Windows Server 2008

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					  MCTS Guide to Configuring
Microsoft Windows Server 2008
       Active Directory


Chapter 8: Introduction to Windows
            Networking
                                Objectives

• Describe networks using Windows terminology
• Configure and troubleshoot TCP/IP protocols
• Describe IPv6 addressing




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     Windows Networking Terminology
•   Network media
•   Network Interface Card (NIC)
•   NIC driver
•   Hub or switch
•   Router
•   Network protocol
•   Client
•   Service
•   Network
•   Internetwork
•   Network connection
•   Network discovery
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      The Network and Sharing Center

• Can create network connections, view the status of
  existing connections, and troubleshoot network
  problems
• Additionally, you can enable and disable the
  discovery of other computers on the network, and
  configure folder sharing
• Three sections:
    – The network map
    – Sharing and Discovery
    – Tasks


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                        The Network Map

• The network map displays a graphical view of the
  network from your computer’s perspective
• Upon connection to a network, Windows asks you
  to select the type of network you are connecting to:
  Home, Work, or Public
• Based on this choice, Windows designates your
  network as one of the following types:
    – Public
    – Private
    – Domain


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               The Network Map (cont.)
• Devices that run Windows Server 2003 or Windows
  XP can’t be placed on the map, because they lack
  the necessary Link Layer Topology Discovery
  (LLTD) protocol
• Other reasons that a device can’t be placed:
    – A computer running Vista connected to a network designated
      as public
    – LLTD is disabled
    – Network discovery is turned off
    – Firewall settings on the computer or network are preventing
      Windows from detecting the computer
    – The NIC drivers don’t support LLTD


MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                           6
               The Network Map (cont.)




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory   7
   The Sharing and Discovery Section

• You can enable and disable the following functions
  in the Sharing and Discovery section:
    –   Network discovery
    –   File sharing
    –   Public folder sharing
    –   Printer sharing
• This section can also display information about
  what’s currently being shared on the computer




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory              8
                       The Tasks Section

• The Tasks section has links to perform the
  following tasks:
    –   View computers and devices
    –   Connect to a network
    –   Set up a connection or network
    –   Manage network connections
    –   Diagnose and repair




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory      9
  TCP/IP Operation and Configuration
• TCP/IP is the default network protocol installed on
  Windows computers. Windows Server 2008 and
  Vista are the first two to have IPv4 and IPv6
  installed by default
• TCP/IP is a suite of protocols:
    –   Domain Name System (DNS)
    –   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    –   Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    –   User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    –   Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
    –   Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    –   Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

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                 TCP/IP Communication
• When a user opens a web page, a DNS request is sent to
  resolve the website name to an IP address
• Once the client has the IP address of the website, it then
  determines whether the address is on the same network or a
  different network
• If the client is on the same network, the client requests the
  MAC address of the Web server. If not, the client sends the
  request for the Web page to a router or default gateway
• Routers then forward the request to other routers, until the
  request reaches a router connected to the Web server’s
  network


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            IPv4 Address Configuration
• IP addresses are 32-bit numbers divided into four 8-bit
  values called octets, each octet can have a value from 0 to
  255
• Subnet masks are also 32-bit numbers, that serve to
  determine how many bits are allocated to a network ID, and
  how many are allocated to a host ID
• When written in binary, 1’s in the subnet mask that
  correspond to bits in the IP address mean the matching bit
  locations are part of the network ID
• 192.168.1.0 = 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000
  255.255.255.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
• Above shows 192.168.1 as the network ID, .0 as the host ID

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         Assigning IP Address Classes

• Three classes of IP addresses can be assigned:
  Class A, Class B, or Class C




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          IP Address Assignment Rules

• Rules for IP address assignment
    – Every IP address configuration must have a subnet mask
    – All hosts on the same physical network must share the same
      network ID in their IP addresses
    – All host IDs on the same network must be unique
    – You can’t assign an IP address in which all the host ID bits are
      binary 0
    – You can’t assign an IP address in which all the host ID bits are
      binary 1
    – Computers assigned different network IDs can communicate
      only if a router is present to forward packets



