DECLARATION

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					AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE SYSTEMS AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN
                  COMMERCIAL BANKS




   CASE STUDY OF STANBIC BANK LIMITED MAKERERE BRANCH



                               BY



                    AGANYIRA PHILLIP



                          07/U/6235/EXT




         SUPERVISED BY:    DR. MUYINDA PAUL BIREVU




 A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITED TO COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND
   MANAGEMENT SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE
   REQUIRMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF COMMERCE

            DEGREE OF MAKERERE UNVISERSITY




                           JUNE, 2011
                                                DECLARATION



I, AGANYIRA PHILLIP, declare that this research report is my original work and has
not been presented for a degree award in any other University or Institution for any
award.




Signature: ............................................       Date: ...........................................


AGANYIRA PHILLIP
07/U/6235/EXT




                                                          i
                                                     APPROVAL




This is to certify that this research report has been submitted for examination with my
approval as the candidate’s University supervisor.




Signature:.............................................        Date:................................................




DR. MUYINDA PAUL BIREVU


(Supervisor)




                                                          ii
                                    DEDICATION



This piece of work is dedicated to; the almighty God who cares for me every second
of my life, my Mum and Dad for lifting me until University, Mrs.Gabura Robinah ,
my brothers and sisters (Eddie,Andrew,Nebert,Lydia,Phionah and Rogers), and friends
(Mawejje,Paul,Mike) for their academic, moral, and emotional support. Thank you for
your sacrifice and God bless you.




                                         iii
                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS




My heart felt gratitude goes to God who has made me who I am today, I could go on
forever, Lord, anything good from this work comes from you.

To my friends; I love you, each one of you has a special place in my heart, and all the
footprints of your love, care, compassion and comfort are embedded in my heart.

To my supervisor Dr.Muyinda Paul Birevu, thank you for all the wisdom, knowledge
you have given to me, for your gracious help in this research, thank you again, may
God’s love remain with you.

Secondly, I extend my acknowledgement to the administration of Stanbic Bank
Makerere Branch and entire staff for permitting me to conduct the study from their
departments and courtesy accorded to me on the due course of gathering the relevant
data.

My sincere appreciation is also extended to my dear mother Mrs.Gabura Robinah for
the financial contribution towards this project. Mr.Baguma Eddie and G. Nebert,
Ajuna Andrew      are greatly appreciated for their continuous advice throughout this
project.

Thanks goes to my family for the support, comfort and tolerance I received which
enabled me to accomplish this course with less difficulty.

Lastly I my course mates: Mr. Osteen, Nakagwa Doreen, Baguma ,Asiimwe,
Joseph,Mugerwa Paul ,Mawejje phillip,Mercy,Florence and others whose names have
not mentioned here in who contributed morally and or otherwise to the success of this
study. I will forever live to remember your efforts.




                                             iv
                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ................................................................................................................. i
APPROVAL ....................................................................................................................... ii
DEDICATION ................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................... v
LIST OF ACRONYMS ...................................................................................................... x
LIST OF ACRONYMS ...................................................................................................... x
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... xi
CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem .............................................................................................. 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study ..................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Research Questions ....................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Scope of the Study ........................................................................................................ 3
1.5.1 Geographical Scope ................................................................................................... 3
1.5.2 Variable Scope ........................................................................................................... 3
1.5.3 Time Scope ................................................................................................................ 3
1.6 Significance of the Study .............................................................................................. 3
CHAPTER TWO ................................................................................................................ 5
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 5
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)............................................................................ 5
2.2.1 Definition of ATM ..................................................................................................... 5
2.2.2 History of ATMs. ....................................................................................................... 5
2.2.3 Operation of ATMs .................................................................................................... 6
2.3 Advantages of ATMs to customers............................................................................... 6
2.3.1 Convenience ............................................................................................................... 7


