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Anatomy and Physiology Test Study Guide: Body Defense Test date: The test will consist of matching, multiple choice, fill-ins, diagrams, and short answer questions. After completing the reading, homework, and (most importantly) class work, you should be able to: 1. Identify the functions of the immune system. 2. Discuss the 5 mechanisms of non-specific defense. 3. Describe the function of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages. 4. Discuss the two branches of the immune system: antibody-mediated and cell-mediated. 5. Distinguish between active immunity/passive immunity and artificial/natural immunity. 6. Identify the basic structures of the lymphatic system. 7. Describe the path of lymph circulation, and discuss how lymph is formed. 8. Discuss the structure and function of a lymph node and the spleen. 9. Describe the structure and function of the hair follicle and hair shaft. 10. Identify the major parts of the nail and state their function. 11. Describe the three types of glands found in the skin. 12. Discuss the different factors that determine the color of the skin. 13. Describe how melanin is produced and how it functions in the skin. 14. List the functions of the skin and explain how the structure relates to its function. 15. Identify the different types of membranes found in the body and explain the two major functions of membranes. 16. List the signs of the inflammation and explain how they occur. 17. Distinguish between a bacterium and a virus (structure and mechanism). 18. Identify the stages of the lytic and lysogenic cycles of a virus. 19. List the sources of pathogens and the ways that they are transmitted. 20. Describe the effect of HIV on the immune system. 21. Define epidemic, pandemic, endemic, acute, chronic, sign, symptom, and syndrome.
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