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                                Subnetting
• Default subnet mask for an address class does not always
  apply
• Bits can be borrowed from the host ID portion of an address
  class in order to create additional “sub-networks”
• Example: 172.31.0.0 subnetted to 255.255.255.0
    – Creates 256 new networks, with 254 host IDs
    – Rule for number of networks = 2n
    – Rule for number of hosts = 2n – 2
• An IP network is referred to as a broadcast domain
• Creating multiple subnets can be beneficial in large
  environments to reduce the amount of traffic (broadcast
  traffic specifically) computers are exposed to

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                   15
     Configuring Multiple IP Addresses

• Windows OSs allow assigning multiple IP
  addresses to a single network connection, via
  Advanced TCP/IP settings dialog box
• Multiple IP addresses can be useful in these
  situations:
    – The computer is hosting a service that must be accessed by
      using different addresses
    – The computer is connected to a physical network that hosts
      multiple IP networks




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                          16
      Configuring the Default Gateway
• A default gateway is almost always used in IP
  configurations
• The default gateway can not be in a network ID
  outside of the host’s network ID
• Just as you can configure multiple IP addresses,
  multiple gateways can be configured
• Windows attempts to select the gateway with the
  best metric automatically
• Metric is a value assigned to the gateway based on
  the speed of the interface used to access the
  gateway
MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory          17
             Using Multihomed Servers

• A multihomed server has two or more NICs, each
  attached to a different IP network
• Each NIC requires its own IP address for the
  network to which it’s connected
• Reasons for this type of configuration:
    – A server is accessed by internal clients and external clients
    – A server provides resources for computers on multiple subnets
      of the network
    – A server is configured as a router or VPN server
• Multihomed servers can run into routing issues due
  to multiple default gateways being configured
MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                         18
             Using the Route Command
• Windows computers maintain a routing table that dictates
  where a packet should be sent, based on the packet’s
  destination address
• Typing route print displays the routing table
• Results are displayed in five columns:
    –   Network Destination
    –   Netmask
    –   Gateway
    –   Interface
    –   Metric
• Route command can be used to change the routing table,
  and to fix issues caused by using a multihomed server

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                    19
    Using the Route Command (cont.)




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory   20
IP Configuration Command-Line Tools

• Other command line tools available to assist with
  IP configuration:
    –   Ping
    –   Ipconfig
    –   Arp
    –   Tracert
    –   Nslookup
• Additional tools are available, but are generally
  used to verify correct IP configuration settings and
  connectivity


MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                21
                     The Ping Command

• Ping is used to test the connectivity between two
  computers, by sending an ICMP Echo Request
  packet
• If the destination receives the ICMP Echo Request
  and can respond, it’ll reply with an ICMP Echo
  Reply packet
    – Example: Reply from 192.168.100.201 bytes=32 time=<1ms
      TTL=128
• To see the options available for the ping command,
  type ping /? at the command prompt

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                      22
                 The Ipconfig Command

• Ipconfig is usually used to display a computers IP
  address settings, but it can perform other tasks
  based on the options given:
    –   /all
    –   /release
    –   /renew
    –   /displaydns
    –   /flushdns
    –   /registerdns




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory              23
                      The Arp Command

• The Arp command displays or makes changes to
  the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache,
  which contains IP address – MAC address pairs
• Can add static ARP entries
• Some options for ARP command:
    – -a, -g: displays current ARP entries
    – -d: deletes ARP entries
    – -s: adds a static ARP entry




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory         24
                  The Tracert Command

• Usually called “trace route” because it displays the
  route packets take between two computers
• Works by sending out packets with a TTL value
  starting at 1 and increases the value until the
  destination is reached
• Useful for troubleshooting the routing topology of a
  complex network and finding bottlenecks




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory            25
               The Nslookup Command

• Used to test and troubleshoot DNS operation
• Can be used in command mode or interactive
  mode
• In command mode, you type “nslookup host” to
  query for the host’s address
• In interactive mode, you can simply type host to get
  the host’s address
• Typing a question mark at the interactive mode
  prompt gives a list of available options


MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory           26
                     Managing Protocols
• Each network connection in Windows Server 2008 has
  protocols and services associated with it
• Services / protocols can be unbound (disabled) or bound
  (enabled) to a connection in the connection’s Properties
  dialog box, by selecting or deselecting the check box next to
  the service or protocol
• List of services / protocols
    –   Client for Microsoft Networks
    –   QoS Packet Scheduler
    –   File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
    –   Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
    –   Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)
    –   Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper I/O Driver
    –   Link-Layer Topology Discovery Responder

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                     27
             Managing Protocols (cont.)




