The Antebellum South

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					Ch. 16 EU: In what ways and to what
extent was industrial development from
1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship
between the northern and the southern
Early Emancipation in the North
Missouri Compromise, 1820
   Graniteville Textile Co.

 Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first
attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA
  Slaves Picking Cotton
on a Mississippi Plantation
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
Southern A griculture
        Slaves Working
in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823
Changes in Cotton Production


Value of Cotton Exports
As % of All US Exports
“Hauling the W hole Week’s
W illiam Henry Brown, 1842
       Characteristics of the
        Antebellum South
1. Primarily agrarian.
2. Economic power shifted from the
   “upper South” to the “lower South.”
3. “Cotton Is King!”
      * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr.
                (57% of total US exports).
4. Very slow development of industrialization.
5. Rudimentary financial system.
6. Inadequate transportation system.
   Southern Society (1850)
6,000,000    [plantation owners]

             The “Plain Folk”
            [white yeoman farmers]

               Black Freemen         250,000

                Black Slaves

    Total US Population  23,000,000
      [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
Southern Population
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Slave-Owning Families (1850)
Slave Auction Notice, 1823
Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
     Slave Accoutrements

                Slave Master

Slave muzzle
Anti-Slave Pamphlet
   Slave Accoutrements

Slave leg irons    Slave tag, SC

     Slave shoes
Slaves posing
  in front of
their cabin on
 a Southern
Tara – Plantation Reality or

   Hollywood’s Version?
Scarlet and Mammie
 (Hollywood A gain!)
A Real Mammie & Her Charge
T he Southern “Belle”
A Slave Family
    T he Ledger of John W hite
 Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr.
   Covington, St. Louis, $425.00
 Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home –
 Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal,
   Donaldsonville, $1200.00
 Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold
   out of jail, $540.00
 Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to
   Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00
US Laws Regarding Slavery

1. U. S. Constitution:
     * 3/5s compromise [I.2]
     * fugitive slave clause [IV.2]

2. 1793  Fugitive Slave Act.

3. 1850  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?
  1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila.
  By 1804: slavery eliminated from last
     northern state.
  1807: the legal termination of the slave
     trade, enforced by the Royal Navy.
  1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central &
     So. America declared their slaves free.
  1833: slavery abolished throughout the British
  1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies.
  1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.
Slavery Was Less Efficient
in the U. S. than Elsewhere
   High cost of keeping slaves from
   GOAL  raise the “exit cost.”
      Slave patrols.

      Southern Black Codes.

      Cut off a toe or a foot.
       Slave Resistance
1. “SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a
   charade in front of whites [the innocent,
   laughing black man caricature – bulging
   eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].
      Slave Resistance
2. Refusal to work hard.
3. Isolated acts of sabotage.
4. Escape via the Underground Railroad.
Runaway Slave Ads
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages

The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left,
alerted escapees to gather up tools and
prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path
design, on the right, warned escapees not
to follow a straight route.
Abolitionists of the North
   The South & Slavery - Personalities
• Theodore Weld: Slavery As It Is
  – Formed basis of ethical argument against slavery
  – Argued slavery destroyed & degraded the image
    of God in Man
  – Converted Tappan Bros. & J. Birney
• William Lloyd Garrison: Boston abolitionist
  –   Alienated middle-class whites by belief in disunion
  –   Founded American Anti-Slavery society
  –   **His efforts helped w/adoption of 13th Amendment
  –   The Liberator (1831)
  The South & Slavery - Personalities
• David Walker: Wrote The Appeal to the Colored
  Citizens of the World, which advocated slave
  rebellions & violence to achieve freedom
• Sojourner Truth: Ex-slave from NY/For
  abolition & women’s rights
  – Illiterate
  – Lincoln invited her to White House
    for advice
  – Isabella Baumfree
  – Sojourn is “visitor or traveler”
   The South & Slavery - Personalities
• Frederick Douglass: Escaped slave living in MASS
  – Published North Star (newspaper)
  – Dressed as a sailor to escape
  – After autobiography published, he went to Eng.
  – Took 8 yrs. To get $700 to buy freedom
  – After 44 yrs. of marriage, his 1st wife died & he
    married his white secretary
  – After war ambassador to Haiti
• Nat Turner: Slave preacher (VA)
  – Resulted in death of 50+ whites (mainly women & children);
  – Inspired by vision from God (eclipse)
  – Valued at $375
  – Revolt halted in 48 hrs.
  – 300 innocent blacks killed by white mobs
                                                 The capture of Nat Turner
   The South & Slavery - Personalities
• John Quincy Adams: 6th Prez; House of Rep.
   – Presented petitions against slavery
   – Location of desk in the House  only spot one can hear
     clearly what is being whispered 15 yds. away
*gag resolutions (1836): Attempt to silence him
• Elijah Lovejoy: Newspaper ed. in ILL
   – Killed by mob trying to protect presses
                                               Arthur Tappan helped fund the
   – Became a martyr                               Underground Railroad
• Tappan Brothers: (NYC) Wealthy
  importers & retail merchants
   – Gave money & leadership to
     reform societies
The South & Slavery – General Topics

• Methodist & Baptist churches supported
  slavery; Unitarian did not; Catholic &
  Episcopalian remained neutral
• Pro-slavery arguments
• Violation of 1st Amendment - 1835 U.S. Post
  Office orders destruction of anti-slavery mail
• Northern economic dependence on South
        Slave Rebellions
    in the Antebellum South

Gabriel Prosser
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South:
                    Nat Turner, 1831
     T he Culture of Slavery
1. Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]:
       * more emotional worship services.
       * negro spirituals.
2. “Pidgin” or Gullah languages.
3. Nuclear family with extended kin links,
   where possible.
4. Importance of music in their lives. [esp.
Southern Pro-Slavery
Ch. 16 EU: In what ways and to what
extent was industrial development from
1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship
between the northern and the southern

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