Community A resource for planning,
enhancing and sustaining
Gardening your community
University of Missouri Extension MP906
About this guide
This guide is intended to be a resource for gardeners, garden
organizers, Extension staff and other agency professionals who want
to start a new community garden, enhance an existing garden or help
community members start and manage their own community garden.
For additional resources on this and other topics, visit your local
University of Missouri Extension center or MU Extension online at
MU Extension Associate
Healthy Lifestyle Initiative
an equal opportunity/ADA institution
MU Extension 2 MP906
What is a community garden? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Characteristics of neighborhood community gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Other types of community gardens, including rural community gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
The history of community gardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
The benefits of community gardening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Starting a community garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Five core beliefs of working in groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
From idea to action — Ten steps to success
Step 1: Talk with friends and neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Step 2: Hold a meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Step 3: Find and evaluate garden sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Step 4: Identify local resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Step 5: Hold a second meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Step 6: Draft a lease agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Step 7: Develop a site plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Step 8: Establish gardener guidelines and gardener application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Gardeners’ Welcome Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Step 9: Prepare and develop the site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Step 10: Celebrate your success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Additional information for local agencies interested in starting a community garden,
or groups interested in involving an outside organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Additional things to consider while getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Sample community garden budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Sample gardener application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Sample gardener guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Sample lease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Stories from experience
Building community: Benton-Stephens neighborhood, Columbia, Mo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Giving back: Temple Israel, Rogersville, Mo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
School gardening: Maplewood Richmond Heights School District, St. Louis, Mo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Intergenerational gardening: Schuyler County, Mo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
University of Missouri 3 Community Gardening Toolkit
What is a community garden?
A community garden means many things to many experience: BUILDING COMMUNITY
people. For some, a community garden is a place
Benton-StephenS neighBorhood garden,
to grow food, flowers and herbs in the company of
friends and neighbors. For others, it’s a place to re-
connect with nature or get physical exercise. Some Neighborhood leader Kip Kendrick explains that
use community gardens because they lack adequate starting a community garden in the Benton-Stephens
space at their house or apartment to have a garden. neighborhood laid the foundation for building commu-
Others take part in community gardening to build or nity and empowering neighbors to work together. As a
revitalize a sense of community among neighbors. newcomer to the neighborhood, Kendrick noticed that
Community gardens also take many shapes and the community was very active when confronted with a
forms. From a 50-by-50-foot church garden that sup- pressing issue. However, there didn’t seem to be ongo-
plies a local food pantry with fresh produce to a vacant ing conversations about the state of the neighborhood.
city lot divided into plots and gardened by neighbors, Nor was there much effort to mobilize action around
community gardens reflect the needs and the desires less immediate issues such as distressed properties or
of people directly involved in their management and inadequate sidewalks.
upkeep. As such, there are many, many ways to orga- By starting a community garden on a vacant piece
nize and manage a community garden. of land and by involving as many people as possible,
Regardless of why people choose to take part in a Kendrick and other neighbors launched a number of
community garden or how a garden is organized, the successful efforts to improve the entire community.
activity of gardening with others can be both reward- The group now hosts a monthly “coffee shop” where
ing and challenging. Our hope is that this guide will neighbors get together to meet, talk about issues and
help you manage the challenges that come your way dream about their neighborhood; a partnership is
and experience the rewards of community gardening. forming with the local elementary school to build raised
This guide is intended to be a resource for gardeners, gardening beds on the school’s property; a neighbor-
garden organizers, extension staff and other agency hood-wide campaign was started to build a sidewalk to
professionals who want to start a new community connect the neighborhood to an adjacent park; and the
garden, enhance an existing garden or assist commu- city has expanded its Neighborhood Response Team’s
nity members with starting and managing their own territory to work with neighbors whose properties
community garden. violate city codes.
The neighborhood’s efforts have even caught the
Characteristics of neighborhood attention of city hall. With Kendrick’s help, the city is
community gardens offering a neighborhood leadership training course to
cultivate more grassroots efforts to build community in
This guide provides a framework for organizing other neighborhoods.
and managing different types of community gardens
with a primary focus on neighborhood community
gardens, which typically share the following charac- ten share tools, water and compost, along with seeds
teristics. and plants.
First, neighborhood community gardens are typi- Second, neighborhood community gardens are of-
cally located on land that is divided into different ten organized and managed by the gardeners them-
plots for individual and family use. The land may selves, have one or more identified leaders responsible
be borrowed, rented or owned by the gardeners, and for managing the day-to-day activities of the garden
gardeners generally prepare, plant, maintain and har- and have some type of a garden committee to share
vest from their own plots. Gardeners and their fam- in the work. Because community gardens come with
ily, friends and neighbors usually consume produce a host of responsibilities that range from making plot
from the gardens rather than selling it. Gardeners of- assignments and keeping the grass mowed to resolv-
ing conflicts and enforcing the rules, things tend to
MU Extension 4 MP906
run more smoothly when one or more people are in of community gardens that are distinguished in part
charge and gardeners themselves take an active role by their purpose and participants.
keeping the garden in shape. Other gardens are distinguished more by their lo-
Finally, in addition to occupying vacant neigh- cation and less by their purpose. These gardens may
borhood lots, neighborhood community gardens are combine elements of a neighborhood community gar-
sometimes found at churches, social service agencies den with other community garden models. Examples
and other nonprofit organizations, including food include, but are not limited to: public agency gardens,
pantries and food banks. These gardens may involve community center gardens, senior gardens, church
both neighbors from the surrounding area and the gardens, apartment complex/public housing gardens
members or clients of a particular agency or institu- and prison gardens.
tion. They sometimes incorporate educational, job-
Rural community gardens
training and entrepreneurial programming.
