Booklet No. 81
Fruit Production: FPS - 10
V. Establishment of Vineyard
VI. Fertilizer Application
IX. Training and Pruning
X. Flowering and Fruit Setting
XI. Improving Berry and Bunch Quality
XII. Induction of Seedlessness in Grapes
XIII. Insect Pests and Diseases
XIV. Nutritional and Physiological Disorders
XV. Harvesting and Yield
XVI. Uses and Composition
XVII. Storage & Marketing
XVIII. Economics of Grape Production
The grape requires warm dry summer and cool rainy winter. Therefore, a tremendous
scope for grape cultivation exists in our country. It can be successfully grown in arid and semi-
arid climate which prevails over a majority of arable lands in our country. The grape crop fetches
good remunerations for the farmers and it can be grown by even the poor and the marginal
farmers provided all the practices involved in its cultivation are carried out scientifically and
timely. This booklet deals with all the aspects of grape cultivation in a very lucid and
Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agricultural and Environmental Education
The grape (vitis vinifera) is one of the table delicacies in India. It belongs to the family
Vitaceae. It is one of the most delicious, refreshing and nourishing fruits of the world. It is fairly
good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorus and iron and vitamins like B1 and B2. Its juice
is a mild laxative and acts as a stimulant to kidneys.
The grape is a native of Armenia, (the USSR). It was introduced in India from Iran and
Afghanistan in about 1300 A.D. Grape occupies far more land in the world than any other single
fruit, and in production accounts for nearly half of the total world production of all fruits. It is
mainly grown in Italy, France and Spain for vine making; in Italy, Turkey, Bulgaria, USA, Greece
and Portugal for table delicacies; and in Turkey, Greece, Australia and the USA for raisin
The main grape growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,
Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, U.P. and Himachal Pradesh. The leading state is Andhra
Pradesh. The total area under grapes in India is approximately 12.5 thousand hectares and the
production is about 275.7 thousand tonnes per year. India has established a world record in
grape productivity with an average of 22 tonnes per hectare fro m vineyards located in
Peninsular India where two crops are taken each year. The tropical states of India mainly
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu jointly contribute to more than 90 %
of the total area and production of grapes in India. Grape culture is picking up its momentum in
the states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh which fall in North-
western sub-tropical region of the country.
The table grape is primarily a fruit of semi-arid, sub. I tropical regions of the world. It
requires a warm dry summer and a cool rainy winter. In such a climate the grape vine sheds
leaves and takes rest during winter and puts forth new leaves and fruits with the advent of
spring. The fruit matures during summer or when there is no rain.
It was a belief in the past that grapes do not perform well in the tropics, as the vine stays
evergreen and is capable of producing only small crops of poor quality. But, it is very
successfully grown in southern parts of the country where the temperature ranges from 15°C to
40°C and annual rainfall amounts to 50 to 60 cm. The amount of rainfall is not the criteria but
the period of rainfall is important for successful grape growing. Rainfall should not coincide with
the fresh growth after pruning or during fruit ripening. Cloudy weather, high humidity, low
temperatures and precipitation during flowering and fruit, development are detrimental as they
encourage disease spread. Frost in winter is very harmful to vines. Temperature below 10°C
badly affects development of vine as well as ultimate production. Very high temperature is also
equally damaging. Generally, temperature range of 10 to 29°C is optimum for the rapid ripening
of the berries (grape fruits).
The grape is adapted to a wide range of soil types. Almost any soil that will grow
ordinary grain crops will grow grape also. However, light friable and well drained soils are most
suitable for grape cultivation. Even the shallow soils can be utilized for grape growing, provided
there is no any hard pan in the top 1.5 meter. It thrives well under soil pH levels of 6.5 to 7.5.
However, Anabe Shahi vines are found to perform well even at a soil. pH of 4.5 in' red loams
around Bangalore. Clay loams can also be made use of, provided the drainage is good. Ideal
soils are sandy loams and silty loams. Sticky clay soils should be avoided. Highly fertile soils
give higher yield, but the berries are very compact and the quality is also poor. The highest yield
in the world has been obtained from the sub marginal soils of Hyderabad in Anabe Shahi
variety. Therefore, it is clear that the fertility of the soil is limiting factor in case of viticulture
Prominent varieties of grapes are described below:
It is also known as Malta. Commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh, vigorous, seeded, high
yielding, bunch very long, berries large to very large, oval pale with good keeping quality and
late maturity are certain important features of this variety.
Grown in Bangalore region, medium vigour, seeded, medium yielding, bunches small
and compact, berries small to medium spherical, thick skin which .separates, pulp pale green;
good keeping quality. Highly resistant to anthracnose and downy mildew.
3. Cheema Sahebi
Originated from Pandhari Sehebi, grown mainly in Maharashtra, vigorous, seeded, very
heavy yielding, bunch large, berries large oval pale, good quality. It is a late maturing variety
and not suitable for distant trans- portation because of weak pedicel attachment.
4. Thompson Seedless
It is also known as 'Kishmish' and Bedana. It is vigorous, seedless, low yielding, bunch
small, pale, good quality.
Also called Karachi, Fanner Drakasha, Muscat, etc., Grown in Tamil Nadu, medium
vigour, seeded, medium : yielder, bunches small and loose berries small, coloured, spherical
with thick skin good keeping quality, early maturing, uneven ripening.
It is a popular variety grown in northern and western India. Medium vigour, seedless,
medium compact, berries medium in size, whitish green, spherical, flesh soft, muscat flavoured,
ripening early, good keeping quality.
7. Black Champa
It is vigorous, seeded, medium yielding, bunches small, well filled, berries small to
medium, spherical black in colour, superior quality, good keeping quality.
8. Bangalore Purple
Medium vigour, seeded, medium yielder, bunch large, compact, berries bluish black,
medium, large and spherical, pulp green and juicy, quality fair, mid season variety, ripening is
9. Pandhari Sahebi
It is a vigorous seeded, poor yielder, bunch pale green, large elongated, pulp green,
firm, ripening mid- season to late.
10. Beauty Seedless
Medium vigour, "medium yielding bunch medium large, compact; berries bluish black,
medium, spherical, pulp soft, quality' fair, early maturity.
It is also called Pacha Drakshi. It is commercially grown in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra,
vigorous seeded, heavy yielding, bunch medium to large and well filled. Berries green, medium,
oval with soft pulp. Keeping quality poor, mid to late maturing variety.
12. Pusa Seedless
It is a clonal selection of Thompson Seedless suitable for growing commercially in Delhi,
Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. It differs from the parent cultivar in having more elongated
berries, vine is vigorous, heavy yielder, bunch medium, well filled berries, light golden colour,
seedless, uniform in ripening, small sized, thin skin, flesh firm, it ripens by middle of June.
It is a hybrid cultivar of Black Champa and Thompson seedless. Vine is vigorous,
medium yielder, bunch medium large loose, berries 'greenish white, small spherical, pulp soft,
very good quality, late maturing, very good for raisin making.
14. Arka Kanchan
Arka Kanchan is a cross between Anab-e-Shahi and. Queen of the Vineyard. Vine is of
medium vigour, seeded, medium yielder, bunch medium large, loose, berries, gol- den yellow,
medium oval, pulp meaty; good quality, I muscat flavour, very late maturity.