                                                                  v
2.3.2 Accessibility............................................................................................................... 7
2.3.3 Quick and Timely ...................................................................................................... 7
2.3.4 Accuracy .................................................................................................................... 7
2.3.5 Security of Customer’s Money .................................................................................. 8
2.4 Challenges of ATM Operation...................................................................................... 8
2.5 Customer Service Delivery Elements ........................................................................... 8
2.6 Effects of ATMs on Customer Service Delivery .......................................................... 9
2.6.1 Security of ATMs transactions .................................................................................. 9
2.6.2 Failure of ATMs. ..................................................................................................... 10
2.6.3. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 10
CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................................... 11
3.0 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 11
3.2 Research Design........................................................................................................ 11
3.3 Area of Study .............................................................................................................. 11
3.4 Study Population ......................................................................................................... 11
3.5 Sample Size and Selection Method............................................................................. 11
3.5.1 Sampling Procedure ................................................................................................. 11
3.5.2 Sample Size.............................................................................................................. 12
3.5.3 Sources of Data ...................................................................................................... 12
3.5.4 Primary data ............................................................................................................. 12
3.5.5 Secondary data ......................................................................................................... 12
3.6 Data Collection Methods and Tools: .......................................................................... 13
3.6.1 Questionnaires.......................................................................................................... 13
3.6.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................... 13
3.6.3 Observation .............................................................................................................. 13
3.7 Data management...................................................................................................... 14
3.7.1 Data processing ...................................................................................................... 14
3.7.2 Data analysis ............................................................................................................ 14
3.8 Limitations and Anticipated Solutions of the Study ................................................. 14
CHAPTER FOUR ............................................................................................................. 15



                                                                 vi
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 15
4.2. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents. .......................................................... 15
4.2.1 Age range of Respondents ....................................................................................... 15
4.2.2 Gender of Respondents ............................................................................................ 16
4.2.3 Marital Status ........................................................................................................... 16
4.2.4 Level of Education ................................................................................................... 17
4.2.5 Duration of Service to the Entity ............................................................................. 17
4.3 Advantages of ATMs .................................................................................................. 18
4.3.1 Increase in the Number of Customers ...................................................................... 18
4.3.2 Interaction with Customers ...................................................................................... 19
4.3.3 Increase in the Bank’s Deposit ................................................................................ 19
4.3.4 Increase of the Bank’s Profit due to the Introduction of ATMs. ............................. 20
4.3.5 ATMs and Costs to Customers ................................................................................ 21
4.3.6 ATMs and the Reduction of Customer Complaints................................................. 22
4.3.7 ATMs and Congestion of Banking Halls ................................................................. 23
4.3.8 Accessibility of ATMs to Customers....................................................................... 23
4.3.9 Introduction of ATMs and Frequency of Transactions............................................ 24
4.3.10 Security at ATM Points ......................................................................................... 25
4.3.11 How often do you get Complaints from Customers. ............................................. 25
4.3.12 Response to Customer Complaints. ....................................................................... 26
4.4. The Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and Quality of Service
Delivery............................................................................................................................. 27
CHAPTER FIVE .............................................................................................................. 28
5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ................................. 28
5.1 Summary of the Findings ............................................................................................ 28
5.1.1 Finding on Automated Teller Machines (ATMS) ................................................... 28
5.1.2 Findings on the Quality of Service Delivery ........................................................... 28
5.1.3 Findings on Relationship between Automated Teller Machines and Quality of
Service Delivery................................................................................................................ 28
5.2 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 29
5.2.1 Conclusion on Automated Teller Machines ............................................................ 29



                                                                  vii
5.2.2 Conclusion on Quality of Service Delivery ............................................................. 29
5.2.3 Conclusion on Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and Quality of
Service delivery ................................................................................................................ 29
5.3 Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 29
5.3.1 Recommendations on Automated Teller Machines ................................................. 29
5.3.2 Recommendations on Quality of Service Delivery ................................................. 30
5.3.3 Recommendation on the Relationship between Automated Teller Machines and
quality of Service Delivery ............................................................................................... 30
5.4 Areas for Further Research ......................................................................................... 30
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 31
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STAFF MEMBERS OF STANBIC BANK .. 32
APPENDIX 2: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CUSTOMERS ................................................ 35
APPENDIX 3: TIME SCHEDULE .................................................................................. 37
APENDIX 4: BUDGET .................................................................................................... 38




