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					British Council online bulletin                                                                                               JANUARY 2013



News on EU Research Policy and Programmes



Table of contents
EU Policy ........................................................................................................................................... 2
   Agreement reached on 2012 and 2013 EU budget ........................................................................ 2
   Horizon 2020: ITRE committee adopts reports .............................................................................. 3
   Yes to Erasmus for All for Europe .................................................................................................. 3
   Call on European Research Area Chairs launched ........................................................................ 3
   Agreement reached on European unitary patent............................................................................ 4
   New members of ERC Scientific Council appointed....................................................................... 4
   ERC Synergy Grants: 2012 call results published.......................................................................... 4
   EIP on Active and Healthy Ageing: Action Plan presentations ....................................................... 5
   EIP on Raw Materials: first conference .......................................................................................... 5
   EIP on Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability: first conference .............................................. 5
   Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change JPI: Strategic Research Agenda published ....... 6
   2012 EU Industrial R & D Investment Scoreboard published ......................................................... 6
   EC launches consultation on enforcement of IPR .......................................................................... 7
   EC to take action on modernising copyright in the digital economy ............................................... 7
   Major conference on space held in London .................................................................................... 7
   European funding for cyber security ............................................................................................... 8
   ERA-Net in plant sciences: first call for proposals .......................................................................... 8
   Grants in the field of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T).......................................... 9
   Conference on new skills for an EU bioeconomy: presentations available .................................... 9
   Health Programme: 2013 Annual Work Plan published ................................................................. 9
   European Council conclusions on renewable energy .................................................................. 10
   Geoghegan-Quinn outlines EU’s new international co-operation strategy ................................... 10
Research News ............................................................................................................................... 10
   New insights into pig genome ....................................................................................................... 10
   New bio-oil technology wins innovation prize ............................................................................... 11
   Looking at climate adaptation research ........................................................................................ 11
   When do warnings help to prevent violent conflicts?.................................................................... 12


ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                                                                       1
   Making European high-knowledge manual work more competitive ............................................. 12
   Good medical practice can bias comparative studies .................................................................. 12
Education, Training and Culture ................................................................................................... 13
   EC communication on rethinking education ................................................................................. 13
   MEDIA Programme: call for proposals on digitisation of cinemas ................................................ 13
   Tempus IV Programme: call for proposals on reform of higher education through international
   university co-operation .................................................................................................................. 14
Events .............................................................................................................................................. 14
   European Maritime Day 2013 ....................................................................................................... 14
   First international conference on internet science ........................................................................ 14
   Net4Society conference on "Learning by doing - making interdisciplinarity work" ...................... 15
New Publications and Online Resources .................................................................................... 15
   Expert report on international co-operation in research published ............................................... 15
   Blueprint to safeguard Europe’s water resources ......................................................................... 15
   CORDIS ........................................................................................................................................ 16
   IGLO Project Search ..................................................................................................................... 16
   EUR-LEX (Official Journal C and L) ............................................................................................. 16
   EUROPA ....................................................................................................................................... 16
   RAPID ........................................................................................................................................... 16
   EURAXESS .................................................................................................................................. 16
   cubed… from the British Council .................................................................................................. 17
   Talking Science............................................................................................................................. 17
GLOSSARY ..................................................................................................................................... 17




EU Policy
Agreement reached on 2012 and 2013 EU budget
The Council of the EU and the European Parliament have now agreed on the 2012 EU amending
budget and the 2013 budget. The 2012 amending budget was approved for €6.1 billion which should
allow the EC to honour all payments that had to be made for 2012, including for the Erasmus student
exchanges and research projects in the areas of ICT, space and security. The EC had originally
requested an amending budget of €9 billion. This means that €2.9 billion will be carried over into the
2013 budget. These funds will be needed to cover bills to Member States mainly to payments relating
to structural funds, and these Member States have agreed to be paid later.


For the 2013 budget, the Council and Parliament agreed to a budget of €151 billion for commitments
and €132.8 million for payments. The EC has criticised the current deal for the 2013 budget and has
warned Council and Parliament that, given that the final amount is €5 billion below the EC’s proposal,
it is likely that towards the end of 2013 another amending budget will have to be submitted.
Further information
EC press releases MEMO/12/980 and MEMO/12/975 of 12 December 2012 are available at:
http://europa.eu/rapid


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Horizon 2020: ITRE committee adopts reports
The Industry and Research Committee (ITRE) in the European Parliament has voted on the Horizon
2020 package of legislative reports. All six reports that make up the Horizon 2020 legislative package
were voted on by ITRE and a plenary session vote is planned for early next year. MEPs warned
against budget cuts to Horizon 2020 during the committee session on 28 November 2012.


Comparing the reports to the original EC proposal and the Partial General Approaches agreed by the
Council of the EU so far, the main difference can be found in the report on the Rules for Participation
drafted by MEP Christian Ehler. These include: a single project type across Horizon 2020 called
‘Research and Development and Experimental development’; 100 per cent reimbursement of direct
costs for universities, research institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for all
projects (research and close to market) and 70 per cent for industry partners; a single indirect cost
flat rate for all beneficiaries of 20 per cent (the Council proposes 25 per cent); the option of a
reimbursement based on full costs based on a certificate on the methodology (for this option the
overall reimbursement rate for universities, research institutions and SMEs would be 70 per cent);
and common rules for funding across Horizon 2020, including for Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs)
and Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).
Further information
The reports are available on the European Parliament’s website:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/itre/subject%20files.html?id=20120214CDT38091#m
enuzone



Yes to Erasmus for All for Europe
European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth Androulla Vassiliou has
recently welcomed the support for the EC proposal for the next generation of EU education and youth
programmes – the proposed Erasmus for All programme. According to the proposal, Erasmus for All
is going to replace the current education programmes, including the Lifelong Learning programme
and international education programmes and the current Youth programme. There now is a Partial
General Approach agreed on the proposal by the Council, and the European Parliament’s Culture
Committee has also voted on Erasmus for All.


