ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell

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					ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell
The American city should be a collection of communities where every member has a right to belong. It should be
a place where every man feels safe on his streets and in the house of his friends. It should be a place where each
individual's dignity and self-respect is strengthened by the respect and affection of his neighbors. It should be a
place where each of us can find the satisfaciton and warmth which comes from being a member of the
community of man. This is what man sought at the dawn of civilzation. It is what we seek today.
Johnson, President Lyndon Baines
Sir, I say that justice is truth in action
Disraeli, Benjamin
If we don't believe in freedom of expression for people we despise, we don't believe in it at all
Chomsky, Noam
Censorship always defeats it own purpose, for it creates in the end the kind of society that is incapable of
exercising real discretion.
Commager, Henry Steele
Freedom is not worth having if it does not connote freedom to err. It passes my comprehension how human beings, be
they ever so experienced and able, can delight in depriving other human beings of that precious right
Gandhi, Mahatma Mohandas Karamchand

We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and
competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is
a nation that is afraid of its people.
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald

Vocabulary and Background Information:
Fable – a short tale with a moral which often includes unusual or even supernatural
events

Beast Fable- a tale written in allegorical style in which the central characters are
animals and the tone is often satirical.

Satire – a mockery of a view, group, or humanity, usually with the aim of inspiring
change

Fairy tales- having no basis in fact, emphasize miraculous happenings and fantastic
transformations

Allegory- a symbolic story structured with at least two levels of meaning. (The literal and
symbolic meaning: a story of Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution.)

Parable- a simple story that illustrates a lesson or illustrates a moral story.

Totalitarianism – from of government in which one political group has complete power,
controls production, and suppresses all opposition

Dictatorship- a government whose head of state has absolute authority over all things
in government and under control of the government.

Propaganda- systematic efforts to spread opinions or beliefs and in so doing control the
minds of others through speeches, slogans posters and other methods.

Capitalism-economic system by which most of the industries (means of production,
distribution and exchange) are owned by private citizens

Communism- economic system by which the industries in a country are controlled by
society as a whole
Socialism-a political system in which the industries are owned by the state and used on
behalf of the people

Democracy-government by the people exercised either directly or through elected
representatives.

Bolshevik Revolution-Took place in 1917 in Russia. Lenin led a revolution in which the
communists seized power in Russia. The philosophy of these revolutionaries was based
on the teachings of Karl Marx. Marx stated that private enterprise would not work and
that eventually workers would own industries and a classless society would develop:
everyone would be equal. Lenin ruled as a dictator, banning all other political parties. He
used force and terror. A more brutal dictator – Joseph Stalin, succeeded him.

Karl Marx – philosopher who invented communism and believed that the workers of the
world should unite and take over the government. He died before the Russian
Revolution.

LeonTrotsky- a leader in the Russian Revolution, a pure communist who was a follower
of Marx. He wanted to improve life for all in Russia and was chased away by Lenin’s
KGB (the secret police).

 Joseph Stalin- a poor speaker who was less well educated than Trotsky. He was a
dictator who did not follow Marx’s ideas. He craved power and killed all that opposed
him. He used the KGB and propaganda to further his aims.

Bolsheviks – followers of Lenin – later known as communists

Proletariat – members of the working class

Bourgeois(ie) – members of the middle class – property owners, professionals and
business people

Collaborator – person who willingly helps enemies of his or her country or people

Comrade – fellow member of a union or political party; term of address used by
Communists

Purge – removal of opponents from power, usually by violent means

Laissez-faire – belief that government should interfere as little as possible with business
or trade

Ruling elite – those who hold power in a society; the privileged class

Dissident – someone who disagrees with official opinion

Republic – government in which citizens elect

Saboteur – person who destroys property or interrupts production
Glossary
Animalism: Philosophy based on old Major’s teachings, developed by the animals at the
manor farm.

