ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻼ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﻬﺬ  ‬
                           ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺚ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َ ُ‬


  ‫54‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﺨﺸ ﺵ‬
    ‫ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻣ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺨﺰ ﻣﺔ‬
                                                             ‫ﺧﺸﺐ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬
                 ‫ﺑﺮ ﺖ‬          ‫ﺑﺮﺓ‬                            ‫ﺃﺮﺖ‬                          ‫ﺑﺮ ﻥ‬
  ‫  ُ ُﻭ َ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻳْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ " ُ َ ً " ﻭ " َ َﻳْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺑﺮﻳﺎ "‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                      ‫ﺒﺮ ﻳﺔ‬                     ‫ﺑﺮ ﺗﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ‬              ‫ﻣ ﺮﻱ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻣﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺒْ ِ ﱞ " ﻭ " َ َﻭْ ُ ُ  ُ َ ً " ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭ  ‬
                               ‫ﺒﺮ ﻳﺔ‬               ‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﻷﻧﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﻠﻤً ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍَ ِ " ﻭﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ "‬
  ‫ﺪ‬      ‫ﺑﺮﻱ‬                                                         ‫ﺑﺮ ﺘﻪ‬         ‫ﻤ ﺮﻯ‬
  ‫ﻟﻠ َﺒْ ِ ّ " " َ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺌﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺼﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺮ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺯﻳ  ‬
      ‫ﺑ ﺭﺉ‬         ‫ﺑﺮ ء‬                        ‫ﺑﺮ ءﺓ‬                         ‫ﻳ ﺮﺃ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ " َﺒْ َُ " ﻣﻬﻤﻮﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " َ َﺍ َ ً " ﺳﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻃﻠﺒﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻱ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
             ‫ﺑﺮ ﺌ‬                               ‫ﺑﺮ ﺗﻪ‬               ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﺗﻪ‬          ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺑﺮ ء‬
  ‫َ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺃْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺃْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ " َ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ "‬
    ‫ﻳ ﺮﺅﻫ‬                          ‫ﺑﺮﺃ‬             ‫ﺑﺮ ء‬                                  ‫ﺑﺮﺉ‬
 ‫َ ِ َ " ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻱ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " َ ََ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ " َﺒْ َ ُ َﺎ "‬
 ‫ﻳ ﺮُ‬
 ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﱠ ُ " ﻓﻌﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭ " َ ََ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺽ " َﺒْ َ ‬
 ‫ﺃ‬                   ‫ﺑﺮﺃ‬                           ‫ﺒﺮﻳﺔ‬            ‫ﺒ ﺭﺉ‬
‫ﻦ‬                         ‫ﺘ ﺮﺃﺕ‬                              ‫ﺑﺮﺅ ﺑ ء‬
‫" ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " َ ُ َ  ُﺮْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ ََ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﺑﺮﺍءﺗﻬﺎ ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﺘ ﺮﺃ‬                                         ‫ﺘ ﺮﺕ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺨﺸﺮﻱ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﺃْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ ََ " ﻣ  ‬
‫ء‬        ‫ﻖ‬                                                        ‫ﺘ ﺮﺃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ ََ " ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒ َ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻲ  ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺭ ﺘﻪ‬                             ‫ﺒﺮ‬                              ‫ﺘ ﺮﺕ‬
       ‫ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﺃْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﺗﻨﺰﻫﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﻯ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻭ " َﺎ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻋﺎﺭﺿﺘ  ‬
       ‫ﻓﺄﺗﻴﺖ ﺑﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِﱠ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                                              ‫ﺒ ﺭ ﻳﺔ‬
  ‫ﻩ‬                            ‫ﺒ ﺭﻳ ء‬
  ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻼء ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﻣﻤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﻫﺬ  ‬
   ‫ﺗﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َِﺎ ُ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِﱠ ُ " ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺬ  ‬
   ‫ﻑ‬                                 ‫ﺒ ﺭﻳﺔ‬                      ‫ﺒ ﺭﻳ ء‬
                               ‫ﺒ ﺭﺉ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺭﻱ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ﱡ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﺯﻱ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻴﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ "‬
                                                                                                ‫" ﺍﻟ ُﻮ َِﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﺭﻳ ء‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺭ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺰْ ُ‬
       ‫ﻮ‬
       ‫ﺑﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎء ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻓﻬ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬                         ‫ﺑﺭ‬                            ‫ﺑﺰ ﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " ِﺰْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ " َﺬْ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋ  ‬
   ‫ﺑ ﺭ ﻘﺰ‬                                                                    ‫ﺐ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺣ ّ ﻳﺒﺬﺭ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺰﺭ ﻭﺑﺬﺭ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺩ " ِﺰْ ُ ﺍﻟ َ ﱢ "‬
   ‫ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﺒﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺒﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑْ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﺢ‬                           ‫ﻹﺰﺭ‬
  ‫ﺱ‬
  ‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ ﻟﺨﺮﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻨﺎء ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﻣﺠﻴﺌﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎ  ‬
                                                           ‫ﺑﺰ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺃﺑ ﺯ ﺮ‬
                                 ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ََﺎ ِﻳ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﺭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺑﺰﺍﺭ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺍﻟﺒ ﱡ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َﺰ‬
              ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻣﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
 ‫ﻮ‬                                 ‫ﺒﺰﺓ‬                   ‫ﺒﺰ ﺯﺓ‬                   ‫ﺑﺰ ﺯ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﺔ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫ  ‬
                           ‫ﺑﺰ‬                         ‫ﺑﺰ‬                     ‫ﺒﺰﺓ‬
         ‫ﺣﺴﻦ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠ ِ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ " ِ ﱠﺓ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭ " َ ﱞ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‬


  ‫64‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﺰ ﻍ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََ َ‬
         ‫ﺑﺰ ﺎ‬                  ‫ﺑﺰﻍ‬                                    ‫ﺑﺰﻏ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﻢ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻧﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ " ُ ُﻭﻏً " ﻭ "‬
                                                           ‫" ﺑ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ‬
                                                           ‫ﺑ ﺯﻏ ﺔ‬                      ‫َﺰﻏﺖ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﺰﻕ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
                                                                  ‫ﺑﺰ ﻗ‬                  ‫ﻳ ﺰﻕ‬
                                     ‫َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ " ُ َﺍ ًﺎ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﺼﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ "‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﺰ ﻝ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََ َ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺯﻝ‬                                                       ‫ﺑﺰ ﻻ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ " ُ ُﻭ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻓﻄﺮ ﻧﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬       ‫ﻤ ﺰﻝ‬                    ‫ﺑﺰ ﻟﺔ‬             ‫ﺑﺰﻝ‬         ‫ﺑﺰﻝ‬         ‫ﺑﻮ ﺯﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺍ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ " َ َﺍَ ً " ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺒْ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎ  ‬
                                             ‫ﺑﻻ‬              ‫ﺑﺰ ﺖ‬
                 ‫ﻣﻘﻮﺩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﺐ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻟْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺰْ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﻘﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺑﺰ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َ َﺍ‬
                                                ‫ﺒﺯ‬                               ‫ﻳﺰ‬
  ‫َﺒْ ُﻭ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِﻱ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻴﻌﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " "‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                                                  ‫ﺑﺰ ﺓ‬
‫ُ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺎﺽ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺓ ﻭ " ﺍْﻟﺒﺎﺯْ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠ  ‬
     ‫ﻝ‬                                                   ‫ﺑ ﺰﻥ‬                         ‫َﻮﺯ‬
     ‫" ﺃﺑْ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﻭ " ِﻴ َﺍ ٍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﺄﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻮﺯ ﻗﺎ  ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺒﺯ‬
                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺒ ﺘﻥ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ َﺎ ُ‬
                ‫ﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﺗﻴﻦ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ ُ‬
‫ﺑ ﺮُ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُﺴْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ُﺴْ َ  ‬
‫ﺓ‬                                 ‫ﺑ ﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻱﻭ‬           ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬           ‫ﺾ‬         ‫ﻞ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ﺖﺻ ﻮﻥ‬
‫ِﻨ ُ  َﻔْ َﺍ َ " ﺻﺤﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﺍﻟﻐ ّ ﻭﻧﺒﺎﺕ " ُﺴْ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻃﺮ ‪   ‬‬
     ‫ﺓ‬                                                                     ‫ﺒﺳ ﺭ‬
     ‫" ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ ُ " ﻗﻴﻞ ﻭﺭﻡ ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻌﺪ  ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﻓﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭ  ‬
  ‫ﻕ‬
                                                         ‫ﺑﺻ ﺭ‬
                                         ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﺻﺎﺩﺍ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺎ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺑﺴ ﺖ‬
                                                                                               ‫َ َﺴْ ُ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻨﻄﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔ ّ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻓﻌﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟ  ‬
    ‫ﺔ‬                     ‫ﺑﺴ ﺴﺔ‬          ‫ﺖ‬                       ‫ﺑﺴ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬                     ‫ﺑﺴ‬       ‫ﺃﺑ ﺴ‬                     ‫ﺑﺴ ﺖ‬
    ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ " َ َﺴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ " َ ُ ﱡﻪ " " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻠﺘﻪ ﺑﺸﻲء ﻣ  ‬
         ‫ﻞ‬                         ‫ﺒﺴ ﺴﺔ‬                     ‫ﺖ‬        ‫ﺪ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺷ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠ ّ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲء ﺧﻠﻄﺘﻪ ﺑﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                                                ‫ﺏ‬
                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﻗﻂ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺒﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮ ّ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﻯ ﻟﻺﺑﻞ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺴﻂ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َ َ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ " َﺴْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻭ " َ َ َ َﺎ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﺟﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬                        ‫ﺑﺴﻄﻬ‬                          ‫ﺑﺴﻂ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻄ‬
    ‫ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﻛﺜﺮﻩ ﻭﻭﺳﻌﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺜﻠ  ‬
    ‫ﻪ‬                                   ‫ﺒﺴ ﻁ‬                                ‫ﺑﺴﻂ‬


   ‫74‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                      ‫ﺑﺴﻂ‬
                      ‫" ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻭﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺵ ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺒﺴ ﻄﺔ‬                   ‫ﺒ ﻄﺔ‬
                                                           ‫ ﺍﻟ َﺴْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ" ﻭ‬
                                                                                                           ‫َ ََ ِ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺑﺴﻘﺖ‬
      ‫ﺑﻮ ﺳﻖ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺳﻘ ﺕ‬               ‫ﺑ ﺳﻘﺔ‬                             ‫ﺑﺴ ﻗ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻃﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺎ ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭ "‬
‫ﻢ‬                                       ‫ﺑﺴﻖ ﺑﺴ ﻗ‬                              ‫ﺑﺴﻖ‬
‫َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻣﻬﺮ ﻭ " َ َ َ  ُ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﺼﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬ  ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺑﺴﻖ‬
        ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺰﺍﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺑﺴﻞ‬
                                                                                                             ‫َ ُ َ‬
               ‫ﺃ ﺴ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺑﺴ ﻞ ﺑ ﺳﻞ‬                                      ‫ﺑﺴ ﻟﺔ‬
    ‫َ َﺎَ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺷﺠﻊ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ ﻭَﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻠْ ُ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ  "‬
                                                ‫ﺃ ﻟﺌﻚ ﻟﺬ ﻦ ﺃ ﺴﻠ ﻤ ﻛﺴﺒ‬
                                              ‫" ﺭﻫﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " ُﻭَْ ِ َ ﺍﱠ ِﻳ َ ُﺑْ ِ ُﻮﺍ ﺑ َﺎ  َ َ ُﻮﺍ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺑﺴﻢ‬
                                                                                                              ‫َ َ َ‬
                       ‫ﺘﺴﻢ ﻭﺗﺒﺴﻢ‬                                                 ‫ﺑ ﻤ‬
‫َﺴْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺿﺤﻚ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َ َ  ََ َ ﱠ َ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ  "‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻚ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺑ ﻤﻞ‬
                                                                                                           ‫َﺴْ َ َ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺑ ﻢ‬
                                                     ‫ﺑﺴﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﺐ ِﺴْ ِ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ‬
                              ‫ﻓﻴ ﺣﺒﺬ ﺫ ﻙ ﺪ ﻝ ﻤﺒ ﻤﻞ‬                          ‫َﻘ ﺑ ﻤﻠ ﻫ ﺪ ﻏﺪ ﺓ ﻟﻘ ﺘﻬ‬
                            ‫" ﻟ َﺪْ َﺴْ َ َﺖْ  ِﻨْ ٌ  َ َﺍ َ َ ِﻴ ُ َﺎ ...  َ َﺎ  َ ﱠ َﺍ  َﺍ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻻ ُ ﺍﻟ ُ َﺴْ َ ُ "‬
 ‫ﺇﻟ َ‬
 ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺣﻤﺪﻝ ﻭﻫﻠﻞ ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻞ ﻭﺣﻴﻌﻞ ﻭﺳﺒﺤﻞ ﻭﺣﻮﻟﻖ ﻭﺣﻮﻗﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ َﻤْ ُ  ِ " ﻭ " ﻻ َِ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬            ‫ﺤ ﺪﷲ‬
   ‫ﺣ ﻝ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻻ‬                   ‫ﺳﺤﻥ ﷲ‬              ‫ﺼ ﺓ‬      ‫ﺣﻲ ﻋ ﻠ‬         ‫ﺣ ﺒﻨ ﷲ‬             ‫ﷲ‬
   ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍ ُ " ﻭ " َﺴْ ُ َﺎ ﺍ ُ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ  َ َﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻼ ِ " ﻭ " ُﺒْ َﺎ َ ﺍ ِ " ﻭ " ﻻ  َﻮْ َ  َﻻ  ُ ﱠ َ ﺇ  ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺑﷲ‬
                                                                                                             ‫" ِﺎ ِ‬
                                                                                                               ‫َ َِ‬
                                                                                                               ‫ﺑﺸﺮ‬
         ‫ﺒﺸ ﺭ‬                       ‫ﺘ ﺸﺭ‬                                          ‫ﻳ ﺸﺮ‬
       ‫ﺑﻜﺬﺍ " َﺒْ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺮﺡ ﻳﻔﺮﺡ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺍﻻﺳْ ِﺒْ َﺎ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ " ﺍﻟ ُ ُﻮ ُ "‬
        ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ َﺑْ ُ ُ ُ َﺸْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻫ ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                    ‫ﺑﺸ ﺗﻪ ﺃ ﺸﺮﻩ ﺑ ﺮ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬                                                                  ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ " ُﺸْ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺘﻴ  ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺸْ َ  ‬
‫ﺒ ﺮﻯ‬                                   ‫ﺒﺸ ﺮ‬                ‫ﺑﺸ ﺮ‬
                                                           ‫ِ ﺸ ﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒ‬
   ‫" ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﺒﺸﺮ‬                            ‫ﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬                               ‫ِ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻃﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ " ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ   ‬
‫ﺍ‬
‫ﻗﺼﺐ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺛﻨﻮﻩ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﻤﻌﻮﻩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﻮ ‬
        ‫ﻩ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺷﺮ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ﺷﺮ‬          ‫ﺃﻧ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻦ ﻣ ﻠﻨ‬
        ‫" َ ُﺆْ ِ ُ ِ َ َ َﻳْ ِ  ِﺜْ َ َﺎ " ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺗﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺒﺸﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﻮﻻ  ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬      ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬             ‫ﺑﺸ ﺕ‬
   ‫ﺑﺒﺸﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﺛﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻷﺩﻳﻢ " َﺸْ ًﺍ " ﻣ  ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﺸﺮﺕ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬
                                                                                                              ‫َ َِ‬


  ‫84‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                             ‫ﺑﺸ ﻋﺔ‬                      ‫ﺑﺸﻌ‬
                  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎء ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ‬
                      ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬                 ‫ﺑﺸﻊ ﻤ ﻈﺮ‬                                   ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬
   ‫ َ ِ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺕ ﺭﻳﺢ ﻓﻤﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ " َ ِ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻨْ َ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﺩﻣﻴﻢ ﻭ " َ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﺑﺲ ﻭ " "‬
                                                ‫ﺑﺸﻊ‬              ‫ﺑﺸﻌ‬             ‫ﺘ ﺸ ﺘﻪ‬
                             ‫ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﻌْ ُ ُ " ﻋﺪﺩﺗﻪ " َ ِ ًﺎ " ﻭﻃﻌﺎﻡ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺑﺸﻖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ِ َ‬
    ‫ﺒﻮ ﺷﻖ‬                                        ‫ﺒ ﺷﻖ‬                               ‫ﺑﺸﻘ‬
‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َ ِ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻦ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ ُ " "‬
       ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺨﺮﺝ ﺷﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ "‬
                                                          ‫ﻄ ﺑﻊ‬           ‫ﻖ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺪﻧ َ‬           ‫ﺨ ﺗﻢ‬
                      ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎِ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺍِ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎِ َ " ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺑﺸﻢ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ ِ َ‬
                           ‫ﺑﺸﻢ‬                                         ‫ﺑﺸﻤ‬
                           ‫" ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺃﺗﺨﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺼْ َ ُ‬
         ‫ﺓ‬
         ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﻮﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ  ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ " َﺼْ ِ ﱞ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ ﻭﻫ  ‬
    ‫ﻲ‬               ‫ﺑ ﺮﻯ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﺑﻌ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﺣ  ‬
       ‫ﺔ‬                             ‫ﺒﺼﺮ‬
         ‫ﺇﺼﺭ‬                       ‫ﺃﺼ ﺗ‬                              ‫ﺃﺼﺭ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺼﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﺮْ ُﻪ " ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ " ِﺑْ َﺎ ًﺍ " ﻭ "‬
‫ﻲ‬                                             ‫ﺑ ﺼﺮ‬               ‫ﻢ‬               ‫ﺑﺼ ﺕ‬
‫َ ُﺮْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ " َ َ ًﺍ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎء ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻯ‬                      ‫ﺑﺼ ﺮﺓ‬          ‫ﺑﺼﺮ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻭ " َ َ ٍ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ َ ٍ " ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺧﺒﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪ  ‬
   ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠﺮْ ُﻪ ِ ِ َﺒْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻭ " ﺍﻻﺳ ِﺒْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ِ " ﻭ " َ ُ  ‬
   ‫ﺃﺑﻮ‬         ‫ﺒﺼ ﺮﺓ‬                 ‫ﺘﺼﺭ‬                 ‫ﺑﺼ ﺗ ﺑﻪ ﺗ ﺼ ﺮ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬                 ‫ﺃﺑ ﺑﺼ ﺮ‬                                                     ‫ﺑﺼ ﺮ‬
 ‫َ ِﻴ ٍ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﻭﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ُﻮ َ ِﻴ ٍ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻠﻤﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ  ‬
  ‫ﺒ ﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻲ ﻭﺃﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻨْ ِ ُ "‬
                       ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﺼﻞ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺑﺼﻠﺔ‬
                                                      ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺐ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﻀْ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﻀْ ٌ ﻭَ َ َﺎ ٌ ﻭِ َ ٌ ﻭِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺳﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺑﺪ  ‬
       ‫ﺭ‬                            ‫ﺑ ﻊ ﺑﻀﻌ ﺕ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺑ ﻀ ﻉ‬
‫ﺔ‬                                                                 ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺻﺤﺎﻑ ﻭ " ِﻀْ ٌ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌ  ‬
             ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬
  ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ِﻀْ ُ " ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬                                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬
 ‫ِﻀْ ُ " ﻧﺴﻮﺓ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻲ " ِﻀْ ٍ "‬
                                                                                            ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ‬
       ‫ﺦ‬
       ‫ﻭﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻳ  ‬


  ‫94‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
    ‫ﻰ‬                                             ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬                    ‫ﺑ ﻌﺔ‬
    ‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ " ِﻀْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻭ " ِﻀْ ٌ " ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺒ ﻊ‬                                           ‫ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬             ‫ﺒ ﻊ‬
  ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ " ﺍﻟ ِﻀْ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻀْ َ ِ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻀْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀ  ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬                                                              ‫ﺃﻀﻉ‬
       ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
‫ﺃﻀ ُ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ ُﻀْ ُ " ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻌ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬                                         ‫ﺒ ﻊ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                          ‫ﺃ ﻋﻬ‬         ‫ء‬     ‫ﺗ ﺄﻣﺮ ﻟ‬                     ‫ﺇﻀﻋ‬
   ‫" ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ " ِﺑْ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻬﺎ " ﻭ ُﺴْﺘ ُ َ ُ ﺍِﻨْﺴﺎ ُ ﻓﻲ َﺑْﻀﺎ ِ ﱠﻦ " ﻳﺮﻭﻯ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫ ‬
                 ‫ﺃﻀ ﺖ‬
       ‫ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺠﻬﻦ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ " َﺑْ َﻌ ُ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ "‬
      ‫ﺒﻀ ﻉ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﻌﻬ‬                                          ‫ﺑﻀﻌ ﻳ ﻀﻌﻬ‬
    ‫َ َ َﻬﺎ َﺒْ َ ُ َﺎ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻠﻚ " ُﻀْ َ َﺎ " ﺃﻱ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ "‬
‫ﻝ‬                       ‫ﺒﻀ ﻋﺔ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺿﻌﻬ ﻣﺒ ﺿﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ " َﺎ َ َ َﺎ  ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎ  ‬
                                                                ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﺑﻀ ﻋﺔ‬
           ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ " ِﺌْ ُ ِ َﺎ َ َ " ﺑﺌﺮ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭ "‬
‫ﺔ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﻀ ﺘﻪ‬                  ‫ﺑﻀ ﻋﺔ‬                    ‫ﺘﻀ ﺖ‬
‫ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ " ِ َﺎ َ ً " ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻌْ ُ ُ " ﻏﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻀﺎﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬      ‫ﺒ ﺿﻌﺔ‬                                 ‫ﺑ ﺎ‬             ‫ﺑﻀ ﺖ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻀ ﺋﻊ‬
 ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َ َﺎِ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ " َﻀْﻌً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺷﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َ ُ " ﻭﻫ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻀﻌ  ‬
                                                                     ‫ﻀ ﻌﻪ ﺗ ﻀ ﺎ‬
                                                     ‫ﺑﻀﻌﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ " ﻭﺑ ﱠ َ ُ َﺒْ ِﻴﻌً " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬
                                                                                               ‫َﻄﺤْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺑ َ ﺘﻪ‬
                   ‫ﻓ ﻧﺒ ﻄ ﺢ‬                      ‫ﺑﻄ ﻪ‬                           ‫ﺑ ْﺤﺎ‬
 ‫َﻄ ًَ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺑﺴﻄﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ ُﺤﺘ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺃﻟﻘﻴﺘﻪ " َﺎَ َ َ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻭ " "‬
                         ‫ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ ﻭﺍﻷﺑْ َ ُ " ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺴﻊ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺑْ َ ُ " ﺑﻤﻜﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟْ ُ ﱠﺼ ُ‬
                         ‫ﻤﺤ ﺐ‬                 ‫ﻷ ﻄﺢ‬                         ‫ﻄﺢ‬        ‫ﺒﻄ ﺤﺔ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺒﻄ ﺦ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ ِ ﱢﻴ ُ‬
    ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎء ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴ  ‬
    ‫ﺖ‬
   ‫ﻂ‬                            ‫ﻄﺒﻴﺦ‬        ‫ﺒﻄ ﺦ‬
   ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱢﻴ ُ ﻭ ﺍﻟ ﱢ ِّ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻠ  ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﻟﻔﻘﺪ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﻄ َ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑ ِﺮ‬
      ‫ﻖ‬       ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬                                                    ‫ﺑﻄﺮ‬            ‫ﺑ َﺮ‬
   ‫َﻄ ًﺍ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﺷﺮ ﺃﺷﺮﺍ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻄْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸ ّ  "‬
                           ‫ﺑ ﻄﺮﺓ‬         ‫ﺑ ﻄﺮ‬                     ‫ﺒ ﻄﺭ‬
                           ‫" ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ " ﺍﻟ ِﻴ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻪ " َﻴْ َ َ " " َﻴْ َ َ ً‬
                                                                                            ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ِﻄْ ِﻳ ُ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺒ ﺮﻖ‬
                                      ‫ﺒﻄ ﺭﻗﺔ‬
                                      ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺑﻄﺶ‬
                                                                                                ‫َ َ َ‬
‫ﺑﻪ " َﻄْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ  ‬
‫ﻱ‬                                                                       ‫ﺑ ﺸ‬
‫ﺑ ﻃﺸﺔ‬                          ‫ﺑﻄ َﺖ‬                     ‫ﺒ ﺶ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻄْ ُ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ ﻭ " َ َﺸ ِ " ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                        ‫"‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺑﻂ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َ ﱠ‬


  ‫05‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺓ‬                                         ‫ﺒﻂ‬                           ‫ﺑﻄ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺡ " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺷﻘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﻣﻦ ﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻄﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﻭ ﺗﻤﺮ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬
                                                               ‫ﻳ ﻄﻞ ﺑ ﻼ ﺑﻄ ﻻ ﺑ ﻧ‬
                                                              ‫" ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺒْ ُ ُ  ُﻄ ً ﻭ ُ ُﻮ ً ﻭ ُﻄْﻼًﺎ‬
     ‫ﺃﺑ ﻃ ﻞ‬                 ‫ﺑﻮ ﻃﻞ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻃﻞ‬
   ‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻓﺴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ " ََﺎ ِﻴ َ "‬
‫ﺇﻄﻟٍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ " ﺍ ََﺎ ِﻴ ُ " ﺟﻤﻊ " ُﺑْ ُﻮَ ٍ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ " ِﺑْ َﺎَ  ‬
‫ﺔ‬                                 ‫ﺃ ﻄ ﻟﺔ‬            ‫ﻷﺑ ﻃ ﻞ‬
‫ﻒ‬        ‫ﺃ ﻄﻞ‬                     ‫ﺑ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻄ ﺘﻪ‬
‫" ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﻠْ ُ ُ " ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺩﻣﻪ " ُﻄْﻼ " ﺃﻱ ﻫﺪﺭﺍ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟ  ‬
    ‫ﻰ‬              ‫ﺒﻄ ﻟﺔ‬              ‫ﺑﻄ ﻝ‬                          ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺒ ﻃﻞ‬
    ‫ﺟﺎء " ِﺎﻟ َﺎ ِ ِ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﺑﻴﻦ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎَ ِ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺣﻜ  ‬
‫ﻼ‬            ‫ﺑﻄ ﻟﺔ‬                                     ‫ﺒﻄ ﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﺎﺭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﺎﺕ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎَ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " ُ َﺎَ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺣﻤ  ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﻴﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َ َ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺷﺠﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎ  ‬
‫ﺏ‬                 ‫ﺃﻄﻝ‬                         ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬             ‫ﺑﻄﻞ ﻳ ﻄﻞ‬                         ‫ﺴ‬                ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬
   ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ " َ ُ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣ ُﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ " َ َ َ َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
        ‫ﻭ‬                                                    ‫َﻄ ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬       ‫ﺑﻄﻞ ﻴ‬
        ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " َ َ ٌ " ﺑّﻦ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎَ ِ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻼﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺃ  ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﺑﻄﻠﺔ‬               ‫ﺑﻄﻞ‬
    ‫ﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﺎﺭﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺳﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ َ َ ُ " ﻛﻤ ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄْ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ ﻦ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬                             ‫ﺒ ﻦ‬            ‫ﺑ ﻄ ﻥ ﺃ ﻄﻦ‬
       ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ ﻭَﺑْ ُ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻄْ ُ " ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﻳ  ‬
                            ‫ﻳ ﻄﻦ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻄﻦ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻲ ﻓﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
                           ‫ﺒﻄ ﻧﺔ‬             ‫ﺑ ﻃﻨ‬                    ‫ﺑﻄ ﺘﻪ ﺃ ﻄﻨ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻃﻦ‬
  ‫َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َﻨْ ُ ُ َﺑْ ُ ُﻪ " ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺧﺒﺮﺕ " َﺎ ِ َﻪ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ "‬
   ‫ُ ِ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺒْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﺯﻧ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                       ‫ﺑﻄ ﻥ‬                       ‫ﻣﻄ ﻥ‬                             ‫ﺑ ﻄﻦ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ﻄﺄ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺑْ ََ‬
                        ‫ﺑ ﻄ ءﺓ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﺌ‬             ‫ﺑﻄﺆ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻣﺠﻴﺌﻪ ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﻣﺠﻴﺌﻪ " ُﻄْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺑﻄ ء‬
                                                                                  ‫َ ِﻲ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻈْ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ ﺮ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺑﻈ ﺭ ﺃ ﻈﺮ‬
  ‫ﻟﺤﻤﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﻔﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ ﻭَﺑْ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                              ‫َ ﺮء‬                           ‫ﺑﻈﺮﺕ‬
         ‫ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻭ " َ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻓﻬﻲ " ﺑﻈْ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻟﻢ ﺗﺨﺘﻦ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﺜْ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﻌ ﺖ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬                   ‫ﻓ ﺒﻌﺚ‬                           ‫ﺘﻌ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﺜ‬
   ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻻ " َﻌْ ًﺎ " ﺃﻭﺻﻠﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﺜْ ُ ُ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻭﻉ " َﺎﻧْ َ َ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺴﺮﺗﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻜﺴ  ‬
 ‫ﻻ‬      ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺑﻌ ﺘﻪ‬                                                ‫ﻳ ﺒﻌﺚ‬           ‫ﻞ‬
 ‫ﻭﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء " َﻨْ َ ِ ُ " ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺜْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء   ‬
         ‫ﺰ‬        ‫ﺑﻌ ﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
         ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎء ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺜْ ُ ِ ِ " ﻭﺃﻭﺟ  ‬


  ‫15‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﺭ‬                      ‫ﺒ ﺚ‬            ‫ﺑﻌﺚ ﺑﻪ ﺟ‬             ‫ﺒ‬        ‫ﺑﻌﺜﻪ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﺃﻫّﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ ِ " ﻭ ّﻬﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺶ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﺪ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬          ‫ﻳ ﻡ ﺑﻌ ﺙ‬                                                 ‫ﺑﻌ ﺙ‬         ‫ﺒﻌ ﺙ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ُ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭ " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﻧﻴﺜﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭ " َﻮْ ُ  ُ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺰﺭﺝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻔﺮ ﻟﻸﻭﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﻲ‬                                          ‫ﺤﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺻ ﱠ َ ُ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓ  ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻳ ﻡ ﺑﻌ ﺙ‬
  ‫ َﻮ ُ  ُ َﺎ ٍ " ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺰﺭﺝ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺳﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻠﺔ‬
          ‫ﻦ‬                         ‫ﺑﻌ ﺙ‬
          ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺨﻨﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﻱ " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣ  ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻴﻠﺘﻴﻦ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ََُ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺃ ﻌ ﺗﻪ ﻭ‬                 ‫ﺑﻌ ﺕ‬                                    ‫ﺑﻌ ﺪ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " ُﻌْ ًﺍ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ ُﺪْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺪْ ُ ُ "  ‬
         ‫ﺘ ﻌ ﺗﻪ‬                ‫ﻣﺒ ﻋ ﺪﺓ‬        ‫ﺑﻋ ﺕ‬            ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬                ‫ﺑﻌ ﺕ‬                  ‫ﺗﺒ ﻋ ﺪ‬
       ‫" َ َﺎ َ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺪْ ُ " ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ " َﺒْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻭ " َﺎ َﺪْ ُ " " ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َﺪْ ُ ُ "‬
         ‫ﺩ‬                      ‫ﺗﺒ ﻋ ﺕ‬                                ‫ﺃﻌ ﺕ‬
         ‫ﻋﺪﺩﺗﻪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﺪْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﺑﻌﺎﺩﺍ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َ َﺎ َﺪْ ُ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬         ‫ﺃ ﻌﺪ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻗﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﻼﺯﻡ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋ  ‬
    ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬       ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬       ‫ﺴ ﻡ ﻂ‬             ‫ﺃ ﻌﺪ‬          ‫ﺃ ﻌ ﺗﻪ‬                   ‫ﺗﺒ ﻋ ﺪ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َ َﺎ َ َ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﻱ " َﺑْ َﺪْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ِ ﺷ ّ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺍ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻫﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺏ‬                                                                          ‫ﺑ ﺪ‬
‫ﻭ " َﻌْ ُ " ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺮ  ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " ُ َﻴْ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺮﻳﺒ ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                                                       ‫ﺑﻌ ﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭ‬                                          ‫ﺑ ﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺟﺎء ﺯﻳﺪ " َﻌْ َ " ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺧﻴﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﻲء ﻋﻤﺮ  ‬
        ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُ ُ ﱟ َﻌْ َ  َِ َ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺑْ َ ُ " ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﺮ  ‬
        ‫ﺏ‬            ‫ﻷ ﻌﺪ‬                      ‫ﻋﺘﻞ ﺑ ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻷﺑ ﻋ ﺪ‬
                                                                                          ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍ ََﺎ ِ ُ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ُ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺒﻌ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬               ‫ﺠﻤﻞ‬             ‫ﺑﻌ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﻠﺒﺖ " َ ِﻴ ِﻱ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ  ‬
   ‫ﻳﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ َ ُ " ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻜْ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ُ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬            ‫ﺒﻜﺮﺓ‬             ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬                                      ‫ﻨ ﻗﺔ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬                                                            ‫ﻘﻠ ﺹ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻮ ُ " ﻛﺎﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨ  ‬
  ‫ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺛﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻋﻄﻮﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﺮﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻄﻮﻩ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﺤﻤ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﻭ‬
  ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺍﺹ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺛﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻤﻞ ﺃ  ‬
    ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺎ ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﺑﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﻠﻮﺹ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ِ " " َﺑْ ِ َ ٌ ﻭََﺎ ِ  ‬
    ‫ﺮ‬
    ‫ﺃ ﻌﺮﺓ ﺃﺑ ﻋ ُ‬           ‫ﺒﻌ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑ ﺮﻥ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭ ُﻌْ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ‬