While the overall proposal and concept for Erasmus for All has been accepted by both institutions,
several changes have been proposed. These include keeping the current brand names for the sub-
programmes such as Erasmus, Leonardo and Grundtvig, changes concerning the way the budget is
allocated and some criticism concerning the proposed new loan scheme for Masters’ students. The
European Parliament has even asked for the name of the programme to be changed as they believe
it does not cover the new broader remit of education and culture in an adequate way. They would
therefore like to change it from Erasmus for All to “Yes Europe”. A vote in the EP’s plenary is
expected in early 2013 and then Council and EP will have to agree on the final text in spring 2013.
Further information
EC press release MEMO/12/904 of 26 November 2012 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid



Call on European Research Area Chairs launched
The EC has launched a pilot call for the European Research Area (ERA) Chairs initiative. ERA Chairs
will be awarded to universities and research organisations in less-developed regions in Europe in
order to attract outstanding academics to help close the research and innovation divide within
Europe. The first phase of the pilot call is for universities and research organisations to apply for an
ERA Chair. The call is open to a university or research organisation located in one of the
convergence regions, as identified in the FP7 Research Potential Work Programme for 2012-2013.
The pilot call has no pre-defined priority areas.




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The second phase of the pilot call is for the successful universities and research organisations to
recruit an ERA Chair holder through an open and transparent recruitment process. There is no
nationality rule and the holder must have a track record in scientific excellence. The individual will
need to be fully integrated into the institutional structure and be devoted to the ERA Chair activities
full-time. The call budget is €12 million, with each proposal being funded to a maximum of €2.4 million
over a five year period. The deadline is 30 May 2013.
Further information
EC press releases IP/12/1374 and MEMO/12/988 of 17 December 2012 are available at:
http://europa.eu/rapid



Agreement reached on European unitary patent
Two draft regulations on a European unitary patent have been agreed on by the Council of the EU
and the European Parliament, which puts to a preliminary end a series of lengthy discussions on the
topic over the last few years. The unitary patent is designed to provide legal protection for inventors in
25 EU member states through one single administrative step. It will co-exist with national patents and
the previous European patent. The new unitary patent package will mean ‘enhanced co-operation’
between 25 EU Member States instead of all 27. Italy and Spain have opted out of the agreement as
they want to see recognition of their national languages.


It is hoped that the adoption of the unitary patent will mean the cost of obtaining patent protection
throughout the EU comes down by as much as 80 per cent. This should, in turn, make European
patents available at a competitive price and make them more accessible to small and medium-sized
enterprises. An agreement is expected to be concluded in February 2013 with the aim of setting up a
single, specialised patent court. The main seat of the court will be in Paris, with two specialised
sections in London and Munich.
Further information
EC press release MEMO/12/970 of 11 December 2012 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid



New members of ERC Scientific Council appointed
The European Research Council (ERC) has announced the appointment of eight new members of its
Scientific Council (ScC). Their term of office will start in early 2013 and will run until the close of 2013,
when the EU’s Seventh Framework Programme will come to an end. The new members include
Professor Athene Donald of the University of Cambridge.


The ScC is the ERC's governing body and is responsible for defining its scientific funding strategy
and methodologies. It consists of 22 distinguished researchers who represent the full scope of the EU
research community, although they do not represent their countries or their fields. The ScC was also
partially renewed in 2011. The newly-appointed members were appointed by the EC, based on the
recommendations of an independent ERC Identification Committee, which consisted of six high-level
researchers. The research community was consulted during this identification process. The ERC
press release profiles the career achievements of each individual.
Further information
ERC press release of 13 December 2012 is available at:
http://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/press_release/files/ERC_Press_release_New_ERC_ScC_m
embers_appointed.pdf



ERC Synergy Grants: 2012 call results published
The European Research Council (ERC) has published the results of the first-ever ERC Synergy
Grants call, which closed on 25 January 2012. Some 11 proposals were selected for funding from


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710 originally submitted, giving a success rate of 1.5 per cent for this first pilot call. The ERC’s press
release contains profiles of several of the funded projects, and a separate full list which shows all the
Principal Investigators (PIs) and Host Institutions has also been published.


Within the 11 successful proposals there are a total of 15 UK-based PIs at seven Host Institutions. Of
the 11 proposals, six feature one or more PIs based in the UK. The proposals selected for funding
have an average budget of €11.5 million. The funded proposals amount to €126 million, which means
that the call budget (€150 million) has not been fully allocated.
Further information
ERC press release of 17 December 2012 is available at:
http://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/press_release/files/ERC_Press_Release_SyG_results_2012.
pdf
Full list of funded projects:
http://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/document/file/Synergy_Grant_2012_list.pdf



EIP on Active and Healthy Ageing: Action Plan presentations
The presentations of the Action Plans for the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy
Ageing (EIP AHA) are now available online. The Action Plans for the six different Action Groups are
in the fields of adherence to treatment; falls prevention; frailty; integrated care; independent living and
age-friendly environments. They were adopted at the first conference of partners of the EIP AHA,
which took place on 6 November 2012 in Brussels.
Further information
The presentations and further information on the Action Groups can be seen at:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/index_en.cfm?section=active-healthy-
ageing&pg=commitment



EIP on Raw Materials: first conference
The first conference on the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials took place in
November 2012 in Brussels. The major aim of the event was to feed in to the development of the
EIP's upcoming Strategic Implementation Plan (SIA). The overriding aim of the EIP is to enable the
EU to secure a more sustainable supply of raw materials and reduce the current dependence on
imported raw materials. To do this, the EIP proposes to bring together important actors with a stake in
raw materials in order to "develop joint strategies, pull together capital and human resources and
ensure the implementation and dissemination of innovative solutions within Europe".