15. Arka Shyam
It is a cross between Bangalore Blue and Black Champa. Vine is moderately vigorous,
medium yielder, bunch is small well-filled to compact winged, cylindrical, i berries blackish blue,
medium, spherical, pulp soft, good I quality, mid to late maturity, suitable for double cropping, ,
good for juice and vine.
16. Arka Hans
It is a cross between Bangalore Blue and Anab-e-Shahi. Vine is vigorous, seeded,
medium yielder, bunch small, well filled, berries greenish white, medium, spherical pulp soft,
good quality, mid maturity, suitable for white wines but not suitable for distant transportation due
to poor pedicel attachment.
Depending on the use, the grape varieties may be classified into 5 categories namely
table grapes, raisin grapes, wine grapes, grapes suitable for juice extraction 1 and grapes for
canning purposes; Suitable varieties for: these categories along with desired characters are
given in Table 1.
Table 1 : Commercial classification of varieties of different categories and their characters.
Category Suitable varieties Desired characters.
Sl. Category Suitable varieties Desired characters
1 Table Thomson Seedless, Pusa Attractive appearance, pleasing
grapes seedless, Perlette, Beauty eating quality, good keeping and
Seedless, New shipping quality. The grapes with
Muscat of Hamburg, Anab-e- Muscat floavour, thin skins, firm
flesh, and without seeds are
shahi; Bhokri, Cardinal; Black
Muscat; Early Muscat. preferred.
2 Raisin Sunde Khani; Thompson Seedless grapes possessing soft
Grapes Seedless; Pusa Seedless and texture, a marked and pleasing
Sultana; Arkavati. flavour, large or very small after
drying and a little tendency to
become sticky during storage.
3 Wine Madeleine Angenvine, Beauty For table wines grapes of
Grapes Seedless, Black Champa moderately high sugar content and
Zinfandel, Red Prince, and of moderate or high acidity, but for
Cheema Sahebi, Ark shyyam,desert vine grapes with high sugar
etc. and low acidity are suitable.
4 Juice The juice must retain fresh grape
Concord, Pearl of Craba, Arka
Grapes Shyam flavour. Coloured varieties are
5 Canning Thompson Seedless Pusa Only larger sized berries preferable
grapes Seedless,. Perlette, etc. seedless white grapes are used for
V. Establishment of Vineyard
In the first stage of establishment of vineyard, true to type planting material is
propagated in the nursery. The most common method of propagation in grape is by stem
cuttings obtained from mature canes after pruning of the vines preferably in October. The
cuttings should have atleast four prominent and healthy buds. Canes with suppressed buds that
are flat, tapering abruptly should be avoided. About 23 cm long cuttings of pencil thickness are
preferred by giving circular cut just below the node on the lower portion. These cuttings are
planted in flat beds leaving two nodes above soil surface. In North India, these cuttings are
planted in the nursery after allowing them to form callus by burying them in moist soil or sand for
4-5 weeks. A mixture of leaf mould, farmyard manure, sand and superphosphate is applied to
the nursery beds before planting the cuttings. To save the cuttings from termite attacks
periodical soil application with Chlordane or Heptachlor are necessary before rooting. The
rooted cuttings will be ready for planting in the field in about four months in South and West
India. However, one year old rooted cuttings are preferred in North India.
In India, the grape is planted on its own roots. How- ever, use of resistant rootstocks is
necessary under infestation by nematodes and other pests and diseases and also for saline and
alkaline soils. The scion variety can be chip budded or green grafted on suitable rootstocks.
Mematode and salinity resistant rootstocks like "Dog Ridge" "Vitis champini" and "Salt Creek"
are difficult to root. Therefore, soaking the basal ends of the cuttings in IBA (Indole Butyric Acid)
250 ppm solution for 15 seconds ensures better rooting of the cuttings. The nematode resistant
rootstocks namely "Solonis X Othello 1613" and "Dog Ridge" are best suited for Anab-e-Shahi,
Gulabi and Thompson Seedless.
Grape is also propagated by seeds to raise hybrid seedlings. The mature seed exhibit
dormancy due to the presence of abscisic acid like substances. Dormant grape seeds
germinate only with stratification treatment of 90 to 120 days at low temperature (5-6°C).
Spacing varies with varieties. The commonly followed spacings are 4.5m x 4.5m for
Anab-e-Shahi, 2 +3.6m for Thompson Seedless. Recent trends are to reduce vine spread and
accommodate more vines per unit area in order to get return in the early years of vine growth
itself. As a result, 4.5 m '+3.0 m and 3.0m + 1.5 m are being followed for Anab-e-Shahi and
Thompson Seedless respectively.
Planting should not be taken up until the layout and bower erection is complete. Pits
measuring 90 x 90 x 90 cm are dug one month in advance to planting the rooted cuttings. The
present day trend is to dig pits of 1.2 m diameter and 60cm depth. While digging the top half of
the depth soil is separately heaped. The pits are exposed to air and sunlight for one month.
Before filling, some trash is burnt in the pits. A mixture of top soil, 50 kg of farmyard manure, 3
kg of bonemeal, 5 kg of castor used to fill 2/3rd portion of the pit. The rest 1/3rd portion is filled
with the mixture of subsoil and farmyard manure. Water is let copiously into the pits after filling,
in order to make the soil sink. Later pits, are filled once again to the ground level. A mixture of
l5g of 10% B.H.C. dust and sand is put in the centre of the pit where the plant is to be planted.
Before lifting the rooted cutting, leaves and green shoots are removed and allowed for 4-5 days
in the nursery beds. Then they are transplanted into the pits without causing. any damage to the
roots. Potted plants are better, since their survival in the field is better.
In western India, cuttings are planted in the nursery in October and then transplanted in
the field in January. In Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, the planting is done in December and in
Karnataka in October-November. In North India, cuttings are planted in the nursery in January
and early February and transplanted in the pits when the plants become 1 year old. In Tamil
Nadu, the practice of initial setting of 5 cuttings per pit in situ is common, whereas in Delhi 2
cuttings are planted in situ. Only one vigorously growing cutting is finally retained in each pit.
The vines are usually planted equidistant between the up-right posts in the bower or
telephone system. Some- times these are planted in the center point formed by a quadrangle of
posts in the former system. In this case one more pole is required to support the vine. It may,
therefore, be desirable to plant the vine along the sandy side of the pole, which is protected
from the afternoon sun. The practice allows planting vine in the same pit dug for the post
curtailing the expenditure on digging pits. Another advantage of this method is that 2 vines can
be trained on each pole with 2 cordons in each vine of a medium vigorous variety.
VI. Fertilizer Application
Grape vine does not require a high fertility of soil and can be grown on marginal lands,
provided the drainage is good. However, balanced nutrition is essential for the health and
production of vine. The maximum nutrient requirement is noted during flowering. Nutrient
requirements differ between varieties and are influenced by soils and rootstocks.
Nitrogen promotes shoot growth and flowering when applied adequately. Excess
nitrogen inhibits flowering through excessive vegetative growth and mutual shading of the
shoots at the time of flower bud formation. The vine receiving nitrogen half through ground
absorption and half through foliar spray performs much better than that receiving totally through
ground or foliar spray.. Urea should be sprayed on the young leaves in the morning.