Although community gardens are often associ-
Other types of community gardens ated with urban areas, they exist in many rural areas
as well. However, because of the unique characteris-
In addition to the typical neighborhood commu-
tics of rural places, they often take on different forms
nity garden where plots are subdivided and cared for
and serve different functions. Research conducted by
by individuals or families, community gardens exist
Ashley F. Sullivan (1999) from the Center on Hunger
in a variety of other forms to serve a number of func-
and Poverty at Tufts University identified a number of
tions. The examples below represent different types
Types of community gardens
• Youth/school gardens expose young people to garden- pantry, food bank or other location. Produce is grown by
ing and nature, give them the opportunity to do some volunteers, food pantry clients, or both and donated to
of their own gardening and/or educate them in a variety the food pantry.
of subject areas. These gardens are typically associated • Therapy gardens provide horticultural therapy to hos-
with a formal or semi-formal program that incorporates pital patients and others. A trained horticulture therapist
classroom lessons with hands-on gardening activities. often leads programs and classes. Gardens may be located
Gardens may be located on school grounds, at a commu- at hospitals, senior centers, prisons or other places.
nity center, in neighborhoods or on other parcels of land.
• Demonstration gardens show different types of garden-
• Entrepreneurial/job training market gardens are ing methods, plant varieties, composting techniques and
typically established by nonprofit organizations or other more. Demonstration gardens located at working com-
agencies to teach business or job skills to youth or other munity gardens are often open to the general public for
groups. They grow and sell the produce they raise. Pro- display and classes. They may be managed and main-
ceeds from the sale of garden products are used to pay tained by garden members or a participating gardening
the participants for their work. Programs typically rely on group such as extension Master Gardeners, community
outside sources of funding to offset costs. members who receive training in home horticulture and
• Communal gardens are typically organized and gar- then serve as volunteers to educate the public about gar-
dened by a group of people who share in the work and dening. For more on MU Extension’s Master Gardener
rewards. Plots are not subdivided for individual or family program, visit mg.missouri.edu.
use. Produce is distributed among group members. Some- *Adapted in part from: From Neglected Parcels to Commu-
times produce is donated to a local food pantry. nity Gardens: A Handbook, Wasatch Community Gardens
• Food pantry gardens may be established at a food (wasatchgardens.org/gardenresources.html).
University of Missouri 5 Community Gardening Toolkit
ways in which rural community gardens differ from Sullivan identified obstacles to community gar-
their urban counterparts. Her research uncovered dif- dening in rural areas as well. Obstacles include a high
ferent types of rural community gardens along with rate of gardener and volunteer turnover, animosity
obstacles to community gardening in rural areas. between “outsiders” and community members, lack
Sullivan identified seven different types of rural of gardening skills and lack of transportation.
community gardens in her study. They included the Sullivan also offers recommendations for over-
following: coming some of these obstacles:
• Traditional neighborhood-type gardens with • Do not assume that the traditional neighbor-
individual and family plots; hood community garden model will work in
• Gardens that provide demonstration and edu- rural areas.
cation to gardeners at neighborhood gardens • During the planning stages, identify obstacles
and home gardens; to starting a community garden in a rural area.
• Communal gardens tended collectively with the • Identify solutions to the obstacles.
produce going to a local food pantry; • Respect the values of the community and incor-
• Educational gardens that offer classes to the porate those values into the garden’s design.
public; • Be flexible when deciding how to organize a
• School gardens that incorporate gardening and garden; incorporate different models into a plan
nutrition education; to see which one works best.
• Community-assisted home gardens where an • Help gardeners cultivate a sense of ownership
experienced gardener mentors novice gardeners for the garden.
in their home gardening efforts; • Take time to look at all of the factors that might
• Gardens affiliated with an existing agency, hinder participation.
apartment complex or church. • Involve local organizations and businesses.
The history of community gardening
1890. Community 1918. During World War
gardens have been I, the government pro-
used in American cit- moted community gar-
ies since the 1890s, dens to supplement and
with the first gardens expand the domestic
appearing in Detroit. food supply. The federal
During the initial government embarked
phase of community on an unprecedented
gardening, a variety effort to incorporate ag-
of groups, including ricultural education and
social and educational food production into
reformers, along with the public school curric-
those involved in the ulum through a Bureau
civic beautification of Education program
movement, were responsible for promoting community gar- called the United States School Garden Army. According to the
dening. Community gardens began as a way to provide land USSGA, several million children enlisted in the program, 50,000
and technical assistance to unemployed workers in large cities teachers received curriculum materials and several thousand
and to teach civics and good work habits to youth. volunteers helped lead or assist garden projects.
1930. During the Great Depression, community gardens provided a means for the unemployed to grow their own food. During this
time, private, state and local agencies provided individuals with garden plots and employment in cooperative gardening. More than
23 million households, growing produce valued at $36 million, participated in various garden programs in 1934 alone.
MU Extension 6 MP906
A discussion of starting and
managing a community garden
would be incomplete without a
discussion of the challenges en-
countered by gardeners and gar-
den organizers. Common chal-
lenges faced by most community
garden groups include:
Management – Community gar-
dens are management intensive.
They demand patience, time and
the capacity to work with and or-
ganize people and projects. They
also typically require systems to
enforce rules and resolve conflicts.
Maintenance – Community gar- come and go from community adult activity and vandalism is
dens are maintenance intensive. gardens for a variety of reasons. carried out by children.
Grass will need to be mowed, Because of this, it can be challeng- Gardening skills – Many new
equipment will need to be re- ing to maintain a sense of commu- and some returning gardeners
paired, and plant debris will need nity and consistency at gardens. don’t know a lot about gardening.
to be composted, among other Theft and vandalism – Theft and Gardeners who lack gardening
things. vandalism are commonplace at skills and have poor gardening
Participation – From year to year, many community gardens. As a experiences may be more likely to
gardeners and garden leaders general rule, theft is the result of give up.
1970.The rebirth of community gar-
dening in the 1970s was a response to
urban abandonment, rising inflation,
environmental concerns and a desire
to build neighborly connections. City-
wide organizations assisted people
with acquiring land, constructing
gardens and developing educational
programming. Local residents, fac-
ing a myriad of urban problems, used
gardens to rebuild neighborhoods
and expand green spaces. Although
common themes of food production,
income generation, recreation, edu-
cation and beautification still provid-
1940. The Victory Garden campaign ed a strong rationale for gardening, a
during World War II encouraged people new focus was placed on rebuilding
to grow food for personal consumption, social networks and the infrastructure
recreation and to improve morale. After of blighted urban communities.
the war, only a few gardening programs
remained, and it was these remaining
programs that gave rise to the rebirth
of community gardening in the 1970s.