The proposal suggests a number of targets to be achieved by 2020, among them ten "innovative pilot
actions" on exploration, extraction and processing, collection and recycling. There is also a focus on
better applying research results for industrial use. The EIP will be formally launched in January 2013,
when the first meeting of the Steering Group and Operational Groups will take place, and the SIA is
aimed to be published during the second half of 2013. The membership of these groups can also be
viewed via the link provided below.
Further information
The EC’s webpages on the Raw Materials EIP can be seen at:
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/innovation-partnership/index_en.htm



EIP on Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability: first conference
A conference on ‘Priorities and Delivery Mechanisms’ for the European Innovation Partnership (EIP)
on Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability took place in Brussels in November 2012. The



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                           5
presentations and a summary of the main outcomes are available online. The conference was the
first major event on the EIP since it was launched in February 2012.


The main aim of the EIP is to "enable a new approach to agricultural innovation if the European farm
sector is to meet the challenge of producing under new constraints of resource availability, and in line
with multiple environmental requirements". The conference programme also provides some details
on the likely different sources of funding for the EIP's Operational Groups, including from Horizon
2020 and from the new EU rural development programme to be in place from 2014.
Further information
The conference webpages can be accessed at:
http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/events/conference-eip-2012_en.htm


Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change JPI: Strategic Research
Agenda published
The Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for the Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change Joint
Programming Initiative (FACCE JPI) has been published. The document sets out five priority
research themes which reflect the key challenges to be tackled by the JPI. The FACCE JPI was
launched in 2010, and brings together 21 European countries in order to jointly tackle the challenge
of producing food, feed, fibre and biofuels for an increasing population in the context of climate
change. By aligning national programmes, it aims to reduce duplication of research efforts and cover
gaps in these areas and to increase the efficiency with which research funding is spent.


The SRA is conceived as a research and innovation roadmap for the JPI, and it details five key
priorities along with planned joint actions (for example joint calls) for each one. The implementation of
the JPI's joint research priorities has already begun, in the shape of a Knowledge Hub on "Modelling
of the Impacts of Climate Change". A second joint action, an international call on Greenhouse Gas
Mitigation in collaboration with non-EU countries, is planned to be launched in early 2013.
Further information
The SRA is available on the FACCE JPI website:
http://www.faccejpi.com/FACCE-JPI-Home/FACCE-JPI-News/SRA-press-release


2012 EU Industrial R & D Investment Scoreboard published
The EC has published its annual EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard of the top 1,500 global
investors in research and development. The scoreboard demonstrates that, despite the continued
economic and financial crisis, major EU-based industries still invested in R&D during 2011. The 2012
Scoreboard is based on the top 1,500 global companies who collectively invest almost 90 per cent of
the total R&D expenditure in the private sector. Of the 1,500 companies; 405 are based in the EU,
503 in the USA, 296 in Japan and 296 in the rest of the world.


The Scoreboard shows that major EU-based companies increased R&D investment by 8.9 per cent
in 2011 compared to an increase of 6.1 per cent in 2010. This increase was higher than the global
average (7.6 per cent) and almost matched the increase in R&D investment by major US-based
companies (9 per cent). Recently released data from Eurostat shows that the combined EU public
and private sector research investment has increased to 2.03 per cent of GDP compared to 2.01 per
cent in 2010. Companies that had the largest increase in R&D expenditure in 2011 were from the ICT
sector.
Further information
The EC’s webpage on the Scoreboard can be seen at:
http://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/research/scoreboard_2012.htm




ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                         6
EC launches consultation on enforcement of IPR
The EC is holding a "public consultation on the efficiency of proceedings and accessibility of
measures property rights" relating to the civil enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). As a
part of its overall strategy on intellectual property, the EC is seeking to evaluate the overall
functioning of the civil enforcement system for IPR (such as patents, trademarks, designs and
copyright) in the EU. The broad aim of the strategy is to improve the legal framework for intellectual
property rights and their enforcement, so as to develop innovative services and products which will
create growth and jobs in Europe.


The purpose of this survey is to gather specific information about the enforcement of intellectual
property rights through contracts, litigation or other means. This information would allow for
comprehensive assessment of efficiency and costs of the civil enforcement systems that are put in
place for intellectual property rights in the Member States. In particular, the survey seeks
contributions from stakeholders who have participated in civil proceedings concerning infringements
of intellectual property rights. The consultation will close on 30 March 2013.
Further information
The consultation can be accessed at:
http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/consultations/2012/intellectual-property-rights_en.htm
Ongoing EC consultations in other fields can be seen at:
http://ec.europa.eu/yourvoice/consultations/index_en.htm



EC to take action on modernising copyright in the digital economy
In the framework of the existing Intellectual Property Rights strategy of 2011, the EC has been
discussing issues relating to modernising copyright in the digital economy. The overall aim is to
ensure that copyright rules stays fit for purpose and take into account new ways of providing, creating
and distributing digital content online.


The EC intends to launch a stakeholder dialogue process in early 2013 with the intention of
addressing six pressing issues, including cross-border portability of digital content; access to
audiovisual works; and cultural heritage. The EC will take stock of these discussions by December
2013 and, if needed, will then recommend policy or legislative reform. Other longer-term issues to be
considered include agreeing appropriate levels of harmonisation, limitations and exceptions to
copyright in the digital age; and how best to reduce the fragmentation of the EU copyright market.
Further information
EC press release MEMO/12/950 of 5 December 2012 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid



Major conference on space held in London
The EC Commissioner responsible for Industry and Entrepreneurship, Antonio Tajani, gave the
opening speech at the Space Conference held on 3 December 2012 in London. In outlining the EC’s
strategy for a new industrial policy, he stated that over 100 million Europeans now use satellites in
the form of satellite TV and receiving GPS on smart phones. He then mentioned the new target for 20
percent of the EU’s GDP to come from industry by 2020, with space “at the centre of this new
industrial revolution”. Tajani highlighted that a key objective in the Galileo programme was achieved
within budget in October 2012 in the shape of a successful launch of two Galileo satellites, giving a
total of four satellites in orbit and validating the system. He stated that the plan was to have 18
satellites in orbit by 2014 and that devices need to be technically ready to receive signals from
Galileo.