Phosphorus is highly favourable for fruit bud initiation and potassium promotes shoot maturity,
flowering and fruit quality. Nutrients doses more than required will interfere with the absorption
of other nutrients from the soil and lead to nutrient imbalance. Hence, application of optimum
doses of nutrients is important.
During the first year, when vegetative growth is only encouraged to develop the
framework of the vines, l00 g of urea together with 200g of superphosphate is applied at
monthly intervals to every vine in addition to 50kg FYM, 3Kg superphosphate is applied at
monthly intervals to every vine in addition to 50kg FYM, 3 kg superphosphate, 3kg bonemeal
'and 5kg oilcake applied in the pit before planting.
Nutrient requirements of bearing vines vary from region to region depending upon the
climate influencing the growing habit of the vines, soil type and variety/age of the vine also
influences the nutrient requirements. During the early years (2-5 years) the requirement
increases, steadily. Nutrient requirement is highest during the full bearing age (5-10 years).
Again the requirement decreases after 10 years, as the nutrient status of the soil increases due
to repeated applications year after year.
Optimum doses of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium for different varieties under
different agro-climatic regions are given in Table-2.
Table 2: Fertilizer requirement of different cultivars grown in different regions
Sl.No Cultivar Region NPK dose(Kg/ha) Remarks
1 Anabe-e-Shahi Punjab 400-600-200 ------
2 Anabe-e-Shahi Southern 500-125-750 Up to 5 years age
Karnataka of vines
3 Anabe-e-shahi Southern 500-500-1000 More than 5 years
4 Thompson Punjab 444-1332-1332 -------
5 Thompson Maharastra 666-888-666 --------
6 Thompson Southern 500-500-500 or ---------
Seedless Karnataka 300-500-1000
7 Cheema Maharastra 600-240-120 Plus 70 cart loads
Sahebi of farm yard
8 Perlette 722-1355-1011 -----------
9 Himrod 444-1332-888 -----------
It is advisable to supply at least 40% of the annual dose of these nutrients in the form of
organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM), oil-cakes, fish or bone- meal, etc. in order to
safeguard against the adverse effect of inorganic fertilizers on the soil. Application of ammonium
sulphate should be avoided as it brings down the soil pH. It is preferred to supply nitrogen from
calcium ammonium-nitrate or urea. Potassium is preferably applied in the form of sulphate of
potash, as muriate of potash contains chloride and grape vines are vulnerable to chloride
toxicity. These fertilizers should be applied in 15cm deep furrows or trenches made around the
vines at a distance of 60 to 70 cm from the stem.
Split application of nitrogen and potash is advantageous only in varieties that have short
period and slow rate of vegetative growth, while split application of potassium is beneficial in
varieties that have long period and faster rate of vegetative growth. Half of the annual dose of
phosphatic fertilizers is applied at first pruning i.e. after summer pruning and the rest half after
second or final pruning i.e. winter pruning.
The doses of nutrients applied should be reduced by 20% after 10 years. Inclusion of
multi micronutrient formulations like Micnelf, Boracol and Calmog (Ca, Mg, S and Silica) in the
fertilizer schedule will give balanced nutrition to the vine.
Grape in India is mostly grown in semi-arid dry areas with inadequate rainfall and high
evapo-transpirational losses. Therefore, supplemental irrigation is necessary. Adequate supply
of water is required during the period of active growth of vine and the development of bunch and
berry. Vines are irrigated immediately after pruning and fertilizer application. During the berry
growth stage, irrigation is given at intervals of 5 to 7 days. Water is withheld for at least 8-10
days prior to harvesting to improve the fruit quality. Irrigation is resumed after pruning. During
the period from summer pruning to the onset of rains, irrigations are given at weekly intervals
and thereafter at 10-12 days intervals until winter pruning depending upon soil moisture
conditions. Too frequent and copious irrigations should be avoided especially during 45-60 days
after summer pruning, as it adversely affects the flower initiation by promoting vegetative
growth. Similarly, too frequent and heavy irrigations from flower opening to pea size stage of the
berries should also be avoided as they aggravate the problem of downy mildew disease.
Inadequate moisture in the soil leads to poor crop production, whereas excessive moisture
leads to poor production due to slow growth, decreased and rotting of root system. The vine
should not be irrigated during ripening unless some water deficiency is noticed in the form of
shrinkage of berries, wilting of leaves, etc. Quality of water to be used for irrigation should also
be given proper consideration. Water containing salts causes injury to the vine.
Frequent weeding is required to allow roots to avail the nutrients and moisture without
any competition. In India, weeding in vineyards is generally done mechanically. Bullock drawn
or tractor drawn implements can be used for cultivation or weed control, if sufficient space is
provided between the vines and beneath the pandal. In the vineyards, where close spacing is
adopted manual weeding or digging the plots with garden forks and lifting the weeds once in
three months is a common practice.
As the manual weeding is becoming costly, pre-emergence application of Diuron 32kg a.
i (active ingredient) per hectare is recommended to control most of the weeds for a period of six
months. Weed control by chemicals in grapes is done as mentioned in table 3.
Table 3 : Chemical weed control in grapes
Sl.No Weedicides When to apply Mehtod of spray Weeds controlled
recommended & and their effective
1 Atrazine 3 kg Atrazine and Atrazine and Atrazine contols
a.i/ha; Diuron 2 Diuron to be Diuron to be both monocot and
kg a.i/ha applied soon after applied as pre- dicot weeds for 4-5
pruning and emergence, months and Diuron
application of Grammaxone for 6 months.
fertilizer as post Grammaxone
emergence controls weeds for
spray 50 to 60 days.
2 Grammaxone Grammaxone to
@ 2 kg/ha be sprayed on ----------- -------------------
weeds when they
are 15-20 cm tall
Besides, mulching with sarkanda (Saccharum munja) and black polythene may also be
practiced as it conserves moisture, reduces weed population and enhances the up- take of
nitrogen, potash, resulting in maximum growth of the vine and yield.
IX. Training and Pruning
Training of grape vines is important as it helps to maintain the stature and spread of the
vine in a way that is convenient to carry on the operations like pruning, interculture, spraying
Grape vine bears on fresh growth. It is a prolific producer of clusters and there is
generally an over abundant crop potential once the vine is large enough to bear.
Before discussing training systems in grapevine, it is i better to understand the
commonly used terms for train- I ing and pruning which are explained below.
1. Trunk: The main unbranched stem of the vine.
2. Arms: The main branches or shortened limbs on the main trunk; these may be termed
primary or secondary arms depending upon their location.
3. Shoots: Leafy branches which are green in colour.
4. Canes: The dormant shoots.
5. Fruit canes: The basal part of the mature cane 3-15 buds long kept to produce fruits during
next growing season.
6. Spurs: Canes pruned 1-4 buds long.
7. Fruit spur: Spurs are the branches/buds which intends to and will bear fruits in next growing
8. Renewal spurs: Spurs containing one or two buds which are intended to produce non-fruiting
vegetative canes and which ate to be availed for fruiting in the next season.