University of Missouri 7 Community Gardening Toolkit
Leadership skills – Many gardeners may not have experience: GIVING BACK
the skills to take a leadership role at their respective
garden. temple iSrael, rogerSville, mo.
Since 2006, Joel Waxman and a group of dedicated
Services and supplies – Plowing, tilling and the de-
volunteers have grown vegetables at a community garden
livery of compost and mulch can be challenging ser-
at Temple Israel to donate to the Ozarks Food Harvest.
vices for gardeners to arrange for themselves.
The group, comprised of Master Gardeners, members of
Water – Most gardens need some way to irrigate various congregations and other community members,
fruits and vegetables during the summer. Finding has pooled its time, expertise and, above all, commitment
a source of water can be challenging. Also, because to increasing access to fresh vegetables. The group has
most community gardens are located on borrowed donated thousands of pounds of garden-grown food to
land, installing a water hydrant may not be feasible those struggling to make ends meet.
or cost effective. The 4,000-square-foot garden holds an impressive array
Site permanency – Most community gardens are lo- of vegetables. “Over the last three years, we’ve learned
cated on borrowed land. This limits the amount of in- what works best,” Joel said. Eggplant, potatoes, winter
frastructure that can be added to a particular site. It squash, okra, yardlong beans and sweet potatoes grow
may also create an atmosphere of instability among well in the southwest Missouri climate and soils. For mulch,
gardeners since the garden could be lost at any mo- the gardeners use shredded paper, leaves and hay. For
ment. watering, the group uses soaker hoses.
Joel is always interested in spreading the word about the
Temple Israel garden. Recently, two other congregations in
the area expressed interest in starting their own gardens.
Joel and his group intend to do whatever they can to help
them get started.
The benefits of community gardening
TODAY. Although most community gar- and having access to nature help
den programs before the 1970s were gen- reduce stress and increase gar-
erally considered temporary solutions to deners’ sense of wellness and be-
food shortages, economic depression and longing. (Malakoff, 1995)
civic crises, most advocates today claim • Community. Community gar-
that community gardens have perma- dens foster a sense of community
nent, long-term functions that provide a
identity, ownership and stew-
number of benefits to individuals, families
and communities. Those benefits include, ardship. They provide a place for
but are not limited to, the following: people of diverse backgrounds to
interact and share cultural tradi-
• Food production and access. Com- tions.
munity gardens enable people without • Environment. Gardens help re-
suitable land of their own to grow high- • Youth. Gardens provide a safe place for
duce the heat-island effect in cities, in-
quality fruits and vegetables for them- youth to explore gardening, nature and
crease biodiversity, reduce rain runoff,
selves, their families and their communi- community through formal program-
recycle local organic materials and re-
ties, possibly in places that lack grocery ming or informal participation.
duce fossil fuel use from food transport.
stores or other fresh food outlets. • Income. Produce may be sold or used to
• Education. All ages can acquire and
• Nutrition. Some research indicates that offset food purchases from the grocery
share knowledge related to gardening,
community gardeners eat more fruits store.
cooking, nutrition and health. Some
and vegetables (Bremer et al., 2003). • Crime prevention. Gardens can help re-
gardens have programs that provide
• Exercise. Gardening requires physical duce crime.
training in horticulture, business man-
activity and helps improve overall physi- • Property values. Some research indi-
agement, leadership development and
cal health. cates community gardens may increase
• Mental health. Interacting with plants surrounding property values (Whitmire).
Adapted from Multiple Benefits of Community Gardening, by Gardening Matters in Minneapolis. Online at gardeningmatters.org/Resources/community.htm
MU Extension 8 MP906
Starting a community garden
Before getting into the nuts and bolts of starting the importance of using a bottom-up or grassroots
a community garden, it’s helpful to lay a foundation approach when developing a garden. As the authors
for the work at hand. have learned over the years, most successful com-
From the outset, it is essential to understand that munity gardens are initiated, established and man-
community gardening is about more than growing aged by the gardeners themselves. When gardeners
food, flowers and herbs. It’s also about interpersonal have the opportunity to take ownership in a project,
relationships, group dynamics, planning and orga- they are more likely to invest their time and effort in
nizing, group decision-making and the associated making the garden a success.
rewards and challenges that come with working Additionally, keeping these suggestions in mind
with people. In short, community gardening is as may help you overcome some of the challenges that
much about “community” as it is “gardening.” arise when moving forward with a community gar-
If community is so important to community gar- den project. For example, the people involved in your
dening, then how do we orient ourselves to the task project will likely come from different backgrounds
of starting or enhancing a community garden? and have different ways of relating to each other and
The authors of the Growing Communities Curricu- the project. They will bring their unique personali-
lum (Abi-Nader et al., 2001) offer a set of suggestions ties, perceptions, knowledge, skills and experience
developed by community gardening experts to a group situation. They will have differ-
from across the country. These sug- ent ideas about how to accomplish a
gestions, written in the form of project. Some group members
“core beliefs,” can be used to may learn faster than others.
guide the development of Five core beliefs Some will be more pes-
your community gar- of working in groups simistic. Others will
den and provide a be more optimistic.
• Core Belief No. 1: “There are many ways to start and
strong foundation Regardless of these
manage a community garden.” Although this may be a
for growth. given, it helps to remember that community gardens can differences, the
Taken as a serve many purposes and take many forms. group should
whole, these be committed
core beliefs • Core Belief No. 2: “In order for a garden to be sustainable as a true to remaining
emphasize community resource, it must grow from local conditions and reflect open and
the strengths, needs and desires of the local community.” Assistance
the impor- patient with
from people or organizations outside of the community can be helpful.
tance of However, those who will be using the garden should make most of the all group
being inclu- decisions about how the garden is developed and managed. members
sive, mak- and creat-
ing room • Core Belief No. 3: “Diverse participation and leadership, at all phases of ing the time
for diverse garden operation, enrich and strengthen a community garden.” Gardens and space
can be stronger when they are developed and led by people from different
ideas and to facilitate
local assets • Core Belief No. 4: “Each community member has something to about the best
when starting contribute.” Useful skills and good suggestions are often overlooked way to accom-
a community because of how people communicate. People should be given a plish the tasks
garden. They chance to make their own unique contributions to the garden. at hand.
also demonstrate • Core Belief No. 5: “Gardens are communities in
themselves, as well as part of a larger community.”