Benevolent: - kind, good

Broker – agent who negotiates agreements to buy and sell

Capital – wealth used to turn worker’s labor into products, such as food, raw materials,
machinery and tools

               Parallels between Animal Farm
         And Actual Historical Events and Characters
1 Old Major                                       Marxism
2 Jones                                           Czar Nicholas
3 Moses                                           Russian organized church
4 Animal rebellion                                Russian Revolution 1917
5 Napoleon                                        Stalin
6 Snowball                                        Trotsky
7 Squealer                                        Pravda (propaganda)
8 Napoleon’s dogs                                 Secret Police
9 Foxwood Farm                                    England (Churchill)
10 Pinchfield Farm                                Germany (Hitler)
11 Battle of the Cowshed                          Anti Revolutionary invasion of Russia
12 Battle of the Windmill                         Battle of Stalingrad (WW11)
13 Final Scene (meeting of men and pigs)          Teheran conference
14 Animals other than pigs and dogs               The proleteriat
15 Building of the windmill                       Five year plan
16 Old major’s skull                              Lenin’s body
17 Chasing away Jones                             Disposal of Czar and family
18 Animal                                         Russia /USSR
19 Confessions and executions                     Blood Purges of 1936 -1938
20 Selling of the wood                            Nazi-Soviet Pact
21 Pigeons sent to incite rebellions              Communist Internationale
22 Four porkers reject Napoleons ideas            White Russians
23 Mollie the cart horse                          The bourgeosie
24 Mr. Whymper (broker)                           Foreign agents of the Comintern
25 Napoleon takes over the farm                   Stalin becomes a dictator
26 Hoof and horn on flag                          Hammer and sickle.
Animal Farm – Comparison of Characters to Russian Revolution
   Mr Jones                                                   Czar Nicholas

          Irresponsible to his animals (starves them)            Poor leader

      Sometimes cruel                                            Cruel

      Sometimes kind                                             Sometimes kind

   Old Major                                              Karl Marx

      Taught Animalism                                           Invented Communism

      Workers do the work, rich keep the $                       Workers of the world unite – take over govt

      Animals revolt                                             Dies before Russian Revolution

      Dies before revolution

Animalism                                                 Communism

      No owners, no rich but no poor                             Same

      Workers get a better life, all animals equal               All people equal

      Everyone owns the farm                                     Govt. owns everything, people owns govt

Snowball                                                  Leon Trotsky

      Young smart, good speaker, idealistic                      Other leader of “October Revolution”

      Really wants to make life better for all                   Pure communist, followed Marx

      One of leaders of Revolution                               Wanted to improve life for all in Russia

                                                                  Chased away by Lenin’s KGB (secret police)

Napoleon                                                  Stalin

      Not a good speaker or as clever as Snowball                Not a good speaker, not educated like Trotsky

      Cruel, brutal, devious, selfish, corrupt                   Didn’t follow Marx’s ideas

      His ambition is for power, kills opponents                 Cared for power, killed all that opposed him

      Used dogs, Moses and Squealer to control animals           Used KGB and propaganda, allowed church

Squealer                                                  Propaganda department of Lenin’s government

      Big mouth, talks a lot                                     Worked for Stalin to support his image

      Convinces animals to believe and follow Napoleon           Used any lie to convince people to follow Stalin

      Changes and manipulates the commandments                   Benefited from fact that education was controlled
The Dogs                                                        KGB – Secret Police

        Private army that used fear to force animals to work             Not really police but forced support for Stalin

        Killed or intimidated any opponent of Napoleon                   Used force, often killed entire families

        Another part of Napoleons strategy to control.                   Totally loyal, part of Lenin’s power, even over army.