  ‫25‬                     ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺐ‬          ‫ﺃﻌﺭ‬               ‫ﻒ‬           ‫ﻞ‬                              ‫ﺒﻌﺮ‬
  ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﺫﻱ ﻇﻠﻒ ﻭﺧ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒ  ‬
                            ‫ﺑﻌﺮﻩ‬                         ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬                   ‫ﺑﻌﺮ‬
                            ‫" ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ " َﻌْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ " َ َ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑ ﺾ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َﻌْ ٌ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬               ‫ﺒ ﺾ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﺟﺰءﺍ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣ  ‬
                 ‫ﻥ‬
                 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺰءﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﺃﺟﻤﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ّ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺒ ﺾ‬
‫ ﺍﻟ َﻌْ َ " ﺷﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲء ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻴﺎء ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻛﺎﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ "‬
  ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺷﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻭ " ﺑ ﱠﻀْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺒْ ِﻴﻀً " ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ " َﺑْ َﺎﺿً " ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰﺓ ﻗﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬              ‫ﺃﻌ ﺎ‬               ‫ﺗﻌ ﺎ‬               ‫ﻌ ﺖ‬
‫ﻦ‬                          ‫ﺑ ﺾ ﻭﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﻮﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ " َﻌْ ٍ  َ ُ ٍ " ﺇﻻ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻣ  ‬
  ‫ﺾ‬
  ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻸﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺒﻌ  ‬
 ‫ﻡ‬                                ‫ﻞ ﺾ‬
 ‫ﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺍﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ " ﻛ ّ ﻭﺑﻌ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﺧﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼ  ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬                   ‫ﺑ ﺾ ﻭﻛﻞ‬
  ‫ﻷﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ " َﻌْ ٌ  َ ُ ﱞ " ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﺎﻥ ﻷﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻓ  ‬
                             ‫ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ‬
  ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء " ِﻠ ﱠﺒْ ِﻴ ِ " ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺪ  ‬
  ‫ﻕ‬                                                      ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺾ‬
                                ‫ﻭ ﺴﺤ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻜ‬                                       ‫ﺾ‬
         ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻌ ٌ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َﺍﻣْ َ ُﻮﺍ ِ ُﺅﻭ ِ ُﻢْ " ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻫﻨﺎ "‬
  ‫ﺐ‬                          ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺾ‬                     ‫ﺺ‬                       ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺾ‬
  ‫ِﻠ ﱠﺒْ ِﻴ ِ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﻧ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﻴﺌﻬﺎ " ِﻠ ﱠﺒْ ِﻴ ِ " ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗ  ‬
       ‫ﺡ‬
       ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮ  ‬
          ‫ﻡ‬
          ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﻀﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻮ  ‬
   ‫ﺑﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ِﻦ " ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﺑﻤﺎء ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                                   ‫ﻣ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                         ‫ﻋ ﻨ ﻳ ﺮﺏ ﺑﻬ ﻋﺒ ﺩ ﷲ‬
        ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َﻴْ ًﺎ َﺸْ َ ُ ِ َﺎ  ِ َﺎ ُ ﺍ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﻔﺠﺮﻭﻧﻬ ‬
   ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻳﺸﺮﺑﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬
  ‫ﺗ ﺮﻱ‬                       ‫ﻳ ﺮﺏ ﺑﻬ ﻤﻘﺮﺑ ﻥ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻔﺠﻴﺮﻫﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ " َﺸْ َ ُ ِ َﺎ ﺍﻟ ُ َ ﱠ ُﻮ َ " ﺃﻱ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ " َﺠْ ِ  ‬
‫َِﻋْ ُ ِ َﺎ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺰء ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬                                                                           ‫ﺑﺄ ﻴﻨﻨ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺯﻫﻴﺮ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻓﺘ ﺮﻛﻜ ﻋ ﻙ ﺮﺣ ﺑﺜﻔ ﻟﻬ‬
                                                                 ‫" ... َ َﻌْ ُ ُ ُﻢْ  َﺮْ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ِ ِ َﺎِ َﺎ "‬
  ‫ﻦ‬
  ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻋ  ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬
       ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺳﻘﺎﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎء ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﻫﻤ ‬
       ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﻲء ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
       ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻤﺴﺢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ  ‬
       ‫ﺾ‬
       ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﻤﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﻌﻴﺾ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴ  ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺛﺒﻮﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬


  ‫35‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                  ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬
  ‫ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮ  ‬
       ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََﻢْ َ َ َ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ُﻠْ َ َﺠْ ِﻱ  ِﻲ ﺍﻟ َﺤْ ِ ِ ِﻌْ َ ِ ﺍ ِ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﺒ ﺮ ﺑﻨ ﻤﺔ ﷲ‬             ‫ﺃﻟ ﺗﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻔ ﻚ ﺗ ﺮ ﻓ‬
   ‫ﻓ ﻠﻤ ﺍ‬
   ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ " َﺎﻋْ َ ُﻮ ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺃﻧﻤ ﺃ ﺰﻝ ﺑﻌ ﻢ ﷲ‬
                                                    ‫َﱠ َﺎ ُﻧْ ِ َ ِ ِﻠْ ِ ﺍ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺘﺮﺓ‬
                             ‫ﺯ ﺭ ء ﺗ ﻔﺮ ﻋ ﺣﻴ ﺽ ﺪ ﻠﻢ‬                          ‫ﺷﺮﺑ ﺑﻤ ء ﺪ ﺮﺿ ﻦ ﻓﺄ ﺒﺤ‬
                           ‫" َ َِﺖْ ِ َﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺣْ ُ َﻴْ ِ  ََﺻْ َ َﺖْ ...  َﻭْ َﺍ َ َﻨْ ِ ُ  َﻦْ  ِ َﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻳْ َ ِ "‬
                                                               ‫ﺃﻱ ﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎء ﺍﻟﺪﺣﺮﺿﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬
                                      ‫ﻣ ﺘ ﻟﺠ ﺞ ﺧ ﺮ ﻟ ﻬ ﻦ ﻧ ﺌ ﺞ‬               ‫ﺷﺮ ﻦ ﺑﻤ ء ﺒ ﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺮﻓﻌ‬
                                    ‫" َ ِﺑْ َ ِ َﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ َﺤْ ِ  ُ ﱠ َ َ ﱠ َﺖْ ...  َ َﻰ  ُ َ ٍ  ُﻀْ ٍ َ ُ ﱠ َ ِﻴ ُ "‬
                                                                                ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎء ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬
                                  ‫ﺳ ﺩ ﻤﺤ ﺟﺮ ﻳ ﺮ ﻥ ﺑ ﺴﻮﺭ‬                       ‫ﻫﻦ ﺤﺮ ﺋﺮ ﺭﺑ ﺕ ﺃ ﻤﺮﺓ‬
                                ‫" ُ ﱠ ﺍﻟ َ َﺍِ ُ ﻻ  َﱠﺎ ُ َﺣْ ِ َ ٍ ...  ُﻮ ُ ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ ِ ﻻ َﻘْ َﺃْ َ ِﺎﻟ ﱡ َ ِ "‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻤﻴﻞ‬
                                  ‫ﺷ ﺏ ﻨﺰ ﻒ ﺑﺒ ﺩ ﻣ ء ﺤ ﺮﺝ‬                         ‫َﻠﺜ ﺖ ﻓ ﻫ ﺧﺬ ﺑﻘﺮ ﻧﻬ‬
                                ‫" ﻓ َ َﻤْ ُ  َﺎ َﺎ ﺁ ِ ًﺍ ِ ُ ُﻭِ َﺎ ...  ُﺮْ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻳ ِ ِ َﺮْ ِ  َﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ َﺸْ َ ِ "‬
                                                                         ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺹ‬
                                ‫ﺇﺫ ﺷﻔ ﻛﺒﺪ ﺷﻜ ء ﻣ ﻠ ﻣ‬                     ‫ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻤ ء ﻟ ﺃﻧ ﺷﺮ ﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
                             ‫" َ َِ َ ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ َﻮْ َﱢﻲ  َ ِﺑْ ُ ِ ِ ... ِ َﺍ  َ َﻰ  َ ِ ًﺍ  َ ﱠﺎ َ  َﻜْ ُﻮ َﻪ "‬
   ‫ﻱ‬                   ‫ﺜ‬
   ‫ﺃﻱ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﻲ ﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻟﻺﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﻭﻣّﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺤﺖ ﻳﺪ  ‬
       ‫ﺍ‬
       ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪﻳﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻟﺼﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻋﺒﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬ ‬
                                                                                ‫ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﻌﻴﺾ‬
‫ﺓ‬      ‫ﻥ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮء ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺃ ّ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ  ‬
‫ﻩ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻮء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻤﺘﻨﻊ ﻓﺎﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬ  ‬
 ‫ﻮ‬
 ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮء ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻤﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺒﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻬ  ‬
       ‫ﻣﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻭﺓ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳ  ‬
       ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻢ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮء ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍء ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﺰ  ‬
                                                             ‫ﻓﺮﺿﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻢ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌْ ُ‬
                                                                                                             ‫َ ﻞ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                    ‫ﺑ ﻞ‬                        ‫ﺑﻌ ﻟﺔ‬                  ‫ﺑﻌﻞ ﻳ ﻌﻞ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ " ُ ُﻮَ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ " َﻌْ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬ ‬
    ‫" ﺑﻌْ َ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ُ ُﻮَ ُ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ ُ ُﻮَ ُ ُ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬
    ‫ﻭﺑﻌ ﻟﺘﻬ ﱠ‬                   ‫ﺒﻌ ﻟﺔ‬                                                     ‫َ ﻠﺔ‬
                                                         ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬            ‫ﺃ َﻖ ﺑﺮﺩﻫﻦ‬
    ‫َﺣ ﱡ ِ َ ﱢ ِ ﱠ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺑﻌﺮﻭﻗﻪ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﻐﻨﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ "‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌْ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺮ  ‬
‫ﺏ‬          ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬                                                     ‫ﻌ ﻱ‬            ‫َ ﻞ‬
                   ‫" ﺑﻌﺮﻭﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺳﻘﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻤﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﺳﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ‬
                   ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬                           ‫ﻌ ﻱ‬
                       ‫ﻣﺒ َﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌ ﻻ‬                        ‫ﻋﻞ‬                  ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻚ ﻭ " ﺑﺎ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ " ُ َﺎﻋ َ ً  َِ َﺎ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻻﻋﺒﻬﺎ‬


  ‫45‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑ ﺸ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﻐْ ُﻮ ُ‬
        ‫ﺑﻠﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﻭ ﻭﻫﺮﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َ ََ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﻐﺘﻪ‬
                        ‫ﺑ ﻏﺘﻪ‬         ‫ﻋﺮ‬                 ‫ﺑ ﺘﺔ‬                              ‫ﺑ ﺎ‬
               ‫َﻐْﺘً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻓﺎﺟﺄﻩ ﻭﺟﺎء " َﻐْ َ ً " ﺃﻱ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ  ِ ّﺓ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ ُ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ "‬
                                                                                                   ‫ِﻐ ﺙ‬ ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ‬
      ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﺼﻴﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻴﺪﻩ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻛﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ "‬
        ‫ﺮ‬                 ‫ﻐ‬                                                     ‫ِﻐ ﺙ‬ ‫ﺒ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﻃﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﺑﻐﺚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﻤﺔ ﺑﻄﻲء ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒ ّﺎﺛﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻛﺎﻟﺤﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻛﺎﻟﺤﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ " ﺍﻟ ُﻐْﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﺣ  ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬       ‫ﺒ ﺙ‬                               ‫ُﻐ ﺙ‬ ‫ﺒ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺑ ﺜﻥ‬
       ‫ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ِﻐْ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺰﺍﻝ ﻭﻏﺰﻻﻥ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺛﺔ ﺗﺜﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺴﺮ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺒﻐ ﺙ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﺻﺎﺭ ﻧﺴﺮﺍ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺇﻥ ﺒﻐ ﺙ ﺑﺄ ﺿﻨ ﻳ ﺘ ﺴﺮ‬
                                                                 ‫" ... ِ ﱠ ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ َ َِﺭْ ِ َﺎ َﺴْ َﻨْ ِ ُ "‬
                                                  ‫ﺑﻐﺚ‬
        ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻳﺼﻴﺮ ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ﺑﺄﺭﺿﻨﺎ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺑﻐﺜﻪ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺩ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑ ﺪﺩ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﻐْ َﺍ ُ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭ  ‬
‫ﻱ‬
 ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺩﺍﻝ ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺫﺍﻝ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭ "‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                                                          ‫ﺑ ﺪﻥ‬
 ‫َﻐْ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻓﻌﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻠﺨﺎﻝ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺊ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺧﺰﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻊ ﻭﻗﺴﻄﺎﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻼﻝ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬      ‫ﺑ ﺪﺩ‬
  ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺧﺰﻋﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻗﺴﻄﺎﻝ ﻣﻤﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺴﻄﻞ ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ " َﻐْ َﺍ َ " ﻏﻴ  ‬
        ‫ ‬
        ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺑﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‬
 ‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺡ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﺖ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻴ  ‬
                                      ‫ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺛﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َُ َ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﻐﺾ‬
                 ‫ﻣ ﻐﺾ‬             ‫ﺃ ﻐ ﺘﻪ ﺇ ﻐ ﺿ‬               ‫ﺑﻐ ﺾ‬           ‫ﺑﻐ ﺿﺔ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻀْ ُ ُ ِﺑْ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺒْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‬
                                     ‫ﺑﻐﻀﻪ‬                   ‫ﺑﻐ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺾ‬
         ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻐْ ُ " ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻀْ ُ ُ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ "‬
     ‫ﺃ ﻐﺾ‬              ‫ﺗﺒ ﻏﺾ‬                    ‫ﺒ ﻀء‬                     ‫ﺒﻐﻀﺔ‬             ‫ﻓﺄَﻐﻀ ﻩ‬
   ‫ََﺑ َ ُﻮ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻐْ َﺎ ُ " ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺾ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﺑْ َ َ "‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َ ﻞ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻐْ ُ‬
‫ﺑﻐ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻐْ َ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﻼ  ‬
‫ﺕ‬                        ‫ﺑ ﻠﺔ‬               ‫ﺑﻐ ﻝ‬                   ‫ﺃﻐﻝ‬
                                                          ‫ﺑﻐ ﻝ‬
                                                         ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ "" ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺠﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ٌ ‬


 ‫55‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺑﻐ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                          ‫َ َﻴْ ُ ُ‬
    ‫ﻳ ﺒﻐ‬                    ‫ﺒﻐ ء‬                     ‫ﺗﺒﻐ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺘﻐ ﺘﻪ‬                      ‫ﺃﻐﻪﺑ ﻴ‬
‫َﺑْ ِﻴ ِ َﻐْ ًﺎ " ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻭ " َﻨْ َ ِﻲ  "‬
      ‫ﺪ‬                                                                 ‫ﺃ ﻳﻜ ﻥ ﻛﺬ‬
  ‫َﻥْ َ ُﻮ َ  َ َﺍ " ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻳﻨﺪﺏ ﻧﺪﺑﺎ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﻪ ﻣﻬﺠﻮﺭ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋ ّﻭﺍ "‬
          ‫ﺒﻐ‬                                                                      ‫ﻳ ﺒﻐ‬
       ‫َﻨْ َ ِﻲ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻧﺒﻐﻰ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻪ ﺇﻥ " ﺍﻧْ َ َﻰ "‬
    ‫ﻪ‬
    ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻭﻉ ﺑﻐﻰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻭﻋﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻭﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺴﺮﺗ  ‬
 ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﻗﺼﺪﺗﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻴْ ُ ُ  َﺎﻧْ َ َﻰ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻋﻼ  ‬
 ‫ﺝ‬             ‫ﺑﻐ ﺘﻪ ﻓ ﺒﻐ‬
    ‫ﻣ ﻳ ﺒﻐ ﺃ ﻳﻜ ﻥ ﻛﺬ‬
 ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﺣﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻤﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭ " َﺎ َﻨْ َ ِﻲ َﻥْ َ ُﻮ َ  َ َﺍ "‬
          ‫ﺑﻍ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﻴ‬                  ‫ﺑﻐ‬
        ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﻭ " َ َﻰ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ " َﻐْ ًﺎ " ﻇﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺪﻯ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ "‬
       ‫ﺪ‬                                                      ‫ﺑﻐ‬        ‫ﺑﻐ ﺓ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َﻰ " ﺳﻌﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻏﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼ  ‬
   ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ " َ َﻰ " ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺍﻣﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭ " َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ " َﺒْ ِﻲ ِ َﺎ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴ  ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬         ‫ﺗ ﻐ ﺑﻐ ء‬                 ‫ﺑﻐﺖ‬                                     ‫ﺑﻐ‬
                               ‫ﺺ‬                ‫ﺑﻐ ﻳ‬             ‫ﺑﻐﻲ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪ ﻓﺠﺮﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ِ ّ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺎَﺎ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻣﺨﺘ ّ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ "‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                                                     ‫ﺒﻐﻲ‬                        ‫ﺑﻐﻲ‬
  ‫َ ِ ﱞ " ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻗﺎ  ‬
                       ‫ﺗﺒ ﻏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻢ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺔ " ُ َﺎ ِﻲ " ﺃﻱ ﺗﺰﺍﻧﻲ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ "‬
                                                                              ‫ﺑ َﺔ‬
   ‫ِﻐْﻴ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻐﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                           ‫َﻘﺮ‬
   ‫ﺖ‬                              ‫ﺒﻘﺮﺓ‬
   ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻠ  ‬
    ‫ﻞ‬              ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬              ‫ﺑﻘ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺑﻘﺮ ﺕ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻷﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َ َ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻰء " َﻘْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬                               ‫ﺗﺒﻘﺮ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻗﺮ ﻋ ﻢ‬                    ‫ﺑﻘ ﺗﻪ‬
    ‫ﺷﻘﻘﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻓﺘﺤﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺎ ِ ُ  ِﻠْ ٍ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻭﺯﻧ ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻘْ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻘﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭﺗﻔﺘ  ‬
       ‫ﺢ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                      ‫ﺒﻘ ﻊ‬                          ‫ﺑﻘ ﻉ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ِ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﻊ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﺷﺠﺮ ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ُ ﺍﻟ َﺮْ َ ِ " ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﺍ ﺷﺠﺮ ﻭﺯﺍﻝ ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻘﺒﺮ  ‬
        ‫ﺓ‬                                                       ‫ﺑﻘ ﻊ ﻐ ﻗﺪ‬
  ‫ﺐ‬              ‫ﺑﻘﻌ‬                    ‫ﺑﻘﻊ‬         ‫ﺑ ﻘ ﻊ ﺰﺑ ﺮ‬
  ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ " َ ِﻴ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱡَﻴْ ِ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                                           ‫ﺑ ﻌﻥ‬               ‫ﺃ ﻘﻊ‬
 ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ِﻘْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴ  ‬
                                          ‫ﺑ ﻌء‬                            ‫ﺑ ﻊ‬
               ‫ﻟﻘﻴﻞ " ُﻘْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ " َﻘْ َﺎ ُ " ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺧﺼﺐ ﻭﺟﺪﺏ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺒﻖ‬
                                                                                                           ‫ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ‬
                                                             ‫ﺑﻘﺔ‬
                ‫ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺣﺼﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻼﻋﺐ ﺍﺑﻨﻬﺎ‬
                                                                           ‫ﺣﺰﻗﺔ ﺣﺰﻗ ﺗﺮﻕ ﻋ ﻦ ﺑﻘ‬
                                                                        ‫" ... ُ ُ ﱠ ٌ  ُ ﱡ ﱠﺔ َ َ ﱡ  َﻴْ َ َ ﱠﻪ "‬
                                                                            ‫ﻲ‬
                                                  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻘ ّ ﻭﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬


  ‫65‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﻚ‬
                                             ‫ﻓ ّ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻘﻘﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺒ ﻞ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟ َﻘْ ُ‬
    ‫ﻣ ﻘﻠﺔ‬                              ‫ﺃ ﻘﻠﺖ‬                                ‫ﺮ‬
  ‫ﻛﻞ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﻀ ّﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﻓﻬﻲ " ُﺒْ ِ َ ٌ "‬
‫ﻰ‬      ‫ﺑ ﻗﻞ‬                           ‫ﺃ ﻘﻞ‬          ‫ﺑﻘ ﻠﺔ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺟﺎء ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " َﻘْ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻋﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﺑﻘﻼ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِّﺎ " ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﻋﻼ ﻳﺸﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺮ ﻭﻳﺨﻔﻒ ﻓﻴﻤ  ‬
   ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ّ‬                                   ‫ﺒ ﻗﻠ‬                           ‫ﺃ ﻘﻞ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺑﺎ ﻠ ﺓ‬
                                                                          ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َِﻗ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﻘﻢ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟﺒ ﱠ ُ‬
                                ‫ﺑﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ ﺻﺒﻎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻛﻤ ﺟﻞ ﺼﺒ ﻍ ﺟ ﺵ ﺑﻘﻤﻪ‬
                                                                  ‫" ... َ ِﺮْ َ ِ ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱠﺎ ِ  َﺎ َ َ ﱠ ُ ُ "‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑ ﻘﻲ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َِ َ‬
      ‫ﺃ ﻘ ﺘﻪ‬                                      ‫ﺑﻘ ء ﻭﺑ ﻗﻴﺔ‬                       ‫ﻳﻘ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺒْ َﻰ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " َ َﺎ ً  ََﺎ ِ َ ً " ﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﻴْ ُ ُ "‬
 ‫ﺜ ﻮﻱ‬         ‫ﻔﻴ‬                                       ‫ﺒ ﻴ‬                             ‫ﺒ ﻮ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َﻘْ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻘْ َﺎ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟ ُﺘْ َﺎ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻨْ َ  ‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﱡﻨْ َﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻋﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻃﻲء ﺗﺒﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ  ‬
    ‫ﺓ‬                                                                     ‫ﺜﻴ‬
        ‫ء‬                                 ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﺑﻘ‬
        ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻓﺘﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻓﻴﺼﻴﺮ " َ َﺎ " ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛ ّ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎ  ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻭﻧﺴﻲ ﻭﻓﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﻲ‬
      ‫ﺗﺒ ﻘ‬                               ‫ﺑ ﻘﻲ‬
   ‫ﻫﺪﻱ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﺑﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻫﺪﺍ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠﻰ "‬
                                        ‫ﺑ ﻘﻴ‬         ‫ﺑﻘ ﻳ‬             ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
             ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َ َﺎَﺎ " ﻭ " َ ِ ﱠﺎﺕ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻄﻴﺎﺕ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﻜﺖ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﱠ َ‬
  ‫ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻤﺮﺍ " َﺒْ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻋّﺮ ﻭﻗّﺢ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻜﻴﺖ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺻﻠﻮﺍ  ‬
  ‫ﺕ‬                                                        ‫ﺒ‬    ‫ﻴ‬     ‫ﺗﻜﺘ‬
                                                 ‫ﺑ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻛﺒ ﺮﻫ ﻫﺬ‬
  ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ " َﻞْ  َ َ َ ُ  َ ِﻴ ُ ُﻢْ  َ َﺍ " ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﺒﻜﻴﺘﺎ ﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َ ََ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺑﻜ ﺭ‬
        ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺩﺭ‬
                                                              ‫ﻨﺪ‬      ‫ﺑﻜﺮ ﺗﻠ ﻣﻚ ﺑ ﺪ ﻭ ﻦ ﻓ‬
                                                           ‫" ... َ َ َﺕْ َ ُﻮ ُ َ َﻌْ َ  َﻫْ ٍ  ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻯ "‬
    ‫ﺇﻜﺭ‬          ‫ﺃ ﻜﺮ‬                ‫ﺗﻜﺮ‬          ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬       ‫ﻭ‬
 ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﺠﻠﺖ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺑﻜﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ّ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " َﺒْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " " ِﺑْ َﺎ ًﺍ "‬
                       ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺮﺓ‬
   ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻜْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺓ ﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭ "‬
    ‫ﺚ‬                               ‫ﺑ ﺮﺓ‬                                           ‫ﺃﻜ ﺍ‬
    ‫َﺑْ َﺎﺭٌ " ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻃﺐ ﻭﺃﺭﻃﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ " ُﻜْ َ ُ " ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻧﻴ  ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻥ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺃﺑْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ " َ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬
 ‫ﺑﻜ َ‬                                   ‫ﻜ ﺗﻪ‬                                ‫ﺃ ﻜﺮ‬
    ‫ﻱ‬                                                                           ‫ﺑﻜ ﺭ‬
    ‫ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻭﻏﺪﺍ ﻏﺪﻭﺍ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻉ ﺃ  ‬
   ‫ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻜﺮ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﻛﺮ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺮﺓ‬                    ‫ﺑﻜ ﺕ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻛ ﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭ " َﺎ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﺗﺎﻧﻲ " ُﻜْ َ ً " ﻭ " َﺎ ِ ًﺍ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " َ ِ َ َ َ ًﺍ "‬


   ‫75‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                        ‫ﺘﻜ ﺕ‬                                    ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬
 ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺑﻜﻮﺭ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺻﻼﻫﺎ ﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴ  ‬
                                          ‫ﺑﻜﺮ ﺘﻜ‬
  ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ " َ ّ َ ﻭﺍﺑْ َ َﺮ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ‬
                                          ‫ﺘﻜ ﺕ‬                                       ‫ﺑ ﻛ ﺭﺓ‬
   ‫ﻭ " َﺎ ُﻮ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﺃﻛﻠﺖ ﺑﺎﻛﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ "‬
 ‫ﺑ ﻛ ﺭﺓ ﻭ‬                ‫ﺒﻛ ﺭﺕ‬                                     ‫ﺠ‬            ‫ﻞ‬        ‫ﺒ ﻛ ﺭﺓ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋ ّﻞ ﺍﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻛﻴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻧﺨﻠﺔ " َﺎ ُﻮ َ ٌ "  ‬
  ‫ﻭ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬                          ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬              ‫ﺑﻜ ﺭ‬         ‫ﺑﻛ ﺭ‬
  ‫" َﺎ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺭﺳﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻜْ ُ " ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺐ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃ  ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬                                 ‫ﺒ ﺮﺑ ﺒ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ " ﺍﻟ ِﻜْ ُ ِﺎﻟ ِﻜْ ِ " ﺟﻠﺪ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﺗﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺯﻧ ‬
   ‫ﺒﻜ ﺭﺓ‬                            ‫ﺃﻜﺭ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻠﺪ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻩ ﺟﻠﺪ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭﺃﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ َ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                       ‫ﺒ ﺮ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﺬﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﻮﻟﻮﺩ " ِﻜْ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻷﺑﻮﻳﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻜْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ُﻮ َﻜْ ٍ ﺍﻟ ﱢ ﱢﻳ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺃَ ُ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺑﻜ ﺭ‬                    ‫ﺒﻜﺮﺓ‬             ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬               ‫ﺃﺑ ﺑ ﺮ ﺼ ﺪ ﻖ‬
    ‫ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﻑ‬                              ‫ﺒﻜﺮﺓ‬                       ‫ﺑﻜ ﺭﺓ‬
           ‫ﺓ‬           ‫ﺑﻜﺮ ﺕ‬                                      ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬
           ‫ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " َ َ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺐ ﻭﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " َ َ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺠﺪ  ‬
  ‫ﻭﺳﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭ " َ ُﻮ َ ُ َ َ " ﻛﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻲ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻧﻔﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﻛﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻷﻧ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                                                            ‫ﺃﺑ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺗﺪﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬
                                                                                                              ‫َِ َ‬
                                                 ‫ﺃ ﻜﻢ‬                       ‫ﻳ ﻜﻢ‬
   ‫َﺒْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺱ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻄﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " "‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻷ ﻜﻢ‬
                                               ‫ﺍ َﺑْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻄﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻜﻢ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺑﻜ‬
                                                                                                             ‫َ َﻰ‬
                       ‫ﺪ‬                                ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﻳ ﻜ ﺑﻜ ﻭﺑﻜ ء‬
‫َﺒْ ِﻲ  ُ ًﻰ  َ ُ َﺎ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﻗﺪ  "‬
                                                                                ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬
                                      ‫ﺒﻜ ء ﻭ ﻌﻮ ﻞ‬              ‫ﻭﻣ ﻳ ﻨ‬            ‫ﺑﻜ ﻋ ﻨ ﻭﺣﻖ ﻟﻬ ﺑﻜ ﻫ‬
                                    ‫" َ َﺖْ  َﻴْ ِﻲ  َ ُ ﱠ َ َﺎ  ُ َﺎ َﺎ ...  َ َﺎ  ُﻐْ ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ  َﻻ ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺑْ َﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻴْ ُ َ ُ " ﻭ " َ ﱠﻴْ ُ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬
 ‫ﺑﻜ ﺘ ُ‬          ‫ﺑﻜ ﺖ ﻟﻪ‬                ‫ﺑﻜ ﺖ‬          ‫ﺑﻜ ﺘﻪ‬               ‫ﺃ ﻜ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                ‫ﺑﻜﺖ‬
                                                                ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ " َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻣﻄﺮﺕ‬
                                                                                                               ‫ََ َ‬
                                                                                                               ‫ﺑﻠﺞ‬
‫ﺑﻠﺞ ﺑﻠﺠﺎ‬                             ‫ﺑﻠ ﺞ‬                                      ‫ﺑﻠ ﺟ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺃﺳﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺤﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﺢ ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﻭ " َ ِ َ َ َ ً ‬
       ‫ﺢ‬        ‫ﺘﻠﺞ‬             ‫ﺑﺠء‬               ‫ﺃ ﻠﺞ‬                             ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬
       ‫" ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ  ُ َ ٌ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺣﺠﺔ " َﻠْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺼﺒ  ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬                                      ‫ﺒﻠ ﻠ ﺞ‬                       ‫ﺃ ﻠﺞ‬          ‫ﺑﻠ ﺞ‬
   ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َ َ َ " ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴ  ‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺩﻭﺍء ﻫﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬
                                                                                                             ‫َﻠﺢ‬
                                                                                                             ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﺛﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﻠﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﺤﺼﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﺐ‬
 ‫ﺓ‬
 ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺧﻼﻟﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮ  ‬


  ‫85‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                  ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺴﺮ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺧﻠﺺ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﺭﻃﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﻮ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺑﺦ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َﻠْ ُ‬
                     ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺒﻠﺪ‬
    ‫ﺑﻠ ﺪ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﺩ‬                   ‫ﺒ ﺪﺓ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺪﻥ‬
  ‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﻠْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻠْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " ِﻼ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻭ " َ َ ُ "‬
‫ﻮ‬                           ‫ﺑﻠ ﺪ‬        ‫ﺑ ﻟﺪ‬                                 ‫ﻳ ﻠﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺒْ ِ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤ  ‬
    ‫ﺾ‬                  ‫ﺑﻠﺪ ﺤﻄﺐ‬
    ‫ﺳﺘﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﺳﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ " َ َ َ ﺍﻟ َ َ ِ " ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌ  ‬
       ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻠْ َ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ّ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﺎﻣﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻼء ﻭﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬                                  ‫ﻞ‬         ‫ﺒ ﺪﺓ‬             ‫ﺒﻠ ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻩ‬                                                          ‫ﺇﻟ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﻴﺖ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َِﻰ َ َ ٍ  َ ﱢ ٍ " ﺃﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺮﻋﻰ ﻓﻴﺨﺮﺝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻄﺮ ﻓﺘﺮﻋﺎ  ‬
     ‫ﺑﻠ ﺪ‬
   ‫ﺃﻧﻌﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻓﺄﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﻋﻰ ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻤﺎ ﻭ " َ ُ َ "‬
                                                              ‫ﺑﻠ ﺪ‬
                                          ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺑﻼﺩﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ َﻴ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻛﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻄﻦ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠﻮْ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒﻠ ﺭ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬
       ‫ﺣﺠﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺞ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                                                ‫ﻢ‬
                                  ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺭ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺿ ّ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﺭ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺒ ﺱ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ َﻼ ُ‬
                             ‫ﺑﻠﺲ‬
  ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭﻋﻨﻖ ﻭ "‬
          ‫ﻓﺈﺫ ﻫ ﻣ ﻠﺴ ﻥ‬                               ‫ﺃ ﻠﺲ‬               ‫ﺇ ﺳ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻠﺲ‬
    ‫َﺑْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " ِﺑْﻼ ًﺎ " ﺳﻜﺖ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ " ﺃﻳﺲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َِ َﺍ  ُﻢْ  ُﺒْ ِ ُﻮ َ " ﻭ "‬
   ‫ِﺑْ ِﻴ ُ " ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻲ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻼﺱ ﻭﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﻮ‬                                                                  ‫ﺇﻠﺲ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺩ‬
                   ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻭﺭ ّ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺎ ﻻﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮﻩ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺇﺟﻔﻴﻞ ﻭﺇﺧﺮﻳﻂ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﻼ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒ ﻁ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                                 ‫ﺒﻠ ﻁ‬                                         ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻓﺮﺷﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡﻮ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻨﻮﺭ ﺛﻤﺮ ﺷﺠﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﻛﻞ ﻭﺭﺑﻤ ‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺩﺑﻎ ﺑﻘﺸﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻠ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ِﻌْ ُ‬
‫ﺔ‬                  ‫ﺑﻠ ﺘﻪ ﺑ ﻌ‬                        ‫ﺑﻌ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻠﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ " َﻠْ ًﺎ " ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭ " َ َﻌْ ُ ُ َﻠْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻟﻐ  ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺘﻠ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                          ‫" ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﻌْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺒﻌ ﻡ‬
        ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻠْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻱء ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻊ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭ "‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺒ ﻌﻢ‬
                                                                                                ‫" ﺍﻟ ُﻠْ ُ ُ‬
                              ‫ﻠ ﻋﺔ‬                                ‫ﺒ ﻟ ﻋﺔ‬
       ‫ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ َ ُ " ﺛﻘﺐ ﻳﻨﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺒ ﱠﻮ َ ُ " ﺑﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ََ َ‬
       ‫ﺑﻠ َ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻲ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ " َ َ  ‬
       ‫ﻎ‬                              ‫ﺑﻠ ﻎ‬                                     ‫ﺑﻠ ﻏ‬