This is a reminder to involve and be aware of
the larger community when making
University of Missouri 9 Community Gardening Toolkit
From idea to action Questions to address at an initial meeting:
The Growing Communities Curriculum notes that • What type of community garden does the
community gardens generally start in one of the fol- group want to create? Will space be divided
lowing two ways. Scenario one: One person or a and gardened by individuals and families, will
small group of people has the idea to start a commu- it be gardened collectively by the group, or a
nity garden. Scenario two: An outside group or local combination of both? Will it take some other
agency has the idea and land available to start a com- form?
munity garden. • What is the purpose of the garden?
Whether you are involved in a volunteer group or • Who will the garden serve?
part of a local agency, the basic steps for moving from
an idea to planting the first seed are the same. The fol- • Is land available for a garden?
lowing 10 steps can serve as your guide. (If your group • What are some of the resources needed for
is interested in involving local agencies, or if you are part a garden? Can gardeners provide their own
of a local agency interested in starting a garden, see page 16 resources or will the group need to locate and
for more information.) provide some of them?
• How much gardening experience does the
Ten steps to success group have?
Step • Are there individuals or organizations willing
Talk with friends, neighbors and local orga- to provide materials and expertise?
1 nizations about your idea .
• Will there be a fee charged to gardeners to
As you talk to people, collect names and cover expenses? Will there be a sliding scale?
numbers of those who are interested. If people voice
• How much time (hours per week) can group
opposition or concern, take note and be sure to ad-
members commit to the project?
dress these concerns in future meetings. As a general
rule, aim to find at least 10 interested individuals or • How will other people and organizations
families who want to be a part of the garden before know about the group and the garden?
moving to the next step. • Who is willing to serve on a garden leadership
Step Hold a meeting with anyone interested in the • What is the best way for the group to stay in
2 garden . touch?
The purpose of this meeting is to deter- • Should the group proceed with finding and
mine the feasibility of starting a garden, to brainstorm evaluating land for a garden? If the answer is
ideas and to address some basic questions. This meet- yes, then ask for volunteers to work on Step 3
ing can be informal or formal, but at the very least, and Step 4.
one person should be responsible for taking notes and • When should the next meeting take place?
Purpose, values, vision and action planning
Your first meeting may that underlie your purpose organized, stay focused and Charge Too, from the North
be an appropriate time to (values) and the long-term add a measure of account- Central Regional Center for
define your group’s purpose, goal or outcome you hope to ability to your process. Rural Development. Online
values and vision. This can achieve (vision). The identified action at www.ncrcrd.iastate.edu/
help your group develop a At subsequent meetings, steps can also be the basis pubs/contents/182.htm. To
common understanding of you may wish to draft an ac- for forming garden teams order a printed copy for $25,
why you are embarking on tion plan to identify steps to to handle various garden- contact NCRCRD, Iowa State
a community garden proj- take throughout the rest of related tasks. University, 107 Curtiss Hall,
ect (purpose), the beliefs your garden startup process. *For more information, Ames, IA 50011-1050, or call
and principles you share This can help your group get see Vision to Action: Take 515-294-9768.
MU Extension 10 MP906
step by step
sending them to the group after
the meeting. Publicize the meet-
ing to individuals, groups and rel-
evant organizations using phone
calls, personal visits, e-mails or
fliers posted around your com-
munity. Some general questions
you may want to address at an
initial meeting are included in the
box to the left.
Step Find and evaluate
3 potential garden sites .
Get on your bike. Go
out on foot. Tour the neighbor-
hood with friends and family and
talk to your neighbors. Be sure to Questions to evaluate • How was the site used in the
consider churches, nonprofit agen- potential garden sites: past? Do you suspect that the
cies and businesses as potential soil may be contaminated?
partners. These groups may own • If you want to grow fruits and
Some urban soils may be poor
land and have an interest in be- vegetables, does the site get at
and contain large amounts of
ing a part of your garden. Use the least six hours of direct sun-
rubble. These sites may require
questions in the box to the right to light per day during the spring,
raised beds and fresh soil.
evaluate potential sites. summer and fall?
• Can you sample the soil to
• Does the site have access to
check its quality and obtain
a soil test for nutrients and
• How big is the site? Does it heavy metals (see sidebar,
Soil testing have enough room to accom- left) prior to entering into any
modate the number of inter- agreement with a landowner?
Soil tests can usually be ested gardeners you’ve identi-
• What is the present use of the
obtained through your local fied and additional gardeners
land? What is the lot’s history?
extension office. To search for who may want a garden plot?
an office in your area, go to the Does it currently attract loiter-
• Is the site relatively flat? ing, dumping or drug dealing?
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Cooperative State Research, • How close is the garden to Do neighborhood youth use
Education and Extension Service the people who plan to use it? the land for recreation? Con-
Web site at www.csrees.usda. Ideally, gardeners should be sider these present uses and
gov/Extension/. In Missouri, the able to walk or drive a short the feasibility of altering the
University of Missouri Soil and distance to the garden. function of the site.
Plant Testing Laboratory, online • Is the site visible? A visible site • Can you determine who owns
will be safer and attract more the lot? Often, if you know the
offers nutrient and heavy metal
soil tests for gardens and lawns
neighborhood support. address of the potential site
through the Columbia campus • Is the site fenced? you can go to your county tax
and local Extension offices (exten- • Can a truck gain access to the assessor’s office or Web site to
sion.missouri.edu). lot? find the property owner.
University of Missouri 11 Community Gardening Toolkit
Questions to identify local resources
Step Identify local resources needed for starting a needed:
4 garden .
• Does the group have access to tools and other
Gardens can require a fair amount of tools, gardening equipment?
equipment, supplies, infrastructure, knowledge and
other forms of support. Gardeners themselves can • Will the garden need to be plowed or tilled
provide some resources. For other resources, it makes or can the soil be turned by hand? Is no-till
sense for the group to seek out and acquire materials gardening and option?
in bulk or solicit donations and support from other • Is compost and mulch available?
groups. The box to the right contains a few questions • Will the group provide seeds and transplants?
that can help guide you. • Will the group need a shed for storing tools?
• Will the site need to be fenced?
