**BUK**RG The internet's technical architecture is based on a hierarchy of networks, hence the nickname network of networks. The globalized platform which took the world by storm makes publicly available an assortment of services such as email, instant messaging, and the world wide web using the communications protocol IP (Internet protocol). Internet access which is obtained through a network service provider via several telecommunication means, either cabled (fixed line network)(ISDN), DSL, or wireless (3G,WiMAX, Satellite Internet), etc. Various names are sometimes associated with the term internet, and these include interconnected networks, internetworking, international inter-connected networks and international network. While the platform itself is also referred to as cyberspace, the online environment, the web or the net, etc. In 1965, Roberts and Thomas Merrill examined the possibility inter-connecting computers remotely by connecting long distance between Massachusetts and California. The outcome demonstrated that computers could operate together remotely, however the use of telecommunications by installing a circuit telephone system was insufficient, and the packet reigned supreme. On the other hand, another group known as the Rand had been examining the packet for the U.S. military between 1962 and 1965. Their intention was to retain communications in case of an attack, and they wanted to ensure a packet to stayed functional in a non-centralized network. The fndings led to theory around the idea of ARPANET as the final wall against an atomic attack. By August 1968, efforts to fund the development of hardware routing packets of ARPANET, began in earnest, the project was later handed over to a group of the firm Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) in Boston. Bob Kahn and others worked tirelessly on the development of the network architecture, including the topological aspects and measurement systems network. In September 1969, BBN established the first equipment at UCLA, the second network node was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Two additional nodes were installed at the University of Santa Barbara and University of Utah. The protocol peer-to-peer ASC was completed in December 1970, it was later adopted between 1971 and 1972 by the sites connected to ARPANET. Thus hailing the dawn of a new era as regards the development of applications by network users. In 1972, Ray Tomlinson introduced the network's very first major application - email. In the late 1980s, NSF (National Science Foundation) provided five computer centers that allowed users to connect regardless of their location in the U.S, from this point ARPANET became so widely accessible. In the early 1990s the system was ready to open up its network to commercial traffic.
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