9. Suckers: Suckers are water sprouts that develop from below the soil surface.
B. Training systems
Training system depends mainly on the nature of the, vine with reference to its apical
dominance and vigour. The apical dominance present in grapevine necessitates checking of
straight growth of vine to regulate the optimum growth and fruiting. The vine is, therefore,
trained parallel to the ground or bent towards bottom. Although a number of training systems
are known, only five systems are followed in India. These are: head system, cordon system,
kniffin system, telephone system and bower system.
1. Head system
This is the simplest and cheapest of the five training systems mentioned above. In this
system, the vines are supported against stakes for the first 4-5 years or till their trunks become
strong enough to stand on their own. The vine trunk is kept 80-100 cm high and 4-5 arms are
deve- loped in the upper 20-25cm of the trunk on which fruiting spurs or renewals are kept every
year to provide fruiting and growth respectively.
a. It is easy to establish.
b. Establishment cost is about Rs 15 to 20 thousand per hectare. This includes the costs of
plant material, stakes and other establishment costs. Thus, it is cheap to establish.
c. Suitable for varieties low in vigour.
d. Suitable under poor growth conditions.
e. Suitable for varieties which bear fruits on basal buds and are pruned to short spurs.
f. Fruit picking is easy.
a. Yield is comparatively less. Such vines may yield 4-5 kg on an average at full bearing.
b. In areas where vines make excellent growth during growing and fruiting season, this system
does not prove very good.
c. It is not suitable for vigorous varieties.
d. It is not suitable for varieties which are pruned for fruiting to long canes and do not bear on
e. In windy locations, the vines trained on this system are likely to lodge.
2. Cordon system
The head and cordon are the two basic forms for i training of vines. In this system, either
one shoot from the main trunk is trained to extend horizontally on one side of the wire trellis
(unilateral horizontal cordon) or two shoots are trained on the both sides of wire trellis (bilateral
horizontal cordon). These shoots may extend up to 150-200cm or even longer and stay as the
permanent extension of the main trunks on which fruiting spurs are .\ retained each year. In
cordons, all the fruiting wood is retained on the upper side. No fruiting wood or vegetative
growth is allowed or retained on the lower side of the cordons.
a. The long trunk of the cordon enables good crop distribution, clusters do not touch each other,
shoots do t not rub against or grow through the clusters. Therefore, the fruit quality is very good.
b. Cordons being permanent and large in size become capable of storing more food reserves.
This tends to make lower buds on canes more fruitful. Thus, varieties which bear on long spurs
or canes on head system will bear normal crops even on short spurs on cordon system.
c. Pruning is simple and pruning costs relatively low.
d. The average yields are of the order of 10-15 kg per vine at full bearing when planted 3 x 3m
a. The initial training is difficult and laborious. It also requires more skill and expense. :
b. The varieties which bear on long canes and where the basal ,buds are not fruitful cannot be
trained on this system.
c. When cordons become old and unfruitful, their renewal is difficult.
d. It is very expensive too. It costs about 50 to 60 thou- sand rupees per hectare to establish a
vineyard on cordon system with a 2-3 trellis. .'
3. Kniffin system
This system is most commonly employed in the United States of America for seedless
table grapes. In this system, vines are trained basically to head system but are subsequently
cane pruned. While training the vines on a kind of head pattern, care should be taken that the
arms are developed in such a way that two of them are at the level of first set of wires another
two (i.e. one each in opposite direction) are at the level of second set of wires on the trellis. To
achieve this, training procedure has to be little different in the 2nd and 3rd years from the head
a. It is a good system for obtaining full crop on vines, the basal buds on the canes of which are
sterile and which requires long cane pruning.
b. It is good for small clustered varieties which require fruit thinning for improved quality.
c. The system allows for more lateral spread of fruit bunches than cordon system.
d. The average yields are 10-15 kg per vine when planted 3 x 3m apart.
a. Cane pruning of any variety which bears normal crop with spur pruning will induce over
bearing and weaken the vines in due course.
b. From pruning point of view, it is very difficult and exacting system. Since the retained fruiting
units are few, they must be perfect and the pruner must have thorough knowledge for their
c. Its .cost of establishment is similar to cordon system. It would be around 50-60 thousand per
4. Telephone system
Telephone system is basically a cordon system where the cordons are spread
horizontally either bi-directionally or uni-directionally. The wire system is like that of telephone
wires. All the cordons are made to spread at one height parallel to each other. None is in
vertical position over the other as in the case with stormy cordon. Being at one height and in
one plane the cordons get uniformly well lighted, the fruit bunches hang down from the wires
and are protected.
a. The bunches hang from the vines, ripen uniformly and are protected from birds damage.
b. Interculture operations are easy.
c. In hot regions where vines make luxuriant growth, this system provides better spread area
and fruiting surface.
d. Yields are somewhat higher than both kniffin and conventional cordons. The vines on this
system may yield on an average 15-20 kg per vine when planted 3 x 3 meter apart.
e. The system suits semi-vigorous varieties.
a. Cost of establishment is high. At present rates, it may cost 60 to 70 thousand rupees per
b. It is a system difficult to develop i.e. the vine training, needs a lot of skill and efforts.
c. The bunches are not as well exposed to light as in kniffin system.
d. Not suitable for vines making low to moderate growth.
5. Bower system
It is an overhead system in which vines are basically trained on cordon system. There
are two main or primary cordons which serve as the main arms. On these primary cordons, bi-
directionally secondary cordons are developed so that the vine covers overhead area of about 9
square meters if the vines are planted 3 x 3 m apart. On the secondary cordons are retained
short or long fruiting spurs and one or two bud renewals depending on varieties. It is very
extensive system in which the fruiting area of the vine spreads over the entire 9 sq m space.
This enables retention of a lot more fruiting wood than on other systems. Consequently, the
yields are much higher.
a. Higher yields, generally vines planted 3 x 3 meters apart give an average yield of 25 to 35 kg
vine depending on variety.
b. The bunches hang from the vines and due to this extensive vines are saved from the bird
c. Since vines cover completely the overhead trellis, the weed growth is suppressed due to
d. In hot weather, where vine growth is luxuriant, it is a good system for vigorous growing and
heavy bearing varieties. It protects the fruits from scorching sun light.
a. Cost of establishment is high and may range between 80 thousand to lakh rupees per-
b. Spraying and fruit haulage are difficult.
c. The training and pruning of vines is difficult and requires a lot of skill and labour.
d. The cordons become barren if vines are not trained and pruned properly.
Removal of any vegetative part is called pruning. It is done to concentrate the activity of
the vine in the parts left after pruning and to induce sprouting of the fruitful buds located in the
middle portion of the canes, which otherwise do not sprout. Pruning is done only once in North
India during the month of January to make the fruitful buds sprout, but in South India, pruning is
done twice in the year, once in summer and again in winter. Grape vines in this region grow
continuously without any dormancy. Hence, by pruning in April (summer pruning) the vines are
forced to have a rest period, which helps in the fruit differentiation. Pruning time mainly depends
on rainfall and temperature. It is so adjusted that there is no coincidence of rainfall with fresh
growth and flowering and also the winter does not set in within 8-10 days after pruning.