Step Hold a second meeting . • Will the site need to be cleaned? How will
5 The purpose of this meeting is to discuss trash, branches, etc., be removed?
the notes from the previous meeting and hear • Will trees need to be trimmed?
reports from the people who volunteered to find and
evaluate possible locations for a garden (Step 3) and • Will the site need to be mowed on a regular
identify local resources for starting a garden (Step 4). basis?
If you completed the Purpose, Values, Vision exercise • Will the garden and group need to carry liabil-
(page 10), you may wish to revisit this document to ity insurance?
see if people are still in agreement and to gain input • Are there existing community gardens in your
from new group members. area that you can learn from?
If your group feels like the primary issues have • Are Master Gardeners or others available to
been adequately addressed and enough people are share their gardening expertise?
committed to the project, you may be ready to eval-
• Are community organizers available to help
uate and select one or more sites to pursue for your
facilitate the group’s process?
You may also be ready to elect your garden’s lead- • Are local government departments, nonprofit
ership team. At the very least, you will need to have agencies or businesses willing to sponsor the
one or more garden co-leaders and two to three ad- garden, make donations or lend other types
ditional people to handle important tasks such as of support?
drafting and negotiating the lease agreement (Step 6),
leading the planning and preparation of the site (Step
7 and Step 9), and drafting gardener guidelines and Asset-based community development
the gardener application (Step 8).
Rather than focus first on a community’s needs
Step Draft a lease agreement .
and deficiencies, the asset-based community devel-
6 It is in everyone’s best interest to have a
opment approach takes stock of a community’s ca-
pacity for change by identifying the “assets, skills and
written agreement that outlines your group’s capacities of residents, citizens associations and local
and the landlord’s obligations and institutions” within a given community (Kretzmann
responsibilities and includes
a “hold harmless” clause that
states that the landlord is not re-
✓ it out : Sample
Page 23, appendix
and McKnight, 1993). For more information on this
approach, check out Building Communities From the
Inside Out by John P. Kretzman and John L. McKnight
from your local library. Also, visit the Asset-Based
sponsible if a gardener is injured on the property. Try
Community Development Institute’s Web site at sesp.
to negotiate a lease that enables your group to use northwestern.edu/abcd.
the land for at least three years. See the Sample Lease
Agreement on page 23 for an example.
MU Extension 12 MP906
step by step
Step Develop a site plan . elaborate as you choose. Consider • The boundary of the lot
7 The plan for your gar- including the following elements • The location and size of
den can be as simple or in your plan: garden beds
• Any trees, shrubs or existing
vegetation that will be kept
• Driveways, pathways and
• Compost bins
• A shed
• The location of the water
• Common or shared garden
areas such as perennial or
herb beds, a row planted for
donation purposes, a picnic
table with chairs, or grassy
• Garden sign
• Garden name
There are a number of advan- experience: SCHOOL GARDENING
tages to building and using raised
Seed to taBle program, maplewood riChmond heightS SChool diStriCt,
beds. According to Christopher J.
St. louiS area, mo.
Starbuck, associate professor with
the University of Missouri Division What started as a small program to the buildings and grounds staff, who
of Plant Sciences, raised garden involve preschool students in growing received training in horticulture; the St.
beds allow for better drainage, food and appreciating nature has blos- Louis University Nutrition and Dietetics
are easier to maintain, and can somed into a district-wide effort to in- Program; and the Missouri Foundation
be used on sites with poor soil. tegrate gardening, cooking, nature and for Health.
Raised-bed gardening may also local food into the entire pre-kinder- In many ways, the Seed to Table pro-
lead to higher yields and allow for garten through eighth-grade curricula. gram is the envy of other schools. The
an extended growing season. On Seed to Table Program Director Debi program involves all of the students in
the other hand, raised-bed gar-
Gibson explains, “Our mission is to pro- the district. It supports one full-time
dens are typically more expensive
mote education, health and wellness and two part-time staff members. It
to build than in-ground gardens
because of the cost of materials, by connecting children to the natural also has begun to incorporate local
compost and soil. Also, where world.” The program has benefited food into school meals. With all of this,
summers are hot, the soil in raised from the enthusiasm of students, par- Gibson is hopeful about the future
beds may have a tendency to dry ents, teachers and the commitment of of the program and the impact it can
out faster. For more information, many others. “Our district superinten- have. “Our intention is to create a
see Raised-Bed Gardening, MU dent truly understands what gardens model for other schools and districts
Extension Publication G6985, can do,” Gibson says. In addition, the to follow,” she says. To learn more, visit
extension.missouri.edu/explore/ag- program has been supported by the the Seed to Table program Web site at
guides/hort/g06985.htm. district’s Wellness Policy Committee; mrhsd.org/gardens.
University of Missouri 13 Community Gardening Toolkit
Step Establish gardener
8 guidelines and draft the
gardener application .
Just as there are many types
of community gardens, there are
many types of gardener guide-
lines and gardener applications.
Having clear guidelines for gar-
deners to follow and an applica-
tion to collect their contact infor-
mation will aid in your efforts
to keep order among and stay in
touch with gardeners.
For starters, let’s look at some
common issues that most garden-
er guidelines address in the box
For an example of gardener
guidelines, see page 22. For an
✓ it out : Gardener
Page 22, appendix
on “Community Garden Rules”
at the Gardening Matters Web
site at gardeningmatters.org/
Common issues gardener guidelines address
• Application or membership fee. Is there a fee • Materials and tools. Are shared materials and tools
to garden? How much is the fee? Is there a sliding available for gardeners to use? How should these
scale? When is the fee due? items be handled and stored?
• Plot maintenance. Is there an expectation that • Pesticides. Which pesticides are allowed?
plots will be maintained to a certain standard? What • Other people’s plots. How should gardeners treat
happens if a plot is not maintained? Who decides? and respect others’ gardens?
• Garden maintenance. Are gardeners expected to • Water. Can the water be left on unattended?
volunteer for certain chores?
• Pets and children.
• Planting restrictions. Are there restrictions on
• Alcohol and drugs.
which types of plants can be grown?
• Unwanted activities. How should theft, vandal-
• End of the season. Do plots need to be cleaned by
ism and other unwanted activities be handled and
a certain date at the end of the season?