“We need to get ready to face the challenge on two levels” said Tajani, “Firstly, application
development needs to be encouraged. Horizon 2020 is the best tool to support the development of



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Galileo applications. Secondly, we need to ensure the market uptake of Galileo”. Tajani then
described the now fully operational ‘EGNOS’, delivering three services which include, the open
service, the ‘safety of life’ service (serving EU airports) and the EGNOS data access service. He
informed delegates that, whilst transport was a key area of application with about 60 percent of the
market using intelligent transport systems for roads, other application sectors included energy,
finance and health. He then referred to GMES (Global Monitoring Earth System) whose applications
are already in use providing new reference maps to facilitate the work of emergency services. The
GMES system has recently been renamed ‘Copernicus’.
Further information
EC press release SPEECH/12/896 of 3 December 2012 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/
The announcement of the new name for GMES can be seen on the EC’s website:
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newsroom/cf/itemdetail.cfm?item_id=6321&lang=en



European funding for cyber security
Cybercrime is increasing worldwide and costs an estimated €750 billion annually in lost time,
business and expense of resolving resulting issues. The EC has taken action to tackle this by
providing resources to develop new cyber security technologies. From 2007 to 2013, the EC has
spent around €350 million on research in this area. For the next period of 2013 to 2020, an increased
budget of €400 million has been earmarked to support key enabling and industrial technologies
including cyber security, privacy and trust technologies with additional funding under Secure
Societies to be spent on other aspects of this.


The EC has funded projects addressing the biggest cyber security issues. Syssec, a European
network of excellence is being established to predict threats and vulnerabilities before they occur and
to educate people about cyber security. Another project, NESSOS (Network of Excellence on
Engineering Secure Internet Software Services and Systems), aims to ensure that engineers and
developers address security concerns at the beginning of system analysis and design. The
SecureChange project allows quicker software updates by enabling the testing of new parts only, to
maintain the security of an entire system whilst the TECOM project has helped to make embedded
computing systems more secure. Additional projects include ‘Tclouds’ to provide security for cloud
computing, and the Ecrypt and Ecrypt II projects addressing the challenge of creating increasingly
robust cryptic algorithms to protect data.
Further information
EC press release MEMO/12/899 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid



ERA-Net in plant sciences: first call for proposals
The ERA-Net for Coordinating Action in Plant Sciences (ERA-CAPS) has launched its first joint call
for proposals. The call, entitled ‘Expanding the European Research Area in Molecular Plant
Sciences’, was launched on 19 November 2012 and welcomes applications from collaborative
research consortia in any area of molecular plant science. The deadline for applications is 15
February 2013.


Four themes have been highlighted as areas of particular interest for the joint call: food security; non-
food crops; adaptation to a changing climate; and biotic/abiotic stress but applications in areas
outside these themes are also welcomed. The call has a one-stage application process, and
consortia must comprise research groups from a minimum of three different countries (at least two
from the above list; however, partners from other countries must be able to fund themselves). The
total call budget is around €20 million.
Further information
All the information on the call is available on the ERA-CAPS call website:
http://www.eracaps.org/joint-calls/era-caps-calls


ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                         8
Grants in the field of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T)
The EC’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport is launching six calls for proposals, under
the multi-annual work programme for the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) for the period
2007-2013.


The six fields concerned are the following: Priority Projects concerning rail, road and inland
waterways (PPs) — the indicative amount available for the selected proposals is €731 million;
European Rail Traffic Management Systems (ERTMS) — the indicative amount available for the
selected proposals is €100 million; River Information Services (RIS) — the indicative amount
available for the selected proposals is €10 million; Air Traffic Management (ATM) — the indicative
amount available for the selected proposals is €50 million; Motorways of the Sea (MoS) — the
indicative amount available for the selected proposals is €80 million; and Intelligent Transport
Systems (ITS) including the European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) — the indicative amount
available for the selected proposals is €50 million.
Further information
Further information is available on the TEN-T Executive Agency website:
http://tentea.ec.europa.eu/en/apply_for_funding/follow_the_funding_process/calls_for_proposals_2
012.htm



Conference on new skills for an EU bioeconomy: presentations available
A major conference on the theme of 'New Skills for a European Bioeconomy' took place in Brussels
on 21 and 22 November, and the presentations from this event are now available online.


The main aim was to discuss the role of skills development in driving the transition towards a more
sustainable and competitive bioeconomy, and the event was also envisaged to provide 'useful inputs
for the future activities under Horizon 2020, especially in relation to those fostering the European
Research Area'. The conference featured a range of speakers from industry, academia and
international organisations; and the presentations can now be accessed on the event website.
Further information
The presentations are available on the EC’s bioeconomy website:
http://eubioeconomy.teamwork.fr/newskills/documents



Health Programme: 2013 Annual Work Plan published
The Annual Work Plan for 2013 for the Health Programme has been adopted. The main priorities for
2013 will be: active and healthy ageing - focus on chronic diseases; effective ways to invest in health
- also health workforce; patients' rights and safety; and advice and data, particularly on sustainable
health systems.
The Work Plan will also support the implementation of legislation in the following areas: safety and
quality of tissues, cells and blood; cross-border healthcare; and pharmaceuticals and medical
devices. This is the last Work Plan under the current Health Programme, which is due to end in
2013. A new programme called "Health for Growth" is currently being developed and is due to run
from 2014 to 2020.
Further information
The 2013 Annual Work Plan is available on EC’s public health website:
http://ec.europa.eu/health/programme/events/adoption_workplan_2013_en.htm




ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                       9
European Council conclusions on renewable energy
The Council of the EU has published some conclusions on renewable energy, following the recent
Transport, Telecommunications and Energy Council on 3 December 2012. The document sets out
priorities in various areas, including on technology, innovation and sustainability.
The priorities include an EC Communication on energy technology which is expected to identify
future research and development approaches on renewable energy and will be based on the
architecture of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan).
Further information
The Council conclusions are available from the Council of the EU’s website:
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/trans/133950.pdf



Geoghegan-Quinn outlines EU’s new international co-operation strategy
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, recently
gave a speech on the EC’s new strategy for EU-International co-operation in research and
innovation. She started by highlighting the benefits of international collaboration for scientists and for
Europe, with the number of scientific papers co-authored by researchers from different countries
increasing and with many global economies investing heavily in their own research and innovation
base. Geoghegan-Quinn stated that Europe is an attractive location for international partners as the
EU is responsible for 24 per cent of the world expenditure on research , 32 per cent of high impact
publications and 32 per cent of patent applications, even though only 7 per cent of the world’s
population lives in the EU.


