Tracing the origins of the internet by gcneophil9

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									**BUK**RG

The internet's technical architecture is based on a hierarchy of networks, hence the nickname
network of networks. The globalized platform which took the world by storm makes publicly
available an assortment of services such as email, instant messaging, and the world wide web
using the communications protocol IP (Internet protocol).

Internet access which is obtained through a network service provider via several
telecommunication means, either cabled (fixed line network)(ISDN), DSL, or wireless
(3G,WiMAX, Satellite Internet), etc.

Various names are sometimes associated with the term internet, and these include
interconnected networks, internetworking, international inter-connected networks and
international network. While the platform itself is also referred to as cyberspace, the online
environment, the web or the net, etc.

In 1965, Roberts and Thomas Merrill examined the possibility inter-connecting computers
remotely by connecting long distance between Massachusetts and California. The outcome
demonstrated that computers could operate together remotely, however the use of
telecommunications by installing a circuit telephone system was insufficient, and the packet
reigned supreme.

On the other hand, another group known as the Rand had been examining the packet for the
U.S. military between 1962 and 1965. Their intention was to retain communications in case of
an attack, and they wanted to ensure a packet to stayed functional in a non-centralized network.
The fndings led to theory around the idea of ARPANET as the final wall against an atomic
attack.

By August 1968, efforts to fund the development of hardware routing packets of ARPANET,
began in earnest, the project was later handed over to a group of the firm Bolt, Beranek and
Newman (BBN) in Boston. Bob Kahn and others worked tirelessly on the development of the
network architecture, including the topological aspects and measurement systems network.

In September 1969, BBN established the first equipment at UCLA, the second network node
was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Two additional nodes were installed at the
University of Santa Barbara and University of Utah. The protocol peer-to-peer ASC was
completed in December 1970, it was later adopted between 1971 and 1972 by the sites
connected to ARPANET. Thus hailing the dawn of a new era as regards the development of
applications by network users.

In 1972, Ray Tomlinson introduced the network's very first major application - email. In the late
1980s, NSF (National Science Foundation) provided five computer centers that allowed users to
connect regardless of their location in the U.S, from this point ARPANET became so widely
accessible.
In the early 1990s the system was ready to open up its network to commercial traffic.

								
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