Moses the Raven                                                 Religion

        Tell’s animal’s about Sugar Candy                                Marx said: Opiate of the people – a lie
         Mountain(heaven)
                                                                          Made people not complain and do their work
        Animals can go there if they work hard
                                                                          Religion tolerated because people would work
        Snowball and major were against him
                                                                          Stalin knew religion would stop violent revolutions
        Thought Heaven was a lie to make animals work

        Napoleon let him stay because he taught animals to
         work and not complain

Mollie                                                          Vain selfish people

        Was vain, loved her beauty and herself                           Some people didn’t care about the revolution

        Didn’t think about Animal Farm                                   Only thought about themselves

        Went with whoever gave her what she wanted                       Went to other countries that offered them more

Boxer                                                           Proletariat (Dedicated but tricked workers)

        Strong, hard working, believes in Animal Farm                    People believed Stalin because he was Communist

        Napoleon is always right” “I must work harder”                   Many stayed loyal even when obvious he was a
                                                                           tyrant
        Gives his all, betrayed when he is sold.
                                                                          Betrayed by Stalin who ignored and killed them

Benjamin                                                        Skeptical people

        0ld wise donkey who is suspicious of revolution                  Weren’t sure Revolution would change anything

        Thinks nothing ever changes – He is right!                       Realized a crazy leader can call himself a
                                                                           communist
        His suspicions turn out to be true
                                                                          Knew Communism wouldn’t work with power hungry
                                                                           leaders

Overall details about revolution                                Overall details about the revolution

        Was supposed to make life better for all                         Supposed to fix problems from Czar

        Life was worse in the end                                        Life was even worse long after revolution

        The leaders became the same as or worse than the                 Stalin made the Czar look like a nice guy
         leaders they rebelled against
Some Notes
Animal Farm is the story of a revolution gone sour. Animalism, Communism, and
Fascism are all illusions which are used by the pigs as a means of satisfying their greed
and lust for power. As Lord Acton wrote: "Power tends to corrupt; absolute power
corrupts absolutely." So long as the animals cannot remember the past, because it is being
continually altered, they will have no control over the present and hence over the future.


The corruption of absolute power is a major theme in Animal Farm. As most of the animals hope to create a
utopian system based on the equality of all animals, the pigs—through greed and ruthlessness—manipulate
and intimidate the other animals into subservience. Critics note that Orwell was underlining a basic tenet of
human nature: some will always exist who are more ambitious, ruthless, and willing to grab power than the
rest of society and some within society will be willing to give up power for security and structure. In that
sense Animal Farm is regarded as a cautionary tale, warning readers of the pitfalls of revolution.

http://www.phil.muni.cz/angl/gw/farmww.html Lyrics of AF


MORE DEFINITIONS – no need to study these for the test, but they may
clarify these complex ideas.
From Wikipedia:

Communism is an ideology that promotes establishment of a classless, stateless social
organization based on common ownership of the means of production. It is usually considered a
branch of the broader socialist movement that draws on the various political and intellectual
movements that trace their origins back to the work of Karl Marx.

"The Communists... are on the one hand, practically, the most advanced and resolute section of
the working-class parties of every country, that section which pushes forward all others; on the
other hand, theoretically, they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly
understanding the lines of march, the conditions, and the ultimate general results of the
proletarian movement.

The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties:
formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of
political power by the proletariat." - Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, 1848

Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by leadership unrestricted by law,
constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state.
Socialism
         According to Marxism, socialism is a stage of social and economic development that will
           replace capitalism, and will in turn be replaced by communism. Thus, in Marxist terms,
           a socialist state is a state that has abolished capitalism and is moving towards
           communism.
Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-
economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the
                                                                                         [1]
community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. This
control may be either direct, exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils, or
indirect, exercised on behalf of the people by the state. As an economic system, socialism is
often characterized by state or community ownership of the means of production.
Socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
an economic system based on state ownership of capital

Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of
production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in
which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and
services are determined through the operation of a market economy. It is usually
considered to involve the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as
"legal persons" or corporations to trade capital goods, labor, land and money
(Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of
feudalism,[3] but some feel that the term "mixed economies" more precisely
describes most contemporary economies,[4][5] due to their containing both private-
owned and state-owned enterprises,combining elements of capitalism and
socialism, or mixing the characteristics of market economies and planned
economies.[6]

				
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