The new international co-operation strategy will be integrated with Horizon 2020 with all countries
invited to participate in Horizon 2020, but with no EU funding available for those countries that invest
strongly in their research and innovation base. Under Horizon 2020 there will also be targeted co-
operation actions selected on common interest and mutual benefit with global partners and will be
identified in multi-annual roadmaps. Geoghegan-Quinn concluded by mentioning that the EC will
produce a biennial report to measure progress and assess the impact of the international co-
operation strategy.
Further information
EC Press Release SPEECH/12/863 of 27 November 2012 is available at: http://europa.eu/rapid




Research News
New insights into pig genome
An international research team part-funded by the European Research Council, the FP6 SABRE
initiative and the FP7 Quantomics initiative, has sequenced and analysed the genomes of several
domestic and wild pigs, shedding light on evolution and selection of the modern day pig. This
research was published in Nature and has important implications for future breeding practices in
agriculture and the use of the pig in studies of human diseases.


Comparisons of Asian and European wild pigs revealed that they separated from one another
approximately one million years ago and have significant genetic differences. The pig genome was
also compared with those of the human, mouse, dog, horse and cow. Pig genes associated with
immune response and olfaction are evolving most rapidly and the pig has more unique olfactory
genes than humans, mice or dogs, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The
pig also shares many of the same gene variants implicated in obesity, diabetes, dyslexia, Parkinson’s



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disease and Alzheimer’s disease, supporting the pig as a valuable biomedical model, researchers
reported.
Further information
The Nature paper is available at:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v491/n7424/full/nature11622.html
An article on the study is available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/index.cfm?pg=newsalert&lg=en&year=2012&na=na-141112



New bio-oil technology wins innovation prize
The European Association of Research and Technology Organisations (EARTO) recently held a
ceremony to award its 2012 Innovation Prize. The 2012 EARTO Innovation Prize went to the VTT
Technical Research Centre in Finland, which has made a breakthrough in biomass-based bio-oil
production. It uses a new innovative, intelligent process which combines two different technologies,
pyrolysis (a process for breaking down wood) and combustion, in a way where each benefits from the
other within a power plant. This totally new process means that commercial production of bio-oil can
become financially viable for the first time. The new process will be implemented on an industrial
scale soon and could ultimately help the Europe meet its energy targets for 2020.


VTT has collaborated with energy company Fortum, technology specialist Metso Power and forestry
firm UPM. A proof of concept pilot to demonstrate the technology has been operating successfully for
two year. The world’s first commercial implementation of the new technology will start in 2013 when
Fortum uses a new bio-oil plant on its Joensuu CHP (combined heat and power) plant in Finland. The
plant will produce 50 thousand tonnes of bio-oil a year and will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by
59 thousand tonnes and sulphur dioxide emissions by 320 tonnes.
Further information
Further information on the EARTO prize and prize winners is available at:
http://www.earto.eu/activities-and-services/earto-innovation-prize/earto-innovation-prize-2012.html



Looking at climate adaptation research
The Executive Summary of the first synthesis report on “Climate Adaptation Research in a Larger
Europe: an analysis at local and national scales” has been published. It aims to provide policy makers
with relevant statistical information on climate change adaptation research at local and national
scales over the ‘larger Europe’ landscape that includes the 32 member countries of the European
Environment Agency, as well as Israel.


This relates to the EU-funded CIRCLE-2 project, which has created a public database on climate
adaptation research. The database, known as the ‘infobase’, includes information on research
projects finalised after 2005 which have been funded either at national or local levels, as well as
some transnational projects. The first synthesis report will be followed by a further two editions before
the CIRCLE-2 project finishes in 2014. The infobase and related synthesis report look at various
information such as the: project level (national or transnational); countries involved; categories;
sectors that have been addressed by the project; funding; timeframe; original language of the project;
and outcomes. The report makes a number of recommendations about how the data could be
improved or made more complete, as well as how the data could be a useful for those considering
Joint Programming in the future.
Further information
Circle-2 project website: http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/home.html
Information on the Executive Summary: http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/492.html
The infobase is available at: http://infobase.circle-era.eu



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                        11
When do warnings help to prevent violent conflicts?
Professor Christoph Meyer, from King’s College London, was awarded a European Research Council
(ERC) Starting Grant for his FORESIGHT project, which looked at whether forecasts matter and the
relationship between early warnings and the prevention of armed conflicts. Dr Meyer presented his
research on the impact of warnings on policy-decision making at the recent United Nations
Disarmament Week.


His team of researchers studied the conditions when warnings from high-profile politicians and media
played a key role in preventing violent conflict in different countries and regions over the last 20
years. The researchers looked both at how warnings affect international organisations (such as the
EU and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe) and individual countries. They
found that important aspects of warnings included the content, source credibility and interpersonal
relations between forecasts and decision-makers. The research is likely to be used by both the
intelligence community and governments in order to make their warnings more visible and relevant.
Professor Meyer has also been awarded an ERC 'Proof of Concept' grant to develop a forecast-
based web application called “Impact Tracer”, which could be used to trace a large number of texts
over time according to specific needs.
Further information
Information on the Impact Tracer project:
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/artshums/depts/europeanstudies/newsrecords/2011-12/ercfunding.aspx
Information on Christoph Meyer:
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/warstudies/people/researchers/meyer.aspx



Making European high-knowledge manual work more competitive
A modular, reconfigurable system that will improve productivity and working environments in Europe
for high-knowledge manual work has been developed through an FP7-funded project called
MANUVAR, which received over €7 million of funding and has 18 partners from eight Member States.
The usual solution to expensive manufacturing is to outsource the work to a less expensive country.
However this is not an option for high-knowledge manual work that requires the knowledge and
expertise of European workers. The MANUVAR system can help to resolve this problem through
enhancing communication in the product lifestyle, supporting workplace and work procedure design
and facilitating training and delivery of instructions.