1. Summer pruning
It is done during March-April in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, but in Tamil
Nadu in June. In this pruning, the canes are cut back to one or two bud level for building up the
fresh vegetative growth. Hence, fit is also called "back pruning" or growth pruning. The dried
canes are also removed.
2. Winter pruning
Vines which have attained the age of one year can be subjected to this pruning. This is
done during the last week of September and the first week of November in Andhra Pradesh and
Maharashtra, and during the second and third weeks of October around Bangalore, but at any
time in October in the interior northern districts of Karnataka and in December in Tamil Nadu.
The mature (about 6 months old), current season canes are pruned. Entire foliage and
immature shoots are removed. Levels of pruning differs with varieties. Anab-e-Shahi and Bhokri
are pruned to 5 bud level, Thompson Seedless to 10 buds, Bangalore Blue to 4 buds and
Gulabi to 9 buds, more number of buds are retained on thicker canes and less on thinner ones.
This pruning is also called "forward pruning".
Poor bud burst is a problem after winter pruning in some varieties like "Thompson
Seedless". Bud burst can be improved by smearing 2 % Thiourea on the buds.
In the varieties like "Bangalor Blue" in Karnataka and Bhokri and Anab-e-Shahi in Tamil
Nadu, the vines are pruned for cropping twice. Instead of back pruning, forward pruning is done
in summer. Particularly in Bangalore Blue. The vineyard is usually divided into blocks and the
pruning time adjusted in such a way that the fruit is available almost throughout the year. It is
therefore, not uncommon to see all stages of vine growth, ranging from vines with young shoots
to those with mature crops in the same vineyards.
3. Points to be borne in mind while pruning
Pruning is very crucial operations in viticulture. So, much care and precision should be
exercised in pruning a vine. A wise pruning envisages less depressing effect on the vine but
more concentration of the activity in the parts left after pruning. Light pruning i.e. retention of
more canes on a vine results in heavy crops while severe pruning i.e. retention of less canes
results in light crop. A vine in a given season can properly nourish only a certain quantity of
fruits. Hence, while pruning vigorous vines, more canes are retained, but in less vigorous vines
less number of canes are retained. If a vine has given heavy crop during previous season, it has
to be pruned severely during the present fruiting season.
All canes in a vine cannot be equally fruitful. Canes that are away from the trunk are
more fruitful than those nearer the trunk. Hence, the former ones are pruned lightly. Partly
mature and immature canes are sterile. Canes that taper suddenly or reversibly also are sterile.
Hence, such canes are to be removed completely. Within a variety, the thicker canes are
pruned lightly as compared to the thinner canes. Flat canes and the canes with longer
internodes also are not fruitful. Hence, such canes too are to be pruned to the base.
4. Bud burst
In North Indian plains the bud burst occurs in February-March but in the Himalayan
region in April- May. In South India, bud burst for vegetative growth takes place in April-May and
that for fruiting in October- November. Bud burst can be enhanced in "Thompson Seedless" and
"Pusa Seedless" by 1-2 weeks with the application of Thio-urea (3 %) on dormant vines after
pruning, in North India.
To stop the growth and put the vine in rest, root pruning is generally practiced in some
areas where soil moisture and temperature tend to make the vine ever green.
X. Flowering and Fruit Setting
The flowering in grape vine is regulated by the proper balance of auxins, gibberellins,
cytokinins and growth inhibitors which is possibly governed by a balanced nutritional status of
vine under favourable climatic conditions. In North India, flowering takes place in March-April.
Flowering takes place when the mean daily temperature is 20°C, the optimum range
being 18.3°C to 22. 1°C. The flower at the base open first, and 2-3 days may be required for
opening of all flowers in a panicle in a variety. High humidity, rains and cloudy weather delay the
flower- ing. Vitis Vinifera grape is self pollinated. However, pollination is also accomplished by
winds and insects and in some cases artificial pollination may be required for good fruiting.
Grape cultivars differ markedly in the extent of fruit setting. A cultivar "Black Corinth"
sets very straggly necessitating girdling and use of plant growth regulators. Cultivars like
Perlette and Beauty Seedless and some other seeded cultivars set so heavily that they require
thinning of berries for improving the size and qualities of grapes. Thinning before flowering
results in more fruit set, and as such. Fruit set is directly proportional to the number of ~ mature
leaves. It is considerably reduced due to presence of immature leaves and shoot tip.
XI. Improving Berry and Bunch Quality
Topping is practised to provide more light and ventilation to the developing bunches for
proper ripening. The shoots are topped off leaving 8-10 leaves above the bunch depending on
the leaf size. The unproductive and auxiliary shoots are also removed. The excessive vegetative
growth can be reduced by spraying the growth retardants like B-9 and Phosphon-D at 0.12 and
0.05% concentration respectively at 10 leaf sage. Bunch compactness in "Thompson Seedless"
can be overcome by treating the panicles with 15 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) solution (15 mg
per litre of water) at full bloom stage. To improve the berry size and appearance, bunches are
dipped in 60 ppm gibberellic acid solution for 10 seconds at fruit set stage. To overcome the
"shot berry" formation in Gulabi variety, application of 50 ppm of gibberellic acid solution to the
panic)es at 5-6 days after fall is recommended.
In addition to gibberellic acid treatment, girdling is also practiced in "Thompson
Seedless" in Maharashtra for improving the berry and bunch qualities. Cane girdling is done by
removing a narrow stripe (2 to 3 inches wide). It is done on individual fruiting canes in the
second or third internodes, immediately after fruit set. It restricts the movement of carbohydrates
(formed through the process of photosynthesis and called Photosynthates) into the parent vine
and helps their accumulation in the bunches. Consequently, improved fruit set, berry size and
quality and advancement in the fruit maturity are achieved. It has to be done very cautiously
without damaging, the wood. Even a small piece of the bark should not be left in the girdled
portion. However, girdling should not be continued for many years as repeated girdling lowers
the vitality of the vine and markedly reduces its bearing life. .
The spray of N.A.A.-100 ppm (Naphthalene acetic acid) a week before harvesting
effectively controls berry ,,' shattering during the transport and storage of Bangalore Blue and
Anab-e-Shahi. Pre-harvest spray of NAA-50 1 ppm in combination with cytokinins 100 ppm
checks' post-harvest berry drop appreciably in "Cheema Sahebi". The combination of urea (0.5
%) and boron (0.2 % increases total soluble solid and total sugars and decreases acidity
especially in "Bangalore Blue" variety 0 Similarly, application of Sevin (100 ppm) in combination
with gibberellic acid (40 ppm) at fruit set stage followed by another application a week later also
improves the bunch, berry size and total soluble solids, and decreases the shot berries
formation and acidity in "Perlette" variety.
XII. Induction of Seedlessness in Grapes
Seedless grapes can be harvested from the GA3 treated clusters of seeded variety
'Delaware' at pre-bloom stage) and 'Hur' (50 ppm at full bloom, followed by 25 , ppm at fruit set
stage) on a commercial scale. Seedlessness can also be induced with pre-bloom application of
GA3 (J 00 ppm) in Bhokri.
Gibberellic acid (GA3) application at pre-bloom stage is given to make the pollen non-
functional as being functionally female, does not require pre bloom application of GA3 because
its pollens are already non functional. Gibberellic acid applied at full bloom gives impetus to the
growth of ovary and then another application at the fruit set stage is required to increase berry
size in this cultivar.