  ‫95‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
         ‫ﺑ ﻟﻎ‬                                                ‫ﺑ ﻟﻎ‬               ‫ﺑ ﻟﻎ‬           ‫ﺑ ﻏ‬
       ‫َﻼ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﺎء ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ " َﺎِ ٌ "‬
 ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻐﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻭﺑﺘﺄﻧﻴﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺣﺎﺋﺾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻛﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻭﺳﻤﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﺎﺷﻖ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﻊ‬               ‫ﺑﺒ ﻟ ﻐﺔ‬
 ‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺩﻓﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ " ِ َﺎِ َ َ " ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺚ ﻣ  ‬
        ‫ﺑ ﻟﻐﺔ‬                ‫ﺑ ﻟﻎ‬           ‫ﺑﻠ ﻎ ﺑ ﻏ‬
  ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻃﻴﺔ " َ َ َ َﻼ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ " َﺎِ َ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
 ‫َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ " َﻼ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﻭﻧﻀﺠﺖ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ ِ َ  َِ  ‬
 ‫ﻚ‬
 ‫ﻟﺰﻡ ﺫﻟ َ‬                                  ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬               ‫ﺑﻠ ﻏ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻏ‬             ‫ﺑﻠ ﻎ‬
‫ﺍ‬            ‫ﺑﻠ ﺖ‬                                                           ‫ﺑ ﻟﻐ ﻣ ﺑﻠﻎ‬
‫َﺎِ ًﺎ  َﺎ َ َ َ " ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺘﺮﻗﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ َﻐْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﺇﺫ ‬
 ‫ﻓﺒﻠ َ‬
 ‫ﻭﺻﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َِ َﺍ َ َﻐْ َ َ َ َ ُ ﱠ " ﺃﻱ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺷﺎﺭﻓﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ " َ َ َﻐْ  ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                                                 ‫ﻓﺈﺫ ﺑﻠ ﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻬﻦ‬
                      ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬             ‫ﺑﻟ ﺖ‬                         ‫ﺃ َﻠ ﻬﻦ ﻓ ﺗ ﻀﻠ ﻫﻦ‬
   ‫َﺟ َ ُ ﱠ  َﻼ َﻌْ ُ ُﻮ ُ ﱠ " ﺃﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﻰ ﺃﺟﻠﻬﻦ ﻭ " َﺎَﻐْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﻛﺬﺍ َﺬْﻟ ُ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻭ "‬
                                  ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﻪ‬                                          ‫ﺒ ﻐﺔ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻠْ َ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﱠ َ ِ ِ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﺠﺰﺃ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ "‬
  ‫ﺑﻠ ﻎ‬                             ‫ﺑﻠﻐﻪ‬                ‫ﺃ ﻠﻐﻪ‬                    ‫ﺑ ﻍ ﻭﺑ ﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻎ‬
‫َﻼ ٌ  َ ُﻠْ َ ٌ  ََ َ ﱡ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ " َﺑْ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭﺻﻠﻪ ﻭ " َ ُ َ "‬
                                                                 ‫ﺑﻠ ﻎ‬           ‫ﺑ ﻏﺔ‬
                                      ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " َﻼ َ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺼﻴﺤﺎ ﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﻠ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﻠْ ُ ُ‬
‫ﺑ ٍ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء " َﻼ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ " َﺎﺑْ َ ﱠ  ُ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﻋﻠﻰ " ِﻼ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬            ‫ﺒﻞ‬                          ‫ﺒﻠﺔ‬            ‫ﻓ ﺘﻞ ﻫﻮ‬                       ‫ﺑ‬
   ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ ِﻼ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒ ّ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎ  ‬
   ‫ء‬                ‫ﻞ‬         ‫ﺒ ﻝ‬                      ‫ﺒﻠﻞ‬
‫ﻭ‬           ‫ﺃ ﻠ ﺘﻪ‬                           ‫ﻼ‬               ‫ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺒﻦ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ " ﺗ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻠْ ُ ُ " ﺃﺫﻫﺒﺘﻪ   ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                         ‫ﺑ‬                ‫ﺃﺑﻞ ﻼﻩ‬                     ‫ﺑﻞ‬
‫" َ ﱠ " ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺿﻪ ﻭ " ََ ﱠ ﺇﺑْ َ ً " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺮﺃ ﻭ " َﻞْ " ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ " ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ " ﺇﺑﻄﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﺏ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﺿﺮﺏ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺑﻞ ﻋﻤﺮﺍ ﻭﺧﺬ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭﺍ ﺑﻞ ﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﻭ ﷲ ﻣﻦْ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َﺍ ُ  ِ  ‬
    ‫ﻞ‬                                                     ‫ﻭﺭ ﺋﻬ ﻣﺤ ﻂ ﺑ ﻫﻮ ﻗ ﻥ ﻣﺠ ﺪ‬
    ‫َ َﺍِ ِﻢْ  ُ ِﻴ ٌ َﻞْ  ُ َ  ُﺮْﺁ ٌ  َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﺠﻴﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺑ  ‬
                            ‫ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﻠﻪ‬
               ‫ﺑﻪ‬               ‫ﺑﻬء‬                 ‫ﺃ ﻠﻪ‬                                 ‫ﺑﻠﻬ‬
 ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻠْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﻠْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ  "‬
                                  ‫ﺧ ﺮ ﺃ ﺩﻧ ﻷ ﻠﻪ ﻐﻔ ﻝ‬
                 ‫ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ " َﻴْ ُ َﻭْﻻ َِﺎ ﺍ َﺑْ َ ُ ﺍﻟ َ ُﻮ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﺸﺪﺓ‬
                                          ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﻛﺎﻷﺑﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﺘﻐﺎﻓﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻓﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻠﻲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
‫ﺑ ٍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ " َﺒْ َﻰ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " ِ ًﻰ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﻭ " َﻼ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬              ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺑ ء‬                       ‫ﺑﻠ‬                  ‫ﻳﻠ‬
            ‫ﺃ ﻩ‬           ‫ﺮ ﻳﻠ ﻩﺑﻮ‬                          ‫ﺑ ﻩ‬                         ‫ﺑ ﻠﻲ‬
‫" ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﺃﻓﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭ " َﻼ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺑﺨﻴﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺷ ّ " َﺒْ ُﻮ ُ َﻠْ ًﺍ " ﻭ " َﺑْﻼ ُ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭ "‬
                  ‫ﺒ ﻮ ﻭ ﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬                           ‫ﺑ ء‬                         ‫ﺘ ﻩ ﺘ ء‬
           ‫ﺍﺑْ َﻼ ُ ﺍﺑْ ِﻼ ً " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " َﻼ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻠْ َﻯ  َﺍﻟ َ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬
   ‫ﻭ " َ َﻰ " ﺣﺮﻑ ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ " َ َﻰ " ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻡ‬                       ‫ﺑﻠ‬                                                    ‫ﺑﻠ‬


  ‫06‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                                                    ‫ﺑﻠ‬
 ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﻠﺖ " َ َﻰ " ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻓ  ‬
‫ﺃﻳ َﺐ ﻹ ﺴ ﻥ ﺃﻟ ﻧ ﻤﻊ ﻋﻈ ﻣﻪ ﺑﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََﺤْﺴ ُ ﺍ ِﻧْ َﺎ ُ ََﻦْ َﺠْ َ َ  ِ َﺎ َ ُ َ َ  ‬
  ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﻠﻰ ﻧﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻳﺮﻓ  ‬
  ‫ﻊ‬
  ‫ﻻ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﺑ ﻟ ﻪ ﻭ ﺃﺑ ﻟ ﺑﻪ‬
  ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﻧﻘﻴﻀﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " ﻻ ُ َﺎِﻴ ِ  َﻻ َُﺎِﻲ  ِ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺃﻫﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭ  ‬
  ‫ﺃﺑ ﻟ ِ‬
  ‫ﺃﻛﺘﺮﺙ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " َﻢْ َُﺎ ِ " ﻭ " َﻢْ َﺑﻞْ " ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺬﻓﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ " ﻻ َُﺎِﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                                                         ‫ﻟ ﺃ‬         ‫ﻟ ﺃﺑ ﻝ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                                                                            ‫ﺑ ﻟﺔ‬
   ‫َﺎَ ً " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺎﻓﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﻭﻋﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺤﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺭ‬           ‫ﺃﺑ ﻟ‬                                                         ‫ﺗﺒ ﻟ‬
       ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ َﺎَﻰ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻘﻮﺍ ﻓﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﻻ َُﺎِﻲ " ﻻ ﺃﺑﺎﺩ  ‬
   ‫ﺇﻫﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ " َﺎ َﺎَﻴْ ُ ِ ِ  ُ َﺎﻻ ً " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َﻼ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻬ ّ ﺍﻟﺬ  ‬
   ‫ﻢ ﻱ‬                         ‫ﺒ ء‬               ‫ﻣ ﺑ ﻟ ﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒ ﺓ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺒﻨ ﺴﺞ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺍﻟ َ َﻔْ َ ُ‬
                                           ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻔﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺮﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨْ ُ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                                             ‫ﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻧﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺣ ّ ﻳﺨﻠﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﻳﻮﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﻜﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻭﺑ  ‬
                                                                             ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺕ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺒﻨ ﻥ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ‬
       ‫ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻗﻴﻞ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ " َ َﺎًﺎ " ﻷﻥ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬                          ‫ﺑﻨ ﻧ‬               ‫ﺑﻨ ﻧﺔ‬
                                           ‫ﺮ‬
                                        ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻘ ّ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻻﺑْ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬
       ‫ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻨﻮ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻴ  ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺔ " َﺑْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻨﻮ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﻘ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ّ‬                                                                  ‫ﺃﻨء‬
   ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﻦ‬                ‫ﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺒﻨﻮﺓ‬
   ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺍﺑْ ٌ َ ﱢ ُ ﺍﻟ ُ ُ ﱠ ِ " ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻻﺑْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑ  ‬
      ‫ﻦ ﻟﺒ ﻥ‬             ‫ﻦ ﻣﺨ ﺽ‬                         ‫ﻲ‬
    ‫ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺳ ّ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﻧﺤﻮ " ﺍﺑْ ُ  َ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ ُ َ ُﻮ ٍ "‬
    ‫ﻥ‬                                     ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ ﻟﺒ ﻥ‬           ‫ﺑ ﻨ ﺕ ﻣﺨ ﺽ‬
    ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺎ ُ  َ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭ " َ َﺎ ُ َ ُﻮ ٍ " ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ  ‬
              ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭﻣﻨﺰﻻﺕ ﻭﻣﺼﻠﻰ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ ﻧ ﺶ‬         ‫ﻦﻧ ﺶ‬                ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ ﻋ ﺱ‬          ‫ﻦﻋﺱ‬
   ‫ﻭﻣﺼﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ " ﺍﺑْ ِ  ِﺮْ ٍ " " َ َﺎ ُ  ِﺮْ ٍ " ﻭﻓﻲ " ﺍﺑْ ِ َﻌْ ٍ " " َ َﺎ ِ َﻌْ ٍ " ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻮ‬                                                 ‫ﺑﻨ ﻧ ﺶ‬
       ‫ﻓﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ " َ ُﻮ َﻌْ ٍ " ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﺤﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺱ ﻭﺑﻨ  ‬
    ‫ﻋﺮﺱ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﻧﻌﺶ ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﻧﻌﺶ ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء " َ ُﻮ ﺍﱠﻠ ُﻮ ِ " ﻣﺨﺮﺝ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺇﻣ ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬                             ‫ﺑﻨ ﻟ ﺒ ﻥ‬
    ‫ﺭ‬                                    ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ ﻟﺒ ﻥ‬
    ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َﺎ ُ َ ُﻮ ٍ " ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮ  ‬
   ‫ﺍ‬             ‫ﺭ‬        ‫ﻦ ﺴﺒ ﻞ‬
   ‫ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﺼﺼﻪ ﻟﻤﻼﺑﺴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ " ﺍﺑْ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎّ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‬
  ‫ﻦ ﻤء‬                              ‫ﻦ ﺪﻴ‬                                          ‫ﻦ ﺤﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ " ﺍﺑْ ُ ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺤﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻧْ َﺎ " ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ ُ ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ "‬


  ‫16‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﻊ‬          ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ‬              ‫ﺑﺖ‬                         ‫ﻨﺔ‬
   ‫ﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﻣﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ " ﺍﺑْ َ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ " ِﻨْ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻤ  ‬
       ‫ﻣﺆﻧﺚ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎء ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻋ ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬
        ‫ﻲ‬
        ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﺫﻛﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺳ  ‬
 ‫ﺕ‬                                                 ‫ﺑﻨ ﻓ ﻥ‬
 ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺎﺛﻬﻢ ﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " َ ُﻮ  ُﻼ ٍ " ﺣﺘﻰ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺗﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺳ ّ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ " َ َﺎ ُ َ ُﻮ ٍ " ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻭﺻﻰ ﻟﺒﻨﻲ ﻓﻼ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬                                  ‫ﺑﻨ ﺕ ﻟﺒ ﻥ‬                 ‫ﻲ‬
‫ﻑ‬                                      ‫ﻦ ﻭﺑ ﺖ‬
‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ " ﺍﺑْ ِ  َِﻨْ ٍ " ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺭﺩﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭ  ‬
                ‫ﺩ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺘﻲ‬          ‫ﻲ‬                                   ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ " َ َ ِ ﱞ " ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﺑْﻨ ﱞ " ﻭ " ِﻨْ ِ ﱞ " ﻭﻳﺼﻐﺮ ﺑﺮ ّ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺬﻭﻑ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ "‬
‫ُ َ ﱞ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﻨﻴﻮ ﻭ " َ َﻴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ " َﺑْ ِﻴ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َﻴْ ُ ُ  َﺎﻧْ َ َﻰ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻌﺜﺘﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﺒﻌ  ‬
‫ﺚ‬                    ‫ﺘﻨ ﺘﻪ ﻓ ﺒﻨ‬                    ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬                      ‫ﺑﻨ ﺖ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﻨﻲ‬
    ‫ﺎ‬                   ‫ﺑﻨ‬                              ‫ﺒ ﻴﺔ‬                     ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬
    ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻨْ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﻨﻰ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﻨْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ " َ َﻰ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻬ ‬
        ‫ﻪ‬                           ‫ﻤ‬
        ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺑﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺱ ﺧﺒﺎء ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﻭﻋ ّﺮﻩ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻰ ﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﺗﻜﺮﻳﻤﺎ ﺛﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ  ُﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ِ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ " َ َﻰ  َ َﻴْ َﺎ " ﻭ " َ َﻰ ِ َﺎ " ﻭﺍﻷﻭ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬         ‫ﺑﻨ ﺑﻬ‬           ‫ﺑﻨ ﻋﻠ ﻬ‬                       ‫ﺠﻤ ﻉ‬              ‫ﻛ‬
 ‫ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ " َ َﻰ َِﻫْ ِ ِ " ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬                    ‫ﺑﻨ ﺑﺄ ﻠﻪ‬
                                                              ‫ﺑﻨ ﻋﻠ ﺃ ﻠﻪ‬
                                               ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ " َ َﻰ  َ َﻰ َﻫْ ِ ِ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﻓﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻬﺖ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
‫ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻭﺗﻌﺐ ﺩﻫﺶ ﻭﺗﺤﻴﺮ ﻭ ُﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ ُ َﺒْ َ ُ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﺑﻬﺘﻪ ﻳ ﻬﺘﻪ‬                         ‫ﻳ ﺪ‬                                 ‫ﺑﻬﺖ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬                                               ‫ﺑﻬﺘﻬ ﺑ ﺘ‬                             ‫َﺒﻬﺖ‬
 ‫" ﻓ ُ ِ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ " َ َ َ َﺎ َﻬْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻗﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺬ  ‬
  ‫ﺒ ﺘﺔ‬                           ‫ﺑﻬﺖ‬              ‫ﺑﻬ ﺕ‬                   ‫ﺒ ﺘﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ُﻬْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺭﺳﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻬْ َ ُ "‬
                                                                                       ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ " ﺍﻟ ُﻬْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺒ ﺘﻥ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ﺠﺔ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻬْ َ ُ‬
                                            ‫ﺘﻬﺞ‬             ‫ﺑﻬ ﺞ‬                 ‫ﺑﻬﺞ‬
                        ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ََ ُ‬
                               ‫ﺒ ﻫﺮ‬                                                ‫ﺑ ﺮ‬
‫َﻬْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻤﺮ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ُ " ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﻭ  "‬
       ‫" ﺑﻬْ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ " َﻬْ َﺍِ ﱞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺠﺮﺍﻧ ﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺮ‬        ‫ﻲ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﻧﻲ‬                                               ‫َ ﺮء‬
    ‫ﺑﻬ ﺭ‬                                             ‫ﺒﻬ ﺭ‬            ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﻭﻱ‬
  ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ " َﻬْ َﺍ ِ ﱞ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ " َ َﺎ ٌ "‬
                                                              ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺒﻬ ﺭ‬
                                                  ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻳﻮﺯﻥ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺮﺝ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ َﻬْ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﻱء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺩﺭﻫﻢ " َﻬْ َ ٌ " ﺭﺩﻱء ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻭ " ُﻬْ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎ  ‬
       ‫ء‬                ‫ﺑ ﺮﺝ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﺮﺝ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﻬ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ِﻖ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺒﺮﺹ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭ  ‬
   ‫ﺱ‬                                                                  ‫ﺑﻬﻘ‬


  ‫26‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                       ‫ﺑ ﻘء‬                ‫ﺃ ﻬﻖ‬
                       ‫" ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻳﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻬْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻬﻠﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ََ ُ‬
                         ‫ﺑ ﻫﻠﺔ‬               ‫ﺑ ﻫﻞ‬                                      ‫ﺑ‬
    ‫َﻬْﻼ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻟﻌﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ  "‬
                      ‫ﻞ‬                     ‫ﺑ ﻫﻠﻪ ﻣﺒ ﻫﻠﺔ‬                         ‫ﺒ ﻠﺔ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ُﻬْ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ ُ  ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻟﻌﻦ ﻛ ّ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭ "‬
                                                                                           ‫َﻬﻞ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺍﺑْﺘ َ َ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺿﺮﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ﻤﺔ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻬْ َ ُ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺄﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﻬْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َﻬْ ِ " " ِ َﺎ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻬ ٌ‬       ‫ﺒ ﻢ‬                             ‫ﺑ ﻢ‬
       ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺄﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﺒﺎ ﻓﺈﺫ ‬
       ‫ﺍ‬                                              ‫ﺒﻬ ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺭ‬       ‫ﺒ ﻢ‬                        ‫ﺳﺨ ﻝ‬                   ‫ﺑﻬ ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩﺕ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﺄﻥ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﻟ َﻬْ ُ " ﺻﻐﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺄﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ "‬
‫ﻊ‬                                  ‫ﻹﻬﻡ‬                         ‫ﺑ ﻤﺔ‬              ‫َ ﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺨْ َ ٌ " ﺛﻢ ﻫﻲ " َﻬْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻬﻢ ﻭ " ﺍ ِﺑْ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ  ‬
    ‫ﺇﻬﻣ‬          ‫ﺃ ﻬ ﺘﻪ‬                                        ‫ﺘ ﻬﻢ‬              ‫ﺇ ﻬ ﻣ ﺕ ﻭ ﻫﻢ‬
 ‫" ِﺑْ َﺎ َﺎ ٌ  َﺃﺑﺎ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺒْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺠﻢ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " َﺑْ َﻤْ ُ ُ " " ِﺑْ َﺎ ًﺎ "‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                    ‫ﻣ ﻬﻤﺔ‬                      ‫ﻞ‬
   ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺤ ّ ﻧﻜﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻲ " ُﺒْ َ َ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺮﺿﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨ  ‬
  ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻟﻮ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺛﻢ ﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺤ ّ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﻬﻤﺔ ﻭﺣﻠﺖ ﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                           ‫ﻞ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                  ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﻤ ﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ﺍﻟ ُﺒْ َ ُ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺤ ّ ﺑﺤﺎﻝ ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺇﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﻌ ّ ﺍﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﺋ  ‬
   ‫ﺐ‬                ‫ﻢ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬
   ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻳﻔﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻠﻪ ﺳﻴﺒﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼ  ‬
 ‫ﻑ‬
    ‫ﺗﻲ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ " ﺍﻟﻼِ  ‬
  ‫ﻮ‬                                                                    ‫ﺩ َ ﺘ ﺑﻬﻦ‬
  ‫َﺧﻠْ ُﻢْ ِ ِ ﱠ " ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺨﻔﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺑﺎﺋﺒﻜﻢ ﻭﻫ  ‬
                                           ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﻻ‬
  ‫ﻻ‬        ‫ﺮ ﻞ‬               ‫ﺏ‬                 ‫ﻞ‬     ‫ﺒﻬ ﻤﺔ‬
  ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻛ ّ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﺍ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒ ّ ﻭﻛ ّ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ   ‬
                                                            ‫ﺒﻬ ﺋﻢ‬                 ‫ﺑﻬ ﻤﺔ‬
                                                            ‫" ﻳﻤﻴﺰ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎِ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﻬ ء‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺒ َﺎ ُ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻝ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺎ َﺒْ ُﻮ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﻤﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ﱞ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺎﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﻬﻲ‬                               ‫ﺑﻬ ﻳ ﻬ‬
                                                      ‫ﺑﻬ ء‬                    ‫ﺒﻬ ء‬
                                     ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ " ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻭ " َ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻈﻤﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺑ ﺷﺞ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ُﻮ َﻨْ ُ‬
‫ﻥ‬                                                                         ‫ﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺛﻢ ﺷﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻧﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻴﻢ ﺑﻠﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎ  ‬
                   ‫ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﻫﺮﺍﺓ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺷﻨﻚ ﺛﻢ ﻋﺮﺑﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬


  ‫36‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
    ‫ﺏ‬                 ‫ﺃﻮﺏ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎ  ‬
     ‫ﺑﺏ ﺸﻡ‬                               ‫ﺑﺏ ﺒﺖ‬               ‫ﺑﺏ ﺪﺭ‬
   ‫ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺍ ِ " ﻭ " َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ِ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﺤﻠﺔ ﺑﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩ " َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ "‬
    ‫ﺒ ﺑﻲ‬
  ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﺎﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ " ﺍﻟ َﺎِ ّ "‬
   ‫ﻥ‬                 ‫ﺸ ﻣﻲ‬                           ‫ﺒ ﺑﻲ ﺸ ﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ َﺎِ ّ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ ّ " ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﻻﺃﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ ﱡ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻛﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﺎ  ‬
     ‫ﺔ‬                             ‫ﺒ ﺑ ﺸ ﻣﻲ‬
     ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻼ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭﻧﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ َﺎَ َﺎ ِ ﱡ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﻨﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﺴﺒ  ‬
             ‫ﺗﻮﺒ‬                 ‫ﺑﻮ ﺖ‬                                ‫ﺒﻮ ﺏ‬
 ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠﺍ ُ " ﺣﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺐ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺑْ ُ " ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎء " َﺒْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻬﺎ "‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺃﻮﺑ‬
                                                                                         ‫َﺑْ َﺍًﺎ " ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒﺝ‬
        ‫ﻪ‬                                               ‫ﺃﻮﺝ‬
        ‫ﺗﻬﻤﺰ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻬﻤﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨ  ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﻦ‬
                                    ‫ﻷﺟﻌﻠ ّ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺟﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎء‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﺡ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                        ‫ﺑﺡ‬                                           ‫ﺑ ﺣ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﻮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺎ َ " ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
                                                               ‫ﺃﺑ ﺡ‬        ‫ﺃﺑ ﺣﻪ‬
        ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ََﺎ َ ُ " ﻭ " ََﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺫﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻭ "‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺘﺒ ﺣﻪ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺍﺳْ َ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑﺭ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َﺎ َ‬
‫ﺍ‬                           ‫ﺑﻮ ﺭ‬             ‫ﺑﺭ‬                    ‫ﺑ ﺭ‬       ‫ﻳﺒ ﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮْ ًﺍ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َﺍ ًﺍ " ﻛﺴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫ ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬                         ‫ﺒﻮ ﺮﺓ‬
 ‫ﺗﺮﻙ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺄﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﻳْ َ ُ " ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﺎ  ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺨﻞ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﻴﺮ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﺱ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺆْ ُ‬
          ‫ﺮ‬                         ‫ﺑﺌﺲ‬                         ‫ﺮ‬
    ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻀ ّ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ِ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻀ ّ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
 ‫ﺑﺱ ﻱ‬                            ‫ﺑﺌ ﺲ‬                ‫ﺑﺳ‬                ‫ﺑ ﺱ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺋﺲ‬
 ‫َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " ُﺆْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺮﺏ " َﺄْ ًﺎ " ﺷﺠﻊ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﻭ " َﺄْ ٍ " ﺃ  ‬
                                                                               ‫ﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                 ‫ﻤﺜ ﺏ ﻗ ﻝ ﻳ‬         ‫ﺇﺫ ﺪ ﻋ‬             ‫ﻓ َﺮﻧ ﻦﻋ ﺪ ﺒﺱﻣﻜ‬
‫َﺨﻴْ ٌ َﺤْ ُ  ِﻨْ َ ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ِ  ِﻨْ ُﻢْ ... ِ َﺍ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺍ ِﻲ ﺍﻟ َ ُﻮ ُ  َﺎ َ َﺎﻻ " ﺃﻱ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺎﺩﻯ  "‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺩﻱ‬
  ‫ﻼ‬         ‫ﺮ‬                                              ‫ﻧ ﺮ‬         ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺟ‬
  ‫ﻭﺭ ّﻊ ﻧﺪﺍءﻩ ﺃﻻ ﻻ ﺗﻔ ّﻭﺍ ﻓﺈّﺎ ﻧﻜ ّ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔ ّ ﻓﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻓ  ‬
                                                   ‫ﺃ ﺆﺱ‬        ‫ﺒﺱ‬              ‫ﺮ‬
                                   ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜ ّ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َﺄْ ِ " " َﺑْ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﺃﻓﻠﺲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻮ ﻂ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ُ َﻳْ ٌ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬
        ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻠﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻬ ‬
                                              ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒﻉ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬


   ‫46‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                           ‫ﺑﻉ‬
        ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ " َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺴﻄﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻴﻨ ‬
‫ﻭﺷﻤﺎﻻ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ " َ ُﻮ ُﻪ " " َﻮْ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺳﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺑْ َﺍ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َﺎ  ‬
‫ﻉ‬
‫ﺒ َ‬            ‫ﺃﻮﻉ‬                                   ‫ﺑ ﻋ‬        ‫ﻳﺒ ﻋ‬                   ‫ﺑﻉ‬
          ‫ﻣ ﺒﻉ‬             ‫ﻳ ﺒﻉ‬            ‫ﺪ ﻞ‬
          ‫" " ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ ﺍﻣﺘ ّ ﻭﻛ ّ ﺭﺍﺷﺢ " َﻨْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﻫﻮ " ُﻨْ َﺎ ٌ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺒﻍ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬
                                              ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻡ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ﺃﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺒ ﻕ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻮ ُ‬
        ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﻮ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﻴ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎِ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺯﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻫﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﺔ‬                      ‫ﺒ ﺋﻘﺔ‬                   ‫ﺑ ﻘﺕ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻗﺕ‬                   ‫ﻢ‬
                                 ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ " َﺎ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍِ ُ‬
                                 ‫ﺒﻮ ﺋﻖ‬                                  ‫ﺑ ﻗﺖ‬              ‫ﺮ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺑﻙ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﺎ َ‬
              ‫ﺑ ﻛ‬       ‫ﺗﺒ ﻙ‬              ‫ﺑ ﻛﺖ‬             ‫ﺑ ﻛ ﻧﺰﺍ‬            ‫ﻳﺒ ﻛﻬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺗﺎﻥ " َ ُﻮ ُ َﺎ " " َﻮْ ًﺎ " َ ََ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ " َﺎ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮْ ًﺎ " ﺳﻤﻨﺖ ﻓﻬﻲ "‬
 ‫ﻊ‬                              ‫ﺗﺒ ﻙ‬                                        ‫ﺑ ﺋﻚ‬
 ‫َﺎِ ٌ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﺎء ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ " َ ُﻮ ُ " ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺗﺴ  ‬
 ‫ﺲ‬
 ‫ﻓﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺱ ﻓﺄﺷﺒﻬﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﻦ‬                                            ‫ﺗﺒ ﻙ‬
        ‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻫﺰﺍﻝ ﺛﻢ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ " َ ُﻮ ُ " ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻳ  ‬
                                                                         ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺷﻌﻴﺒﺎ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒﻝ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬
‫ﺔ‬                 ‫ﺑﻝ‬                           ‫ﻲ‬                    ‫ﺑﺒ ﻟ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺧﻄﺮ " ِ َﺎِﻲ " ﺃﻱ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺧ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑ  ‬
                            ‫َ ﻝ‬                   ‫ﺑ ﺋﻞ‬           ‫ﻣﺒ ﻟ‬          ‫ﺑ ﻟ‬      ‫ﻳﺒ ﻝ‬
  ‫" َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮًْﺎ " ﻭ "  َ َﺎًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ " ﺍﻟﺒﻮْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻝ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺒﻥ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬
  ‫ﺑﻧُ‬
  ‫ﺷﺠﺮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﺩﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ " َﺎَ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                                ‫ﺒ ﻥ‬                           ‫ﺑ ﻧﺔ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬                                                ‫ﺑ ﻥ‬                         ‫ﻳﺒ ﻧﻪ ﺑ ﻧ‬
   ‫َ ُﻮ ُ ُ َﻮًْﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ " َﻮْ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺘﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻑ ﻭﺃﻣ ‬
                                                       ‫ﺑﻦ‬
                                              ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ " َﻴْ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺎء‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑء‬
                                                                                                         ‫َﺎ َ‬
                  ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﺒ ﺓ‬                         ‫ﺑء‬                       ‫ﺑء‬             ‫ﻳﺒ ء‬
‫َ ُﻮ ُ " ﺭﺟﻊ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺑﺤﻘﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ ﺛﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎء ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﺝ  "‬
‫ﻊ‬           ‫ﺒﻩ‬                        ‫ﺒ ﻫﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎءﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻫﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻣ  ‬
          ‫ﻦ‬
          ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﻔﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ  ‬
  ‫ﺒ ﺓ ﺒء ﺒﻩ‬
 ‫"ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻣﺒﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺣﺮﻳﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ " ﺍﻟ َﺎء ُ ﻭﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ ﻭﺍﻟ َﺎ َ ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟْﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺛﻢ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﻋ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                                   ‫ﺒﻩ‬
‫ﻦ‬                            ‫ﺗﺒ ء‬                      ‫ﺒ ﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ " ﺍﻟ َﺎء َ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ " َ ُﻮ ُ " ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﺛﻢ ﻛﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ " ﺍﻟ َﺎء ِ " ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                             ‫ﺒ ﺓ‬