                                                               viii
                                                     LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: Showing categorization of respondents .............................................................. 12
Table 2: Age distribution of respondents. ......................................................................... 15
Table 3: Gender of Respondents. ...................................................................................... 16
Table 4: Marital Status of Respondents. ........................................................................... 16
Table 5: Level of Education. ............................................................................................. 17
Table 6: Showing the Duration of Service to the Entity. .................................................. 17
Table 7: Showing whether there is Increase in the Number of Customers as a result of
ATMs. ............................................................................................................................... 18
Table 8: Showing Interaction with Customers.................................................................. 19
Table 9: Showing Increase in the Bank’s Deposit due to ATM use. ................................ 20
Table 10: Showing whether ATMs have led to Increase of the bank’s profit .................. 21
Table 11: Showing ATMs and their perceived costs to customers. .................................. 22
Table 12: Showing ATMs and the Reduction of Customer Complaints. ......................... 22
Table 13: Showing ATMs and Congestion of Banking Halls. ......................................... 23
Table 14: Showing whether ATMs have been accessed by most Bank’s Customers. ..... 24
Table 15: Showing whether ATMs have got some effect on Frequency of Transactions 24
Table 16: Showing whether security is provided at ATM points. .................................... 25
Table 17: How often do you get complaints from customers. .......................................... 26
Table 18 : Showing whether Stanbic bank responds to complaints 24 hour . .................. 26
Table 19: Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and quality of service
delivery ............................................................................................................................. 27




                                                                   ix
                 LIST OF ACRONYMS

ATMs   Automated Teller Machines




SPSS   Statistical Package for social Sciences




                             x
                                     ABSTRACT



The study was about the contribution of Automated Teller Machine System on service
delivery in commercial banks basing on the following objectives; to establish the
advantages of using ATMs in Stanbic Bank, to determine the role of ATM on customer
service delivery in Stanbic Bank and to find out the relationship between ATMs and
service delivery in Stanbic Bank. The study design was cross sectional and both
qualitative and quantitative data were employed. Purposive sampling design was used to
determine the sample size. A sample of 45 respondents in the study was considered,
comprising of 5 middle level managers, 10 low level managers and 30 Bank customers
that use the ATM services. Primary data was collected by the use of questionnaires which
focused on the research questions. Secondary data was got from reports, journals,
magazines, newspapers which are in relation to the study objectives. Data entered into
excel was presented by the use of Frequency tables. Data analyzed by Statistical
Packages for Social Scientist (SPSS) was presented in form of Pearson correlation
coefficient table which showed the strength of the relationship between Automated Teller
Machine system and service delivery in commercial Banks. Findings on the advantages
of using Automated Teller Machines in Stanbic Bank showed that interaction with
customers is low, Introduction of ATMs in Stanbic Bank has not at all reduced customer
complaint, Automated Teller Machines of Stanbic bank does not work 24 hour
effectively and some times these Automated Teller Machines break down.
Recommendations on Automated Teller Machine system and service delivery were that
Management of Stanbic bank needs to ensure training and sensitization of customers on
how to use ATMs. Further more, Management of Stanbic bank has to make sure that
those old Automated Teller Machines are replaced with new ones so that they do not get
problems of break downs.




                                           xi
                                        CHAPTER ONE




1.0 INTRODUCTION

 This chapter covers the following areas, the background to the study, statement of the problem,
purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study and the
significance of the study.


1.1 Background

The concept of ATMs first begun in 1967 and America Cash Dispenser was developed and
installed in 1939 in New York City but removed after 6th month due to lack of customer
acceptance.