• Composting. Which materials may and may not be
• Violation of garden rules. What happens if a rule is
MU Extension 14 MP906
step by step
As for gardener applications, most gardens collect
the following information:
• Name, address, phone number and e-mail ad-
• Number and location of plot(s) assigned
• Total plot fee paid
• Sign up for a garden job/chore
• Request for help if the person is a new gardener
• Offer to help if the person is an experienced
• Photo permission
• Phone and e-mail list permission
• Agreement to follow all of the garden rules lected a location, identified and assembled the re-
sources, drafted and signed the lease, established
• Hold-harmless clause
the garden rules and made the plans, it’s time do the
• Signature and date physical work of preparing and developing your com-
For an example of a gardener
application, see page 21. (
✓ it out : Gardeners’
Page 21, appendix
) munity garden.
There are many ways to go about this, and much
will depend on the condition of your site. Generally,
During the planning stage, it
may be wise to treat these initial documents as drafts groups will schedule regular workdays to take care of
that will be revised by the gardening group after the the initial tilling, trimming and building projects. It is
first season. In addition, after your first season, it is helpful if one or more people can lead various projects
strongly recommend that you create a relatively com- and coordinate equipment, supplies and volunteers.
prehensive set of written documents that explain how
your garden operates and how gardeners can be in- Celebrate your success .
volved. To aid your efforts in this process, a link to a Step
Don’t forget to take a step back and rec-
downloadable Gardeners’ Welcome Packet is includ-
ed in this toolkit. For more, see the box below.
10 ognize your accomplishments. Hold a garden
party and invite neighbors, local businesses
and organizations. Show off the work you’ve done,
Step Prepare and develop the site . and talk to people about your plans for the future.
9 Once you’ve held the meetings, gained This is a great way to gain community support for
commitments from a number of people, se- your garden.
Gardeners’ Welcome Packet
The Gardeners’ Welcome and involved. It is also your garden. • Frequently asked ques-
Packet is a set of docu- intended to help gardeners The Gardeners’ Welcome tions
ments that can be edited find a clear and easy way Packet includes the follow- • Gardener guidelines
and revised by gardeners to play an active role in the ing contents: • Gardener application
and garden leaders. The garden’s management and • Welcome to community • Planting, harvesting,
packet is intended to be upkeep. Although these gardening composting, pests, dis-
a tool for organizing your written materials will not • Community garden suc- ease and more
garden, introducing new take the place of face-to-
cess and security ✓ it out : Gardeners’
gardeners to the policies, face communication with • Community garden job Welcome Packet
procedures and people that gardeners, they can provide descriptions download pdf or
MS Word file
keep the garden running a framework for improv- • Roster and map
smoothly, and keeping re- ing communication and Online at: extension.missouri.edu/
• Contact list and calendar explore/miscpubs/mp0906.htm
turning gardeners updated increasing involvement at
University of Missouri 15 Community Gardening Toolkit
Additional information for local agencies
interested in starting a community garden, or groups interested in involving an outside organization
As noted previously, community gardens are gen- ization who is not a part of the immediate group.
erally started by individuals or small groups of neigh- Trained facilitators and organizers, such as university
bors or an outside group or local agency. In the latter extension staff or other agency professionals, can
case, the process of starting a garden is very similar assist groups as they work through the process of
to the process outlined previously, with a few added starting a community garden.
twists. However, the garden group and the outside fa-
First, an outside group or agency needs to be clear cilitator should be clear about their respective roles.
about its reasons for wanting to start a community The facilitator’s job is to help move the group along
garden. Just as a small group of neighbors should be and assist with the group process. It is not the facilita-
clear about its purpose and vision for a gardening tor’s job to do the actual work of starting and man-
project, an outside group or local agency should take aging the garden. According to Jack Hale, executive
the time to define its own purpose and vision for the director of Knox Parks Educations in Hartford, Conn.,
project. facilitators and organizations should use the fol-
Second, an outside group or agency needs to be lowing guidelines (Growing Communities Curriculum,
clear about its role in the garden’s establishment and p. 58) when engaging with garden groups:
management. What exactly does the group or agency • Facilitators or organizations should only work
expect to contribute to the project? Money, staff time, with groups that have at least 10 committed
equipment, land, training, other resources? For how gardeners. Expect half of these people to drop
long? out before the project is completed.
Finally, it is very important that the outside group
• The gardening group should accomplish at
or local agency involve clients and potential garden-
least one task — locating potential garden sites,
ers from the beginning. All too often, outside groups
finding out who owns a particular site, check-
or agencies develop well intentioned plans without
ing for water, etc. — before the first meeting.
engaging the people who will be affected by them.
• At the first meeting, everyone should be as-
Role of an outside facilitator signed a job to complete before the second
or community organization meeting.
In some cases, a volunteer gardening group will In Missouri, to locate MU Extension resources in
enlist the help of a facilitator or community organ- your region, visit online: extension.missouri.edu.
experience: INTERGENERATIONAL GARDENING
SChuyler County, mo. Nancy McCullum, avid gardener 13-year-olds.
and garden coordinator, explains that The success of the garden is spread-
The community garden in Queen
food from the garden is donated to ing throughout the county. There is
City, Mo., located at the Schuyler
the nursing home, seniors in the town interest in starting community gardens
County Nursing Home, touches the
and the local food pantry. In addition, in the nearby towns of Lancaster and
lives of many county residents. Local
Darla Campbell, MU Extension agribusi- Glenwood. In Lancaster, a private lot
seniors and youth, along with commit-
ness specialist, uses half of the garden has been identified next to some senior
ted volunteers and staff from the local
to teach the Garden ‘n Grow program housing. Local nurseries have also com-
MU Extension office, are all involved in
(extension.missouri.edu/explore/misc- mitted to donating plants for all of the
planting and tending the garden.
pubs/mp0737.htm) to a group of 8- to community gardens.
MU Extension 16 MP906
Additional things to consider while getting started
Growing a garden
Your local extension office can provide an array of
resources concerning horticulture, composting, food
safety and preservation. To search for an office in
your area, go to the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension
Service Web site at www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/.
Creating a garden roster and map
As interest in your community garden begins to
grow, it is essential to keep good records of interested
gardeners, existing gardeners and plot assignments.