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory   28
                        Network Bindings

• By default, every installed service and protocol is
  bound to every network connection
• Protocol bindings can be rearranged by selecting
  the protocol to be moved, and then by clicking the
  up or down arrows in the Adapters and Bindings
  tab
• Network connections are then prioritized in the
  order shown under this tab



MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory               29
                Network Bindings (cont.)




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory   30
                       Network Providers

• A network provider is a software component that
  allows Windows applications to connect to
  resources on other computers
• Different OSs may require different procedures,
  which requires different network providers
• Network providers exist for Windows networks,
  virtual networks (VMware), Novell networks, Linux
  networks, and more
• Performs actions such as making and breaking
  network connections

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory             31
               Network Providers (cont.)




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory   32
             Internet Protocol Version 6

• Previous Windows OSs use a Dual-stack
  architecture, meaning that IPv4 and IPv6 use
  separate implementations of the protocols in the
  TCP/IP suite
• Windows Server 2008 and Vista use dual-IP layer
  architecture, which means that the IP protocol is
  the only component of the TCP/IP suite that’s
  different in IPv6



MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory             33
     Internet Protocol Version 6 (cont.)




                                Dual-stack architecture


MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                 34
     Internet Protocol Version 6 (cont.)




                              Dual-IP layer architecture

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                           IPv6 Overview

• Originally named IPng (IP next generation), IPv6
  was created in 1994 by the Internet Engineering
  Task Force (IETF)
• IPv6 includes the following improvements
    –   Large address space
    –   Hierarchical address space
    –   Autoconfiguration
    –   Built-in Quality of Server (QoS) support
    –   Built-in security




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory            36
                 IPv6 Address Structure
• Subnetting as done in IPv4 is no longer applicable
• Uses 128 bits, instead of IPv4’s 32 bits, for an
  address
• IPv6 addresses are written as eight 16-bit
  hexadecimal numbers separated by colons:
    – Fe80:0:0:0:18ff:0024:8e5a:60
    – Things to note about IPv6 addresses:
         • One or more consecutive 0 values can be written as a double
           colon, but only one double colon can exist in an IPv6 address
         • Leading 0s are optional
• Addresses that start with fe80 are called link-local
  addresses and are self-configuring
MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                                  37
                        The IPv6 Host ID
• Host ID of an IPv6 is typically 64 bits and uses the
  interface’s 48 bit MAC address for a large portion
  of the address, as well as a 16 bit value of FF-FE
  that is inserted after the first 24 bits of the MAC
  address
• First two zeros in a MAC address are replaced with
  02
• This autoconfigured 64-bit host ID is referred to as
  an Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64 interface ID
• Windows Server 2008 and Vista don’t use EUI-64
  by default

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory            38
                    Subnetting with IPv6

• Subnetting will still exist in IPv6, but due to the
  large address space available, most address
  allocations will have a /48 prefix
• This leaves 80 bits for assigning subnets and host
  IDs
• 80 bits allows 16 subnet bits (since the interface ID
  requires 64 bits), allowing up to 65,536 subnets




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory             39
            Subnetting with IPv6 (cont.)




                          Typical IPV6 address structure




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                  40
                       Chapter Summary
• The Network and Sharing Center can view the status of
  network connections and configure their properties
• The network map is a visual representation of computers
  and connecting devices in your network
• TCP/IPv4, the predominant networking protocol in use today,
  is actually a suite of protocols and services, such as DNS,
  DHCP, TCP, IPv4, ICMP, and ARP, among others
• TCP/IP communication is a multi-step process that often
  involves the use of several different protocols in the TCP/IP
  suite



MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory                    41
               Chapter Summary (cont.)

• An IP address is a 32-bit dotted decimal number
  divided into four octets. Every IP address must
  have a subnet mask to indicate which part of the
  address is the network ID and which part is the
  host ID. Three IP classes exist: A, B, C
• Subnetting uses a modified subnet mask to divide
  a large network into smaller, more manageable
  networks
• You can configure multiple IP addresses and
  default gateways on a network connection

MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory            42
               Chapter Summary (cont.)

• Several command-line tools are available for
  checking status and troubleshooting IP
  configuration, including Ping, Ipconfig, Arp, Tracert,
  and Nslookup




MCTS Windows Server 2008 Active Directory             43

				
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