XIII. Insect Pests and Diseases
All cultivars of grapes grown in India are susceptible to disease and pests except
"Bangalore Blue" which is resistant to almost all fungal diseases occurring in India. The principal
pests and diseases of grape vine and their control measures are mentioned ahead.
A. Insect pests
1. Mealy bugs (Pseudococcus carymbatus, and Planococcus lilacinus)
These are small soft bodied insects and are polyphagous (feeding on different kind of
vegetation) in their feeding habit. Both, nymph and adult females suck the sap from the leaves,
shoots and berries thereby weakening the vigour of the vines. The affected berries lose their
market value. These insects also secrete a honey dew like substance on the fruits and leaves
which favours the growth of sooty mould. This sooty mould inhibits the photosynthetic activities
of the plants. The infestation is more serious during the fruiting period of the vines.
Spray 0.1 % DDVP (Dichlorvas) after pruning and fruit set.
2. Shot hole borer (Xyleborus semiopaus)
This pest is serious from June to October. Its beetles bore holes in the stems and
branches which induce exudation of gum. If gum is 'scratched minute pine holes are visible. The
leaves of the affected branches show internal scorching and necrosis. In case of severe
infestation, the whole vine may dry up.
Swab the stem and bigger branches with B.B.C. slurry at least twice in a year in the
months of May-June and September-October to prevent egg laying. It can also be controlled by
pouring Malathion (0.3 %) with kerosene oil in the holes and then plugging them with mud.
3. Flea beetle (Scelodonta strigicollis)
The adult beetles of this insect feed on emerging buds and young leaves by cutting
holes and as a result the leaves show punctured appearance. It also attacks the tendrils and
scrapes the young berries. Grubs of this insect feed on roots. The pest is more active during
September to December and again during March to May in South India, while in Punjab,
Haryana and Himachal Pradesh it appears from March to November.
Remove the loose bark at the time of pruning which will prevent beetles from egg laying.
Spray Quinalphos (Ekalux 25 E.C. 2mljlitre of water immediately after pruning).
4. Chaffer beetles (Macrodactylus subspinosus and Macrodactylus uniformis)
Chaffer beetles are voracious feeders on emerging buds and young and old leaves. In
case of severe attack the whole leaf lamina is eaten up, leaving only the skeleton of the veins.
The beetles attack mainly during night and they hide in nearby shrubs during day time. Damage
is more in vineyards located near jungles. The beetle is active immediately after the onset of
Spraying Monocrotophos or Quinolphos at 0.05 % solution has been recommended.
Dusting affected vines with 10% B.H.C. also controls 'this pest.
5. Thrips (Rhiphiphorothrips cruentalis)
It starts damaging the vines soon after pruning when the plant bears new vegetative
flush. The insect scraps the epidermis and sucks the oozing sap. Infested patches are white and
later turn brown. In severe cases, leaves curl up, wither and dry off prematurely. Scrapping of
young berries results in formation of corky crust or scab. The peak infestation is during hot
weather and also during October to December.
The pest can be easily controlled by spraying Monocrotophos (Nuvacron 1.25 ml / litre of
water) or Dimethoate (Roger 1.7mljlitre of water) after pruning. Karachi, Fakdi and 'Seedless'
grapes are fairly tolerant to this in- sect.
6. Spider mites (Paratetranychus punicae)
It is a sporadic pest on grapes but sometimes infestation is severe. The adults and
nymphs suck the sap from the upper surface of the leaves. In case of severe infestation, leaves
dry and drop down pre-maturely. This pest is mainly active during May-August.
This pest can easily be controlled by spraying Dicopol (Kelthane at 2.2 ml / litre of water)
or Monocrotophos (Nuvacron 1.25 ml / litre of water) when the pest appears in the orchard.
Termites enter vines through pruning wounds or through partly decayed trunks or roots
and cause severe damage to the vine.
Using neem cake or BHC in the filling mixture of pits at the time of planting keep this
pest away. After pruning, wounds should be painted with Bordeaux paste.
This disease is caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola. It causes extensive damage
to grape vines in all grape growing tracts except some parts of North India and mountainous
zones which have conspicuous dry summer. The humid areas of northern sub-mountain region
are also prone to this disease.
Leaves, shoots, tendrils, flowers and fruits of the vine are infected. Light green to olive
yellow translucent spots appear on the upper surface of leaves. White growth in patches
appears on the lower surface of the leaves. Under suitable environmental conditions, the
disease development leads to partial or total destruction of leaves, dwarfing and killing of
shoots, rooting and cracking of berries. Symptoms on affected fruits are large oily blotches with
the dark margins which finally become dull green, wither, rot and drop down.
The disease causing fungus survives on the fallen leaves and diseased plant parts. Its
spores germinate. When atmosphere is moist. Disease development is favored during rainy
season when there is a heavy dew, relative humidity is above 80 % and the prevailing
temperature is between 230 to 27°C.
a. Destroy all the fallen diseased leaves and pruned twigs, by burning or burying, in order to
minimize the sources of infection for the next season.
b. After pruning, spray the cane with Bordeaux mixture (5:5:50) or Difolatan (0.2%) or Delan
(0.2%) or Daconil (0.2 %).
c. When the flushes are formed, spray with Difolatan (0.2 %) or Delan (0.2 %) or Daconil (0.2 %)
or Ridomil (0.1 %) and repeat at weekly intervals.
This is a dreaded disease of grapes that develops in an epidemic form during rainy
season under high humidity and high temperature conditions. This disease is caused by the
fungus Gloecosporium ampelophagum. It is prevalent in all parts of India except in Kinnaur
district of Himachal Pradesh and some other high mountain zones. Almost all commercial
cultivars of grape, except ."Bangalore Blue" are susceptible to this disease.
Initially small dark brown spots appear on leaves which gradually' increase in size.
Centre of the spot be- comes papery thin and falls off giving the appearance of 'shot-hole'
symptoms. Usually leaves with many spots are distorted. Conspicuous brown elliptical and
sunken lesions are found on shoots. The growth of young infected twigs is arrested, which
remain short and dry up. Brown sunken spots with dark margins are found on berries. Infected
berries shrivel and dry up.
Favourable conditions for disease .development are relative humidity above 70 %,
temperature between 20 to 30 degree C and continuous drizzling or rains for 48 hours.
a. Remove all the diseased twigs and leaves. Spray pruned canes and leaves with a mixture of
ferrous sulphate 2.5 kg plus 1/2 pint Sulphuric acid in 1 gallon of water.
b. Spraying 0.1 % Bavistin or 0.3 % Difolatan or 0.2 % Dithane M-45 regularly at 5-10 days
intervals during May-August and October-December gives effective control.