The project focused on five niche industries of economic and scientific importance to Europe:
spacecraft assembly; assembly lines and SMEs; remote maintenance; power plants; and heavy
machinery. Eurostat data of 2011 stated that 15.7 million people in Europe were involved in high-
knowledge manual work. Through the implementation of the MANUVAR system, it is possible that
these niche sectors could raise their global competitiveness, protect domestic employment and better
quality and market value for the product. A demonstration on the potential of the system was held in
early 2012 and the feedback from the engineers was positive.
Further information
MANUVAR project website http://www.manuvar.eu/



Good medical practice can bias comparative studies
Heart attack patients require specialist treatment to give them the greatest chance for survival. Drug
treatment alone is usually not effective, but an operation that re-opens blocked arteries, called
primary angioplasty, increases the chances of patient recovery. However previous studies comparing
primary angioplasty with drug treatment have indicated that patients fare the same with either
treatment. This anomalous result could be due to the fact that the most ill patients, and those most
likely not to recover, are usually the ones that receive primary angioplasty treatment, thus skewing
the data on patient survival. This could be due to ‘allocation bias’, where doctors give the best



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                     12
treatment to the sickest patients, which is good medical practice but makes any comparisons
between treatments difficult.


New research funded by FP7 and lead by researchers at Imperial College London took this bias into
consideration when analysing the data and calculated that primary angioplasty increases the survival
rate of heart attack patients by 22 per cent compared to drug treatment alone. This result was
confirmed by the fact that in England 82 per cent of heart attack patients have access to primary
angioplasty. The new study developed a method to identify when ‘allocation bias’ could bias the
evaluation of disease treatment.
Further information
An article on this study is available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/research/infocentre/article_en.cfm?id=/research/headlines/news/article_12_11_
29_en.html&item=Infocentre&artid=28413




Education, Training and Culture
EC communication on rethinking education
The EC has recently presented a Communication entitled ‘Rethinking Education’, which makes a
number of proposals on how education and training systems need to be changed to deliver the skills
needed by the labour market. The Communication makes a number of different suggestions.


These include a stronger focus on developing transversal skills; a new benchmark for foreign
language learning - by 2020 at least 50 per cent of 15 year-olds should know at least one foreign
language and at least 75 per cent should study a second one; investment into building world-class
vocational education and training systems; for Member States to improve the recognition of
qualifications and skills; and for education institutions to increase access to education via open
educational resources. In order to achieve these targets, the Communication states that well-trained,
motivated and entrepreneurial teachers and targeted funding (including both public and private
funding) are crucial elements.
Further information
Further information is available from the EC’s website:
http://ec.europa.eu/education/news/rethinking_en.htm



MEDIA Programme: call for proposals on digitisation of cinemas
The EC has launched a call for proposals under the MEDIA programme which is for the provision of
development, distribution, promotion and training and support for the digitisation of European
cinemas. The aim of this particular call is to encourage cinemas showing a significant percentage of
non-national European works to exploit the possibilities offered by the digital medium.
The call also aims to facilitate the digital transition of cinemas screening European films by supporting
the costs linked to the purchase of a digital projector. The support, in the form of a lump sum of up to
€20,000 per screen, will therefore co-finance the cost related to the digital transition of European
theatres, excluding the cost of the digital projector and server. The deadline for applications is 31
January 2013.
Further information
All the information on the call can be seen at:
http://ec.europa.eu/culture/media/fundings/exhibition/digitisation-of-cinemas/calls_en.htm



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                        13
Tempus IV Programme: call for proposals on reform of higher education
through international university co-operation
The EC’s Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) has launched a call for
proposals for the provision of the fourth phase of the Tempus programme, a reform of higher
education through international university co-operation. The call deadline is 26 March 2013.


The overall objective of the programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in the
EU's surrounding area. The Tempus programme promotes institutional co-operation and focuses on
the reform and modernisation of higher education systems in the partner countries. It contributes to
an area of co-operation in higher education involving the European Union and partner countries in its
wider proximity. In particular, the programme will promote voluntary convergence with EU
developments in the field of higher education, deriving from the Europe 2020 strategy, the strategic
framework for European co-operation in education and training (‘ET 2020’) and the Bologna process.
Further information
All the details of the call are available from the EACEA website: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus




Events
European Maritime Day 2013
The sixth edition of the European Maritime Day Conference and Stakeholders Workshops will take
place in Valletta, Malta, on 21 and 22 May 2013. The seas and oceans, and the opportunities they
offer, will be at the heart of discussions. There will be high-level political debates as well as more
practical exchanges between maritime stakeholders. Thoughts, ideas and new concepts will be
devised during the Conference.


The conference will include the following sessions: investing in sustainable maritime and coastal
tourism – on the path towards Blue Growth; connectivity for Blue Growth in Europe; the cruise sector
– a safe and sustainable growth sector; marine and coastal management – fostering sustainable
development and climate change adaptation; and Mediterranean Sea Region – laying the conditions
for sustainable growth and jobs.
Further information
The programme and registrations details are available on the EC website:
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/maritimeday/index_en.htm



First international conference on internet science
The first international conference on Internet Science will take place on 10 and 11 April 2013 in
Brussels. The event is organised by the EC in collaboration with the EINS project, which is an FP7-
funded Network of Excellence in the field of internet science.