Garden leaders will need to collect the names, ad-
dresses, phone numbers and e-mail addresses of in-
dividuals. They will also need to create a map of the
garden, keep track of plot assignments and develop
• Know your neighbors . Learn the names and
a system for contacting gardeners. All of this can be
a little about your non-gardening neighbors.
done with paper and pencil or you can use spread-
Share some extra produce. Take the time to
sheets to create electronic documents.
visit with them about how the garden works if
Enhancing opportunities for success they’re not familiar with it. You may be sur-
prised to find that people just assume that they
New and returning gardeners may need support
can take food from the garden. “Hey, it’s for the
and encouragement to keep up with their garden plot
for the entire season. Garden leaders can encourage
gardeners to take the following steps to enhance their • Harvest produce on a regular basis . Some
chances of success: thieves use the excuse that “a lot of food is
• Visit the garden two to three times a week going to waste” to justify taking food from a
during the growing season to keep from being garden. During harvest season, let other gar-
overwhelmed by weeds, pests and disease. deners know if you plan to be out of town for
more than a few days. Gardeners can harvest
• Attend scheduled meetings and workdays and for you and donate the food to a local pantry.
volunteer for a committee to meet other garden-
ers and contribute to the garden. • Consider growing unpopular, unusual or
hard-to-harvest varieties . Thieves generally go
• Make friends with other gardeners to share for easy-to-snatch things like tomatoes, peppers
challenges, successes and gardening tips. and corn.
• Study, attend classes or participate in an exten- • Grow more than you need .
sion Master Gardener program to learn more
• Put a border or fence around your garden or
about gardening. individual plots . Even a simple barrier can be a
Security and personal safety
• Use common sense . Although your garden
Theft and vandalism can be common occurrences
may be well lit by street lights, only garden
at community gardens, regardless of the height or
during daylight hours. Garden in pairs or keep
strength of your fence. The following tips are intend-
a cell phone nearby if it makes you feel more
ed to help minimize theft and vandalism and keep
gardeners safe while working at the garden.
University of Missouri 17 Community Gardening Toolkit
• Report theft, vandalism and unusual activi- • Seeking out funding sources
ties to garden leaders and the police . The more • Developing a garden budget
people you have looking out for the garden and
talking about what’s going on, the more success • Making sure that both gardeners and interested
you’ll have at being safe and curbing unwanted neighbors know how to become involved
activities. (Adapted from Great Garden Leader Practices, Han-
Additional tips can be found by clicking on the nah Reinhart and Lauren Maul, Gateway Greening,
“Theft and vandalism” tab at the American Commu- St. Louis)
nity Gardening Web site at communitygarden.org/learn/
Making the garden accessible to all
Community gardens tend to attract a wide vari-
Leadership ety of people, including those with physical or other
Leadership at a community garden is a vital part challenges. Because of this, it is helpful to think of
of any garden’s ultimate success. While garden lead- ways to make your garden accessible to all garden-
ers may typically wear many different hats, their pri- ers. Building accessible raised beds for those who
mary role is to help other gardeners find meaningful use wheelchairs or have trouble bending over is one
ways to be involved in the garden. All too often, gar- way to make the garden more accessible. For more
den leaders take on the responsibility of coordinating information, see Raised-Bed Gardening, MU Extension
meetings and workdays, making plot assignments Publication G6985, at extension.missouri.edu/explore/
and drafting and enforcing rules when they could agguides/hort/g06985.htm. Another great publication
be enlisting the help of other garden members to is Accessible Raised Beds, by the Community Action
do those and other jobs. Regardless, learning to be a Coalition of South Central Wisconsin at cacscw.org/
leader takes time. It also requires the willingness and gardens/handbook/.
ability to lead by example. According to The Citizen’s
Handbook at www.vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/welcome.
html, by Charles Dobson of the Vancouver Citizen’s Food banks, pantries and kitchens generally wel-
Committee, effective leaders are able to: come donations of fresh produce from community
gardeners. However, it is important to check with
• Lead by example
them before making a delivery to determine their
• Delegate work hours of operation and their capacity to handle fresh
• Appreciate the contributions of others, regard- fruits and vegetables. For a listing of organizations
less how large or small the contribution and agencies in your area that accept food donations,
• Welcome and encourage criticism search the Internet or check your local phone book. To
become involved in a national effort to increase fresh
• Help people believe in themselves produce donations to food banks, pantries and kitch-
• Articulate and keep sight of the higher purpose ens coordinated by the Garden Writer’s Association,
• Avoid doing all of the work. check out the Plant a Row for the Hungry program at
More specifically, effective community garden
leaders are able to maintain frequent and regular con- Funding
tact and communication with gardeners and enlist
the help of other gardeners with the following tasks: Often, little money is needed to start a community
garden. However, it is helpful to think about poten-
• Forming a team or scheduling regular work-
tial expenses and create a simple budget (see page 20
days to complete garden projects and maintain
for a sample) to have an idea of the
• Hosting community gatherings to involve
neighbors and gardeners
amount of money or materials
needed for your project. Often,
gardeners can sustain the garden
( ✓ it out : Sample
Page 20, appendix
• Planning winter or off-season activities or meet- themselves. They can either provide their own equip-
ings ment and supplies or they can pool their money to
purchase items as a group. In other cases, gardeners
• Drafting and enforcing garden rules
MU Extension 18 MP906
may seek donations of money or materials from com-
munity members, local organizations or businesses.
Partnering organizations can sometimes cover the
cost of water, insurance and other supplies. A num-
ber of grant opportunities also exist. For an excellent
guide that covers the topic of fundraising for com-
munity gardens, click on “Fundraising” at the Ameri-
can Community Gardening Association’s Web site at
nities.php. For information about funding, search the
Web for “community garden grants.”
Liability insurance for community
In recent years, community gardens have come
under increasing pressure to carry liability insurance.