   ‫56‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                                                                ‫ﻦ‬
   ‫ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻜ ّ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء  ‬
   ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﺆﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺠ  ‬
   ‫ﺃﻫﺒﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺃْ ُ ُ " ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺃﺳﻜﻨﺘﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺃْ ُ " ﻟﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠَ " ﺑﻴﺘﺎ ﺍﺗﺨﺬ  ‬
   ‫ﻩ‬             ‫ﺗﺒﻮﺃ‬                 ‫ﺑﻮ ﺕ‬                            ‫ﺑﻮ ﺗﻪ‬
 ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻨﺎ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺑْ َﺍ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺤﻔﺔ ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                                                                ‫ﻷﻮء‬
                                                                             ‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺒء‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻭﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ‬
   ‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺽ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻼ ﻭﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺎﻧ  ‬
   ‫ﺐ‬
‫ﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺑﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﺪﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺑﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                                                       ‫ﻭﺷﺮ ﻩ ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ﺑ ﺲ‬
 ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ َ َﻭْ ُ ِ َ َ ٍ َﺨْ ٍ " ﺃﻱ ﺑﺎﻋﻮﻩ ﻓﺎﻟﺜﻤﻦ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍء ﻭﻣ ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺑﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺍّﻬﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                             ‫ﺗ‬
     ‫ﺑء‬           ‫ﺒء‬                              ‫ﺘﺮ ﺤﻴ ﺓ ﺪ ﻴ ﺑ ﺧﺮﺓ‬                       ‫ﺃ ﻟ ﺌﻚ ﻟ ﺬ ﻦ‬
   ‫" ُﻭَْ ِ َ ﺍﱠ ِﻳ َ ﺍﺷْ َ َﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ َ ﺍﻟ ﱡﻧْ َﺎ ِﺎﻵ ِ َ ِ " ﻓﺎﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ " ﻫﻨﺎ " َﺎ َ "‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ " ﻟﻺﻟ َﺎ ِ " ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺴﺤﺖ ﺑﺮﺃﺳ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬                       ‫ﺼﻕ‬                       ‫ﺑء‬
   ‫ﻡ‬        ‫ﺘﻌﺾ‬               ‫ﻈ ﻓﻴﺔ‬              ‫ﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬              ‫ﺘﻌ ﻧﺔ‬
   ‫ﻭﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﺮﺭﺕ ﺑﺰﻳﺪ ﻭ " ﻟﻼﺳْ ِ َﺎَ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮْ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺒْ ِﻴ ُ " ﻭﺗﻘﺪ  ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺯ ﺋﺪﺓ‬
                                                                      ‫" ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺾ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ " َﺍِ َ ً‬
                                                                                                        ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺕ‬
                                       ‫ﺑ ﺋﺖ‬           ‫ﻣﺒ ﺗ‬         ‫ﻣﺒ ﺘ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺘ ﺗﺔ‬        ‫ﻳﺒ ﺖ‬
   ‫َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻴْ ُﻮَ ً " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َ َﺎًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭﻓﻲ  "‬
                     ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﺺ‬
  ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘ ّ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻇ ّ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ "‬
  ‫ﻟﺬ َ‬
  ‫َﺎ َ " ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭﺍﱠ ِﻳ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                                                                                 ‫ﺑﺕ‬
‫ﻲ‬                             ‫ﺑﺕ‬                               ‫ﻳﺒ ﺘ ﻥ ﻟﺮﺑﻬ ﺳﺠﺪ ﻭﻗﻴ ﻣ‬
‫َ ِﻴ ُﻮ َ ِ َﱢ ِﻢْ  ُ ﱠ ًﺍ  َ ِ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻓ  ‬
   ‫ﺑﺕ‬                                          ‫ﺑﺕ‬
 ‫ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ " َﺎ َ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ " َﺎ َ "‬
  ‫ﻪ‬
  ‫ﻳﺮﻋﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻨﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺗﺒﻌ  ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺴﻄﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ " َﺎ َ َﻔْ َ ُ  َ َﺍ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺗ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬                                           ‫ﺑ ﺕ ﻳ ﻌﻞ ﻛﺬ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                                              ‫ﺑﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺎ َ " ﺑﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺗﺖ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻭﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺑﺕ‬
                                             ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء " َﺎ َ " ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺳﻮﺍء‬
  ‫ﺑﺖ ﺸ ﺮ‬                      ‫ﺒﺖ‬                            ‫ﺑﺕﻳ ﺕ‬
‫ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﻮﻡ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َﺒﺎ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﻦ ﻭ " َﻴْ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻌْ ِ "‬
‫ﻚ‬                                                         ‫ﺑﺖ ﺸ ﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ " َﻴْ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻌْ ِ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺬﻟ  ‬
    ‫ﻲ‬               ‫ﻢ‬
    ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍء ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻀ ّ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓ  ‬
  ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ  َﺃْﺑْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َﻴْ ُ ﺍﻟ َ َ ِ " ﺷﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﻴْ ُ َ ِﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬
  ‫ﺑ ﺖ ﺗﻤ ٍ‬                    ‫ﺑ ﺖ ﻌﺮﺏ‬              ‫ﺑﻴ ﺕ ﻭ ﻴ ﺕ‬
           ‫ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺗ ﺘ‬                                         ‫ﺒﻴ ﺕ‬                     ‫ﻓ ﺣ ﻈﻠﺔ‬
    ‫ِﻲ  َﻨْ َ َ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺷﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻹﻏﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ " َ ﱠ َ ُ َﺒْﻴﻴ ًﺎ " ﻭ "‬


  ‫66‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                    ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺘﺔ‬                                     ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬             ‫ﺑ‬         ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬
 ‫َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺩّﺮﻩ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻼ ﻓﻬﻲ " ُ َ ﱠ َ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺑﺩ‬
    ‫ﺓ‬          ‫ﺒ ﺪء‬                       ‫ﺃﺑ ﺩ ﻩ‬                                ‫ﺍ ﺑﻴ ﺩ‬            ‫ﻳﺒ ﺪ‬
    ‫َ ِﻴ ُ " ﺃﺑْﻴﺪً ﻭ ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻫﻠﻚ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ََﺎ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ َﺍ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺯ  ‬
                                                            ‫ﺑﺪ‬                 ‫ﺑﺪ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﻴ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " َﻴْ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺨﻴﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ِﺮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺌْ ُ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺟﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﺔ " ﺃﺑْﺂﺭ " ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﻥ‬                ‫ﺃﺑﺭ‬
       ‫ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ " َﺃَْﺎ ٌ " ﻓﺘﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻫﻤﺰﺗﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻊ‬       ‫ﺑﺮ‬                                              ‫ﺃ ﺆﺭ‬
   ‫ﻓﺘﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " َﺑْ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " ﺁ ُ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺗﺼﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎ " ُ َﻳْ َ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺑﺌﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﺼﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻤﻨﻪ " ِﺌْ  ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬
   ‫ﺑ ُ‬                                           ‫ﺑﺆ ﺮﺓ‬                           ‫ﺑﺌ ﺭ‬
 ‫َ ُﻮَ َ " ﻭﺳﺘﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺑﻴ ُ َﺎء " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎء ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                                           ‫ﺮﺣ‬                            ‫ﻣﻌ ﻧﺔ‬
                             ‫ﺑ ﺮ ﺑﻀ ﻋﺔ‬
             ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ِﺌْ ُ ِ َﺎ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑﺽ‬
                                  ‫ﺒﺾ‬             ‫ﺑ ﺋﺾ‬           ‫ﺑﻀ‬        ‫ﻳﺒ ﺾ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ " َ ِﻴ ُ " " َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ " ﻟﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ "‬
       ‫ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ " " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﻴْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﻴْ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﻫﺬﻳﻞ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻰ‬                             ‫ﺑﻀﺕ‬                 ‫ﺑ ﻀﺔ‬                ‫ﺑﻴ ﺽ‬       ‫ﺒﺾ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺤﻜﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﻳﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﺄﻭﺳﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﻚ‬
                    ‫ﻛﻞ ﺃﺫ ﻥ ﻭﻟ ﺩ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺻﻤ ﺥ ﺑﻴ ﺽ‬
                    ‫" ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﺎﻥ " ُ ﱡ َ ُﻭ ٍ  َ ُﻮ ٌ  َ ُ ﱡ  َ ُﻮ ٍ َ ُﻮ ٌ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻭ ﺒﻴ ﺽ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ‬
   ‫ﺃ ﻴﺾ ﻦ ﺣﻤ ٍ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺷﻲء " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﺫﻭ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َﺑْ َ ُ ﺑْ ُ  َ ﱠﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬                                                          ‫ﺃ ﻴﺾ‬
‫ﻞ‬        ‫ﺑﺾ‬              ‫ﺳﻬ ﻞ ﻦ ﺑ ﻀ ء‬                            ‫ﺑﻀء‬                 ‫َ ﺭﺑ ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄْ َِ ّ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻴْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ُ َﻴْ ُ ﺑْ ُ َﻴْ َﺎ َ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻷﺻ  ‬
‫ﻡ‬                        ‫ﺃﻳ ﻡ ﺒ ﺾ‬
‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺴﺮﺕ ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺻﺎﻡ " َﱠﺎ َ ﺍﻟ ِﻴ ِ " ﻫﻲ ﻣﺨﻔﻮﺿﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ  ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‬
    ‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺧﻤ  ‬
    ‫ﺲ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬
   ‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﺯﻱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺮﻫ ‬
                                                  ‫ﻴﻀ ﺿ‬                 ‫ﻴﺾ‬
                               ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ﺍﺑْ ِ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺫﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺎ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻋﻪ‬
                                    ‫ﺃﺑ ﻋﻪ‬         ‫ﺑ ﺋﻊ ﺑ ﻊ‬              ‫ﻣﺒ ﻌ‬          ‫ﺑﻌ‬        ‫ﻳﺒ ﻌﻪ‬
  ‫َ ِﻴ ُ ُ " " َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ ﻭَﻴْ ٌ " ﻭ " ََﺎ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭ " "‬
 ‫ﺍ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺋﻊ‬                           ‫ﻞ‬                                    ‫ﺒﻊ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍء ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ّ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫ ‬
‫ﺃﻃﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ َﺎِ ُ " ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﺑﺎﺫﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻊ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﻴْ  ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﺑ ٌ‬                        ‫ﺒﻊ‬                                                 ‫ﺒ ﺋﻊ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬                                                ‫ﺑ ﺖ‬         ‫ﺑﻴ ﻉ‬                 ‫ﺟﻴ ﺪ‬
   ‫َ ﱢ ٌ " ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ُ ُﻮ ٍ " ﻭ " ِﻌْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭ  ‬


  ‫76‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
          ‫ﻰ‬
          ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻌﺖ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻤﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻳﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﺖ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺘﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻛﺘﻤ  ‬
 ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺖ ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺘ  ‬
 ‫ﻚ‬
         ‫َﺇ ﺑﻮ ﻧ ﻹ ﺮ ﻫ ﻢ ﻣﻜ ﻥ ﺒ ﺖ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺑﻌﺘﻪ ﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻟﻼﻡ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻭِﺫْ َ ّﺃَْﺎ  ِﺑْ َﺍ ِﻴ َ  َ َﺎ َ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ِ "‬
                        ‫ﺘ ﻋﻬ‬                                     ‫ﺘﻉ‬
  ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﻮﺃﻧﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َﺎ َ " ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺑْ َﺎ َ َﺎ " ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻟﻪ "‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺑﻉ‬
                                               ‫َﺎ َ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺿﺎﻩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
   ‫ﺍ‬               ‫ﺮ‬                                                  ‫ﻄﺐ‬
   ‫ﻻ ﻳﺨْ ُ ِ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘ ِ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬ ‬
                             ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬
                                                                ‫ﻻ ﻳﺒﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬      ‫ﻣﻴ ﻉ‬                     ‫ﻣﺒ ﻊ‬       ‫ﻤ ﺘﻉ‬
   ‫ﻳﺤﺮﻡ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺒْ َﺎ ُ " " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭ " َﺒْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻋﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﺑﻊ‬               ‫ﺑﻊ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺨﻴﻂ ﻭﻣﺨﻴﻮﻁ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َﻴْ ٌ " ﺭﺍﺑﺢ ﻭ " َﻴْ ٌ "‬
       ‫ﻚ‬
       ‫ﺧﺎﺳﺮ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻠﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺻ ّ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﻞ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟ ّﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺃﻗﻴ  ‬
        ‫ﻢ‬                  ‫ﻤ‬                                        ‫ﺢ‬
       ‫ﻰ‬             ‫ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﻴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻘﺔ ﻋﻠ  ‬
 ‫ﺕ‬                                                    ‫ﺑ ﻌﺕ‬
 ‫ﺇﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َﻴْ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻫﺬﻳﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﻀﺎ  ‬
‫ﺔ‬                               ‫ﺃ ﻤ ﻥ ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َﻳْ َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ َ ِ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺭﺗﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻠ  ‬
                           ‫ﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻼﻕ ﻭﻋﺘﻖ ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺑﻴ ﻊ‬
                                                                             ‫ ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﺪﺭ"‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺑﻥ‬
      ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻦ‬          ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬         ‫َﺑ ﻥ ﺇﺑ ﻧﺔ‬                  ‫ﺑ ﺋﻦ‬           ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬           ‫ﻳﺒ ﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ " َ ِﻴ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ﱢ ٌ " ﻭﺟﺎء " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭ " ﺃَﺎ َ َِﺎَ ً " ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻭ "‬
         ‫ ‬                     ‫ﺒﻴ ﻥ‬                                           ‫ﺘﺒ ﻥ‬
         ‫ﺍﺳْ َ َﺎ َ " ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ‬
     ‫ﺃﺑ ﺘﻪ‬          ‫ﺑ ﺋﻦ‬                          ‫ﺑﻥ‬
   ‫ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " ََﻨْ ُ ُ "‬
    ‫ﻒ‬               ‫ﺃﺑ ﻧ ﻬ‬                ‫ﺑ ﺋﻦ‬                        ‫ﺑ ﻧﺖ‬
    ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻓﺼﻠﺘﻪ ﻭ " َﺎَ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﺎء ﻭ " ََﺎَ َﺎ " ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻟ  ‬
‫ﻝ‬      ‫ﻣﺒ ﻧﺔ‬               ‫ﻛ ﺏ ﻮ ﻌﺔ ﺗ ﻴﻘﺔ ﺑ ﺋﻨﺔ‬                                       ‫ﻣﺒ ﻧﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻲ " ُ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺘﻔﻲ  ِﺘﺎ ِ ﺍﻟﺘ ِﺳ َ ِ ﻭَﻄْﻠ ِ َ ٌ " َﺎِ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ُ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻗﺎ  ‬
    ‫ﺗﺒ ﻳﻨ‬                      ‫ﺑ ﻨ ﻧﺔ‬           ‫ﻲ ﺑﻨ‬            ‫ﺑﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺤ ّ " َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َﻴْ ُﻮَ ٌ " ﻇﻌﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﻭ " َ َﺎَ ُﻮﺍ "‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺗﺒ ﻳﻨ‬
    ‫" َ َﺎ ُ ًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﻓﺎﻓﺘﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺼﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﺏ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﺓ‬          ‫ﺫﺕ ﺒ ﻦ‬                                                             ‫َﻦ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺪﺍﺩ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َﺍ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ِ " ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺍﻭ  ‬
‫ﻭ‬                                                   ‫ﻹ ﺡ ﺫﺕ ﺒ ﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﻀﺎء ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " ِﺻْﻼ ِ  َﺍ ِ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺋﺮﺓ   ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                                                               ‫َﻦ‬
‫" ﺑﻴْ َ " ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﺼﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻘﻮﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﻖ‬                                                           ‫ﻋﻮ ﻥ ﺑ ﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
  ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ َﺍ ٌ َﻴْ َ  َِ َ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠ  ‬


  ‫86‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                             ‫ﻤ ﻝ ﺑ ﻦ ﺯ ﺪ ﻭﻋ ﺮ‬
                 ‫ﻧﺤﻮ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُ َﻴْ َ  َﻳْ ٍ  َ َﻤْ ٍﻭ " ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎء ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻻ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺉ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺲ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺑ ﻦ ﺪﺧ ﻝ ﻓﺤ ﻣﻞ‬
                                                                           ‫" ... َﻴْ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠ ُﻮ ِ  َ َﻮْ َ ِ "‬
 ‫ﻰ‬
 ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻤﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺷﺘﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
                                                                           ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻠﺰﻩ‬
                                                              ‫" ... ﺃﻭﻗﺪﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻖ ﻓﺸﺨﺼﻴﻦ "‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺟﻠﺴﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺳﻄﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ "‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                                                                  ‫ﻫﺬ ﺑ ﻦ ﺑ ﻦ‬
 ‫َ َﺍ َﻴْ َ َﻴْ َ " ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﻌﻼ ﺍﺳﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭﺑﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻛﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺑﻦ ﻱ‬                    ‫ﺑﻦ‬                               ‫ﻤﺘ ﻉ ﺑ ﻦ ﺑ ﻦ‬
       ‫ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ُ َﻴْ َ َﻴْ َ " ﺃﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩﻱء ﻭ " َﻴْ َ " ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﻦ " َﻴْ ٌ " ﺃ  ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻭ " َﺑْ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﻴﺮ ﺑﻨﻰ ﻋﺪﻥ ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " َ َ ُ َﺑْ َ َ " ﻭﻛﺴ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬       ‫ﻋﺪﻥ ﺃ ﻴﻦ‬                                                            ‫ﺃ ﻴﻦ‬
         ‫ﺃﺑ ﻥ‬                            ‫ﺃﺑ ﻥ‬                        ‫ﺃﺑ ﻥ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ََﺎ َ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﺠﺒﻠﻴﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ " ََﺎ ُ " ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻟﺒﻨﻲ ﺃﺳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ " ََﺎ ُ "‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻟﺒﻨﻲ ﻓﺰﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻓﺮﺳﺦ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻋﺒﺲ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻫ  ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻞ‬
                                                                   ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻋ ّ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺪ‬
                                                         ‫ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺘ ّ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                         ‫ﻟ ﻟ ﻳﻔ ﺧ ﺑﺄﺑ ﻥ ﻭ ﺣﺪ‬
                                                                       ‫" ... َﻮْ َﻢْ  ُ َﺎ ِﺮْ ََِﺎ َ  َﺍ ِ ُ "‬
           ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﺼﺮﻑ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺩﻋ ﺳ ﻤ ﻟﺮ ﻋﺘﻬ ﺃﺑ ﻧ‬
                                                                   ‫" ... َ َﺖْ  َﻠْ َﻰ ِ َﻭْ َ ِ َﺎ ََﺎَﺎ "‬
                                                                   ‫ﻌ‬
                                          ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓ ّﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ‬
                                                                                             ‫- - ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺗﺒ ﻙ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َ ُﻮ ُ‬
                                                ‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻮﻙ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺘ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﱠﺒ ﺏ‬
‫ﻦ‬                       ‫ﺗﺘﺐ‬             ‫ﺗﺒ‬                 ‫ﺗﺒﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ " َ ﱠ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺖْ " ﻳﺪﻩ " َ ﱢ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺧﺴﺮﺕ ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋ  ‬
                                                         ‫ﺘﺘﺐ‬                     ‫ﺗﺒ ﻟﻪ‬
                                             ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻭ " َ ‪‬ﺎ َ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﻫﻼﻛﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﻬﻴﺄ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﱢﺮ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒْ ُ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬
  ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺩﻧﺎﻧﻴﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﻮﻍ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ّ ّﺎﺝ " ﺍﻟ ﱢﺒْ ُ " ﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳ  ‬
‫ﺪ‬                                       ‫ﺘﺮ‬           ‫ﺰﺟ‬
                                                  ‫ﻳ ﺒﺮ‬          ‫ﻳ ﺒﺮ‬        ‫ﺗﺒﺮ‬
   ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﻤﺎ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َﺘْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َﺘْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﺐ ﻫﻠﻚ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ "‬
   ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﻠ‬         ‫ﻠ‬       ‫ﻌ‬                                  ‫ﺘﺒ ﺭ‬                ‫ﺗﺒ َﻩ‬
   ‫َ ﱠﺮ ُ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻓ ّﻞ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻛّﻢ ﻛﻼﻣﺎ ﻭﺳّﻢ ﺳﻼﻣ ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺩ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻭﻭ ّﻉ ﻭﺩﺍﻋﺎ‬


  ‫96‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                    ‫ﺧ ﻔﻪ‬         ‫ﻌﺐ‬             ‫ﺗﺒﻌ ﺪ ﻋ ﺍ ﺗ ﺎ‬
                                                    ‫َ ِ َﺰﻳ ٌ  َﻤْﺮً " َﻌﺒً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗ ِ َ ﻣﺸﻰ  َﻠْ َ ُ‬
 ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣ ّ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻤﻀﻰ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﻲ " َ َ ٌ " ﻹﻣﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ " ﺗ َ ٌ " ﻟﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﺎ ﻭﻳﺠﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﺯ‬                             ‫َﺒ ﻊ‬                   ‫ﺗﺒ ﻊ‬                        ‫ﺮ‬
                                      ‫ﺗﺘ ﺑﻌﺖ‬                       ‫ﺃﺒﻉ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ " َﺗْ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ " َ َﺎَ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺟﺎء ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻼ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻭ "‬
                               ‫ﺘﺒﻌﺔ‬                                                 ‫ﺗﺘ ﱠ ﺖ‬
       ‫َ َﺒﻌْ ُ " ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﺗﻄﻠﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻄﻠﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
                            ‫ﺗ ﺑﻌﻪ‬              ‫ﺗﺒﻌﻪ‬                        ‫ﺗﺒ ﻊ‬
       ‫ﻇﻼﻣﺔ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻼﻩ ﻭ " َ ِ َ ُ " ﻟﺤﻘﻪ ﻭ " َﺎَ َ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻭ "‬
‫َ َﺎَ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َ ِ َ " ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻭ " َﺗْ َﻌْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﻋﻤﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ " َﺎِ ًﺎ ﻟﻪ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ  ‬
‫ﻊ‬
‫ﺘﺒ ُ‬                ‫ﺗ ﺑﻌ‬                            ‫ﺃﺒ ﺖ‬                       ‫ﺗﺒﻊ‬             ‫ﺗﺘ ﺑ ﻊ‬
‫ﺔ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﺒﻌﺔ‬                     ‫ﺗﺒ ﻌﺔ‬
‫" ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ " َﺗْ ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻏﻴﻒ ﻭﺃﺭﻏﻔ  ‬
   ‫ﻰ‬                               ‫ﺗﺒ ﻌ‬                           ‫ﺗﺒ ﻉ‬
   ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻠﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻣﻼﺡ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ " َ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺒ َﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َ َﻠ ُ‬
        ‫ﺮ‬                                              ‫ﺘ ﺑﻞ‬                            ‫ﺗﻠ‬
‫َﺒْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎِ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻌ ّﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ  "‬
   ‫ﺗ ﺑﺖ‬                                                               ‫ﻡ‬
 ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻟﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﻋﻮﺍ ّ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﻮَْﻠْ ُ "‬
                                                       ‫" ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍِ ُ‬
                                                       ‫ﺘﻮ ﺑﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﱢﻦ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒْ ُ‬
           ‫ﻪ‬      ‫ﺘﺒ ﻥ ﻌ‬                          ‫ﻤ ﺒﻨﺔ‬              ‫ﻤ ﺒﻦ‬
           ‫ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻉ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻳﺎﺳﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺘْ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺘْ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱠﺎ ُ " ﻓ ّﺎﻝ ﺷﺒ  ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺗﺒ ﺑ ﻦ‬
                             ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َ َﺎِﻴ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﺆﻧﺜﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺗﺠﺮ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َ ََ‬
                 ‫ﺗ ﺮ‬              ‫ﺗ ﺟﺮ‬           ‫ﺘﺠ ﺭﺓ‬                 ‫ﺃﺗﺠﺮ‬                     ‫ﺗ ﺮ‬
        ‫َﺠْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " َﱠ َ َ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ َ ُ " ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺠْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  "‬
    ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻭﺻﺤﺐ ﻭ " ُ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﻜﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﺎ  ‬
    ‫ء‬                                                     ‫ﻢ‬      ‫ﺗﺠ ﺭ‬
    ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺟﻴﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻭﺗﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺗﺞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺭﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻓﺄﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﺤْ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺗ ﺖ‬
                     ‫ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﱡ ﻔﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤْ َ ُ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﺒﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﺤﻔﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮﻙ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺃﺻﻠﻬ ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﻭﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺗ ِ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺨﺬْ ُ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬                  ‫ﺗ ﺬ‬             ‫ﺗﺨ ﺕ‬
       ‫ﺯﻳﺪﺍ ﺧﻠﻴﻼ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺗﺨﺬﺗﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َ ِﺬْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺨْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﻗ  ‬
                                                                              ‫ﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺒﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱠ ﻢ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨْ ُ‬
                                                         ‫ﺗﺨ ﻡ‬                 ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ﺣ ّ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ "‬


  ‫07‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                   ‫ﺘﺨﻤﺔ‬                           ‫ﺗﺨﻢ‬              ‫ﺗﺨ ﻡ‬
 ‫َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺭﺳﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭ "‬
                ‫ﺗﺨﻢ‬          ‫َﺧ ﻣﺔ‬                                                  ‫ﺘ ﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﺨْ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻣﺒﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟﻮ َﺎ َ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﱠ َ َ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻞ ﻭ "‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺗ ِﻢ ﺗ ﻤ‬
                                                                        ‫َﺨ َ َﺨْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ِﺮْ ِ ُ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗ ﻣﺬ‬
‫ﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻭﺑﺬﺍﻝ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻬﺮ ﺟﻴﺤﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻗﻠﻴ  ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺘ ﻣﺲ‬
                                                                            ‫ﺐ‬
                                             ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺑﻨﺪﻕ ﺣ ّ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺮﻣﺴﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺘﺏ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺘْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺮ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻟﺼﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍ  ‬
   ‫ﺏ‬                                    ‫ﻳ ﺮﺏ‬              ‫ﺗﺮﺏ‬
   ‫ﻩ‬                                                ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬            ‫ﺃ ﺮﺏ‬          ‫ﺗﺮﺏ‬
   ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺗْ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ  ُ َ ٌ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ " ﺗﺮﺑﺖ ﻳﺪﺍﻙ " ﻫﺬ  ‬
            ‫ّ‬
            ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﺎءﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻬﺎ ﺩﻋﺎء ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺤ  ‬
            ‫ﺚ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ‬
         ‫ﺗﺮ ﺘﻪ‬                      ‫ﺃ ِﺑﻪ‬                       ‫ﺗﺮ ﺖ‬                       ‫ﺃ ﺮﺏ‬
       ‫ﻭ " َﺗْ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻰ ﻭ " َ ِﺑْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ " َﺗْﺮ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺑْ ُ ُ "‬
                                        ‫ﺗﺮﺏ‬                       ‫ﺘ ﺑﺔ‬
                        ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮَْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ‬
 ‫ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻻ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺿﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫ ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬
  ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻻ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠ  ‬
        ‫ﻡ‬           ‫ﻓ ﺗ ﺑﺔ‬
        ‫ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻻ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩﺍ ﻭﺟﻬﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ِﻲ  ُﺮَْ ٍ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ " ِﻲ َ ِﱠ ٍ " َ َ ﱠ َ ﻭَﺤْ َ ِﻞ َﻥْ َ ُ ِ َ " ﻓﻲ َ ّﱠ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒ ّ ﻭﻫﺬ ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬    ‫ﺮ‬                    ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺔ‬        ‫ﻓ ﺑﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻳ ﺘﻤ ﺃ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
  ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒ ّ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺿﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃ  ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬                               ‫ﺮ‬
                                                                             ‫ﺗ ﺑﺔ‬
                         ‫ﺗﻘﺮﺃ " ُﺮَْ ٌ " ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﻟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍ ُﺗْ ُ ﱡ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻷ ﺮﺝ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﻢ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬                                 ‫ﺗ ﻧﺞ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﺮﺟﺔ‬
  ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُﺗْ ُ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ " َﺮَْ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﻠ  ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎء ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻢ‬                          ‫ﺒ‬                 ‫ﺗ ﺟﻢ‬                                 ‫ﺗ ﺟﻢ‬
‫ﻭَﺮْ َ َ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﻪ ﻭ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻛﻼﻡ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋّﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻠ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬                                                               ‫ﺗ ﺟﻤ ﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " ُﺮْ ُ ُﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺃﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺿﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺑﺠﻌ  ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴ  ‬
    ‫ﻢ‬                ‫ﺗﺮ ﺟﻢ‬
                                                               ‫ﺗ ﺟﻢ‬
    ‫ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﺯﻥ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻓﻌﻠﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺣﺮﺝ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ "‬
           ‫َﺟ َ " ﻭﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ " َ َ َ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻫ  ‬
           ‫ﻮ‬                        ‫ﺭﺟﻢ‬                                            ‫ﺭ َﻢ‬


  ‫17‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬        ‫ﺟﻢ‬                                                       ‫ﱠ ﺟﻤ ﻥ ﺘ ﺟﻤ ﻥ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮْ ُ َﺎ ُ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ َﺎ ُ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻣْﺮ ُ ٌ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎ  ‬
                                                          ‫ﻓﺼﻴﺤﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻻ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء‬
                                                                                                     ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺮ ﺡ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺗﺮﺡ‬            ‫ﺗﺮﺣ‬
                        ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ "‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺘ ﺱ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                           ‫ﺗﺮ ﺱ‬         ‫ﺗﺮ ﺱ‬                   ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺔ‬
 ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺒﺔ ﻭ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴ  ‬
       ‫" ﺃﺗْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺗْ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﺭﻏﻔﺔ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺟﻌﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻪ‬              ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺱ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﺮﺳﺔ‬                                ‫َﺮﺱ‬
   ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺮﺱ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء " َ َ ﱠﺳْ ُ " ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ِﺘْ َ َ ٌ " ﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ َﺮْ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘ  ‬
   ‫ﺢ‬       ‫ﻣﺘ ﺱ‬                  ‫ﻣ ﺮﺳﺔ‬                ‫ﺗﺘﺮ ﺖ‬           ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺨﻒ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ " ﻟﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺲ‬      ‫ﺘﺱ‬
                                                    ‫ﺣﺠﻔﺔ ﺩﺭﻓﺔ‬
                                                    ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﺸﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺳﻤﻲ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻭ َ َ َ ً‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺘ ﻋﺔ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                  ‫ﺗ ﻋﺔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﻳﺤﻔﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺠﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ " ُﺮْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﻮﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭ  ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺗﺮﻉ ﺗﺮ ﻋ ﺕ‬
                                        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ٌ ﻭ ُ ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﱠ ﻗﻮﺓ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮْ ُ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬                                                       ‫ﻢ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺓ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺿ ّ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺛﻐﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺗﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻥ‬                              ‫ﺘ ﻗﻮﺓ‬                               ‫ﺘﺮ ﻗ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍ ِﻲ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮْ َ َ ُ " ﻟﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎ  ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﱢﺮَْﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺘ ﻳﻕ‬
   ‫ﺏ‬
   ‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻴﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺩﺍﻻ ﻭﻃﺎء ﻣﻬﻤﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭ  ‬
   ‫ﺕ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺗﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﺑﻜﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎ  ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺗﺮ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﻛْ ُ‬
‫ﻞ‬                                                ‫ﺗﺮ ﺖ‬                    ‫ﺗ ﻛ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﺭﺣﻠﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻛْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﺎﺭﻗﺘﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﻟﻺﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻘﻴ  ‬
‫ﻭ‬                              ‫ﺕ‬                       ‫ﺗﺮﻙ‬                       ‫َﺮﻙ‬
‫" ﺗ َ َ " ﺣﻘﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﻘﻄﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺭﻛﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺄ ِ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ   ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺗﺮ ﺖ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ "" َ َﻛْ ُ ‬
‫ﻝ‬                  ‫ﺘﺮﻛﺔ‬                 ‫ﻠ‬              ‫ﺗﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺃﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻣﺎﻻ ﺧّﻔﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِ َ ُ " ﻭﻳﺨﻔﻒ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻷﻭ  ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮْ ُ " ﺟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺗْ َﺍ  ‬
‫ﻙ‬
‫ﺃﺮ ُ‬                             ‫ﺘﻙ‬             ‫ﺗﺮﻛ ﺕ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺗ ﻛﻲ‬
                                                              ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ " ُﺮْ ِ ﱞ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻭﻡ ﻭﺭﻭﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﱡ ﻊ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴْ ُ‬
                             ‫ﻢ‬                     ‫ﺃﺴﻉ‬
        ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺗْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺿ ّ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻦ ﻟﻺﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ "‬


  ‫27‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
      ‫ﻦ‬                          ‫ﺃ ﺴﻌﻬ‬               ‫ﺗﺴ ﺖ‬                           ‫ﱠﺴ ﻊ‬
      ‫ﺍﻟﺘ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﺗْ َ ُ ُﻢْ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺮﺕ ﺗﺎﺳﻌﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺗﺴﻊ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬
   ‫ء‬
   ‫ﻷﺻﻮﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍ  ‬
‫ﻓﻌﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍء ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﺎﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﺳﻠﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺧﻠﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ " َﺎ ُﻮ َﺍ  ‬
‫ء‬
‫ﻋﺷ ﺭَ‬
  ‫" ﻋﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﻭ " َﺎ ُﻮ َﺎ َ " ﺗﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ  ‬
  ‫ﺓ‬                                                   ‫ﺗﺳ ﻋء‬
      ‫ﻞ‬
      ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺗﻌﻈﻤﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒ  ‬
  ‫ﺻﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺪ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼ ّ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻣ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                       ‫ﺢ‬                                   ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺓ‬
 ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ  ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍء ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎ  ‬
‫ﻩ‬
   ‫ﻒ‬
   ‫ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺨﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠ  ‬
                                ‫ﻂ‬
 ‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎ ﻭﻧﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎ ﻗ ّ ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ "‬
‫َﺎ ُﻮ َﺎ ُ " ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻫﺮﻱ ﺃﻇﻨﻪ ﻣﻮﻟﺪﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣ  ‬
‫ﻊ‬                                                                         ‫ﺗﺳ ﻋء‬
                  ‫ﻠ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍء ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻭﺍﺝ  ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻓﻤﺴّﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﻉ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬
               ‫ﻣ ﻌﺐ‬            ‫ﺃ ﻌ ﺘﻪ‬                             ‫ﻞ‬               ‫ﺗﻌﺐ‬            ‫ﺗﻌﺒ‬
      ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻋﻴﺎ ﻭﻛ ّ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺗْ َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺘْ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ  "‬
                                                                                     ‫ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻜﺮﻡ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺗﻌﺲ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ََ َ‬
‫َ َ ًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺃﻛ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﻌ َ َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻬ  ‬
‫ﻮ‬                      ‫ﺗ ِﺲ ﺗﻌﺴ‬         ‫ﺗ ﻋﺲ‬                  ‫ﺐ‬                ‫ﺗﻌﺴ‬
  ‫ﺃ ﻌﺴﻪ‬                     ‫ﺗﻌﺴﻪ‬                                                  ‫ﺗﻌﺲ‬
‫" َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭ " َﺗْ َ َ ُ "‬
‫ﻻ‬       ‫ﻨ ﺲ‬                ‫ﺮ‬         ‫ﺘ ﺲ‬                  ‫ﺗﻌﺲ‬         ‫ﺗ ﺴ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء " َﻌْ ًﺎ َ ُ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻜﺲ " ﻓﺎﻟ ﱠﻌْ ُ " ﺃﻥ ﻳﺨ ّ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻜْ ُ " ﺃﻥ   ‬
                                          ‫ﺪ‬                                 ‫ﻞ‬
                                 ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘ ّ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻘﻄﺘﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺷ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺗﻔﺚ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َِ َ‬
                              ‫ﺩ‬                                   ‫ﺗﻔﺚ‬            ‫ﺗ ﻔﺜ‬
   ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻻ ّﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﻌﻼﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺦ  "‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                       ‫ﺛﻢ ﻴ ﻀ ﺗﻔﺜﻬ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُ ﱠ ﻟْ َﻘْ ُﻮﺍ َ َ َ ُﻢْ " ﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ ﻗﺎ  ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻌﺮ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻳﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺘﻔ ﺡ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡ ﱠﺎ ُ‬
                                                           ‫ﺗﻔ ﺣﺔ‬                             ‫ﻌ‬
                                                ‫ﻓ ّﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُ ﱠﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺗﻔﻠﺖ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َِ ِ‬
              ‫ﺩ‬                                            ‫ﺗﻔﻠﺔ‬             ‫ﺗﻔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ " َ َﻼ " ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺘﻦ ﺭﻳﺤﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻻ ّﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬


 ‫37‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
        ‫ﺗ‬     ‫ﺗﻔﻞ‬                               ‫ﺗ ﻔﻠ‬               ‫ﻣ ﻔﻝ‬                   ‫ﺗﻔ ﺕ‬
   ‫َ ِﻼ ٌ " ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ " ِﺘْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " َ ِ َﺖْ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻄﻴﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺪﺍﺩ ﻭ " َ َ َ " " َﻔْﻼ "‬
             ‫" ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﻕ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ َ " ﺛﻢ " َ َ َ " ﺛﻢ " َ َ َ " ﺛﻢ " َ َ َ‬
             ‫ﻧﻔﺦ‬          ‫ﻧﻔﺚ‬          ‫ﺗﻔﻞ‬          ‫ﺑﺰﻕ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺗﻔﻪ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ََِ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧ ّ ﻭﺣﻘﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﺎﻓﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
    ‫ﻥ‬       ‫ﺘﻔﻪ‬                        ‫ﺲ‬              ‫ﺗﻔ ﻫﺔ‬                      ‫ﺗ ﻔﻬ‬
       ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺑﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻋّﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬           ‫ﺗ ﻔﻬ ﺕ‬                   ‫ﻨ‬
                                                    ‫ﻞ‬                ‫ﺘﻔﻪ‬
           ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َ ُ " ﺩﻭﻳﺒﺔ ﺗﺼﻴﺪ ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﺒﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬
                                                                                             ‫َ ُ ٌ َ ِ ﱞ‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﺗﻘﻲ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬            ‫ﺘﻘ‬           ‫ﺗﻘ ﺓ‬                   ‫ﻳﻘ‬        ‫ﺗ ﻘﻲ‬        ‫ﺃ ﻘﻴ ء‬
 ‫ﺃﻱ ﺯﻛﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﻡ " َﺗْ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َﺘْ َﻰ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " ُ َﺎ ً " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َﻰ " ﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻓ  ‬
                                       ‫ﺘ ﻮ‬               ‫ﺗﻘ ء‬        ‫ﺗﻘ ﻩ‬
         ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺭﻃﺒﺔ ﻭﺭﻃﺐ ﻭ " ﺍﱠ َﺎ ُ " " ﺍﱢ َﺎ ً " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟﱠﻘْ َﻯ " ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭﺍﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﻠﺒﻮﺍ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺘ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱢﻜﺔ‬
     ‫ﺘ ﺘﻚ‬                                                        ‫ﺗﻜﻚ‬
 ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﺪﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﺑﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ " "‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺑ ﺘﻜﺔ‬
                                                                      ‫ِﺎﻟ ﱢ ﱠ ِ " ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﻭﻳﻞ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﱠﻜ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺗ َﺄ‬
         ‫ﻞ‬
         ‫ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻞ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻮﺱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻤﺎﻳ  ‬
 ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﺗﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺒﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻭ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺃَ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺗْﻠﺪْ ُ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﺗﺨﺬﺗﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺘْ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ " َﺘْ ِ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻗﺪ  ‬
 ‫ﻡ‬       ‫ﺗﻠ ﺩ‬                  ‫ﻳ ﻠﺪ‬              ‫ﺗﻠ ﺪ‬        ‫ﻣ ﻠﺪ‬
        ‫ﺩ‬                ‫ﺘﻠ ﺪ‬                                           ‫ﺘﻠ ﺪ‬            ‫ﺗ ﻟﺪ‬
        ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻨﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺒﻼ  ‬
 ‫ﻢ‬         ‫ﻞ‬     ‫ﺘ ﺩ‬           ‫ﺘﻠ ﺪ‬            ‫ﺘ ﻟﺪ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱢﻼ ُ " ﻛ ّ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻗﺪﻳ  ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻄﺮ ﻒ‬            ‫ﻄ ﺭﻑ‬
                                                                    ‫" ﻭﺧﻼﻓﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻳ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠْ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺘ ﻌﺔ‬
 ‫ﻂ‬                ‫ﺘ ﻌﺔ‬                            ‫ﺗ ﻉ‬
 ‫ﻣﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﻼ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭ ﻛﻼﺏ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠْ َ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﻬﺒ  ‬
                                                                        ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺪﺍﺩ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗﻠﻒ‬
           ‫ﻣ ﻑ‬                ‫ﻣ ﻠﻒ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻠ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺗ ﻟﻒ‬               ‫ﺗﻠﻔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻫﻠﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺗْ َﻔْ ُ ُ " ﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ " ُﺘْ ِ ٌ " ﻟﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭ " ِﺘْﻼ ٌ " ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺘﻞ‬
‫ﺢ‬                                  ‫ﺗﻠﻪ ﺗﻠ‬                        ‫ﺗ ﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﻼ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺻﺮﻋﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﻣ  ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻣﺘﻞ‬
                                                                                 ‫" ِ َ ﱞ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺗﻠ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﻮْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺗﻠ ﺕ‬                        ‫ﺗﻮ‬          ‫ﺗﻝ‬                               ‫ﺗﻠﻮ‬       ‫ﺃﻠ ﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺗْ ُﻮ ُ " " ُ ُ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻮﻝ ﺗﺒﻌﺘﻪ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﻟﻪ " َﺎ ٍ " ﻭ " ِﻠْ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ " َ َﻮْ ُ "‬


  ‫47‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺗﻼﻭﺓ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﱠ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤْ ُ‬
 ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻛﺎﻟﺰﺑﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺲ ﺑﺈﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺑﻌ  ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻒ‬
                    ‫ﺇﺭﻃﺎﺑﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺠ ّ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺛﻢ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻴﺒﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
 ‫ﻙ‬                                                              ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺟ ّﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﻠﺖ ﻟﻴﺨﻔﻒ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺨﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺮ  ‬
                          ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺗ ﺮﻥ‬           ‫ﺗﻤ ﺭ‬              ‫ﺗ ﺮﺓ‬
                          ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻤﺮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﻤْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " ُﻤْ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ‬
         ‫ﺗﻤ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺘ ﺮ‬              ‫ﺘ ﺮ‬                                            ‫ﺘ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻤْ ُ " ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻤْ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻤْ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                      ‫ﺑﻦ‬         ‫ﺗ ﻣﺮ‬                                       ‫ﺗ ﺮ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ " َﻤْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﻻِ ٌ " ﺫﻭ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﻟﺒﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ  ‬
 ‫ﻓﺘﺘﻤ َ‬
 ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱠﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻴﻌﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺮْ ُ ُ َﺘْ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻳﺒﺴﺘﻪ " َ َ َ ﱠ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                    ‫ﺗﻤ ﺗﻪ ﺗ ﻤ ﺮ‬                         ‫ﺘﻤ ﺭ‬                            ‫ﺘ ﻣﺮ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺃ ﻤﺮ‬
                                                        ‫" ﻫﻮ ﻭ " َﺗْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺐ ﺣﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻴﺮ ﺗﻤﺮﺍ‬
                                                                                                              ‫َﱠ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺗﻢ‬
         ‫ﺗﻡ‬                                    ‫ﻢ‬                          ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ِ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺗﻜﻤﻠﺖ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺅﻩ ﻭﺗ ّ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ﱞ "‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺗْ َﻤْ ُ ُ  ََ ﱠﻤْ ُ ُ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭ " َ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻛ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬     ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺔ‬                 ‫ﺘﻤ ﻡ‬                ‫ﺃ ﻤ ﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻤ ﺘﻪ‬                                     ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﺤ ﺞ ﻭ ﻌ ﺮﺓ ِ‬
 ‫ﺷﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻏﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ " ََ ﱠ ُ " ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََِ ﱡﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ  َﺍﻟ ُ ﻤْ َ َ   ‬
 ‫ﷲ‬                         ‫ﻭﺃﺗﻤ‬                  ‫ﺃﺗﻤﻪ‬           ‫ﺘﺘﻤﻪ‬
    ‫ﺪ‬             ‫ﺘﻤ ﻡ‬                          ‫ﺗﻢ‬
    ‫" ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﺋﺘﻮﺍ ﺑﻔﺮﻭﺿﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ِ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻗ  ‬
‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﺗﻤ ﻡ‬                                                   ‫ﻟﺘﻤ ﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ " ِ َ َﺎ ِ " ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺃﻟﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻐﻴﺮ " َ َﺎ ٍ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻬﻴﻦ   ‬
           ‫ﺗ ﺘﻢ‬                        ‫ﺗﻤ ﻢ‬              ‫ﺪ‬           ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬             ‫َﻢ‬
 ‫" ﺗ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ِ ﱡ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﻭﺻﻠﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭ " َﻤْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ "‬
  ‫ﻻ‬                                               ‫ﺗ ﺘﻡ‬                               ‫ﺗ ﺘﻤﺔ‬
  ‫َﻤْ َ َ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻓﻬﻮ " َﻤْ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭ  ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻚ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﱠﻨ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺍﻟﺘ ﱡﻮ ُ‬
  ‫ﻊ‬                                                                          ‫ﻳ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ  ُﺨْﺒﺰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ  ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻧﻴﺮ‬
                                                                                                              ‫ﺗﻨﺄ‬
                                                                                                              ‫َ ََ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                    ‫ﺗﻨﺄ ﺗﻨ ء‬                             ‫ﺗﻨ ء‬                     ‫ﻳ ﻨﺄ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﺪ " َﺘْ َ ُ " ﻣﻬﻤﻮﺯ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﻤﺎ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻮﻃﻨﻪ ﻭ " َ ََ  ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻰ ﻭﻛﺜ  ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺘﻨ ءﺓ‬                                ‫ﺗﻨ ء‬              ‫ﺗ ﻧﺊ‬
   ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻛﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭﺭﺑﻤ ‬
                                                              ‫ﺗﻥ‬                    ‫ﺗﻨ‬
                                                      ‫ﺧﻔﻒ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َ َﺎ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ " ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬
                                            ‫ﺿ ﻔ ﻭ ﺗ ﻘ ﻩ ﺇ ﺗ ﻧﻴ‬                 ‫ﺷ ﺨ ﻳﻈﻞ ﺤﺠﺞ ﺜﻤ ﻧﻴ‬
                                         ‫" َﻴْ ًﺎ َ َ ﱡ ﺍﻟ ِ َ َ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎِ َﺎ ...  َﻴْ ًﺎ  َﻻ َﻠْ َﺎ ُ ِﻻ َﺎِ ًﺎ "‬
                                                                                                            ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                            ‫ﺗﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻥ‬                       ‫ﺪ‬     ‫ﺮ‬       ‫ﺗﻬﻢ‬                                ‫ﺗﻬﻤ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻦ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﺍﺷﺘ ّ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇ  ‬
‫ﻲ‬                                                                       ‫ﺗﻬ ﻣﺔ‬
‫" ِ َﺎ َ َ " ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﺨﻔﻀﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﺘﻐﻴﺮﺕ ﺭﻳﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧ  ‬


  ‫57‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻭ‬                                            ‫ﺫﺕ ﻋ ﻕ‬
  ‫ﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﺣﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ " َﺍ ُ  ِﺮْ ٍ " ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍءﻫﺎ ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺃ  ‬
                                                    ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺎ‬      ‫ﺗﻬ ﻡ‬         ‫ﺗ ﻬ ﻣﻲ‬                                                          ‫ﺗﻬ ﻣﺔ‬
‫َ َﺎ َ َ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺄﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ " َ َﺎ ِ ﱞ " ﻭ " َ َﺎ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
       ‫ﻉ‬           ‫ﺗﻬ ﻴﺔ‬                ‫ﺗﻬ ﻡ‬
       ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺭﺟﻞ " َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ َﺎﻣ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺑﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺃ ﻬﻢ‬                                           ‫ﻚ‬
 ‫ﻭﺭﺑﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻭ " َﺗْ َ َ "‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻢ‬           ‫ﺍ‬     ‫َ ﻪ ﻇﻨ ﺖ ﺑ‬                                                    ‫ﺇﻬﻣ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " ِﺗْ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻮ " ﺃﺗْﻬﻤْ ُ " َ َﻨْ ُ ِﻪ ﺳﻮءً ﻓﻬﻮ " ﺗﻬﻴ  ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺗﻬ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                         ‫" ﻭ " ﺍﱠ َﻤْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻠﺖ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َﺎ َ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺗﺏ‬
‫ﺚ‬                    ‫ﺘ ﺏ‬             ‫ﺘ ﺑﺔ‬                     ‫ﺗ ﺑ ﻭﺗ ﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﺘ ﺑ‬             ‫ﻳﺘ ﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮًْﺎ  ََﻮَْ ً  َ َ َﺎًﺎ " ﺃﻗﻠﻊ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮَْ ُ " ﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ " ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺓ ﻦ‬                          ‫ﺗﺏ‬         ‫ﺗ ﺋﺐ‬                        ‫ﺘ ﺑﺔ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮَْ ُ " ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﻀﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﻘﺬ ُ ﻣ  ‬
                                                    ‫ﺘﺘ ﺑﻪ‬                    ‫ﺗﻮ ﺏ‬
                                     ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َﺎَ ُ " ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺘ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮ ُ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺎﺩ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮ ُ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻭﺷﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﺎﺩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺭﺑﻤ ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                                                 ‫ﺘ ﺕ‬
  ‫ء‬                                                                           ‫ﺗ ﺙ‬
  ‫ﻗﻴﻞ " ُﻮ ٌ " ﺑﺜﺎء ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﺎءﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎ  ‬
                                           ‫ﺪ‬        ‫ﺘ ﺗﻴ ء‬
                              ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻠﺜﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮِ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻤ ّ ﻛﺤﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺘﺝ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ُ‬
                                          ‫ﻮ‬         ‫ﺗﻮﺝ‬             ‫ﺗﺠﻥ‬
       ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِﻴ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ُ ﱢ َ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳ ّﺩ ﻭﺃﻟﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻋﻤﻢ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺗﺄﺩ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﱠَ َ‬
    ‫ﺔ‬            ‫ﺗﺆﺩﺓ‬                                    ‫ﺗﺌ ﺩ‬                   ‫ﻣ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ  َﺸﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻞ " ﺍﱢ َﺎ ًﺍ " ﺗﺮﻓﻖ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺠﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻤﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ " ُ َ َ ٍ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺭﻃﺒ  ‬
                                     ‫ﺗﻮﺃﺩ‬                                     ‫ﺗﺆﺩﺓ‬
       ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ " ُ َ َ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻭ ﻭ " َ َﱠ َ " ﻓﻲ ﻣﺸﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﻬﻞ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺘ ﺯ‬
     ‫ﺃﻮﺭ‬                        ‫ﺘ ﺭ‬            ‫ﺃﻮﺭ‬
   ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺇﻧﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺗْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺗْ َﺍ ٌ "‬
‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " َﻮْ ُ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " ﺍﻟﻄﺤﻠﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻲء ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﻳﻌﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻛﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺭ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﻤ  ‬
‫ﺰ‬                                                                             ‫ﺗ ﺭ‬
‫ﺗ ﺭ ﺓ ﻭﺗ ﺌ ﺭ ﻭﺗ ﺌ ٌ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺧﻔﻒ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻫﻤﺰﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﺄْ َ ٌ  َِ َﺎ ٌ  َِ َ  ‬
‫" ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ " ِ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ ﻓﺎﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺎ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱠﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﻮ  ‬
‫ﺝ‬        ‫ﺘﻴ ﺭ‬            ‫ﺗﺭﺕ‬                            ‫ﺗﺌ ﺭ‬
          ‫ﺐ‬                                       ‫ﺗ ﻮﺭ‬
          ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ " َﻴْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻓﺄﺩﻏﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠ  ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻌ‬
                                                                ‫ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ " ﺗﻴﺮ " ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓ ّﺎﻝ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺗ ﺯ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ُﻮ ُ‬
                        ‫ﺮ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ "‬
                            ‫ﺗ ﺯ‬                                                   ‫ﺘ ﺯﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮ ِﱠ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﺯ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻭ " َﻮْ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‬


  ‫67‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺗﻗ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﺎ َﺖْ‬
‫ﺗ ﺋﻘﺔ ﻭ‬                                  ‫ﺗ ﻗ ﺗ ﻗ ﻭﺗﻮﻗ ﻧ‬                 ‫ﺗﺘ ﻕ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮْ ًﺎ ﻭ ُﺆﻭ ًﺎ  ََ َ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺍﺷﺘﺎﻗﺖ ﻭﻧﺎﺯﻋﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻧﻔﺲ " َﺎِ َ ٌ "  ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺗﻮ ﻗﺔ‬
                                                                              ‫" َ ﱠﺍ َ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺎﻗﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻮﻡ‬
 ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺣ ّ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْء ُ " ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                           ‫ﺘ َﻡ‬            ‫ﺗ ﻣﺔ‬                           ‫ﺐ‬
                                                                        ‫ﺗ ءﻡ‬
                                                                        ‫" ﺑﻄﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﻮْ َ ٌ‬
           ‫ﺗ ءﻣ ﻥ‬                                   ‫ﺗ ءﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﻷﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻮﻋﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻮْ َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪﺍﻥ " َﻮْ َ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬
  ‫َ َﺍِ ٌ " ﻭ " ُ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﻭ " َﺗَْ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺖ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﺣ  ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬                                           ‫ﺃ ﺄﻣﺖ‬                    ‫ﺗﺆ ﻡ‬         ‫ﺗﻮ ﺋﻢ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﻣ ﺌﻢ‬
                                                                            ‫ﻓﻬﻲ " ُﺘْ ِ ٌ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﺎء‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺘء‬
‫ﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﺎﷲ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ  ‬
                                                 ‫ﺘﻮﺕ‬                 ‫ﺪ‬
                     ‫" ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻤ ّ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺗﺡ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َﺎ َ‬
                 ‫ﺇﺗ ﺣﺔ‬                ‫ﺃﺗ ﺣﻪ‬                               ‫ﺗﺤ‬
          ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺳﺎﺭ ﺳﻬﻞ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﺮ ﻭ " ََﺎ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َِﺎ َ ً " ﻳﺴﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺘﺲ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻴْ ُ‬
      ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠ  ‬
      ‫ﺲ‬          ‫ﺗﻴ ﺱ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺗﻤء‬
                                                                                                  ‫َﻴْ َﺎ ُ‬
  ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻳﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻘﺎء ﻭﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮﺓ ﻃﻲء‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺘﻦ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱢﻴ ُ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َﺍﻟ ﱢﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﻭ ﺘ ِ‬
                                                                            ‫ﺗ ﻨﺔ‬             ‫ﻭ ﺰﺘ ﻥ‬
                                                                            ‫َﺍﻟ ﱠﻳْ ُﻮ ِ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ِﻴ َ ٌ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ ﱢﻴ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺘﻪ‬
                                        ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺘﻬء‬
‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺯﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻴْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻬﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭ "‬
‫ﺗﻴ ﺘ ُ‬
‫َﺎ َ " ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺯﺓ " َ ِﻴ ُ َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﺿ ّ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ ُﻮ ُ َﻮْ ًﺎ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ " َﱠﻬْ ُ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬                     ‫ﺗ ﻩ ﻳﺘ ﻩ ﺗ ﻫ‬                    ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﻳﺘ ﻪ ﺗ ﻬ‬                           ‫ﺗﻩ‬
                  ‫ﺗ ﺋﻪ‬                                                          ‫َﺗﻮ ﺘﻪ‬
                  ‫" ﻭَ ﱠﻫْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﻦ ﺭﺍﻡ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ " َﺎِ ٌ‬
                                                                                        ‫- - ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎء‬
                                                                                                   ‫ََ َ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬
   ‫ﻯ‬       ‫ﺢ‬          ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬                 ‫ﺛ ﺑﺖ‬        ‫ﺮ‬              ‫ﻳ ﺒﺖ ﺛﺒ ﺗ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺜْ ُ ُ  ُ ُﻮًﺎ " ﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘ ّ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺻ ّ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪ  ‬


 ‫77‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﺒﺖ‬          ‫ﺜﺒ ﺕ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺛﺒﺘﻪ‬
  ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺛْ َ َ ُ  ََ ﱠ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻛﺘﺒ  ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ " ﻓﻼﻧﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻔﺎﺭﻗﻪ ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َﺒْ ٌ " ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء " ُ َ َ ﱢ ٌ " ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ  ‬
‫ﻩ‬           ‫ﻣﺘﺜﺒﺖ‬                    ‫ﺛﺖ‬                                      ‫ﺃ ﺒﺖ‬
       ‫ﻭ " َﺒْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻱ " َﺎِ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻠْ ِ " ﻭ " َ ُ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻓﻬ  ‬
       ‫ﻮ‬               ‫ﺛﺒ ﺖ‬                    ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬         ‫ﺛ ﺑﺖ ﻘ ﺐ‬                     ‫ﺛﺖ‬
  ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " َﺒْ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﺔ " َﺒْ ٌ " ﻭﺭﺟﻞ " َ َ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺫ ‬
  ‫ﺍ‬                  ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬            ‫ﺛﺖ‬                               ‫ﺛﺖ‬
                                                           ‫ﺃﺒﺕ‬
                                          ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻻ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺛْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺜ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱠﺒﺞ‬
‫ﺞ‬                                            ‫ﻷ ﺒﺞ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻫﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭ " ﺍ َﺛْ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺊ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺞ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺜﺒ  ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﻳﺼﻐﺮ‬
                                                                    ‫ﻭ ُ َ ﱠ ٌﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻴﺒﺞ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َ ِﻴ ٌ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺛﺒ ﺮ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬      ‫ﺛﺒ ﺕ‬
 ‫ﺟﺒﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻰ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺯﻳﺪ ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء " َﺒْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺣﺒﺴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺖ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎَ َ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻇﺒﺔ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                   ‫ﻤﺜ ﺑﺮﺓ‬                                             ‫ﺛﺮ‬
          ‫ﺛﺒﺮ‬                         ‫ﺛﺒ ﺭ‬                       ‫ﺛﺒﺮ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﻪ " َ َ َ " ﻫﻮ "‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺛﺒ ﺭ‬
                                                                             ‫ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺛﺒﻄﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ََ ﱠ ُ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺗﺒﻄ‬
                                   ‫َﺜْ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﻗﻌﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺷﻐﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﺗﺨﺬﻳﻼ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ "‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺛﺞ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َ ﱠ‬
  ‫ﺏ‬          ‫ﺛﺠ‬      ‫ﺛﺠ ﺘﻪ‬                                ‫ﺛﺠ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻫﻤﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُ ﱠﺎﺝ " ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺠْ ُ ُ " " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﺜﺞ‬                              ‫ﻓ ﻌﺞ‬        ‫ﺃ ﻀﻞ ﺤﺞ ﻌﺞ ﺜﺞ‬                            ‫ﺻﺒﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺘﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ  َﺒْ ُﺘ ُ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﺘﻪ ﻭ " َﻓْ َ ُ ﺍﻟ َ ﱢ ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱡ " " َﺎﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱡ "‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺇﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﻣﺎء ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻱ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺜﺠ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                      ‫ﺜﺠ ﺮ‬                                      ‫ﻞ‬
 ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺭﻏﻴﻒ ﺛﻔﻞ ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻳﻌﺼﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﻋﺼﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ  ‬
                                                                              ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺜﻨﺎﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺛﺨ ﻦ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ ُ َ‬
    ‫ﺇﺨﻧ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺨﻦ‬          ‫ﺛﺨ ﻦ‬           ‫ﺛﺨ ﻧﺔ ﻭﺛﺨ ﻧﺔ‬                   ‫ﻢ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻟﻐﺔ " ُ ُﻮَ ً  ََ َﺎَ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ " ِﺛْ َﺎًﺎ "‬
                    ‫ﺃ ﻌ ﺘﻪ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﺨ ﺘﻪ‬
                    ‫" ﺳﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻭﺃﻭﺳﻌﻬﻢ ﻗﺘﻼ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻨْ ُ ُ " ﺃﻭﻫﻨﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭ " َﺿْ َﻔْ ُ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺜ ﻱ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺪْ ُ‬
        ‫ﺜ ﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺪْ ُ " ﻭﻫﻲ "‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺪْ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺛْ ٍ " ﻭ " ُ ِ ﱞ " ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﻓﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻋﻠ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                  ‫ﺛ ﺪﻱ‬        ‫ﺃﺪ‬               ‫ﱠ ﻱ‬
                                       ‫ﻢ‬                  ‫ﺜ ﺪﻭﺓ‬                            ‫ﺛﺪ ء‬
                                       ‫" ِ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻨْ ُ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻨﻌﻠﺔ ﺑﻀ ّ‬
       ‫ﺯ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺯﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻐﺮ  ‬


  ‫87‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺪﻱ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺪﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺅﺑ  ‬
   ‫ﺢ‬                     ‫ﻢ‬
   ‫ﻳﻬﻤﺰﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻬﻤﺰﻫﺎ ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﺿ ّ ﺍﻟﺜﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﻓﺘ  ‬
                                   ‫ﺛﻨ ﺩ‬       ‫ﺜ ﺪﻭﺓ‬
                       ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻨْ ُ َ ُ " " َ َﺎ ٍ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺛﺮ ﺏ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ " َﺜْ ِ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻋﺘﺐ ﻭﻻﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺑﻴﺎء ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻘﺔ ﻭﻫ  ‬
‫ﻮ‬                                                                   ‫ﻳ ﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺔ‬                  ‫ﺛﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻨﻰ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﻓﺴﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻤﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻴﻠﻲ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ﻻ َﺜْ ِﻳ َ  َ َﻴْ ُ ُ ﺍﻟ َﻮْ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮْ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺷﺤﻢ ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﻋﻠ  ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬                        ‫ﺜﺏ‬             ‫ﺗ ﺮ ﺐ ﻋﻠ ﻜﻢ ﻴ ﻡ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺵ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺜ ِﻳ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﱠﺮ ﺪ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬                     ‫ﺛ ﺩ‬             ‫ﺛﺮ ﺕ‬             ‫ﻣﺮ ﺩ‬
 ‫ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " َﺜْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺩْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺰ " َﺮْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃ  ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺘ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺗﻔّﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺒﻠﻪ ﺑﻤﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺩﺓ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺛﺮﻡ‬
                                                                                                      ‫َِ َ‬
     ‫ﺛ ﻡ‬              ‫ﺛ ﻣء‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮﻡ‬                                     ‫ﺛﺮﻣ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺍﻧﻜﺴﺮﺕ ﺛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺛْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺮْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﺮْ ٌ "‬
   ‫ﺜﺮﻣﺖ‬                          ‫ﺛ ﻣ‬       ‫ﺛﺮ ﺘﻪ‬                      ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻣْ ُ ُ " " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َ َ َ ِ "‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺜ ﻭﺓ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮْ َ ُ‬
‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻯ " " ِﺛْ َﺍ ً " ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻯ " ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
‫ﻥ‬        ‫ﺜﺮ‬         ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺜﺮ ء‬                           ‫ﺇﺮء‬           ‫ﺃﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻰ ﻧﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭ " َﺛْ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺛﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻯ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟ  ‬
‫ﻢ‬                            ‫ﺜﺮ‬                                ‫ﺃ ﺮﺕ‬
    ‫ﺛ ﻳء‬           ‫ﺛﺮﻳﺔ‬            ‫ﺛﺮ‬           ‫ﺛﺮﻳﺖ‬       ‫ﻱ‬
  ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﻧﺪﻳﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺛﺮ ّ ﻭ " َ َِ ِ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ " َ ًﻯ " ﻓﻬﻲ " َ َِ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺮْ َﺎ ُ "‬
                               ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻤﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻰ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻴﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺪﺍﻫﺎ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺜ ﺒﻥ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻌْ َﺎ ُ‬
                      ‫ﺜﻌ ﺑ ﻦ‬
                      ‫" ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻼﻥ ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎِﻴ ُ‬
                                                                                                     ‫َِ َ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺛﻌﻞ‬
             ‫ﺃ ﻌﻞ‬                                                                ‫ﺛﻌﻼ‬
‫َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺛْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ  "‬
         ‫" َﻌْﻼ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﻌ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭ " َ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪ  ‬
         ‫ﺩ‬                    ‫ﺛﻌﻠﺖ‬                               ‫ﺛ ﻞ‬             ‫ﺛ ء‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻌْ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﱠ ﻠﺐ‬
‫ﻱ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺛﻌﻠﺐ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬ  ‬
         ‫ﺛ ﻠﺒﺔ‬                                                  ‫ﺛ ﻠﺒ ﻥ‬
       ‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﻗﻴﻞ " ُﻌْ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻌْ َ َ ٌ "‬
   ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﺮﺏ ﻭﻋﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭﻛﻨﻲ " َ ُﻮ َﻌْﻠ َ َ ﺍﻟ ُ َ ّ " ﻭﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﺟﺮﻫﻢ ﺑ  ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬                ‫ﺃﺑ ﺛ َﺒﺔ ﺨﺸﻲ‬


  ‫97‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                             ‫ﺜ َﺐ‬
  ‫ﻧﺎﺷﺐ ﺑﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺷﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﺎء ﻣﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻌْﻠ ُ " ﻣﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺜ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻐْ ُ‬
         ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺨﺎﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟ ُ ُ ّ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﺜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻳﺨﺎﻑ ﻫﺠﻮ  ‬
         ‫ﻡ‬                                ‫ﻌﺪﻭ‬
                                                                  ‫ﺛﻐ ﺭ‬
                                                                 ‫ﻣﺜﻞ "ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ ‬
‫ﺛﻐﺮ ﺛﻐ ﺭﺍ‬                                                            ‫ﺜ ﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻐْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺴﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺛﻐﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻲ ﻗﻴﻞ " ُ ِ َ  ُ ُﻮ ً ‬
                                                 ‫ﺃ ﻐﺮﻩ‬         ‫ﺛﻐ ﺗﻪ‬
   ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " " َﺛْ ُ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻛﺴﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﻗﻴﻞ "‬
  ‫ﺱ‬                          ‫ﻐﺮ‬                                                ‫ﺇﻐﺭ‬          ‫ﺃ ﻐﺮ‬
  ‫َﺛْ َ َ " " ِﺛْ َﺎ ًﺍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻛﺮﻡ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﺛْ َ َ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﻌﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭ  ‬
    ‫ء‬                ‫ﺛﻐﺮ‬                             ‫ﺛﻐﺮ‬
    ‫ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﱠ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ " ُ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎ  ‬
     ‫ﺛﻐﺮ‬                                           ‫ﻣﻐ ﺭ‬              ‫ﺛ ﺮ‬       ‫ﻳ ﻐﺮ‬
   ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ " ُﺜْ َ ُ " " َﻐْ ًﺍ " ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺜْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺛﻐﺮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻨﻮ ﻛﻼﺏ ﻟﻠﺼﺒﻲ " ﺍﱠ َ َ "‬
       ‫ء‬                         ‫َ ﻐﺮ‬                       ‫ﺃ ﻐﺮﺕ‬
       ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ " َﺛْ َ َ ِ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻘﺮ " ﺃﺛْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺛﻐ َ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎء ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻔﻆ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻲ ﻗﻴﻞ " ُ ِ َ " ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻧﺒﺘﺖ ﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﱠ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                        ‫ﺛﻐﺮ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺛﻐﺮ‬                                   ‫ﺛ ﺮﺓ‬                                 ‫ﺗﻐﺮ‬
  ‫" ﻭ " ﺍﱠ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ " ُﻐْ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺰﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻄﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                                                                           ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺜﻐ ﻡ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻧﺒﺖ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺒﺎﻝ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺒﺲ ﺍﺑﻴ ّ ﻭﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺐ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺷﺠﺮ  ‬
‫ﺓ‬                                  ‫ﺾ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺑﻴﻀﺎء ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺛﻐﺖ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ ِ‬
                                  ‫" ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ " َﺜْ ُﻮ " " ُ َﺎ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﺮﺍﺥ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ‬
                                  ‫ﺛ ﻏﻴﺔ‬                                ‫ﺛﻐ ء‬        ‫ﺗﻐ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱠ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻔْ ُ‬
 ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺛْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺷﺪﺩﺗﻬ ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                           ‫ﺃﻔ ﺕ‬                           ‫ﺃﻔﺭ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                 ‫ﺩ‬           ‫ﺗ‬                             ‫ﺘ ﻔﺮ‬              ‫ﺜ ﺮ‬
       ‫" ﺑﺎﻟ ﱠﻔ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺜْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺜﻮﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺍّﺰﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺭ ّ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺇﺯﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴ  ‬
‫ﺘ ﻔﺮ ِ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻐﺮﺯﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺠﺰﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺜْ َﺮ " ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﺨﺬﻳﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َﺜْ َ َ  ‬
‫ﺕ‬                                               ‫ﺘﻔ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                             ‫ﻞ‬                     ‫ﺜ ﺮ‬
 ‫" ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺗﻠﺠﻤﺖ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻔْ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﻛ ّ ﺫﻱ ﻣﺨﻠﺐ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎء ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗ  ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺜ ﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻔْ ُ‬
‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺜﻔ ﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺣﺜﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺜﺨﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﻲ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﻠ  ‬
                                                      ‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻰ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱡﻔ ء‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺜ َﺎ ُ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬                                        ‫ﺛ ﻔ ءﺓ‬                    ‫ﺐ‬
   ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺣ ّ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " ُ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﺮﺓ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴ  ‬
                                                                                ‫ﺜﻔ ء‬
                                                      ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺨﺮﺩﻝ ﻭﻳﺆﻛﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺭ‬


  ‫08‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺛﻘ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﺒْ ُ ُ‬
                          ‫ﺜ ﺐ‬                       ‫ﺑ ﻤ ﻘﺐ‬                            ‫ﺛ ﺒ‬
  ‫َﻘْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﺘﻞ ﺧﺮﻗﺘﻪ " ِﺎﻟ ِﺜْ َ ِ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻘْ ُ " ﺧﺮﻕ ﻻ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ  "‬
                      ‫ﺜ ﺐ‬                          ‫ﺛﻘ ﺏ‬
   ‫ﺧﺮﻕ ﻧﺎﺯﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻘْ ُ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘْ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﺯﻱ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘ  ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬
       ‫ّ‬                                                    ‫ﺛﻘﺐ‬                   ‫ﱡ ﺒﺔ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻭﻳﺼﻐﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺛﻘ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﻔْ ُ‬
         ‫ﺛﻘ ﺘﻪ‬                                 ‫ﻘ ﺖ‬                              ‫ﺛﻘﻔ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺃﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﻭ " ﺛْ َﻔْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺏ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ ِﻔْ ُ ُ "‬
                                                                       ‫ﺛﻘ ﺖ‬
                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ "ﻇﻔﺮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َ ِﻔْ ُ ‬
           ‫ﺛﻘﻔﻲ‬                            ‫ﻲ‬             ‫ﺛﻘ ﻒ‬
         ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺣ ّ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ " َ َ ِ ﱞ "‬
                                                                            ‫ﺛﻘ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                 ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻔْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﺃﻗﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺛﻘﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َُ َ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ " ِﻘ ً " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺐ ﻭﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ  ‬
‫ﻊ‬                ‫ﺜﻘﻞ‬            ‫ﺛﻘ ﻞ‬                                  ‫ﻢ ﺛ ﻼ‬
    ‫ﺜﻘ ﻥ‬                               ‫ﺜﻘﻞ‬                                      ‫َﻘﻝ‬
  ‫" ﺃﺛْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ُ " ﻣﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﺣﺸﻤﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻼ ُ "‬
‫ﻢ‬                             ‫ﻤﻘﻝ‬                                 ‫ﺃ ﻘﻠﻪ‬               ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠ ّ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺲ ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺃﺟﻬﺪﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺜْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﻝ‬                             ‫ﻣ ﻘﻝ‬                                             ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻭﻛ ّ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺍﺑﻲ ﻭ " ِﺜْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺛ ﻠﻪ‬
                                                                 ‫ﺃﻋﻄﻪ " ِﻘْ َ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺛﻜﻠﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َِ ِ‬
   ‫ﺪ‬      ‫ﺛ ﻛﻞ‬                    ‫ﺜ ﻞ‬                                 ‫ﺛﻜﻼ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ " َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻘﺪﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻜْ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻗ  ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬            ‫ﻣﻜﻝ‬                     ‫ﺛﻜ ﻟ‬        ‫ﺛﻮ ﻛﻞ‬                ‫ﺛ ﻠ‬         ‫ﺛ ﻛﻠﺔ‬
   ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺎ ِ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َﻜْ َﻰ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﺎَﻰ " ﻭﺟﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﺎ " ِﺜْ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﻜﺴ  ‬
                                         ‫ﺃ ﻜﻠﻬ‬                      ‫ﺪ‬
                             ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻱ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻜﻞ ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺛْ َ َ َﺎ " ﺍﷲ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َﺒ ُ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺛﻠ َﻪ‬
        ‫ﺛﻠﺒﻪ‬          ‫ﻤﺜ ﻟﺐ‬                        ‫ﻤ ﻠﺒﺔ‬                                      ‫ﺛﺒ‬
    ‫َﻠْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻋﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺜْ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎِ ُ " ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " "‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﻃﺮﺩﻩ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺜﺚ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡﻠْ ُ‬
                            ‫ﺃ ﺙ‬
       ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻟﻺﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺛْﻼ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﻖ ﻭﺃﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " ُ ﱠﻰ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻠْ ِ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎء ﻫﻲ ﺣﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻐ ّ ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﻚ‬          ‫ﺐ‬                         ‫ﺜﺚ‬        ‫ﺣﻤ‬                         ‫ﺜﻠ ﺚ‬
    ‫ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻊ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻮﺯﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ "‬
  ‫ﺙ‬                                                              ‫ﺜ ﺛﺔ‬           ‫ﻤﺜﻠﺜﺔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َ ﱠ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻼَ ُ " ﻋﺪﺩ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺛﻼ  ‬
       ‫ﻧﺴﻮﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻧﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺲ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺭﻳ  ‬
       ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ﺛﻠ ﺖ‬                                         ‫ﺛﻠ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭ " َ َﺜْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺻﺮﺕ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﻤﺎ ﻭ " َ َﺜْ ُ "‬


  ‫18‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﺐ‬       ‫ﺛ ﺛﻭﺕ‬                      ‫ﻳ ﻡ ﺜ ﺛء‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻬﻢ ﻭ " َﻮْ ُ ﺍﻟﱡﻼَﺎ ِ " ﻣﻤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﻼَﺎ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﻘﻠ  ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻭﺍ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠْ ُ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺜﺞ‬
                                                         ‫ﺛ ﻠﺠ ﻨ‬          ‫ﺛﻠ ﺝ‬
       ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َﺘْ َﺎ " ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﻟﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ "‬
   ‫ﺃ ﻠﺠﺖ‬           ‫ﻣ ﻠ ﺝ ﻔﺆ ﺩ‬                         ‫ﻣ ﻠ ﺟﺔ‬                                  ‫ﺛﻠﺠﺖ‬
 ‫ُ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺜْ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﻴﺪ " َﺜْ ُﻮ ُ ﺍﻟ ُ َﺍ ِ " ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ ِ "‬
                                      ‫ﺛ ﻠ ﺟ ﻭﺛ ﺠ‬                ‫ﺛﻠﺠﺖ‬
           ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " َ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ  ََﻠْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭﺗﻌﺐ ﺍﻃﻤﺄﻧﺖ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﱡ ﻤﺔ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠْ َ ُ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭ " َ َﻤْ ُ " ﺍﻹﻧﺎء " َﻠْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎ  ‬
‫ﺏ‬          ‫ﺛﻤ‬              ‫ﺛﻠ ﺖ‬                        ‫ﺛﻠﻢ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺿﺮﺏ ﻛﺴﺮﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﻓ ﺜﻠﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺜﻠﻢ‬
                                                                          ‫  َﺎﻧْ َ َ َ  َ َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻫﻮ" ﺣﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﻹ ﻤﺪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺍ ِﺛْ ِ ُ‬
‫ﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺤ  ‬
                                                ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻔﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺮﻕ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﱠﻤﺮ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟﺜ َ ُ‬
‫ﻊ‬                        ‫ﺛﻤ ﺭ‬                                     ‫ﺜﻤﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ " ﻓﺎﻷﻭﻝ " ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ِ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺠﻤ  ‬
                            ‫ﺃﻤﺭ‬                                    ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬           ‫ﺜﻤ ﺭ‬
       ‫" ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ " ُ ُ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " َﺛْ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﻖ ﻭﺃﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ " ﻣﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َ ُ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺨﺮﺟ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬                      ‫ﺜﻤﺮ‬                            ‫ﺛﻤﺮ ﺕ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                  ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬                ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬               ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺳﻮﺍء ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻙ ﻭ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺳﺞ ﻭ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘ  ‬
  ‫ﺎ‬                        ‫ﺃ ﻤﺮ‬                           ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬               ‫ﺛﻤﺮ‬
  ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﻭ " َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭ " َﺛْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﺃﻃﻠﻊ ﺛﻤﺮﻩ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣ ‬
                            ‫ﺛﻤﺮ ﺓ‬                                        ‫ﻣ ﻤﺮ‬
                            ‫" ﻳﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺜْ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ " َ َ َ ٌ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ﺛﻢ‬
                                                                                                          ‫ُﱠ‬
         ‫ ‬
         ‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻤﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﻢ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺛ ّ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻷﻓﻌﻠ ّ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺛﻢ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﻷﻗﻮﻣﻦ ﻭﺃﻣ ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﷲ ﺷﻬ ﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ُ ﱠ ﺍ ُ  َ ِﻴ ٌ  َ َ  ‬
       ‫ﺔ‬                                                                ‫ﻣ ﻳ ﻌﻠ ﻥ‬
       ‫َﺎ َﻔْ َ ُﻮ َ " ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﺩﺛ  ‬
                                                 ‫ﺛﻢ‬          ‫ﺛﻢ ﻛ ﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺬ ﻦ ﻣﻨ‬
       ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ " ُ ﱠ  َﺎ َ  ِ َ ﺍﱠ ِﻳ َ ﺁ َ ُﻮﺍ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻚ ﻭ "‬
                                                        ‫ﺪ‬                    ‫ﱡﻤ ﻡ‬
            ‫ﺍﻟﺜ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻧﺒﺖ ﻳﺴ ّ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺛﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ﺛﻤﻞ‬
                                                                                                       ‫َِ َ‬
   ‫ﺛﻤ ﻝ‬                            ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺜﻤ ﻟﺔ‬                   ‫ﺛﻤﻼ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺽ " َ َ ً " ﺑﻘﻲ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ َﺎَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َﺎ ٌ "‬
                                                                      ‫ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬


  ‫28‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱠﻤﻦ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺜ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﺃﻤﺖ‬                                ‫ﺃ ﻤﻦ‬                         ‫ﺃﻤﻥ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺛْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " َﺛْ ُ ٌ " ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﺟﺒﻞ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻨْ ُ "‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺜْ َ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﺒﻴﻊ ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻨْ ُ ُ َﺜْ ِﻴ ًﺎ " ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬           ‫ﺛﻤ ﺘﻪ ﺗ ﻤ ﻨ‬                           ‫ﻣ ﻤﻦ‬
                                                ‫ﻢ‬      ‫ﺜﻤﻦ‬
 ‫ﺛﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡ ُ ُ " ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﻺﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﻭ "‬
        ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻢ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻨْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺻﺮﺕ ﺛﺎﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
        ‫ﻞ‬                                          ‫ﺛﻤ ﺖ‬                           ‫ﺜﻤ ﻦ‬
 ‫ﺃﺧﺬﺕ  ُ ُ َ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻬﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎِ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺑﺤﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َﺒْ َ َ َﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
 ‫ﺳ ﻊ ﻟﻴ ٍ‬                                                   ‫ﺜﻤ ﻧﻴﺔ‬                   ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬
  ‫ﻉ‬                                                                     ‫ﻭﺛﻤ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳ ﻡ‬
  ‫ََ َﺎِ َ َ َﱠﺎ ٍ " ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺳﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻃﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﻊ ﺃﺫﺭﻉ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺷﺒﺎﺭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍ  ‬
        ‫ﺚ‬
        ‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺮ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺆﻧ  ‬
                                                                ‫ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﺛﺒﻮﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺏ‬
    ‫ﻢ‬                      ‫ﺛﻤ ﻧﻲ ﻧ ﻮﺓ‬                ‫ﺛﻤ ﻧ ﻧ ﻮﺓ‬
    ‫ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻮﺹ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﺎء " َ َﺎِﻲ ِﺴْ َ ٍ " ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ " َ َﺎِ َ ِﺴْ َ ٍ " ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﺖ‬            ‫ﺛﻤ ﻧﻲ‬             ‫ﺑﺜﻤ ﻥ‬                   ‫ﺛﻤ ﻥ‬
  ‫ﺗﻀﻒ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء " َ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﻣﺮﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﻦ " ِ َ َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ " َ َﺎِ َ " ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌ  ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺐ ﺗﺨﻴﺮﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎء " َ َﺎِ  ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﺛﻤ ﻧ َ‬
                                                                            ‫ﻋ ﺮﺓ‬
 ‫َﺸْ َ َ " ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺗﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ "‬
                                                                                         ‫ﺛﻤ ﻧﻴﺔ ﻋ ﺮ‬
                                                                      ‫َ َﺎِ َ َ  َﺸْ َ " ﺭﺟﻼ ﺑﺈﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﱠﻨﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟﺜ ِ ﱠ ُ‬
‫ﺔ‬                      ‫ﺜ ﻨﻲ‬                         ‫ﺛﻨﻴ ﺕ‬           ‫ﺛﻨ ﻳ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َ َﺎَﺎ " ﻭ " َ ِ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ  ‬
        ‫ﻒ‬                     ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺜ ﻨﻲ‬           ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ " َ ِ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِ ﱡ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ " َ ِﱠ َ ُ " ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻠ  ‬
                                         ‫ﻒ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨ ّ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬
 ‫ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ ّ ﻭ " ُﻨْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﻏﻴﻒ ﻭﺭﻏﻔﺎﻥ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻰ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻟﻘﻰ " َ ِﱠ َ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬
 ‫ﺛﻨ ﱞ‬          ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬                  ‫ﺃﻨ‬                          ‫ﺛﻴﻥ‬          ‫ﺪ‬               ‫ﺛﻨ ء‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                          ‫ﺜﻮ‬                         ‫ﻢ‬       ‫ﺜﻴ‬
  ‫" ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱡﻨْ َﺎ " ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﺜﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟﱠﻨْ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬             ‫ﺘﻨء‬
  ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺛﻨﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻻﺳْ ِﺜْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﺛﻨﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺛْ ِﻴ ِ َﻨْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻄﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺩﺩﺗﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻴْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺮﻓﺘ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                     ‫ﺛﻨ ﺘﻪ‬                                        ‫ﺃﻨ ﻪﺛ ﻴ‬
           ‫ﻲ‬                                              ‫ﺘﻨء‬          ‫ﻓ‬
           ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ " َﺎﻻﺳْ ِﺜْ َﺎ ُ " ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻓ  ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋ ّﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﺼﺒﻪ ﻓﻜﺎﻧ  ‬
    ‫ﺖ‬                               ‫ﺪ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                       ‫ﺪ‬
        ‫ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺗﻌ ّﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﻗ ‬
          ‫ﺛﻨ ﺖ‬                                         ‫ﺛﻴ‬        ‫ﺛﻨ ﺘﻪ‬
        ‫ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻤﻨﺰﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ " َ َﻴْ ُ ُ " " َﻨْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺻﺮﺕ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻴْ ُ "‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ  ‬
   ‫ﺪ‬
   ‫ّ‬               ‫ﺜﻨ ء‬                              ‫ﺃﻨ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺛْ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺑﺨﻴﺮ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﺍ ﻭﺑﺸ ّ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻧ  ‬
 ‫ﺺ‬
 ‫ّ‬                        ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺃﻨﺖ‬                             ‫ﺃﻨﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﻋﺰﺍﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑ  ‬
‫ﻦ‬
     ‫ﻥ‬
     ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻏﻤﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﺩﻩ ﻟﻤﺰ ﻭﻛﺄ  ‬


   ‫38‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬
                                       ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻘ ﻝ ﻣ ﻗ ﻟ ﺣﺬ ﻡ‬                     ‫ﺇﺫ ﻗ ﻟ ﺣﺬ ﻡ ﻓﺼﺪﻗ ﻫ‬
                                      ‫"  ِ َﺍ  َﺎَﺖْ  َ َﺍ ِ  َ َ ﱢ ُﻮ َﺎ ...  َِ ﱠ ﺍﻟ َﻮْ َ  َﺎ  َﺎَﺖْ  َ َﺍ ِ"‬
  ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺠﺔ ﻟﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﻗ  ‬
  ‫ﻒ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬
  ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻭﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺴﻄ  ‬
‫ﺃ‬                                        ‫ﺃﻨﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َﺛْ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺨﻴﺮ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﻔﻮﺍ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﺮ ‬
‫ﻝ ﻰ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻷﻥ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺪ ّ ﻋﻠ  ‬
    ‫ﻥ‬                           ‫ﺜﻨ ء‬
    ‫ﻧﻔﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻛﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ " َﺛْ َﻴْ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ " َ ُ ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﻻ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺇ  ‬
   ‫ﻻ‬            ‫ﻟﻪ ﺜﻨ ء ﺤﺴﻦ‬                                                 ‫ﺃﻨﺖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻳﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺠﻨﺎﺯﺓ  َﺄَﻨْﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬ ‬
‫ﺎ‬         ‫ﻓﺛ‬                                     ‫ﺮ‬
  ‫ﺓ‬                              ‫ﻓَ‬
  ‫ﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﺛﻢ ﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺄﺧﺮﻯ  َﺄﺛﻨْﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﺍ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ  ‬
   ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﻭﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﺒﺖ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ َﺛْ َﻴْ ُﻢْ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻓﻮﺟﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﺬ ‬
   ‫ﺍ‬                               ‫ﺃﻨﺘ‬
‫ﻦ‬                                                                             ‫ﺃَﺘ‬
‫َﺛْﻨﻴْ ُﻢْ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﺍ ﻓﻮﺟﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺧﺖ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﻖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﺎء ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﺛ  ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬
   ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﻣ ‬
 ‫ﻳﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻫﺶ ﻭﺳﻜﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﺟ  ‬
 ‫ﻊ‬
   ‫ﺕ‬                                            ‫ﺮ‬
   ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎ  ‬
                                                                                           ‫ﺭ‬
                                                                                    ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﷲ ﺩّ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
                                           ‫ﻭﻣ ﻟﺨ ﻓﻪ ﺃﺑﺪ ﺳﺒ ﻞ‬                ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺤﻖ ﺳ ﻄ ﻥ ﻣﻄ ﻉ‬
                                         ‫" َِ ﱠ ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ  ُﻠْ َﺎ ٌ  ُ َﺎ ٌ ...  َ َﺎ ِ ِﻼ ِ ِ ََ ًﺍ  َ ِﻴ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻼﺯﺩﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﻑ‬                                     ‫ﺮ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬          ‫ﺜﻨ‬                                    ‫ﺜﻨ ء‬
   ‫ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ُ " ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﻨﺎء ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﻰ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴ  ‬
‫ء‬                   ‫ﺘ ﻨﻴﺔ‬                               ‫ﻨﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻌﺎﺩ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻭ " ﺍﻻﺛْ َﺎ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﺳﻢ " ﻟﻠ َﺜْ ِ َ ِ " ﺣﺬﻓﺖ ﻻﻣﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻳﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺛﻨﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺛﻢ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " ﺍﺛْ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺆﻧﺜﺔ " ﺍﺛْ َ َﺎ ِ " ﻛﻤ ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﻨﺘ ﻥ‬                    ‫ﻨﻥ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                              ‫ﺛﺘﻥ‬
 ‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﺑﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ " ِﻨْ َﺎ ِ " ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻓﻴ  ‬
                                        ‫ﻳ ﻡ ﻨﻦ‬
        ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺛﻢ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﻮْ ُ ﺍﻻﺛْ َﻴْ ِ " ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﻨﻰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺟﻤﻌﻪ‬
                                                ‫ﺃﺛ ﻧ ﻦ‬                          ‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﻗ ّﺭﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ " ََﺎِﻴ َ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ "‬
   ‫ﺍ‬                ‫ﺛﻲ‬                                                         ‫ﺃﻨء‬
   ‫َﺛْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ " ِﻨْ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭﻟﻬﺬ ‬
 ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِﻨْ َﺎ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻓﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                                                    ‫ﺛﺘﻥ‬
    ‫ﺭ‬
    ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﺿﺤﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻴﻔﻪ ﻭﺟﺎءﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ " َﺛْ َﺎ ِ ﺍ َﻣْ ِ " ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻼﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬             ‫ﺃﻨء ﻷ ﺮ‬                                      ‫ﺃﻨء‬


  ‫48‬                ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺛﻲ‬            ‫ﺛﻨ‬
                                                        ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ " َ ًﻰ " ﺃﻭ " ِﻨْ ٌ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺜ ﺏ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ‬
  ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َﺛْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺒﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺧ ّ ﻭﺻﻮﻑ ﻭﻓﺮ  ‬
  ‫ﻭ‬          ‫ﺰ‬                                       ‫ﺛﻴ ﺏ‬         ‫ﺃﻮﺏ‬
         ‫ﺜﻮ ﺏ‬            ‫ﻤﺜ ﺑﺔ‬
       ‫ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﺑﻞ ﺃﻣﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎَ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺍ ُ "‬
 ‫ﺛ َ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍء ﻭ " ََﺎَ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭ " َﻮَْﺎ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻤﺎء ﺍﻟ ﱢ َﺎ ِ ﻭ " َﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺏ‬        ‫ﺮﺟ ﻝ‬                           ‫ﺛ ﺑﻥ‬                              ‫ﺃﺛ ﺑﻪ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬       ‫ﻣﺜ ﺑﺔ‬                                                     ‫ﺛ ﺑ ﻭﺛ ﺑ‬          ‫ﻳﺜ ﺏ‬
   ‫" " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮًْﺎ  َ ُﺆﻭًﺎ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ " َ َﺎَ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬                                                      ‫ﺛﻴﺐ‬
       ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ " َ ﱢ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻌﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺛﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻷﻧﻬ ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻲ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ﱢ ِ " ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺃّﻢ ﻭ " ِﻜْ  ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ﺑ ٌ‬        ‫ﻳ‬                           ‫ﺜﻴﺐ‬
       ‫ﻥ‬            ‫ﺛﻴﺒ ﺕ‬                                  ‫ﺛﻴﺒ ﻥ‬
       ‫" ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ " َ ﱢ ُﻮ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ " َ ﱢ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﻟﺪﻭ  ‬
‫ﺗ ﻮ ﺒﺎ‬               ‫ﺛﻮﺏ‬        ‫ﻌ‬                                          ‫ﺛﻴﺐ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ " ُ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﻤﻮﻉ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻔﻴﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓ ّﻞ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻲ " َﺜْ ِﻳ ً ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬                        ‫ﺗ ﺜ ﺅﺑ‬             ‫ﺗﺜ ءﺏ‬                   ‫ﺘ ﻮﺐ‬
  ‫" ﺭﺩﺩ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺜْ ِﻳ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ " َ َﺎ ًُﺎ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻼ ﻗﻴ  ‬
                         ‫ﻲ‬              ‫ﺗﺜ ﻭﺏ‬
                         ‫ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻓﻴﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻤﻪ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ َ " ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻋﺎﻣ ّ‬
                                                                                                         ‫ﺛﺭ‬
                                                                                                         ‫َﺎ َ‬
          ‫ﺛﺭ‬                            ‫ﺛﻮﺭ ﻧ‬                   ‫ﺛﺆ ﺭ‬          ‫ﺛ ﺭ‬       ‫ﻳﺜ ﺭ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ " َ ُﻮ ُ " " َﻮْ ًﺍ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻭ ًﺍ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻮﻝ ﻭ " َ َ َﺍًﺎ " ﻫﺎﺝ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﻨﺔ " َﺎ َﺕْ " ﻭ "‬
          ‫ﺮ ﺗ ﻮﺮ‬             ‫ﺛﻮﺭ‬           ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺛﺭ‬       ‫ﺪ‬             ‫ﺛﺭ‬                ‫ﺃﺛ ﺭ ﻫ‬
   ‫ََﺎ َ َﺎ " ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺍﺣﺘ ّ ﻭ " َﺎ َ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸ ّ ﻧﻬﺾ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﺸ ّ " َﺜْ ِﻳ ًﺍ " ﻭ "‬
 ‫ﻊ‬         ‫ﺛ ﺭﺓ‬                              ‫ﺜ ﺭ‬                                           ‫ﺃﺛ ﺭ‬
 ‫ََﺎ ُﻭﺍ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﻤﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻮْ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤ  ‬
    ‫ﻥ‬             ‫ﺑﺜ ﺭ ﺃ ﺤﻞ‬                          ‫ﺛ ﺭ‬                   ‫ﺛ ﺮ ﻥ ﺃ ﻮ ﺭ ﻭ ﺛ ﺮﺓ‬
    ‫" ِﻴ َﺍ ٌ ﻭَﺛْ َﺍ ٌ  َ ِﻴ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺒﺔ ﻭ " َﻮْ ٌ " ﺟﺒﻞ ﺑﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ " ِ َﻮْ ِ َﻃْ َ َ " ﻭﺃﻃﺤﻞ ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
          ‫ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﻴﺮ ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ َﻮْ ٍ ﻭﻟﻴ  ‬
          ‫ﺛ ﺭ ﺲ‬
                                                   ‫ﻞ‬
                                                   ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺛﻮﺭﺍ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻤﻜﺔ ﻭﻟﻌ ّ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻴﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺒﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻂ ﻭ " َﻮْ ُ ﺍﻟ َﺎ  ‬
 ‫ء‬
 ‫ﺛ ﺭ ﻤ ِ‬                            ‫ﺜ ﺭ‬
       ‫ﺛ ﺭ‬                                                            ‫ﻞ‬
 ‫" ﺍﻟﻄﺤﻠﺐ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻛ ّ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻏﺜﺎء ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻳﻀﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻟﻴﺼﻔﻮ ﻟﻠﺒﻘﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﻮْ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
       ‫ﺖ‬                                      ‫ﺛﺄ ﺕ‬                                      ‫ﺜﺭ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺄْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﺣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻔﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ََﺭْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻴﻞ ﻭﺛﺄﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺘﻠ  ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻪ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺛﻮﻝ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ََ َ‬
                        ‫ﺛ ﻝ‬             ‫ﺛ ء‬               ‫ﺃ ﻮﻝ‬                          ‫ﺛﻮﻻ‬
   ‫َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ " َﺛْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﻮْﻻ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء  "‬
‫ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﺍء ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻮْ ُ " ﺩﺍء ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﻓﺘﺴﺘﺮﺧﻲ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻫ ‬
‫ﺎ‬                                ‫ﺜ ﻝ‬
  ‫ﻭ " ﺍﻟﺜﺆْ ُﻮ ُ " ﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﺼﻔﻮﺭ ﻭﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺂِﻴ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﺒ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬
  ‫ّ‬       ‫ﺜﻝ‬             ‫ﺜﻟﻞ‬                                                       ‫ﻟ ﻝ‬
                                ‫ﻞ‬                   ‫ﺜﻝ‬                           ‫ﺐ‬
                    ‫ﺍﻧﺜﻴﺎﻻ ﺍﻧﺼ ّ ﺑﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َﺎ َ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺛﻮ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َﻯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻣﻰ " َﺜْ ِﻱ " " َ َﺍ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﻓ  ‬
‫ﻲ‬      ‫ﺛﻭ‬                      ‫ﺛﻮ ء‬        ‫ﻳﻮ‬


  ‫58‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬                ‫ﺃ ﻮ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺃﻮ‬          ‫ﻭ ﻣ ﻛ ﺖ ﺛ ﻭﻳ ﻓ ﺃ ﻞ ﻣ ﻳ ﻦ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َ َﺎ  ُﻨْ َ َﺎ ًِﺎ  ِﻲ َﻫْ ِ  َﺪَْ َ " ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻯ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " َﺛْ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋ  ‬
  ‫ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺜْ َﻯ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِﻱ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﻓ  ‬
  ‫ﻲ‬                  ‫ﻤﺜ ﻭ‬                                           ‫ﻤﻮ‬
                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﺜﺎﻭﻳﻜﻢ‬
                                                                                        ‫- - ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ َﺎ َﺭْ ُ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺠﻭ ﺱ‬
                                                                           ‫" ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ " ﺟﺮﺱ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺟ َ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺒﺒْ ُ ُ‬
                       ‫ﺠﺒ ﺏ‬              ‫ﻣ ﺒ ﺏ‬            ‫ﺟﺒ ﺘﻪ‬                                ‫ﺟﺒ‬
       ‫َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ َﺒْ ُ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺠْ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺑﻴﻦ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ِ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ  "‬
                     ‫ِﺒ ﺏ‬ ‫ﺠ‬                                   ‫ﺟﺐ‬
 ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺆﺻﻠﺖ ﻣﺬﺍﻛﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻧﺨﻠﻬﻢ ﻟﻘﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺯﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺎ ِ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ "‬
‫ﻮ‬                 ‫ﺠﺐ‬                         ‫ﺟﺒﺐ‬                               ‫ﺠﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ ﱡ " ﺑﺌﺮ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻄﺆ ﻭﻫ  ‬
                        ‫ﺟﺒﺒﺔ‬          ‫ﺟﺒ ﺏ‬         ‫ﺃ ﺒﺏ‬
             ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺒﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺟ َ ﺬﻩ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺒ َ ُ‬
                                                  ‫ﺟﺬﺑﻪ ﺟ ﺑ‬                         ‫ﺟ ْﺬ‬
 ‫َﺒ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﺜﻞ " َ ََ ُ  َﺬًْﺎ " ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺝ  "‬
                                            ‫ﻞ‬
                         ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻷﻥ ﻛ ّ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺟَ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َﺒﺮْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ " َﺒْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺻﻠﺤﺘﻪ " َ َ َ َ " ﻫﻮ " َﺒْ ًﺍ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﺻﻠﺢ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤ  ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬              ‫ﺟﺒ ﺭ‬               ‫ﺟﺮ‬           ‫ﻓﺠﺒﺮ‬                           ‫ﺟﺮ‬
  ‫ﺠﺒ ﺮﺓ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺒ ﺕ‬                        ‫ﺟﺒ ﺕ‬
‫ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪﻳﺎ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻴﺘﻴﻢ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ "‬
                       ‫ﺠﺒ ﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ ﻳﻨﺠﺒﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ "‬
       ‫ﺍﻟ َ َﺎِ ُ " ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﻧﺼﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ﺍﻟ ُﺒْ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﺍﺳ  ‬
       ‫ﻢ‬       ‫ﺠ ﺮﻥ‬                                                      ‫ﺟﺒ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺠﺒ ﺋﺮ‬
‫ﻩ‬                                                 ‫ﺠﺮ‬                     ‫ﺟ ﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺒْ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺠﺒﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ  ‬
   ‫ﻩ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻀﺎء ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ  ‬
 ‫ﻳ ﺴﺐ‬
 ‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﻳﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎء ﻭ ُﻨْ َ  ‬
      ‫ﺟ ﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻳﺔ‬                                  ‫ﺟ ﺮﻳﺔ‬             ‫ﺟ ﺮﻱ‬
    ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺒْ ِ ﱞ " ﻭﻗﻮﻡ " َﺒْ ِﱠ ٌ " ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ " َﺒْ ِﱠ ٌ  َ َ َ ِﱠ ٌ "‬
   ‫ﻱ‬           ‫ﺟﺒ ﺭ‬                                      ‫ﺟﺒ ﺮ ﺕ‬
   ‫ﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻼﺯﺩﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ " َ َ ُﻭ ٌ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﺃﻱ ﻛﺒﺮ ﻭﺟﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﺎء " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﺍ‬
 ‫ﻫﺪﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤﺎء ﺗﻨﻔﻠﺖ ﻓﺘﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻫﺪﺭ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻥ ﺇﺫ ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                      ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﺗﻪ‬                   ‫ﺟﺒ ﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﺪﻣﻪ " ُ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﻫﺪﺭ ﻭ " َﺟْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺣﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻬﺮﺍ ﻭﻏﻠﺒ  ‬
                                                                                ‫ﻣ ﺒﺮ‬
                                         ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺠْ َ ٌ " ﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ‬
  ‫ﻱ‬               ‫ﺟﺒ ﺭ‬                     ‫ﺟﺮ‬        ‫ﺟﺒ ﺗﻪ‬
  ‫ﻭﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " " َﺒْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬                                ‫ﺟ ﺒ ﺗﻚ‬
 ‫ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭ " َ َﺮْ ُ َ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﻨﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ " َ َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َﺟْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻟﻐﺘﺎﻥ  َ ﱠﺪَﺎ ِ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴ  ‬
‫ﻪ‬                                  ‫ﺟﻴ ﺗ ﻥ‬            ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﺗﻪ‬            ‫ﻓﺠﺒ ﺗﻪ‬