This multidisciplinary conference is foreseen to cover the areas of Computer Science, Sociology, Art,
Mathematics, Physics, Complex systems analysis, Psychology, Economics, Law, Political Science,
Epistemology and other relevant disciplines It will also provide the EINS Network of Excellence with
an opportunity to interact with external stakeholders, detail project objectives and methodological
approach, and showcase its first results.
Further information
Conference website: http://www.internet-science.eu


ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                     14
Net4Society conference on "Learning by doing - making interdisciplinarity
work"
A conference on "Learning by doing - making interdisciplinarity work" which covers the role of
interdisciplinarity in European research and perspectives from the Socio-economic Sciences and
Humanities will take place on 15 January 2013 in Brussels. The conference is organised by the
international network of National Contact Points for Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities (SSH)
Net4Society in partnership with the European Alliance for the Social Sciences and Humanities.


The event will allow researchers from different disciplines and SSH stakeholders to interact in order
to share experiences and good practices and finally draw lessons from interdisciplinary research
projects in different FP7 themes. The conference will seek to overcome the challenges in properly
integrating SSH-inspired contributions into different research fields. The main overall aim of the
conference is to identify successful paths for making multi- and interdisciplinarity effective.
Further information
More information about the conference and the registration facility are available at:
http://www.net4society.eu/public/conference.php



New Publications and Online Resources
Expert report on international co-operation in research published
A report commissioned by the EC’s DG Research and Innovation, entitled “International Cooperation
in Science, Technology and Innovation: Strategies for a Changing World”, has recently been
published. The report is designed support the development of the new EU strategy for international
co-operation in research, which was launched in July 2012.


The report contains nine recommendations which include promoting European attractiveness as an
international research and innovation hub; a proper prioritisation of research themes and problems;
strengthening framework conditions and removing barriers to international co-operation and
encouraging targeted initiatives for strengthening co-operation in selected areas.
Further information
The report can be accessed on the EC’s website: http://ec.europa.eu/research/iscp/pdf/report-inco-
web-4.pdf



Blueprint to safeguard Europe’s water resources
The EC has recently published a blueprint on safeguarding Europe’s water resources. The Blueprint
sets out key actions that need to be taken by water managers and policy makers to address the
challenges faced by the aquatic environment.


The Blueprint contains an overview of the actions to be taken (from page 22 onwards) and how these
could be achieved. Whether these goals are achieved depends on political will and the commitment
of stakeholders over the coming years.
Further information
The Blueprint to Safeguard Europe’s Water Resources is available on the EC’s website:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/blueprint/pdf/COM-2012-673final_EN_ACT-cov.pdf




ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                    15
CORDIS
CORDIS is the official Community Research and Development Information Service for science,
research and innovation provided by the Office for Official Publications of the European
Communities. The interactive website offers daily news and detailed information on the EU’s
research programmes.
URL: http://cordis.europa.eu


IGLO Project Search
The IGLO Project Service offers a forum for publishing and disseminating details of proposed FP7
projects and/or research skills offered. The service enables researchers to find contacts and
partners within the international research community as well as contributing to the mobilisation of a
critical mass of researchers in a specific research area.
URL: http://www.iglortd.org


EUR-LEX (Official Journal C and L)
This website provides information on EU Law. It includes electronic copies of EU treaties and
recent copies of the Official Journal of the European Communities (OJ). The OJ, published daily in
23 languages, consists of two related series: the L series (Legislation) and the C series
(Information, notices and preparatory EU legislation), a supplement and an annex. EUR-LEX
provides free access to the C and L series of the Official Journal for a period of 45 days following
publication. (The OJ issue with the Euro exchange rates (L 359, 31/12/1998) is permanently
available in PDF format on EUR-LEX).
URL: EUR-LEX http://www.europa.eu/eur-lex
Official Journals C and L http://www.europa.eu/eur-lex/en/oj
Treaty of Amsterdam http://www.europa.eu/eur-lex/en/treaties


EUROPA
EUROPA is the official EU server. It contains links to the EP, the European Council, the EC and
other EU institutions and contains information on EU policies listed by subject area.
URL: http://www.europa.eu


RAPID
RAPID is a database giving a daily view of the activities of the EU as presented by the institutions
in their press releases.
EC Press Releases are available at: http://europa.eu/rapid


EURAXESS
The EURAXESS-UK website provides information and advice for international researchers wishing to
come to the UK, or for those looking for research jobs in Europe. It has sections on the UK research
landscape, funding and jobs, as well as information on practical issues, like accommodation, tax and
childcare.
Visit www.euraxess.org.uk




ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                     16
cubed… from the British Council
cubed, the monthly webzine from the British Council discusses the science that’s shaping our
society and bringing a new dimension to everyday life. It brings the latest innovations in fashion
and music, design and digital, film and life, and the products and ideas that will change our world.
Visit: http://www.britishcouncil.org/science-cubed.htm


Talking Science
Created by the British Council, the Talking Science website provides up-to-date information and
links to the latest ideas in science communication in the UK: www.britishcouncil.org/talkingscience



GLOSSARY
Capacities
Capacities is the fourth Specific Programme of FP7 and is worth over €4 billion from 2007 to 2013.
It aims to enhance research capacities throughout Europe and ensure their optimal use. It is made
up of the following broad areas: Research Infrastructures; Research for the Benefit of SMEs;
Regions of Knowledge; Research Potential for the Benefit of Convergence Regions; Science in
Society; Support to Coherent Development of Research Policies; and International Co-operation.
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/capacities


CIP
The Competitiveness and Innovation Programme will run from 2007 to 2013. With a budget of €3.6
billion, it is made up of three Specific Programmes: the Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Programme; the ICT Policy Support Programme; and the Intelligent Energy-Europe Programme
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/cip


Co-operation
Co-operation is the first Specific Programme of FP7. Worth over €30 billion between 2007 and
2013, it is made up of ten thematic areas: Health; Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Biotechnology;
Information Communications Technology (ICT); Nanosciences, Nanomaterials, Materials and New
Production Technologies; Energy; Environment; Transport; Socio-economic Sciences and the
Humanities; Space; and Security.
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/co-operation


COST
European Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research is a framework for
scientific and technical co-operation, allowing the co-ordination of national research on a European
level.
http://www.cost.esf.org