Although liability insurance can be quite expensive
for individual gardens, larger organizations can often
obtain policies for community gardens at a reasonable lobby government officials.
price or add them to an existing policy. For a more de- Also, an article from Legislation and Public Poli-
tailed discussion of this issue by Jack Hale, executive cy, Volume 3:351, titled Community development through
director of the Knox Parks Foundation, click on the gardening: State and local policies transforming urban open
“Insurance for Community Gardens” tab at communi- space, by Jane E. Schukoske, can be found at communi-
tygarden.org/learn/resources/articles.php. tygarden.org/take-action/advocacy.php. This scholarly ar-
ticle contains research about the value of community
Starting a community gardening gardens, legal issues faced by gardens and an evalua-
organization tion and summary of state and local ordinances con-
Once your garden is up and running, you may cerning community gardens.
be interested in exploring the possibility of starting
an organization to support community gardening in Evaluation
your area if one doesn’t already exist. For more in- At some point, you may wish to evaluate your
formation, click on the “Starting a New Gardening progress, either for your own benefit or to apply for a
Organization” tab at the American Community Gar- grant. A sample community garden evaluation form
dening Association’s Web site at communitygarden.org/ for adults and youth can be found under the “Sample
learn/starting-a-community-garden.php#new. Evaluation Tools” heading on the American Commu-
nity Gardening Association’s web site at community-
Policy and advocacy garden.org/learn/tools.php#evaluation.
There are many resources concerning policy and
advocacy on the “Advocacy” page of the American Networking
Community Gardening Association’s Web site at com- To connect with other community gardeners in the
munitygarden.org/take-action/advocacy.php. United States and Canada, consider joining both the
In addition, check out American Community Gar- American Community Gardening Association (com-
dening Association’s Community Greening Review, munitygarden.org) and its e-mail discussion list (com-
Volume 10, 2000, titled Making policy: Steps beyond the munitygarden.org/connect/sign-up-for-listserv.php).
physical garden, at communitygarden.org/learn/resources/
index.php. The publication includes information about
how to craft and use policies to support community
gardens. It also includes information about how to
University of Missouri 19 Community Gardening Toolkit
NET INCOME (Income ‐ Expenses)
MU Extension 20 MP906
Adapted from the Community Action Coalition of South Central Wisconsin Community Garden Organizer’s Handbook online at
By signing below, I agree that I have read and understand the Gardener Guidelines and plan to abide by all of the
garden rules. I understand that neither the garden group nor owners of the land are responsible for my actions. I
therefore agree to hold harmless the garden group and owners of the land for any liability, damage, loss or claim
that occurs in connection with use of the garden by me or my guests.
University of Missouri 21 Community Gardening Toolkit
Adapted from the Community Garden Coalition (cgc.missouri.org) Gardener Guidelines.
MU Extension 22 MP906
The following form is intended as a guide only; be sure that the final agreement you use meets
the needs and details of your group and the property owner.
University of Missouri 23 Community Gardening Toolkit
Resources for community gardening
Building Communities from the Inside: A Path Raised-Bed Gardening. March 2003. Christopher J.
Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Starbuck, Department of Horticulture, Univer-
Assets. 1993. John P. Kretzman and John L. sity of Missouri. University of Missouri Exten-
McKnight. Institute for Policy Research, sion Publication G6985; extension.missouri.edu/
Northwestern University. explore/agguides/hort/g06985.htm.
The Citizen’s Handbook: Practical Assistance for Starting a Community Garden. American Com-
Those Who Want to Make a Difference. 2006. munity Gardening Association; community
Charles Dobson. Vancouver Citizen’s Com- garden.org/learn/starting-a-community-garden.
mittee; vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/welcome.html. php.
Community Garden Security. December 2005. Vision to Action: Take Charge Too. 2001. Green,
Community Action Coalition of South Central G.P., T.O. Borich, R.D. Cole, D.L. Darling, C.
Wisconsin; cacscw.org/gardens/handbook/. Hancock, S.H. Huntington, M.S. Leuci, B.
Community Garden Start-up Guide. Rachel Surls McMaster, D.B. Patton, F. Schmidt, A.H. Silvis,
with Chris Braswell and Laura Harris. Updat- R. Steinberg, D. Teel, J. Wade, N. Walzer, and
ed March 2001 by Yvonne Savio. University of J. Stewart. North Central Regional Center for
California Cooperative Extension; celosangeles. Rural Development, RRD 182; www.ncrcrd.
Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhanc- What Good is Community Greening? 1995.
ing Food Security and Nutrition. December David Malakoff. Online at the American
1999. Ashley F. Sullivan. Center on Hunger Community Gardening Association Web site;
and Poverty, School of Nutrition Science and communitygarden.org/learn/resources/articles.php.
Policy, Tufts University. Whitmire Study: Gateway Greening Community
Community Gardens in Milwaukee: Procedures for Garden Areas, Reversing Urban Decline. Public
Their Long-Term Stability and Their Import to the Policy Research Center, University of Mis-
City. May 13, 2003. Andrew Bremer, Ken Jen- souri-St. Louis. Gateway Greening, Inc., St.
kins and Diana Kanter for Milwaukee Urban Louis. gatewaygreening.org/WhitmireStudy.asp.
Gardens. Applied Planning Workshop, Urban
Planning 811, Department of Urban Planning, Gardeners’ Welcome Packet
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Click on Community Garden Organizer’s Handbook. n.d.
“Urban Gardens in Milwaukee” tab at neigh- Community Action Coalition of South Central
bor-space.org/resources.html. Wisconsin; cacscw.org/gardens/handbook/.
From Neglected Parcels to Community Gardens: A Community Garden Job Descriptions. n.d. Gar-
Handbook. Brian Emerson with Ginger Ogilvie, dening Matters, Minneapolis.gardeningmatters.
Celia Bell, Don Anderson, Agnes Chiao and org/Resources/coordinating.htm.
Rob Ferris. Wasatch Community Gardens; Gardener Guidelines (internal document). Com-
wasatchgardens.org/gardenresources.html. munity Garden Coalition. Columbia, Mo. cgc.
Great Garden Leader Practices (internal docu- missouri.org.
ment). n.d. Hannah Reinhart and Lauren
Maul, Gateway Greening, Inc., St. Louis. History Sources
gatewaygreening.org. City Bountiful: A Century of Community Garden-
ing in America. Lawson, L. J., (2005). Berkley
Growing Communities Curriculum: Commu- and Los Angeles, CA: University of California
nity Building and Organizational Development Press.
through Community Gardening. 2001. Jeanette
Abi-Nader, Kendall Dunnigan and Kristen Community Garden Movement. Glover, T. D.,
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Association; communitygarden.org/acga-store. Encyclopedia of Community (pp. 264-266).
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Director, Cooperative Extension, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
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