  ‫68‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                    ‫ﺟﺒ ﺕ‬
 ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﻠﺖ " َ َﺮْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء   ‬
                                                     ‫ﺠﺒ ﺭ‬                       ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﺗﻪ‬
   ‫" َﺟْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﻲ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺒﺮﻩ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﻧﻬﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ "‬
  ‫َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺳﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ َﺎ َﻧْ  ‬
  ‫ﺖ‬
  ‫ﻭﻣ ﺃ َ‬                                                    ‫ﺃ ﺒﺮﻩ‬                   ‫ﺟﺒﺮﻩ‬
‫َ َﻴْ ِﻢْ ِ َ ﱠﺎ ٍ " ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﺼﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻨ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                                                                       ‫ﻋ ﻠ ﻬ ﺑﺠ ﺒ ﺭ‬
    ‫ﻞ‬          ‫ﺭ‬                                                              ‫ﻌ‬
    ‫ﻓ ّﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻡ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺇﻻ ﺩّﺍﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻤ  ‬
‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﺟﺒ ﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ " َ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ   ‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﺗﻪ‬
                                          ‫" َﺟْ َﺮْ ُ ُ " ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ِﺮﻞ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﻭﺟﺒْ ِﻳ ُ‬
       ‫ﻢ‬
       ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎء ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺑﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎء ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ " ﺟﺒﺮ " ﻭﻫ  ‬
  ‫ﻮ‬
                                                                                   ‫ﺇ‬
                                                ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭ " ِﻳﻞ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺠﺒﻞ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
          ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺟْ ُ ٌ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺒﻼ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎ  ‬
          ‫ﻥ‬                                           ‫ﺃ ﺒﻞ‬          ‫ﺟﺒ ﻝ‬
         ‫ﻐﺮ ﺰﺓ‬             ‫ﺨﻠ ﻘﺔ‬             ‫ﻄﺒ ﻌﺔ‬                                 ‫ﺠﺒﻠﺔ‬
       ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻼ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﻜﺴﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ َ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َ ُ "‬
  ‫ﺏ‬        ‫ﺟ ﺒ ﻠﻲ‬                                           ‫ﺟﺒﻠﻪ‬
  ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭ " َ َ َ ُ " ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻄﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺷﻲء " ِ ِ ِ ﱞ " ﻣﻨﺴﻮ  ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺫﺍﺗﻲ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﺑﺼﻨﻊ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﻬﺎ " َِ  ‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺫﻟ َ‬
                                                                                 ‫َ ﺪ ﺮ ﻌﺰ ﺰ ﻌﻠ ﻢ‬
                                                                                 ‫" ﺗﻘْ ِﻳ ُ ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ِ ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ِ‬
                                                                                                        ‫َُ َ‬
                                                                                                        ‫ﺟﺒﻦ‬
               ‫ﺟﺒ ﻥ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺒ ﻧﺔ‬                         ‫ﺟﻨ‬
  ‫ُﺒْ ًﺎ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻗﺮﺑﺎ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ  "‬
                    ‫ﺟﺒﻨ ء‬                    ‫ﺟﺒ ﻧﺔ‬                       ‫ﺟﺒ ﻥ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ َﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮ " ُ َ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻧﺚ "‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                                          ‫ﺠﻦ‬                         ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﺘﻪ‬            ‫ﺟﺒ ﻧ ﺕ‬
 ‫َ َﺎَﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺟْ َﻨْ ُ ُ " ﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﺟﺒﺎﻧﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺒْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻋ  ‬
 ‫ﻲ‬                      ‫ﻤ‬
 ‫ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺳﻤﺎﻋﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺃﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺿ ّﻬﺎ ﻟﻺﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬                  ‫ﺠﺒ ﻦ‬
   ‫ﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻴ ُ " ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻬﺔ ﻣ  ‬
  ‫ﻦ‬                                          ‫ﺟﺒ ﻨ ﻥ‬
  ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺫﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻍ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ " َ ِﻴ َﺎ ِ " ﻋﻦ ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻬﺔ ﻭﺷﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺑ  ‬
                                                                                                      ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‬
      ‫ﺃ ﺒﻨﺔ‬                                ‫ﺟﺒﻦ‬
    ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﻬﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﺒﻴﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ " َﺟْ ِ َ ٌ "‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠﺎَ ُ " ﻣﺜﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎء ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍ  ‬
‫ء‬                                                            ‫ﺠﺒ ﻧﺔ‬
                                ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺮﺓ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﻰ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺠ ﻬﺔ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟ َﺒْ َ ُ‬
         ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ " ِ َﺎ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴ  ‬
         ‫ﻦ‬                                           ‫ﺟﺒ ﻩ‬


  ‫78‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
      ‫ﻦ‬          ‫ﺟﺒ ﺘﻪ ﺃ ﺒﻬﻪ‬
      ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺒﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﻭ " َ َﻬْ ُ ُ َﺟْ َ ُ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴ  ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺠ ﻬﺔ‬
                                    ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺖ ﺟﺒﻬﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺒْ َ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﻴْ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺒ ﺖ‬
                    ‫ﺟﺒ ﻭﺓ‬        ‫ﺃ ﺒ ﻩ‬        ‫ﺟﺒ ﺗﻪ‬                 ‫ﺟﺒ ﻳﺔ‬       ‫ﺃ ﺒﻪ‬
             ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﺍﺝ " َﺟْ ِﻴ ِ " " ِ َﺎَ ً " ﺟﻤﻌﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻮْ ُ ُ " " َﺟْ ُﻮ ُ " " ِ َﺎ َ ً " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠﺜﺔ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠ ُ‬
    ‫ﺟﺜ ﺖ‬        ‫ﻢ ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﺒﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻃﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻳﻌ ّ ﺍﻟﻜ ّ ﻭ " َ َﺜْ ُ "‬
                                                      ‫ﺘﺜ ﺘﻪ‬                          ‫ﺃﺟﺜﻪ‬
                                            ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ُ ﱡ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ َﺜْ ُ ُ " ﺍﻗﺘﻠﻌﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﺜﻞ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َُ َ‬
   ‫ﺟ ﻠﺔ‬                                  ‫ﺟﻞ‬            ‫ﺟ ﺜ ﻟﺔ‬        ‫ﺟﺜ ﻟﺔ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " ُ ُﻮَ ً " ﻭ " َ َﺎَ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺜْ َ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺃﻱ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﻏﻠﻆ ﻭﻟﺤﻴﺔ " َﺜْ َ ٌ "‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺜْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺠﻤﻥ‬
 ‫ﻮ‬     ‫ﺠ ﻤﻥ‬                    ‫ﺠﻤﻥ‬                                              ‫ﻢ‬
 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ " ﺍﻟ ُﺜْ َﺎ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ َﺎ ُ " ﻫ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻧﺐ " َﺠْ ِ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺎ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺮﻭ  ‬
 ‫ﻙ‬               ‫ﺟﺜ ﻣ‬                  ‫ﻳ ﺜﻢ‬                      ‫ﺟﺜﻢ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬                   ‫ﺟﺜ ﻡ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺛﻢ‬
  ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺒﺎء ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َﺎِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ﱠﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬            ‫ﺟﺜ ﻣﺔ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ " َ ﱠﺎ َ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻼﻣ  ‬
                                       ‫" ﻭﻧ ّﺎﺑﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺳ ّﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﻌْ ُ ﺑْ ُ  َ ﱠﺎ َ َ ﺍﱠﻠﻴْ ِ ّ‬
                                       ‫ﺼ ﺐ ﻦ ﺟﺜ ﻣﺔ ﻟ ﺜﻲ‬                             ‫ﻤ‬         ‫ﺴ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ﺟﺜ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َ َﺎ‬
            ‫ﻲ‬           ‫ﺟﺙ‬                            ‫ﺟﺜﻮ‬          ‫ﺟﺜﻴ‬
   ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺘﻪ " ُ ِ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻭ " ُ ُ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﻋﻼ ﻭﺭﻣﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺎ ٍ " ﻭﻗﻮﻡ ﺟﺜ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻮﻝ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺤ ﺪ ﻩ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ََُ‬
                                                        ‫ﺟﺤ ﺩ‬          ‫ﺟ ﺪ‬            ‫ﻘ‬
               ‫ﺣ ّﻪ ﻭﺑﺤﻘﻪ " َﺤْ ًﺍ " ﻭ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺣﺪ ﺑﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠ ﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺤْ ُ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻀ ّ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺮﺑﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺒﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻧْ َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻀ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﻯ ﺇﻟ  ‬
‫ﻰ‬                  ‫ﺐ‬       ‫ﺠﺤﺮ‬                      ‫ﺟﺤﺮﺓ‬                             ‫ﺐ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺤﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺠ ﺶ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻟ َﺤْ ُ‬
 ‫ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻷﺗﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " ِﺤْ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َﻤْ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﺣ ﻨُ‬                                       ‫ﺟ ﺸﻥ‬           ‫ﺟﺤ ﺵ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺑﺖﺟ ﺶ‬
                                                                                        ‫" ِﻨْ ُ  َﺤْ ٍ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺃ ْﺤﻒ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺟ َ َ‬
                                     ‫ﺃ ﺤﻔﺖ‬                   ‫ﺇ ﺤﻓ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء " ِﺟْ َﺎ ًﺎ " ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﺏ ﻭﻗﺤﻂ ﻭ "‬
        ‫ﺠ ﻔﺔ‬                                                                  ‫ﺃ ْﺤﻒ‬
      ‫َﺟ َ َ " ﺑﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﻛﻠﻔﻪ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﺟﺤﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺤْ َ ُ "‬
     ‫ﻣ ﻴﻌﺔ‬                         ‫ﺑ ﺭ ﻭﺧﻠ ﺺ‬
   ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻎ ﺑﻴﻦ " َﺪْ ٍ  َ ُ َﻴْ ٍ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﻤﻬﺎ " َﻬْ َ َ ً "‬


 ‫88‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                       ‫ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻗﻲ ﻭﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
                                                                           ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻞ ﺃﺟﺤﻒ ﺑﺄﻫﻠﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺠ ﺏ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ‬
 ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺤ ّ ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﺒﺲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ُ َ " ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ " ُ ُﻭَ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﻢ ﺟﺪ ﺑ ً‬                 ‫ﺟﺪﺏ‬                                                ‫ﻞ‬
    ‫ﺟ ﺪﺑ‬        ‫ﺇ ﺪﺑ‬          ‫ﺃ ﺪﺑ‬         ‫ﺟﺪ ﺏ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺑﺔ‬            ‫ﺟﺪ ﺐ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺏ‬
‫" ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺪْ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭﺃﺭﺽ " َﺪَْ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺟْ ََﺖْ " " ِﺟْ َﺍًﺎ " ﻭ " َ َِﺖْ "‬
                 ‫ﺃ ﺪﺏ‬          ‫َﺠ ﺩ ﺐ‬               ‫ﻣ ﺪﺑﺔ‬                            ‫َ ﺪﺏ‬
       ‫" ﺗﺠْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻓﻬﻲ " ُﺠْ َِ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﻣ َﺎ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ "‬
                              ‫ِﺟْ َﺍًﺎ " ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺏ ﻭ " َ َﺑْ ُ ُ " " َﺪًْﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ  ِﺒْ ُ ُ‬
                              ‫ﻋ ﺘﻪ‬                   ‫ﺟ ﺑ‬      ‫ﺟﺪ ﺘﻪ‬                         ‫ﺇ ﺪﺑ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺠ ﺪﺏ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ُﻨْ ُ ُ‬
                                                               ‫ﻢ‬
                                      ‫ﻓﻨﻌﻞ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﺗﻀ ّ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺠﺪﺙ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
‫ﺟﺪ ٌ‬
‫ﻑ‬                                                            ‫ﺃ ﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ " َ َ  ‬
                                                                                                ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎء‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺟﺪ‬
                                                                                                    ‫َﱠ‬
                ‫ﺟﺪﺩ‬                        ‫ﺟﺪ ﺪ‬           ‫ﺟ ﺪﺓ‬             ‫ﻳﺠﺪ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ِ ﱠ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ " ِ ﱠ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭ " َ ﱠ َ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭ "‬
      ‫ﺟ ﺪﻩ‬             ‫ﺘﺠﺪ‬                         ‫ﻓﺘﺠﺪﺩ‬                   ‫ﺘﺠﺪﻩ‬              ‫ﺃﺟﺪﻩ‬
  ‫َ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ ُ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﻪ " َ َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻫﻮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ " ﻻﺯﻣﺎ ﻭ " َ ﱠ ُ " "‬
‫ﺠﺪ ِ‬
‫َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺯﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ  ‬
‫ﺩ‬               ‫ﺠﺪ ﺩ‬                                    ‫ﺟﺪ ﺪ‬                            ‫ﺟﺪ‬
                                  ‫ﺠﺪ‬                                          ‫ﺃﺟﺪ‬
    ‫" ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺣﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﻼ ﻭ "‬
                                            ‫ﺟﺪ‬                               ‫ﺠﺪ‬
     ‫ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ " َ ﱠ " ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻈﻢ ﻭ "‬
  ‫ﺍﻟ َ ّ " ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ ِﺩْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء " َ َ ﱡ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻈﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ  ِﻨْ  ‬
  ‫ﺪ‬
  ‫ﺟﺪ ﺪ ﻋ َ‬                                     ‫ﺃﺟﺪ‬              ‫ﺟﺪ ﺕ‬           ‫ﻆ‬       ‫ﺠﺪ‬
‫ﻭ ﻳ ﻔﻊ ﺫ ﺠﺪ ﻣ ﻚ ﺠﺪ ﻱ‬                                           ‫ﺠﺪ‬                           ‫ﻨﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ِ " ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻰ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء " َﻻ َﻨْ َ ُ  َﺍ ﺍﻟ َ ﱢ  ِﻨْ َ ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺃ  ‬
  ‫ﻮ‬                      ‫ﺠﺪ‬
  ‫ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﻏﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺘﻚ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﻝ‬                   ‫ﺠﺪ‬                                ‫ﻳﺠﺪ‬       ‫ﺟﺪ‬
   ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ " َ ﱠ " " َ ِ ﱡ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                                                                 ‫ﺟﺪ‬
 ‫ﻓﻼﻥ ﻣﺤﺴﻦ " ِ ‪‬ﺍ " ﺃﻱ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ " ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺴﻦ ﺟﺪﺍ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ   ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                   ‫ﺠﺪ‬                     ‫ﺪ‬                 ‫ﺟﺪ‬              ‫ﺟﺪ‬
  ‫" َ ﱠ " ﻓﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ " َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺿ ّ ﻫﺰﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻣﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬                           ‫ﺛ ﺙ ﺟﺪﻫﻦ ﺟﺪ ﻭﻫ ﻟﻬﻦ ﺟﺪ‬
   ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ " َﻼ ٌ  ِ ﱡ ُ ﱠ  ِ ﱞ  َ َﺰْ ُ ُ ﱠ  ِ ﱞ " ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﻠﻴ  ‬
‫ﻭ ﺗ ﺘﺨ ﺬ ﻳ ﺕ ِ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻌﺘﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﻜﺢ ﺛﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻻﻋﺒﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َﻻ َ ﱠ ِ ُﻭﺍ ﺁَﺎ ِ ﺍ  ‬
‫ﷲ‬
 ‫ُ ُ ًﺍ " ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺟﺪﻫﻦ ﺟ ّ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻻ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮﺍ ﻟﻸﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ  ‬
 ‫ﺪ‬
 ‫ﺠﱡ‬                                                   ‫ﺪ‬                          ‫ﻫﺰﻭ‬
    ‫" ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺌﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ﱠ ُ " ﻭﺳ  ‬
    ‫ﻂ‬      ‫ﺠ ﺩﺓ‬                           ‫ﺃ ﺪﺩ‬
                                                               ‫ﺠﻮ ﺩ‬
                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ّ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺍﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺠﺪ ُ‬
‫ﻭﺩ َﺍ ﱠ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َﺍ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍ َ َ ﱠﺍ ِ " ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ُ َ  ‬
‫ﺩ‬                                ‫ﺠﺪﺓ‬                          ‫ﻷﺟﺪ ﻥ‬            ‫ﺠﺪ ﺪ ﻥ‬           ‫َﻭ ﺏ‬


  ‫98‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                  ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠﺪ ﺭ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ُ‬
‫ﻪ‬        ‫ﺟ ﺭﻥ‬                             ‫ﺠ ﺭ‬                          ‫ﺟﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُﺪْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻮﻟ  ‬
    ‫ﺩ‬                                     ‫ﻟ ﺪﺭ‬                         ‫ﻖ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺳ ِ ﺃﺭﺿﻚ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺍَﺠْ َ َ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎ  ‬
   ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻳﻤﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻴﻠﻲ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺰ ﻳﺤﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎ  ‬
   ‫ء‬                    ‫ﺠ ﺭ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬                                      ‫َﺪﺭﻱ‬  ‫ﺠ‬                        ‫ﺟﺪ ﺭ‬
  ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻠﺲ ﻭﻓﻠﻮﺱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َ ِ ّ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺿﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻝ ﻓﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣ  ‬
    ‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﻭﺡ َﻨْ َﻂ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﻣﺎء ﺛﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ " َ ِﻳ ٌ  ُ َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬               ‫ﺟﺪ ﺮ ﻣﺠﺪﺭ‬                                               ‫ﺗﻔ‬
                                                          ‫ﺟﺪ ﺮ‬
                                  ‫ﻋﺬﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺧﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺣﻘﻴﻖ‬
                                                                                                ‫َ َﻋْ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺟﺪ ﺖ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬      ‫ﺟ ﺪﻋ‬            ‫ﺟﺪﻋﺖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﺟﺪﻋﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺔ ﻭ " ُ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣ  ‬
                                ‫ﺟﺪﻉ‬         ‫ﺟ ﻋء‬
  ‫ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﺃﺫﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ " َﺪْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭ " ُ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺃﻧﻔﻪ ﻭ ﺃﺫﻧﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
                                                                          ‫ﺟ ﻋء‬                ‫َ ﺪﻉ‬
                                                                          ‫" ﺃﺟْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َﺪْ َﺎ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺠﺪﻑ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻲ " ﺟﺪﺙ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺠْ َﺍ ُ " ﻟﻠﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺎ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻴ  ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬            ‫ﻣﺠ ﺩ ﻒ‬                             ‫ﻤ ﺪﻑ‬
                                                  ‫ﻣ ﺬﻑ‬                  ‫ﻣ ﺪﻑ‬
                            ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮ " ِﺠْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ِﺠْ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ََِ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﺪﻝ‬
        ‫ﻣﺠ ﺩﻟﺔ‬        ‫ﺟ ﺩﻝ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺪﻝ‬           ‫ﺟﺪﻻ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َ َ ً " ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺪﺕ ﺧﺼﻮﻣﺘﻪ ﻭ " َﺎ َ َ " " ُ َﺎ ََ ً " ﻭ "‬
   ‫ﻰ‬                                    ‫ﻖ‬                                 ‫ﺟﺪ ﻻ‬
   ‫ِ َﺍ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠ  ‬
       ‫ﻰ‬
       ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺭﺟﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺤ ّ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﺬﻣﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺩ ّﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺮﻱ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ َ ُ " ﻓﻌﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ  ‬
  ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺠ ﻭﻝ‬                                 ‫ﻭ‬                           ‫ﻖ‬
               ‫ﺗ ﺪﻼ‬         ‫ﺟﺪ ﺘﻪ‬                       ‫ﺠﺪ ﻟﺔ‬            ‫ﺠﺪ ﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍَ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭ " َ ﱠﻟْ ُ ُ " " َﺠْ ِﻳ ً " ﺃﻟﻘﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ "‬
                                                                        ‫ﻓﺠﺪﻟﻪ‬              ‫ﺠﺪ ﻟﺔ‬
                                                                        ‫" ﺍﻟ َ َﺍَ ِ " ﻭﻃﻌﻨﻪ " َ َ ﱠَ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺠ ﻱ‬
     ‫ﺔ‬
     ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭﻗﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ  ‬
‫ﻭ‬                     ‫ﺠ ﻱ‬            ‫ﺃ ﻝﻭﺩ ء‬                      ‫ﺟﺪ ء‬         ‫ﺃ ﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ ٍ " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﻟﻮ ﻭ " َﺩْ ٍ  َ  ِﻻ ٍ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺪْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺭﺩﻳﺌﺔ   ‬
‫ﺎ‬            ‫ﺟﺪ‬        ‫ﺟ ﻱ ﻔ ﻗﺪ‬                                                      ‫ﺠ ﻱ‬
‫" ﺍﻟ َﺪْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻛﻮﻛﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ " َﺪْ ُ ﺍﻟ َﺮْ َ ِ " ﻭ " َ َﺍ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨ ‬
         ‫ﺘﺪ ﺘﻪ‬               ‫ﺟﺪ ﺗﻪ‬            ‫ﺠ ﻭ‬                                   ‫ﺟﺪ‬         ‫ﺟ ﻭ‬
   ‫" َﺪْ ًﺍ " ﻭ " َ َﺍ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﺼﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ َﻯ " ﻭ " َ َﻭْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻭ "‬
                                                           ‫ﻓﺄ ﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ‬                 ‫ﺘ ﺪ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                          ‫ﺇﺫﺍ "ﺍﺳْ َﺠْ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ " ََﺟْ َﻯ  َ َ ﱠ ‬
‫ﺍ‬                                 ‫ﺃ ﺪ‬            ‫ﺠ ﻭ‬                     ‫ﺃ ﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻙ ﻭ " َﺟْ َﻯ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ " ﺍﻟ َﺪْ َﻯ " ﻭﻣﺎ " َﺟْ َﻯ " ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻋﻄﺎء ﺇﺫ ‬
                                                                   ‫ﺃ ﺪ‬
                                                ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭ " َﺟْ َﻯ " ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻛﻔﺎﻙ‬


  ‫09‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺬ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﺑْ ُ ُ‬
     ‫ﺗﺠ ﺫ ﺑ‬                                               ‫ﺟﺬ ﺖ‬                      ‫ﺟ ﺑ‬
‫َﺬًْﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ " َ َﺑْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻧﻔﺴﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺻﻠﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺷﻴﻢ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ُﻮﺍ  "‬
                                                              ‫ﻞ‬          ‫ﻣﺠ ﺫﺑﺔ‬
                                                ‫" ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " ُ َﺎ ََ ً " ﺟﺬﺑﻪ ﻛ ّ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺟﺬ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                ‫َ َﺫْ ُ‬
          ‫ﺟﺬ ﺗﻪ‬                    ‫ﻓ ﺠﺬ‬         ‫ﻣ ﺬ ﺫ‬                              ‫ﺟﺬ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺠْ ُﻭ ٌ " " َﺎﻧْ َ ﱠ " ﺃﻱ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﻭ " َ َﺫْ ُ ُ "‬
                                  ‫ُﺬ ﺫ‬ ‫ﺟ‬
               ‫ﻛﺴﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﺴﺮ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                        ‫َ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺟﺬﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴ  ‬
  ‫ﻰ‬                         ‫َ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬
  ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ " ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻳﺴﻤ  ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠ ﻉ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻒ " ِﺬْ ًﺎ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻭ ٌ  ََﺟْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ  ‬
‫ﻉ‬
‫ﺠﺬ ُ‬           ‫ﺟﺬ ﻉ ﻭﺃ ﺬ ﻉ‬                   ‫ﺟ ﻋ‬
         ‫" ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﻭ " ِﺬْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴ  ‬
         ‫ﻢ‬            ‫ُ ﻋﻥ‬   ‫ﺟ‬                     ‫ﺟﺬ ﻉ‬
  ‫ﺓ‬            ‫ﺃ ﺬﻉ‬                          ‫ﺟ ﺬﻋ ﺕ‬              ‫ﺟﺬﻋﺔ‬
  ‫ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ " ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                  ‫ﺃ ﺬﻉ‬                                        ‫ﺃ ﺬﻉ‬
 ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ " ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ " ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺴ  ‬
       ‫ﺔ‬       ‫ﺗ ﺬﻉ‬                             ‫ﻹ ﺬﻉ‬                            ‫ﺟﺬﻉ‬
       ‫ﻓﻬﻮ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻲ " ﺍ ِﺟْ َﺍ ُ " ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺴﻦ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﻕ " ُﺠْ ِ ُ " ﻟﺴﻨ  ‬
   ‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ " َﺟْ َ َﺖْ " ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺼﺐ ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻦ ﻓﻴﺴﺮﻉ " ِﺟْ َﺍ ُ َﺎ " ﻓﻬﻲ " َ َ َ ٌ " ﻭﻣ  ‬
   ‫ﻦ‬      ‫ﺟﺬﻋﺔ‬             ‫ﺇ ﺬ ﻋﻬ‬                                        ‫ﺃ ﺬﻋ‬
    ‫ﺃ ﺬﻉ‬                                             ‫ﻳ ﺬﻉ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺄﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺑﻴﻦ " ُﺠْ ِ ُ " ﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺮﻣﻴﻦ " َﺟْ َ َ "‬
                                                                              ‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠ ﻡ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺬْ ُ‬
  ‫ﺟ ﺬﻡ‬                                                 ‫ﺠ ﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺬْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " ُ ِ َ "‬
     ‫ﻣ ﺬ ﻡ‬                                  ‫ﺠﺬ ﻡ‬
   ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺍ ُ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻄﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ " َﺠْ ُﻭ ٌ "‬
    ‫ﻦ‬                     ‫ﺟﺬ ﻡ‬                   ‫ﺃ ﺬﻡ‬
    ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َﺟْ َ َ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭ " ُ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻣ  ‬
              ‫ﺟ ﺬﻡ‬                         ‫ﺟ ﺬﻣ‬           ‫ﺟﺬﻣﺖ‬        ‫ﺪ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌ ّ ﻭ " َ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻴﺪ " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ "‬
      ‫ﺟ ﺬ ﺘﻬ‬                            ‫ﺟ ﻣء‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺬﻡ‬                         ‫ﺟ ﺬﻣ‬
 ‫َ َ ًﺎ " ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺟﻞ " َﺟْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ " َﺬْ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﻣْ ُ َﺎ " "‬
                                                ‫ﺟﺬ ﻢ‬                                  ‫ﺟ ﻣ‬
                                                ‫" َﺬْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ " َ ِﻳ ٌ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺠ ﻭﺓ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ َﺬْ َ ُ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                      ‫ﻣ ﻯ‬          ‫ﺟﺬ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺘﻬﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ًﻯ " ﻣﺜﻞ  ُﺪ ً ﻭﻗﺮﻯ ﻭﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﺘﻜﺴ  ‬
                                                                       ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺟﺰﻯ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﺮ ﺏ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َِ َ‬


  ‫19‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                          ‫ﺟ ﺑء‬              ‫ﺃ ﺮﺏ‬                        ‫ﺟﺮﺑ‬
                         ‫ﻭﺇﺑﻞ "ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ " َ ًَﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺟْ َ ُ " ﻭﻧﺎﻗﺔ " َﺮَْﺎ ُ ‬
                          ‫ﺟﺮ ﺏ‬                                              ‫ﺟﺏ‬
    ‫  ُﺮْ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ "‬
    ‫ﻷ ﺼﻞ‬          ‫ﺼﻞ ﻋﺼ ﻝ‬           ‫ﻄﺢ ﺑﻄ ﺡ‬            ‫ﻋﺠ ﻑ‬              ‫ﺃ ﺠﻒ‬
  ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﻴﺮ " َﻋْ َ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﺃﺑْ َ ُ ﻭِ َﺎ ٌ ﻭﺃﻋْ َ ُ ﻭ ِ َﺎ ٌ ﻭ " ﺍ َﻋْ َ ُ "‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻮﺝ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻄ ّ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺏ ﺧﻠﻂ ﻏﻠﻴﻆ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻐﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻠ  ‬
  ‫ﺢ‬                                                        ‫ﺐ‬
      ‫ﺠﺮ ﺏ‬                   ‫ﺟ ﺑء‬
    ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻡ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺑﺜﻮﺭ ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻫﺰﺍﻝ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﺭﺽ " َﺮَْﺎ ُ " ﻣﻘﺤﻮﻃﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ُ "‬
   ‫ﺢ‬         ‫ﺟﺮ ﺏ‬                    ‫ﺃ ﺮﺑﺔ‬                           ‫ﺟﺮﺏ‬
   ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َِ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺍ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘ  ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                                                ‫ﺠﺮ ﺐ‬
 ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻘﻴ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬                                      ‫ﺟ ﺑﻥ‬          ‫ﺃ ﺮﺑﺔ‬               ‫ﺟﺮ ﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " َﺟْ َِ ٌ " ﻭ " ُﺮَْﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺃﻫ  ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬           ‫ﺴﻤ‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﻛﺎﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠ ﱠ َﺆْﻝ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃ  ‬
                     ‫ﻘ ﻀﺔ‬              ‫ﺒﻌ‬                              ‫ﻞ‬
    ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛ ّ ﺳﺖ ﺷﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻻﺕ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ " ﺃﺻْ َ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺒْ َ ُ " ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ "‬
 ‫ﺃ ﻼ‬                          ‫ﻗﺼﺒﺔ‬                     ‫ﻞ‬               ‫ﱢﺭ ﻉ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺬ َﺍ ُ " ﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻀﺎﺕ ﻭﻛ ّ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺫﺭﻉ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ " َ َ َ ً " ﻭﻛﻞ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻗﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ " َﺷْ  ‬
            ‫ﻗﻔ ﺰ‬
         ‫" ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻭﻣﻀﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺒﺔ " َ ِﻴ ًﺍ "‬
       ‫ﻉ‬                ‫ﺠﺮ ﺐ‬                          ‫ﻋﺸ ﺮ‬
       ‫ﻭﻣﻀﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﻉ " َ ِﻴ ًﺍ " ﻓﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َ " ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺫﺭﺍ  ‬
       ‫ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻞ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺫﺭﺍﻋﺎ ﻭﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺟﺮﻳﺒ ‬
       ‫ﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺁﻻﻑ ﻭﺳﺘﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﻭ " َ ِﻳ ُ " ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﻔﺰﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺑْ  ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺟﺮ ُ‬                                         ‫ﺟﺮ ﺐ‬
    ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺘﺠ ﺭﺏ‬                  ‫ﺘ ﺮﺑﺔ‬                                       ‫ﺗ ﺮﺒ‬
    ‫" ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺠْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺮﺗﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ﱠﺠْ َِ ُ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ﱠ َﺎ ِ ُ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                                  ‫ﺟﻮ ﺭﺑﺔ‬                             ‫ﺠ ﺭﺏ‬
              ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﻮْ َ ُ " ﻓﻮﻋﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َ َﺍ َِ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺣﺬﻓﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟ َﺣﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﺮ َ ُ‬
     ‫ﺟﺣ‬             ‫ﻣ ﺮﺡ‬           ‫ﺟﺮ ﺢ‬                      ‫ﺠﺡ‬                         ‫ﺟﺣ‬
‫َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ " َ ِﻳ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺠْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻮﻡ " َﺮْ َﻰ " "‬
             ‫ﺟﺮ ﺣ ﺕ‬          ‫ﺟﺮ ﺡ‬                               ‫ﺠﺮ ﺣﺔ‬
       ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺘﻴﻞ ﻭﻗﺘﻠﻰ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺡ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ "‬
  ‫ﻪ‬                                 ‫ﺟﺮ ﺖ‬                          ‫ﺟ ﺣ‬              ‫ﺟﺮﺣﻪ‬
  ‫َ َ َ ُ " ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻧﻪ " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻋﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ َﺣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺩ ﺑ  ‬
                                                      ‫ﺘﺮﺡ‬             ‫ﺟﺮﺡ‬
    ‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ َ َ " ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻜﻮﺍﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ "‬
        ‫ﻰ‬                   ‫ﺠ ﺭﺣﺔ‬                                   ‫ﺟ ﺭﺣﺔ‬            ‫ﺟﻮ ﺭﺡ‬
        ‫َ َﺍ ِ ُ " ﺟﻤﻊ " َﺎ ِ َ ٍ " ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺑﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِ َ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜ  ‬
                                                  ‫ﻖ‬
                                          ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺍﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺍﺳﺘﺤ ّ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺠﺮﺡ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺮ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﺩْ ُ‬
                                       ‫ﺟﺮ ﺗﻪ‬                                    ‫ﺟ ﺩ‬
                   ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺮْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺯﻟﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺩْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺛﻴﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻞ‬
        ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺟﺮ ﺩﺓ‬                      ‫ﺠﺮ ﺩ‬                    ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺩ‬
        ‫ﻧﺰﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ َﺍ َ ٌ " ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛ  ‬
       ‫ﺟﺮ ﺩ ٍ‬
       ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻛﺎﻟﺤﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎء ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ  َ َﺍﺩً ﻋﻠﻰ  َ َﺍ َ  ‬
       ‫ﺓ‬             ‫ﺟﺮ ﺍ‬
‫ﻲ‬                           ‫ﺟﺮﺩﺕ‬                                ‫ﻳ ﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻪ " َﺠْ ُ ُ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ " ُ ِ َ ِ " ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻓﻬ  ‬
    ‫" َﺠْ ُﻭ َ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﺳﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َ ِﻳ َ ٌ " ﻓﻌﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
    ‫ﻰ‬              ‫ﺟﺮ ﺪﺓ‬                          ‫ﺠﺮ ﺪ‬                              ‫ﻣ ﺮ ﺩﺓ‬