3. Powdery mildew
This disease is caused by the fungus Uncinula necator. It is highly virulent in South
India and Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. In the arid climate of northern plains, it is
Symptoms of this disease are appearance of white powdery growth on leaves, young
shoots, blossoms and berries. Heavy infection during early part of the season causes complete
destruction of flower panicles. Infected leaves curl upward during dry weather. Infected fruits are
deshaped, cracked and have rusty spots. Infected berries do not ripen properly and may fall
Favourable conditions for the development of this disease is dry weather with mild
temperature, low rainfall and relative humidity between 70-80 per cent. The pathogens are able
to grow at 10-30°C temperature.
a. Vines must not be overcrowded. Thinning of leaves will be helpful in maintaining proper
b. Sulphur dusting should be done in the morning when the dew is present on the leaves.
c. Fungicidal spray of Sulfex (0.2%) or Wettasul (0.2%)
or Bayleton (0.1 %) or Saptol (0.15%) at 10 to 15 days intervals during December to February.
4. Dead arm
This disease, caused by the fungus Phomopsis viticola, results in sudden wilt of vine,
which is accelerated by the sun scald of arms or trunk. It is prevalent in South India. This
disease is first noticed as angular small spots on the leaves, stems and flower clusters. Most of
the spots have yellowish margins and dark centers. Spots grow and kill the buds. In some cases
the fungus grow back into the woody part where it gradually attacks the water conducting
system of the plant and kills the arms, thus giving the disease this name. The pathogen survives
in dead canes, arms and spots of leaflets.
a. Destroy diseased and pruned canes.
b. Spray Bordeaux mixture (5:5 :50) immediately after pruning and continue with Difolatan (0.2
%) or Daconil (0.2 %) or Dithane (0.2 %) or Daconil (0.2 %) at 10-14 days intervals till the canes
5. Viral diseases
Symptoms of fan leaf virus, yellow mosaic virus and leaf roll are also now prevalent in
India. These diseases are soil-borne and are transmitted through nematodes. However, these
diseases have not yet assumed an alarming form in our country. Nematode control is, therefore,
necessary to make vineyards free from viruses.
In Indian vineyards, mainly root knot nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita are
found. They produce swellings or galls on roots. Infection occurs in young rootlets, but galls may
persist on older roots. Heavy infections may completely destroy the root systems of young
plants. Galling of roots blocks the flow of water and food. This starves the plant.
The nematodes cause more severe injury in light coarse-textured soil than in heavy clay
Commercial scions budded on root knot nematode resistant rootstocks such as 1613,
Dog Ridge and Salt Creek can be used for planting to overcome the nematode problem in
XIV. Nutritional and Physiological Disorders
Like mango and citrus, grape cultivation is also beset with several problems created due
to nutritional or physiological disturbances. These are discussed below.
1. Interveinal chlorosis
This disorder is frequently observed in 'Anab-e-Shahi' grape around Hyderabad. This is
more pronounced at the fruit maturity stage. In this disorder, the area between , the veins
becomes yellowish. In severe infestation, the leaf tips may dry completely. It is believed that this
disorder is developed due to the deficiency of magnesium probably induced by excessive
fertilization with potash.
To check this disorder spraying with 0.5 % solution of neutralized magnesium sulphate
during the fruit development stage is recommended. Two-three sprays at an intervals of 20-30
days are carried out.
2. Blossom end rot
Like inter-veinal chlorosis this disorder is also of common occurrence in Anab-e-Shahi,
around Hyderabad. In this case, initially a black sunken spot develops at the blossom end of the
berry which goes on spreading with the water-soaked region around it. Finally the affected area
becomes rotten. It is believed that defective calcium assimilation by growing berries is the cause
of this disorder.
Using good quality irrigation water, avoiding heavy irrigation after a prolonged dry period
and spraying with 0.2 % calcium solution or application of lime to the soil are some of the
remedial measures to correct this disorder.
3. Flower and flower bud drop
This disorder has been reported to occur in North Indian states like Punjab, Haryana and
Rajasthan. In this case, flowers drop from the panicles just before and after opening causing
considerable yield reduction. Development of this disorder is attributed to the association of 'I a
number of factors such as atmospheric temperature, I high and total salt content of the soil.
The control lies in reducing the rapidity of shoot j growth by limiting the supply of
nitrogen and water during spring, topping vigorous shoots, using a weed cover crop, leaving a
large number of canes on a vine after pruning and irrigating the vines regularly to avoid water
Drop of flower buds or flowers is invariably accompanied by the formation of abscission
layer. The vine treated with NAA (10 ppm) retains the maximum number of buds and flowers
under Punjab conditions. Gibberellic, acid (20 and 50 ppm) and Parachlorphenoxy acetic acid
(20 ppm) applied at 18 days before flower opening reduces flower bud drops significantly in
Thompson Seedless. Girdling 10 days before full bloom also improves fruit set in some vigorous
4. Cluster tip wilting
This is a common disorder in Thompson seedless bunches. at maturity. The green fruit
at the apex will become soft and at maturity the apical portion of the cluster will contain wilted or
shriveled berries which are un- developed and sour. Sometimes the cluster apex dries up and
contains high brown and small berries. This disorder is found to be more under moisture deficit
conditions and also in vines with heavy crop loads.
Timely supply of irrigation in proper quantity and maintaining optimum crop load through
pruning will check the development of this disorder.
5. Pink berry formation
This is a serious problem of Thompson Seedless in Maharashtra. As the bunch
approaches harvesting stage, some berries develop pink colour which turns black within a day
after harvesting, rendering the produce unmarketable. The incidence increases with rising
temperature in late season crop. Indiscriminate use of EthreI for berry colouration may also
cause this disorder.
Though reasons or factors responsible for this disorder are yet not clearly known,
indiscriminate use of Ethrel and late season crop should be avoided.
6. Poor cane maturity
This is a common phenomenon observed in India. It is more in vineyards where the
shoot growth is vigorous and dense, vines are planted closely, excess use of nitrogen and over
irrigation and heavy crop load in previous season are common features;
The remedial measures are to include cultural practices to check excessive vegetative
growth and elongation of shoots. Mutual shading of the shoots and promotion of light
interception in vines should also be encouraged.
G. Chicken and hen disorder
This disorder is caused by the deficiency of boron resulting in more number of round and
oblete shot berries in the bunch. These berries are undeveloped and sometimes fruit set is also
badly affected. In severe cases, flower clusters may also dry up.
For correcting this disorder 20-30 kg of borax per hectares should be applied or foliar
application of boric acid (0.3-0.5 %) may also be used.
XV. Harvesting and Yield
Grape bunches are harvested when they are fully ripe on the vine as there will not be
further ripening of berries after they are removed from the vine. Time taken from the fruit set to
ripening depends on the variety, crop load on the vine and the atmospheric temperature. So the
time required for ripening in one region may not be the same in other region with in the same
variety. Therefore, the 'Heat Unit Concept" is followed for determining the right stage of harvest.
For its determination the mean temperature of maximum and minimum is calculated and 10°C
base temperature is deducted from the mean temperature. The balance temperature is added
from the bloom to the ripening of grapes. This is expressed in terms of degree days. Generally
early maturing varieties require about 1600 degree days to mature, and the late maturing
varieties at least 3500 degree days. The following are given the degree days for some of the
varieties grown in India.
Anab-e Shahi 3563
Bangalore Blue 3562
The ripeness of the individual bunches may be decided by observing the lower most
berries of a bunch. If they are soft and sweet, the bunch is ready to be harvested. On ripening
the white grapes turn amber and the coloured ones attain dark and uniform characteristic
colour. Seeds of the ripe becomes become dark brown. These colour changes the generally
accepted standards of ripeness for harvesting.