'Council'
'Council' refers to the 'Council of Ministers', the principal decision-making body within the European
Union. It has both executive and legislative powers, the latter in some cases exercised jointly with
the EP (co-decision procedure). The Council is composed of one representative at ministerial level
from each member state. Which ministers attend each Council meeting varies according to the
subject discussed, e.g. the Minister of Science in the UK attends the Research Council.
http://consilium.europa.eu/cms3_fo/showPage.ASP?lang=en



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                     17
EC
The EC stands for European Commission. It is the ‘civil service of the EU’ and is made up of 27
departments, known as Directorates General, which are each headed by Commissioners
nominated by the Member States. The EC both initiates proposals for EU legislation and executes
EU policies and actions.
http://ec.europa.eu


EP
The European Parliament is made up of elected representatives (MEPs) from all the member
states. It shares decision-making power with the European Council in a number of areas, including
research and education.
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/default_en.htm


ERA
European Research Area. On 18 January 2000 the EC issued a communication entitled ’Towards
a European Research Area’ that proposed ways in which research in Europe could be more
effectively organised and co-ordinated.
http://ec.europa.eu/research/era


ERC
The European Research Council, which is the Ideas Specific Programme of FP7, is worth over €7
billion from 2007 to 2013. The ERC funds investigator-led, frontier research. It consists of five grant
schemes: Starting Independent Researcher Grants; Consolidator Grants; Advanced Investigator
Grants; Proof of Concept Funding; and Synergy Grants.
http://erc.europa.eu


ESA
The European Space Agency is responsible for designing and developing the European space
programme. The Agency’s projects are designed to find out more about the Earth, its immediate
space environment, the solar system and the universe, as well as to develop satellite-based
technologies and services, and to promote European industries.
http://www.esa.int


ESC
The European Economic and Social Committee is a consultative body made up of representatives
of Europe's employers' organisations, trade unions, farmers, consumer groups and professional
associations.
http://eesc.europa.eu


ESF
European Science Foundation
http://www.esf.org


ESF
The European Social Fund, part of the EU’s Structural Funds
http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/esf2000/index_en.html


ETP




ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                       18
European Technology Platforms are stakeholder groupings, led by industry, that help to define
research and development priorities, timeframes and action plans on a number of strategically
important issues.
http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/nn/nn_rt/nn_rt_hlg/article_1262_en.htm


Euratom
The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) was set up in 1957 and is legally separate
from the European Community. Euratom will have €2.7 billion from FP7 to fund nuclear research
and training activities between 2007 and 2011.
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/euratom


Eureka
Eureka is a Europe-wide network for industrial research and development.
http://www.eureka.be


FP (FP5, FP6, FP7)
The EU’s Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. The Fifth
Framework Programme (FP5) was adopted in 1998 and ran until 2002, with FP6 then running from
2002 to 2006, and FP7 running from 2007 to 2013. The budget for FP7 is over €50 billion.
Further information on the thematic and horizontal programme composition of FP6 is available at:
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp6
Further information on FP7 can be found at: http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7


Green Paper
Green Papers are communications published by the EC on a specific policy area. Primarily, they
are documents addressed to interested parties who are invited to participate in a process of
consultation and debate. In some cases they provide an impetus for subsequent legislation.


ICPC
An International Co-operation Partner Country is an economically less developed country, which is
not an EU member state or associated state. ICPC partners can participate in FP7 projects and
receive funding.


Ideas
The Ideas Specific Programme within FP7 is worth over €7 billion from 2007 to 2013. New to
Framework Programme Seven, the Ideas Programme funds investigator-led, frontier research. It is
implemented through the European Research Council and consists of five grant schemes: Starting
Independent Researcher Grants; Consolidator Grants; Advanced Investigator Grants; Proof of
Concept Funding; and Synergy Grants.
http://erc.europa.eu


ITRE
The European Parliament Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy (FP7)
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/itre_home_en.htm


JRC
The EC’s Joint Research Centre acts as a scientific and technological laboratory in support of EU
policies, with a range of institutes and research activities.
http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu


ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                 19
LLP
The Lifelong Learning Programme is made up of four pillars: the Comenius programme for pupils,
teachers and schools; the Erasmus programme for students, scholars, professors and universities;
the Leonardo da Vinci programme for apprentices, workers and employees; and the Grundtvig
programme for adults and teachers and related organisations. There is also a transversal
programme (for policy development, languages, information and communication technology) and
the Jean Monet programme (dealing with issues relating to European integration, European
institutions and associations in the fields of education and training).
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/static/en/llp/index_en.htm


MEDIA
The MEDIA Programme aims to strengthen the competitiveness of the European audiovisual
industry.
http://ec.europa.eu/comm/avpolicy/media/index_en.html


NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
http://www.nato.int


People
The third Specific Programme of FP7 is worth over €4 billion during the period from 2007 to 2013.
Made up of the Marie Curie Actions, it aims to improve the quality of human resources in European
research through training and trans-national mobility of researchers.
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/people/home_en.html


RTD
Research and Technological Development


SICA
Specific International Co-operation Actions are FP7 call topics where a partner from an ICPC
country has to be involved.


SME
Small and medium sized enterprises
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/enterprise_policy/sme_definition/index_en.htm


Specific Programme
FP7 is made up of seven Specific Programmes: Co-operation; Ideas (implemented through the
European Research Council); People (the Marie Curie Actions); Capacities; the Joint Research
Centre (JRC); Euratom and the JRC implementing Euratom.


SSH
Socio-economic Sciences and the Humanities is the eighth theme of the FP7 Co-operation Specific
Programme.


Treaty of Amsterdam
The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed in October 1997 and entered into force on 1 May 1999.



ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                                 20
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/en/treaties/index.htm


UUK
Universities UK (formerly the Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals)
http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk


White Paper
White Papers are documents containing proposals for Community action in a specific area. They
often follow a Green Paper.


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ISSUE: EI 01:13 – JANUARY 2013                                                             21

				
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