  ‫29‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                ‫ﺟﺮ ﺪﺓ‬
                                           ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ " َ ِﻳ َ ٌ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺮﺩ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﻮﺻﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺠﺮﺫ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺍﻟ ُ َ ُ‬
       ‫ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺭﻃﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻢ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
   ‫ﻥ‬                        ‫ﺠ ﺫﻥ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﺍ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﺮﺩ ﻭﺻﺮﺩﺍ  ‬
                                                 ‫ﺃﻡ ﺟ ﺫ ﻥ‬
                                                 ‫" ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻛﻨﻲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " ُ ﱡ  ِﺮْ َﺍ ٍ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َﺭْ ُ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺮ ﺕ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬              ‫ﺟﺮ ﺘﻪ‬                         ‫ﺟﺮ ﺗﻪ‬           ‫ﻓ ﺠﺮ‬                ‫ﺟﺮ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻞ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ " َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﺳﺤﺒﺘﻪ " َﺎﻧْ َ ﱠ " ﻭ " َ ﱠﺭْ ُ ُ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻭ " َ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ   ‬
‫ﻞ‬                  ‫ﺠﺮ ﺮ‬                                                     ‫ﺠﺮ ﺮﺓ‬
‫" ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺮﻩ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻓﻌﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ " ﺣﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻡ ﻳﺠﻌ  ‬
        ‫ّ‬
        ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻟﺨ  ‬
        ‫ﻒ‬                  ‫ﺠﺮﺓ‬
        ‫ﺎ‬                                ‫ﺠﺮﺓ‬
        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻠﻒ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ " ﺍﻟ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺨﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﻭﺷﻬ ‬
   ‫ﻓﺘﺠﺘﺮﻩ " ﻓﺎﻟ ِ ﱠ ُ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪ  ‬
   ‫ﺓ‬                                                             ‫ﺠﺮﺓ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺟﺮ ﺭ‬                                ‫ﺠﺮﺓ‬                          ‫ﺟﺮﺭ‬
 ‫ﻭﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺓ " ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﺪﺭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺇﻧﺎء ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
                  ‫ﺠﺮ‬                                        ‫ﺟﺮ‬        ‫ﺟﺮ ﺕ‬
       ‫ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻤﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ "‬
  ‫ﺕ‬                                                      ‫ﻭﻫﻠﻢ ﺟﺮ‬                  ‫ﺠﺮﺓ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟ َ ﱠ ِ " ﻭ ﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ َ ُ ﱠ  َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﺃﻱ ﻣﻤﺘﺪﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮﺭ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻐﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺢ ﻳﺠﺮﻩ ﻭ "‬
‫ﻡ‬                                     ‫ﺟ ﺟﺮﺕ‬                                    ‫ﺟ ﺟﺮ‬
‫َﺮْ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻞ ﺭﺩﺩ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻨﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﻭ " َﺮْ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺗﺖ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼ  ‬
 ‫ُ َ ُ ِ ُ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﻨﻪ ﻧﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻳﺠﺮﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻄﻨ  ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                                                                        ‫ﻳﺠﺮﺟﺮ‬
 ‫ﻪ‬                    ‫ﺟ ﺟﺮ‬              ‫ﺇﻧﻤ ﻳ ﻛﻠ ﻥ ﻓ ﺑﻄ ﻧﻬ ﻧ ﺭ‬
 ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ِﱠ َﺎ َﺄْ ُ ُﻮ َ  ِﻲ  ُ ُﻮِ ِﻢْ َﺎ ًﺍ " ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َﺮْ َ َ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺣﻠﻘ  ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺮﻋﻪ ﺟﺮﻋﺎ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ َ َ ُ " ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮ  ‬
‫ﺭ‬                                  ‫ﺠ ﺟﺮﺓ‬
                                                    ‫ﻳﺠ ﺟﺮ‬                    ‫ﺬ‬
  ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺤ ّﺍﻕ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ " ُ َﺮْ ِ ُ " ﻓﻌﻞ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ "‬
                                                                                             ‫ﺟ ﺟﺮﺕ‬
                                                                            ‫َﺮْ َ َ ِ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻮﺗﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠ ﺯﺓ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َ ُ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬         ‫ﺟﺮﺯ‬                          ‫ﺟﺮﺯ‬                            ‫ﺖ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘ ّ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﻑ ﻭﺃﺭﺽ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﺑﻀﻤﺘﻴ  ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ‬
                                                                                  ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺴﺔ ﻻ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺠ ﺱ‬
‫ﻮ‬            ‫ﺟﺱ‬                   ‫ﺟﺱ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻔﻲ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻟﻪ  َﺮْ ٌ ﻭﻻ ﻫﻤﺲ ﻭﺳﻤﻌﺖ " َﺮْ َ " ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮ ﻭﻫ  ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻧﻐﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺃ ﺮﺱ‬                      ‫ﺠﺮﺱ‬                             ‫ﺟﺮﺱ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                                     ‫ﺐ‬                ‫ﺠﻭ ﺱ‬
       ‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َﺭْ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺣ ّ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣ  ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻦ‬


  ‫39‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟَ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﺮﻋْ ُ‬
    ‫ﺠ ﻋﺔ‬                                       ‫ﺟﺮ ﺖ ﺃ ﺮﻉ‬                         ‫ﺟ ﻋ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻭ " َ ِﻋْ ُ َﺟْ َ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﻉ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ َ ُ "‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺮﻉ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭ ﻏﺮﻑ   ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬                   ‫ﺟﺮﻉ‬
 ‫ﻓﺬ ﻗ ﺍ‬                                          ‫ﺗﺠﺮﻉ‬          ‫ﺟﺮ ﺘﻪ‬             ‫ﺘﺮ ﺘﻪ‬
 ‫" ﺍﺟْ َ َﻋْ ُ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ " َ َﻋْ ُ ُ " ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ " ﺍﻟﻐﺼﺺ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " َ ُﻭ ُﻮ ‬
                                                                                          ‫َﺬ ﺏ‬
                                                             ‫ﺍﻟﻌ َﺍ َ " ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻭﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﺮ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﻓْ ُ ُ‬
   ‫ﺠﺮﻑ‬              ‫ﻞ‬                     ‫ﺟﺮ ﻑ‬                                   ‫ﺟﻓ‬
‫َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺫﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻞ " ُ َﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺑﻜ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ ُ ُ  "‬
    ‫ﻰ‬
    ‫" ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍء ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻝ ﻭﺃﻛﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﻔﻒ ﺗﺴﻤ  ‬
                                        ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ََ َ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺟﺮ ﻡ‬
  ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺑﻨ ﺟ ﻡ‬
  ‫ﺟﺮﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﺫﻧﺐ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺛﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " َ ُﻮ  َﺮْ ٍ " ﻭﺍﻻﺳ  ‬
       ‫ﻞ‬        ‫ﺟﺮ ﺖ‬                ‫ﺇ ﺮﻣ‬         ‫ﺃ ﺮﻡ‬               ‫ﺠﺮ ﻤﺔ‬           ‫ﻢ‬        ‫ﺟ ﻡ‬
       ‫ﻣﻨﻪ " ُﺮْ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀ ّ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َ ُ " ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ " " ِﺟْ َﺍ ًﺎ " ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭ " َ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨ  ‬
   ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺃﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺮْ ُ " ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬      ‫ﺠ ﻡ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﺮﻡ‬                             ‫ﺠ ﻡ‬
‫ﻲ‬     ‫ﺮ‬           ‫ﺟﺮﻡ‬                              ‫ﻧﺠ ﺳﺔ ﺟ ﻡ ﻟﻬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺎ َ ٌ ﻻ  َﺮْ َ َ َﺎ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " ﻻ  َ َ َ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔ ّﺍء ﻫ  ‬
        ‫ﺕ‬                                     ‫ﻣﺤ ﻟﺔ‬           ‫ﺑﺪ‬
        ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " ﻻ  ُ ﱠ " " ﻭﻻ  َ َﺎَ َ " ﺛﻢ ﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﻓﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺻﺎﺭ  ‬
   ‫ّ‬
   ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻼﻡ ﻧﺤﻮ " ﻻ  َ َ َ  َﻓْ َ َ ﱠ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮْ ُﻮ ُ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺨ  ‬
   ‫ﻒ‬                   ‫ﺠ ﻣ ﻕ‬             ‫ﺟﺮﻡ ﻷ ﻌﻠﻦ‬
                                                                            ‫ﺠﺮ ﻣ ﻖ‬
                                                        ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِﻴ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺼﻔﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺼﺎﻓﻴﺮ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺠﺮ ﻦ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ ُ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺪﺍﺱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺠﻔﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜ  ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬      ‫ﺟﺮﻥ‬
  ‫ﻪ‬     ‫ﺪ‬                                                         ‫ﺠﺮ ﻥ‬
  ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﺑﺤﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﺮﻩ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺑﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺮ ﻭﻣ ّ ﻋﻨﻘ  ‬
        ‫ﺮ‬                ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﻧﺔ‬          ‫ﺟﺮﻥ‬              ‫ﺃ ﻘ ﺟﺮ ﻧﻪ ﺑ ﻷ ﺽ‬
        ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﻴﻞ " َﻟْ َﻰ  ِ َﺍَ ُ ِﺎ َﺭْ ِ " ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺟْ ِ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﻤ  ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻤﺮﺓ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺟﺮ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َ َﻯ‬
    ‫ﻑ‬                 ‫ﺟﺮ‬            ‫ﺃ ﺮ ﺘﻪ‬          ‫ﺟﺭ‬           ‫ﺟﺮ ﻳ ﻧ‬         ‫ﺟ ﻳ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ " َﺮًْﺎ " ﻭ " َ َ َﺎًﺎ " ﻓﻬﻮ  َﺎ ٍ ﻭ " َﺟْ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭ " َ َﻯ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﺳﺎﻝ ﺧﻼ  ‬
    ‫ﺕ‬                                               ‫ﺠ ﻱ‬
    ‫ﻭﻗﻒ ﻭﺳﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ " ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺴﻄﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻛﺴﺮ  ‬
                                       ‫ﺠﺭ‬                 ‫ﺟ ﻳﺔ‬              ‫ﺟﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﻠﺖ " َ َﻯ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " ِﺮَْ ً " ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎء " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ِﻱ " ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺤﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍء ﻭ "‬
‫ﺯ‬        ‫ﺨ ﻑ ﻛﺬ‬        ‫ﺟﺮ ﻓ‬                           ‫ﺟﺮ ء‬          ‫ﺟ ﻳ‬               ‫ﺟَ ﺖ‬
‫َﺮﻳْ ُ " ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺬﺍ " َﺮْ ًﺎ " ﻭ " ِ َﺍ ً " ﻗﺼﺪﺕ ﻭﺃﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻬﻢ " َ َﻯ  ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ِﻼ ِ  َ َﺍ " ﻳﺠﻮ  ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
       ‫ﺔ‬          ‫ﺠ ﺭﻳﺔ‬
       ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻞ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ َِ ُ " ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨ  ‬
‫ﺓ‬                              ‫ﺟ ﺭﻳ‬
‫ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺠﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ " َﺎ َِﺔ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﻟﺠﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﺴﺨﺮ  ‬


  ‫49‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﻞ‬
  ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺨﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻮﺍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺳﻤﻮﺍ ﻛ ّ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺇ  ‬
           ‫ﺠﻮ ﺭ‬
    ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺠﻮﺯﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِﻱ " ﻭ "‬
 ‫َﺎ َﺍ ُ " " ُ َﺎ َﺍ ً " " َ َﻯ " ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺮْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻢ ﻟﻐ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬                                            ‫ﺠﻭ‬                  ‫ﺟﺮ‬      ‫ﻣﺠ ﺭ ﺓ‬        ‫ﺟﺭﻩ‬
   ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺃﻓﺼﺢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ِﺮْﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ّ ﺷﻲء ﻭﺍﻟ ِﺮْ َﺓ ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬     ‫ﺠﻭ‬            ‫ﻞ‬                ‫ﺠ‬
 ‫ﻭ‬             ‫ﺘﺮﺃ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺜﺎء ﺷﺒﻬﺖ ﺑﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ ﻟﻠﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻌﻮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﺟْ َ ََ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ   ‬
         ‫ ‬                                                ‫ﺘﺮﺃ‬                     ‫َ ﺮ‬
         ‫" ﺃﺟْ ٍ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻓﻠﺲ ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ ََ " ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺠﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬
      ‫ﺟﺮ ء‬                ‫ﻓﺘﺠﺮﺃ‬                      ‫ﺟﺮ ﺗﻪ‬                     ‫ﺠ ﺃﺓ‬
    ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ُﺮَْ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺃْ ُ ُ " ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ " َ َ َ ﱠَ " ﻫﻮ ﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ " َ ِﻱ ٌ "‬
                                  ‫ﺟﺮ ءﺓ‬        ‫ﺟﺮﺅ‬
                  ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ " َ ُ َ " " َ َﺍ َ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭ‬
  ‫ﻞ‬          ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻝ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻭ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑ  ‬
‫ﺟﺰﺭ ٍ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺭﺳﻞ ﻭﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ " ُ ُ َﺍ  ‬
‫ﺕ‬                                         ‫ﺟﺰﺭ‬
        ‫ﺩ‬                        ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭ‬                                        ‫ﺟﺰ ﺋﺮ‬
        ‫" ﺛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ " َ َﺍِ َ " ﻭﻟﻔﻆ " ﺍﻟﺠﺰﻭﺭ " ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﻋﺖ " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻭ ُ " ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺯﺍ  ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻭ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺤﺮ ﻭ " َ َﺭْ ُ " " ﺍﻟ َ ُﻭ َ " ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘ  ‬
        ‫ﻞ‬                    ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭ‬          ‫ﺟﺰ ﺕ‬                           ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭ‬
   ‫ﺮ‬                      ‫ﻤ ﺰﺭ‬                     ‫ﺠﺰ ﺭﺓ‬                   ‫ﺟﺰ ﺭ‬               ‫ﺗ‬
   ‫ﻧﺤﺮ ُﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ " َ ﱠﺍ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﺔ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ َ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َ ﺠْ َ ُ " ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺭ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﻌﻔ  ‬
‫ﻮ‬                              ‫ﺟﺭ‬              ‫ﺟﺰﺭ‬         ‫ﻣ ﺰﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺑﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻬﺎء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﺠْ َ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ " ﺍﻟﻤﺎء " َﺰْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻧﺤﺴﺮ ﻭﻫ  ‬
   ‫ﺟﺰ ﺮﺓ ﻌﺮﺏ‬                                               ‫ﺠﺰ ﺮﺓ‬
 ‫ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻠﻒ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ َ ِﻳ َ ُ " ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻﻧﺤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ " َ ِﻳ َ ُ ﺍﻟ َ َ ِ "‬
   ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺪﻥ ﺃﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻃﻮﻻ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﺪﺓ ﻭﻣ ‬
   ‫ﺎ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬
 ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻃﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﻔﺮ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺇﻟ  ‬
 ‫ﻰ‬
 ‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻃﻮﻻ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺒﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺇﻟ  ‬
  ‫ﺃﺭﺽ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺍء ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮﻱ ﺃ  ‬
  ‫ﻥ‬
         ‫ﺟﺰ ﺮﺓ ﻌﺮﺏ‬
        ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ "ﺟﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ " ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ " َ ِﻳ َ ُ ﺍﻟ َ َ ِ ‬
                                           ‫ﺗﻬ ﻣﺔ‬                      ‫ﺣﺠ ﺯ‬
‫ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻧﺠﺪ  َ ِﺎ ٍ ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﻳﻤﻦ ﻓﺄﻣﺎ " ِ َﺎ َ ُ " ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻭ " ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬
       ‫ﺃﻣﺎ " َﺠْ ٌ " ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻣ  ‬
       ‫ﻦ‬                  ‫ﺤﺠ ﺯ‬                                                    ‫ﻧ ﺪ‬
   ‫ﺔ‬                       ‫ﺍ‬
   ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺳﻤﻲ ﺣﺠﺎﺯً ﻷﻧﻪ ﺣﺠﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻭﺗﻬﺎﻣ  ‬
 ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺽ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮ  ‬
 ‫ﻝ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﺰ ﺕ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﺯْ ُ‬
    ‫ﺠﺰ‬                    ‫ﺠﺰ ﺯ‬            ‫ﺠﺰ ﺯ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺰ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻑ " َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺯﻣﻦ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ِ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ِ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ "‬
       ‫ﻢ‬             ‫ﻣ ﺘﺠﺰ‬                             ‫ﺘﺠﺰ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻑ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ " ﺍﺳْ َ َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻑ ﺣﺎﻥ ﺟﺰﺍﺯﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ " ُﺴْ َ ِ ﱞ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﺳ  ‬
             ‫ﺟﺰ‬                 ‫ﺟﺰ ﺯﻩ‬                               ‫ﺃﺟﺰ‬
   ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﺣﺎﻥ " َ َﺍ ُ ُ " ﺃﻱ ﺣﺼﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ "‬


  ‫59‬                  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
        ‫ﻞ‬                ‫ﺗ ﺰﺰ‬         ‫ﺟﺰ ﺗﻪ‬                       ‫ﺪ‬                       ‫ﺟﺰ‬
        ‫َ ‪‬ﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻳﺒﺲ ﻭﻳﻌ ّﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َ ﱠﺯْ ُ ُ " " َﺠْ ِﻳ ًﺍ " ﻭﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋ  ‬
                                                               ‫ﻤﺠﺰﺯ ﻤ ﻟﺠﻲ ﻘ ﺋﻒ‬
                                                               ‫" ﺳﻤﻲ " ﺍﻟ ُ َ ﱢ ُ ﺍﻟ ُﺪِْ ِ ﱡ ﺍﻟ َﺎِ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺟَ ﺖ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺰﻋْ ُ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ " َﺰْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺰْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﻄﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩ  ‬
 ‫ﻱ‬                      ‫ﺠﻉ‬                                               ‫ﺟ ﻋ‬
  ‫ﺃ ﺰﻉ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺟﺰﻋﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺗﻨﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ٌ "‬
   ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭﺃﺣﻤﺎﻝ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺰْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺧﺮﺯ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ " َﺰْ َ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻤﺮ   ‬
   ‫ﻭ‬            ‫ﺟ ﻋﺔ‬                                          ‫ﺠﻉ‬
 ‫ﻦ‬                          ‫َﺰ ﻉ‬         ‫ﺟﺰﻉ‬                       ‫ﺟﺰﻋ‬       ‫ﺟﺰﻉ‬
 ‫ﺗﻤﺮﺓ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺟ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺿﻌﻔﺖ ﻣﻨﺘﻪ ﻋ  ‬
                                                        ‫ﺃ ﺰﻋﻪ‬
                                                 ‫ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺪ ﺻﺒﺮﺍ ﻭ " َﺟْ َ َ ُ " ﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ِ َﺍ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫َﺰ ﻑ‬ ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                                     ‫ُ‬
‫ﻑ‬                      ‫ﻣﺠ ﺯﻓﺔ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺯﻑ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ " َﺎ َ َ " " ُ َﺎ َ َ ً " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍ  ‬
    ‫ﻲ‬
    ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﺐ ﻛﺰﺍﻑ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺧﻴﻞ ﻓ  ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ " َ َ َ " ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻞ " َﺰْ ًﺎ " ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ُ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ َ َ  ‬
 ‫ﺔ‬
 ‫ﻤﺠ ﺯﻓ ُ‬             ‫ِﺰ ﻑ‬ ‫ﺠ‬                       ‫ﺟﻓ‬                 ‫ﺟﺰﻑ‬
      ‫ﺠ ﻑ‬
    ‫" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺧﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ " ﺍﻟ َﺰْ ُ "‬
       ‫ﺟ ﺯﻑ ﻲ‬
       ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ " َﺎ َ َ " ﻓ  ‬
                                                     ‫ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻓﺄﻗﻴﻢ ﻧﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟ ﺯﻕ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َﻮْ َ ٌ‬
       ‫ﻓﻮﻋﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻛﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ   ‬
       ‫ﻻ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺟﺰ ﻝ‬
                                                                                                   ‫َُ َ‬
   ‫ﺃ ﺰﻝ‬                                 ‫ﺟﻝ‬                         ‫ﺟﺰ ﻟﺔ‬
 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻄﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ " َ َﺍ َ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻈﻢ ﻭﻏﻠﻆ ﻓﻬﻮ " َﺰْ ٌ " ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﺟْ َ َ "‬
                                                           ‫ﺟﻝ‬
                                                   ‫ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺳﻌﻪ ﻭﻓﻼﻥ " َﺰْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‬
                                                                                                ‫َ َﻣْ ُ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺟﺰ ﺖ‬
                                                                                  ‫ﺟ ﻣ‬
                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺰْ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻱ‬      ‫ﺟ ﻣ‬                                                         ‫ﺟﺰ ﺖ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻭ " َ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﻜﻨﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ " َﺰْ ًﺎ " ﺃ  ‬
 ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ " َﺰْ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻀﺎء ﺣﻢ ﺃﻱ ﻻ  ُﻨْ َ ُ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﺮ  ‬
 ‫ﺩ‬
 ‫ّ‬        ‫ﻳ ﻘﺾ‬                     ‫ﺟ ﻡ‬
                                                                                        ‫ﺟﺰ ﺖ‬
                                                                          ‫ﻭ " َ َﻣْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻞ ﺻﺮﻣﺘﻪ‬
                                                                                                   ‫ﺟﺰ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َ َﻯ‬
 ‫ٌ‬
 ‫ﻳ ﻡ ﺗ ﺰ ﻧ ﺲ‬                                                       ‫ﺟﺰ ء‬
 ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﺠﺰﻱ " َ َﺍ ً " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻀﻰ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻗﻀﺎء ﻭﺯﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ " َﻮْ َ ﻻ َﺠْ ِﻱ َﻔْ  ‬
                                           ‫ﺟﺰ ﻩ ﷲ ﺧ ﺮ‬                        ‫ﻋ ﻧ ﺲﺷﺌ‬
    ‫َﻦْ َﻔْ ٍ  َﻴْ ًﺎ " ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎء " َ َﺍ ُ ﺍ ُ  َﻴْ ًﺍ " ﺃﻱ ﻗﻀﺎﻩ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺛﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ "‬
 ‫َﺟ ََ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ " َ َﻯ " ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴ  ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                                               ‫ﺟﺰ‬                         ‫ﺃ ْﺰﺃ‬


  ‫69‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
     ‫ﺟﺰ ﺖ‬                             ‫ﺟ ﺯ ﺘﻪ‬
   ‫ﻫﻤﺰ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﻮﺯ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺗﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ " َﺎ َﻳْ ُ ُ " ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ " َ َ ﻳْ ُ "‬
       ‫ﻦ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻗﻀﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻷﺑﻲ ﺑﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﺤﻲ ﺑﺠﺬﻋﺔ ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﺃ ﺰﺃﺕ‬                                 ‫ﺗ ﺰ ﻋ ﻚ ﻭﻟ ﺗ ﺰﻱ ﻋ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺑ ﺪﻙ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺰ " َﺠْ ِﻱ  َﻨْ َ  ََﻦْ َﺠْ ِ َ  َﻦْ َ َ ٍ َﻌْ َ َ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﻭ " َﺟْ ََ ِ "‬
       ‫ﻰ‬                      ‫ﺃ ﺰﺃ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﻀﺖ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺣﻜﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ " َﺟْ ََ " ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰ ﻓﺒﻤﻌﻨ  ‬
    ‫ﺃﻏﻨﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ " َﺟْ َﻯ " ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻫﻤﺰ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤ  ‬
    ‫ﺔ‬                                   ‫ﺃ ﺰ‬
        ‫ﻉ‬                                                     ‫ﺃ ﺰﺃ‬
        ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻤﺰ " َﺟْ ََ " ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻔﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻫﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴ  ‬
‫ﻞ‬
    ‫ﺖ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺭﺟﺄﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺴﺄﺕ ﻭﺃﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻭﺃﺧﻄﺄﺕ ﻭﺃﺧﻄﻴ  ‬
       ‫ﺍ‬
       ‫ﻭﺃﺷﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺷﻄﺄﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ ﻭﺃﺷﻄﻰ ﻭﺗﻮﺿﺄﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻴﺖ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﺇﺫ ‬
  ‫ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎء ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎ  ‬
  ‫ﻉ‬
 ‫ﻥ‬              ‫ﺺ‬                                     ‫ﺟﺰ‬           ‫ﺃ ﺰﺃ‬
 ‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ " َﺟْ ََ " ﻣﻮﻗﻊ " َ َﻯ " ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﻔﺶ ﻟﻐﺘﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ّ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ  ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﻨﻊ ﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ   ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﻦ‬     ‫ﺠ ء‬                          ‫ﺘﺰ ﺕ‬                            ‫ﺃ ﺰﺃ ﺸ ء ﻣ ﺰﺃ ﻏ ﺮﻩ‬
‫" َﺟْ ََ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻲْ ُ  َﺠْ ََ  َﻴْ ِ ِ " ﻛﻔﻰ ﻭﺃﻏﻨﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ َﺃْ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲء ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻴﺖ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺰْ ُ " ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﺗ ﺰ ﺋﺔ‬           ‫ﺗ ﺰﺌ‬         ‫ﺟﺰ ﺗﻪ‬                          ‫ﺃ ﺰء‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " َﺟْ َﺍ ُ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻔﻞ ﻭﺃﻗﻔﺎﻝ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺃْ ُ ُ " " َﺠْ ِﻳ ًﺎ " ﻭ " َﺠْ ِ َ ً "‬
  ‫ﺬ‬           ‫ﺠ ﻳ‬                          ‫ﺟﺰ ﺗﻪ‬             ‫ﻓﺘﺠﺰﺃ ﺗﺠﺰ‬                 ‫ﺃ ﺰء‬
  ‫ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ " َﺟْ َﺍ َ " ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ " َ َ َ ﱠَ َ َ ﱡﺅﺍ " ﻭ " َ َﺃْ ُ ُ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺰَْﺔ " ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺧ  ‬
                                                               ‫ﺟﺰ‬
                                                             ‫ﻣﺜﻞ "ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ ًﻯ ‬
                                                                                         ‫ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﺪﺭ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺠﺴﺪ‬
                                 ‫ﺟ َﺪ‬                              ‫ﺃ ﺴﺩ‬
       ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ " َﺟْ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺸﻲء ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ " َﺴ ٌ " ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ "‬
       ‫ﺟﺴﺪ ﻻ‬                                                                     ‫ﺠﺴﺪ‬
       ‫ﺍﻟ َ َ ُ " ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻦ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻩ " َ َ ٌ " ﺇ  ‬
‫ﺟﺴﺪﺍ‬       ‫ﻓﺄ ﺮﺝ ﻟﻬ ﻋ‬                        ‫ﺟ ﺳﺪ‬         ‫ﺟﺴﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺰﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻟﻠﺪﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺒﺲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ " َ َ ٌ " ﻭ " َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ " ََﺧْ َ َ َ ُﻢْ  ِﺠْﻼ  َ َ ً ‬
    ‫" ﺃﻱ ﺫﺍ ﺟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻣ  ‬
    ‫ﻦ‬                           ‫ﺠﺴ ﺩ‬
‫ﻝ‬                                                    ‫ﺃ ﺴ ﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻎ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ " َﺟْ َﺪْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﺮﻣﺖ ﺻﺒﻐﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻔﺮ ﻭﻗﺎ  ‬
                                                                  ‫ﻣ ﺴﺪ‬
                                     ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺛﻮﺏ " ُﺠْ َ ٌ " ﺻﺒﻎ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻢ‬
                                                                                                ‫َ ﺮ‬ ‫ﺠ‬
                                                                                                ‫ﺍﻟ ِﺴْ ُ‬
     ‫ﺟﺴﺮ‬         ‫ﺟﺴ ﺭ‬
   ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ُ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭ " َ َ َ "‬
‫ﺎ‬      ‫ﺟﺴ ﺭ‬              ‫ﺟﺴ ﺭ‬                ‫ﺟ ﺴ ﺭﺓ‬                     ‫ﺟﺴ ﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ " ُ ُﻮ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻌﺪ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀ ‬
 ‫ﺮ‬                                             ‫ﺟ ﺴ ﺭﺓ‬             ‫ﺟ ﺴ ﺭﺓ‬
 ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ " َ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻭﻧﺎﻗﺔ " َ ُﻮ َ ٌ " ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻛ  ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﺴﻪ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ ﱠُ‬


  ‫79‬                 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﺎ‬         ‫ﺗﺠ ﺴ ﺴ ﻬ‬               ‫ﺟﺲ‬                ‫ﺘﺴﻪ‬                         ‫ﺟﺴ‬
 ‫ﺑﻴﺪﻩ " َ ‪‬ﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭ " ﺍﺟْ َ ﱠ ُ " ﻟﻴﺘﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻭ " َ ﱠ " ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭ " َ َ ﱠ َ َﺎ " ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬ ‬
‫ﻞ‬                                                                  ‫ﺠﺳ ﺱ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ُﻮ ُ " ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻔﺤﺺ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻗﻴ  ‬
    ‫ﻲ‬                                                     ‫ﺃ ﻮ ﻫ ﻬ ﻣﺠ ﺳ ﻬ‬
    ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ " َﻓْ َﺍ ُ َﺎ  َ َﺎ ﱡ َﺎ " ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓ  ‬
       ‫ﻲ‬         ‫ﺠ ﺳﺔ‬            ‫ﻣﺠﺴﺔ‬
       ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ " َ َ ﱠ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ َﺎ ﱠ ُ " ﻟﻐﺔ ﻓ  ‬
                                                                     ‫" ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ﺍﻟ َ َﺍ ﱡ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺠﻮ ﺱ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬
                                                                                               ‫َ ُ َ‬
                          ‫ﺟﺴﻤ‬       ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬                        ‫ﺟﺴ ﻣﺔ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺿﺨﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻭ " َ ِ َ " " َ َ ًﺎ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ ﻋﻈﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ "‬
                        ‫ﻞ‬                     ‫ﺠ ﻢ‬            ‫ﺟﺴ ﻡ‬             ‫ﺟﺴ ﻢ‬
‫َ ِﻴ ٌ " ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﺴْ ُ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻛ ّ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺪﺭﻙ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ "‬
‫ﺱ‬                              ‫ﺠ ﻢ‬                                          ‫ﺠ ﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ِﺴْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ " ﺍﻟ ِﺴْ ُ " ﻣﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ  ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺴ  ‬
‫ﻢ‬
                        ‫ﺠ ﻤﻥ‬                                ‫ﺢ‬
        ‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎ ﻭﺟﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻭﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼ ّ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ُﺴْ َﺎ ُ " ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺜﻤﺎﻥ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ َﺍ ُ‬
                                                                                          ‫ﺠ ﺴﻮ ﻥ‬
 ‫ﻞ‬                        ‫ﺠ ﺴﻮ ﻧﺔ‬
 ‫ﻓﻴﻌﻼﻥ ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻠﺔ " ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ َﺍَ ُ " ﻧﺨﻠﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻉ ﺗﺆﻛ  ‬
                        ‫ﺑﺴﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﺧﻀﺮﺍء ﻭﺣﻤﺮﺍء ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﻃﺒﺖ ﻓﺴﺪﺕ ﻭ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‬
                   ‫ﻳ ﺴ‬              ‫ﺟﺴ‬                                  ‫ﺠ ﺴﻮ ﻧﺔ‬
   ‫ ﺍﻟ َﻴْ ُ َﺍَ َ " ﻧﺨﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﻳﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ " َ َﺎ " ﺍﻟﺸﻲء " َﺠْ ُﻮ " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺒﺲ " ﺇﻥ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﻭﺻﻠﺐ‬
                                                                                            ‫َ ِﻤْ ُ‬
                                                                                            ‫ﺟﺸ ﺖ‬
                                ‫ﺟﺸ ﻣﺔ‬                      ‫ﺟ ﻤ‬
       ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺐ " َﺸْ ًﺎ " ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻦ ﻭ " َ َﺎ َ ً " ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ "‬
                ‫ﺃ ﺸ ﺘﻪ‬                                                ‫ﺟﺸ ﻡ‬         ‫ﺟ ﺷﻢ‬
       ‫َﺎ ِ ٌ " ﻭ " َ ُﻮ ٌ " ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻤﺰﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ " َﺟْ َﻤْ ُ ُ " ﺍﻷﻣﺮ "‬
                                                                           ‫ﻓﺘﺠﺸﻢ‬         ‫ﺟﺸ ﺘﻪ‬
                                                                           ‫" َ ﱠﻤْ ُ ُ " " َ َ َ ﱠ َ‬
                                                                                               ‫َﺠ ﱠ َ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺗ َﺸﺄ‬
 ‫ﺪ‬                                            ‫ﺠﺸ ء‬                ‫ﺗﺠ ﺸ ﺍ‬
 ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ " َ َ ﱡﺆً " ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ " ﺍﻟ ُ َﺎ ُ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻏﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻳﺢ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻋﻨ  ‬
                                                                                      ‫ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻊ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺠﺺ‬
                                                                                               ‫ﺍﻟ ِ ﱡ‬
   ‫ﻞ‬
   ‫ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻴ  ‬
  ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺹ ﻣﻌﺮﺏ ﻭ " َ َ ﺼْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ " ﺑﺎﻟ ِ ﱢ " ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﺗﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ  ‬
  ‫ﺔ‬                                     ‫ﺠﺺ‬                       ‫ﺟﺼ ﺖ‬
                                                                     ‫ﺠﺺ‬
           ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ " ﺍﻟ َ ﱡ " ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﺖ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺠ ﺒﺔ‬
                                                                                              ‫ﺍﻟ َﻌْ َ ُ‬
                                ‫ﺟﻌﺒ ﺕ‬                        ‫ﺟﻌ ﺏ‬
               ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻛﻼﺏ ﻭ " َ َ َﺎ ٌ " ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﺠﺪﺍﺕ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ََُ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ِ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ﺟﻌﺪ‬


  ‫89‬               ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﻓﻌﻲ - ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬
  ‫ﻑ‬           ‫ﺟ ﺪ‬                                     ‫ﺟﻌ ﺩﺓ‬                   ‫ﻢ‬
  ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻀ ّ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻭﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ " ُ ُﻮ َ ً " ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍء ﻭﺗﻘﺒﺾ ﻓﻬﻮ "  َﻌْ ٌ " ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﻼ  ‬
           ‫ﺗ ﻌﺪ‬               ‫ﺟﻌ ﺕ‬                 ‫ﺟﻌ ﺩ‬            ‫ﺟ ﺪﺓ‬
          ‫" ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ " َﻌْ َ ٌ " ﻭﻗﻮﻡ " ِ َﺎ ٌ " ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻭ " َ ﱠﺪْ ُ " ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ " َﺠْ ِﻴ ًﺍ‬
                                                                                                  ‫َََ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ﺟﻌﺮ‬
  ‫ﺟ ﺮ‬                                                                 ‫ﺟ ﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ " َﻌْ ًﺍ " ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺛﻢ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺮء ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﻌْ ُ "‬
    ‫ﻪ‬                                    ‫ﺟ ﺮ‬                        ‫ﺠ ﺮ‬
    ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ " ﺍﻟ َﻌْ ُ " ﻟﻨﺠﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ " َﻌْ ُ " ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﺮ ﺟﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﺒﺴ  ‬
‫ﺔ‬               ‫ﺠ ﺮ ﻧﺔ‬                        ‫ﺟ ﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﺆﻟﺘﻪ ﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺭﺩﻱء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ " ُﻌْ ُﻭ ٌ " ﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﺼﻔﻮﺭ ﻭ " ﺍﻟ ِﻌْ َﺍَ ُ " ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻜ  ‬
   ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﻧﻘﻠ  ‬
   ‫ﻪ‬
‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻤﻌﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺜﻘﻠﻮﻥ "‬
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