Grapes are harvested preferably during morning and the harvested bunches are kept in
shade till sorting of the damaged or over-ripe berries. Grapes are transported from the field to
storage in wide mouthed baskets lined with soft green grasses to protect them from being
bruised. Peduncle should be intact with bunches.
The average yield of grapes in India is 21.5 tonnes per hectare. This is the highest yield
in the world. India produces only 0.33 % of the world's grape production. The maximum yield of
79.04 tonnes per hectare has been recorded in Anab-e-Shahi at Hyderabad and 91.39 tonnes
as in Cheema Sahebi at Baramati (Maharashtra). These heavy crops are certainly harmful for
the further growth and as they rapidly deplete nutrients from the soil production of vine.
Therefore, the yield should not go beyond 20-25 tonnes per hectare.
XVI. Uses and Composition
Grape is refreshing fruit. It is rich in sugars, acids, minerals and vitamins. Sulphured as
well as unsulphured dehydrated grapes retain vitamin A in full, but not the natural raisins. The
predominant sugar in grape is fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose. The acidity, skin
pigment, pectins, volatile essence, vitamin C, amino acid and iron vary with the variety and soil
conditions. Tartaric and malic acids constitute about 90 of the total acids in grapes. Citric and
ascorbic acids are also found in minute quantities. The composition of grape is given in Table 4.
Table 4 : Composition of grapes: constituents and their quantity Chief constituents Quantity
Sl.No. Chief Constituents Quantity
1 Energy 60-7- Kcal/100
2 Carbohydrate 15-25%
3 Minerals 0.2-0.6%
4 Iron 0.0003-0.0017 gm/100 g frit
5 Calcium 0.004-0.025%
6 Potassium 0.15 to 0.25 %
7 Vitamin –A 1-80 I U/g
8 Vitamin –B 369-636 ug100 or ml
9 Timine 35-58 ug/100g or ml
10 Riboflavine 20-25 ug100g or ml
11 Pyridoxine 84-135 ug/100g or ml
12 Pantothenic acid 70-78 ug/100g or ml
13 Nicotinic acid 170-330 ug /100g or ml
14 Folic acid 4.2-10.2 ug/100g or ml
15 Vitamin-C 1-12.5 ug/100g
Grape is used for preparing a number of products such as raisins, munacca, juice, wines,
vinegar and canned grapes. Grape wine is one of the finest wines in the world.
XVII. Storage & Marketing
Fresh grape is highly perishable fruit. When the crop is heavy, the market is glutted with
grapes which have to be sold away cheaply, well before they begin to spoil. To avoid extremely
low prices resulting from glut, their preservation in cold storage is necessary.
Grapes can be sorted at 0°C temperature and 80-90 % relative humidity for 4 weeks and
for 6 weeks with potassium metabisulphite @lg/kg grapes. At this temperature Anab-e-Shahi
can be stored for 30 days and Muscat , for 50 days. Thompson Seedless grapes packed in
polye thylene bags (I00g) with grape guard (sulphur dioxide releasing paper) and kept in
corrugated fibre board (CFB) cortons can be stored for 4 to 6 days at room temperature (25 to
28°C) with 80 % recovery of good fruits. The storage life can be extended to 12 weeks by
keeping in cold storage (1-3°C) with similar packing.
During the storage the grape fruits are subject to two serious post-harvest disorders
namely weakening of pedicel attachment resulting in berry shattering as in Thompson Seedless,
and invasion of decay organisms. Therefore, pre-cooling of grapes at 2.2-4.4°C for 6-24 hours is
essential before keeping grapes in cold storage.
The marketing situation of grapes in India is critical and there is no organized marketing
system for this crop. Growers sell their produce to contractors, who again depend on the wishes
of traders for their return. The highly perishable nature of the crop allows traders to exploit the
situation in their favour, resulting in lesser margin to the grower. In the early sixties grape
growers federation was established in Punjab for organization of marketing and establishing
processing industries. Presently the societies of growers association like "Maharashtra Rajya
Drakasha, Bagaitdar", "Tasgaon Vaidyanic Sheti Seva" and "Drakshakul Pvt Ltd." are operating
in Maharashtra. These cooperatives not only provide necessary inputs to the growers but also
purchase their produce, keep in cold storage and sell them to the markets. This type of
cooperative organizations are also required in other grape growing regions in India.
XVIII. Economics of Grape Production.
Grape growing needs high initial investments but by the end of fifth year of planting, the
initial investment along with the recurring expenditure will be recovered. From the sixth year
onwards, profit of Rs. 40-50 thou- sand per hectare per year may be obtained depending on the
market price of grapes and the cost of inputs. In the event of defective pruning, unprecedented
rains during flowering and disease outbreak, the return will be drastically reduced. Profits are
more with Anab-e-Shahi and Thompson Seedless and less with Bangalore Blue, Gulabi, etc.
Once well established, vineyard continues to bear economic crop upto 20-25 years. Given
below is a format for determining cost benefit of grape cultivation.
A. Fixed cost
1. Cost of the land Rs. ………
2. Cost of farm buildings storage structure etc. Rs. . ………
3. Cost of fencing Rs. . ………
4. Cost of windbreaks Rs. . ………
5. Cost of clearing, leveling and bunding of lands Rs. . ………
6. Cost of lay-out Rs. . ………
7. Cost of digging and filling pits Rs. . ………
8. Cost of machines, instruments and other accessories Rs. . ………
9. Cost of roads and paths Rs. . ………
10. Cost of rooted cuttings (including casualties) Rs. . ………
11. Cost of erection of training structure. (arbour, iron angles and twines etc) Rs. . ………
B. Recurring cost
1. Cost of manures and fertilizers Rs. . ………
2. Cost of insecticides, fungicides and weedicides Rs. . ………
3. Cost of other chemicals used such as N.A.A., Ethrel,GA3, etc. Rs. . ………
4. Cost of farm power Rs. . ………
5. Transportation Rs. . ………
6. Cost of farm labour (paid and unpaid) Rs. . ………
a. Land preparation Rs. . ………
b. Erection of training structures Rs. . ………
c. Irrigation Rs. . ………
d. weeding Rs. . ………
e. Application of fertilizers and manures Rs. . ………
f. Application of insecticides and fungicides. Rs. . ………
g. Other intercultural operations such as weeding, thinning and pruning. Rs. . ………
h. Harvesting Rs. . ………
i. Processing Rs. . ………
j. Storing and marketing Rs. . ………
k. Any other labour involvement Rs. . ………
7. Interest on fixed cost (@10%) Rs . ………
8. Rent or revenue paid for land Rs. . ………
9. Deprecation Rs. . ………
a. Farm structure Rs. . ………
b. Farm implements Rs. . ………
10. Repairs and maintenance Rs. . ………
Total recurring cost Rs. . ………
1. Yield of grapes Rs. . ………
2. Gross income Rs. . ………
3. Net profit = Gross income -Total recurring cost
Purchase value -Junk value
Depreciation = --------------------------------------------------
Note; Junk value is calculated only on those articles which are saleable after their life
span. The life span : of farm building and farm machinery is 15 to 10 years respectively.