Deharue (1964) developed the first electronic ATM which was installed first in Enfield Town
London on 27th June by Barclays Bank.
In Uganda, Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) that uses Automated Teller Machine Services and
member of Standard Bank Group of South Africa. Initially it had one corporate branch and in
2002 of Uganda. In Uganda, Stanbic Bank have 69 branches.
The introduction and development of ATMs by Stanbic Bank Uganda started in 2002.
ATM system is meant to address challenges and solve problems facing un computerized banking
system in the industry. The system is seen as a solution that would solve the problems (concerns)
of customers for efficient and effective services. Although ATMs have been introduced to serve
customers at most branches, ATM failure and retention of cards and long queues have continued
to exist since services are provided through a single terminal at most branches.


ATM use is to improve customer service by allowing access to accounts information and cash
facilities 24 hours a day.ATM is also an electronic funds transfer (EFT) device which provide
time and space to customers (The Uganda Banker, 2003). ATM is also meant to minimize
forgeries on customer accounts.



                                                1
Service delivery therefore means a process of providing services to the clients .It comprises of
provision of quality service, customer satisfaction and value of money.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Like any other banking institutions, Stanbic bank Uganda Ltd set up ATM system to improve
customer service delivery. However, this has been hindered by break down of ATM machines,
retaining of customer cards. It is upon this argument that the researcher has been prompted to
carry out an investigation on the contribution of ATMs on customer service delivery.



1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the contribution of ATM systems on
customer service.



1.4 Objectives

   i.   To establish the advantages of using ATMs.
 ii.    To determine the role of ATM on customer service delivery.
 iii.   To find out the relationship between ATMs and service delivery.



1.5 Research Questions

   i.   What are the advantages of ATM?
 ii.    What is the role of ATM on service delivery?
 iii.   What is the relationship between ATM and service delivery to customers?




                                                2
1.5 Scope of the Study


1.5.1 Geographical Scope

The study was carried out at Stanbic Bank Makerere Branch in Kampala District. The location
was convenient and easily accessible by the researcher.



1.5.2 Variable Scope

The study covered ATMs and how customers can easily access funds in commercial banks.


1.5.3 Time Scope

The study covered the period of 5 years from 2005 – 2010. The period was chosen because it is
where recent innovations, technology advancements and relevant information about ATMs on
service delivery were found by the researcher.


1.6 Significance of the Study

   1. The study is to help the employees of Stanbic bank to identify and suggest ways to fill the
       gaps in ATM systems to encourage service delivery.


   2. The study is to help customers of Stanbic bank to highlight the weaknesses in ATM
       systems.


   3. The study is to serve as reference for future researchers on the subject matter.


   4. The study is to help the researcher to accomplish his Bachelors Degree of Commerce
       since it is one of the requirements for his course.


   5. The study is t help the organization and employees and also to other financial institutions
       that have not embraced electron.




                                                 3
4
                                       CHAPTER TWO




2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Introduction

This chapter of the study reviews the literature on the major of issues of Automated Teller
Machines (ATMs) on customer service delivery in commercial Bank.
This literature was mainly got from internet, text books, journals, News papers.


2.2 Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)


2.2.1 Definition of ATM

Barron (1967), defines Automated Teller Machine (ATM) as an electrical device which allows
banks customers to make cash withdrawal and check their account balances at any time without
the need for a human teller.
An ATM is connected to a computer terminal, record keeping system and cash vault in one unit
that permits a customer to enter personal identification number (PIN) in to a computer terminal
linked to the banks computerized records 24 hours a day (Rose 1999).
Automated Teller Machines are Electrical funds Transfer (E.F.T) device. They provide time and
space to customers. (The Uganda Banker, 2003).


2.2.2 History of ATMs.

The concept of ATMs first begun in 1967 and America cash Dispenser was developed and
installed in 1939 in New York City, but removed after 6th months due to lack of customer
acceptance. There after the history of ATM paused for a period of over 25 years, until Deharue
developed the first electronic ATM, which was installed first in Enfield Town London on 27th
June by Barclay Bank. Reg Varny was the first person to use the machine from the 1960s. Since




                                                5
30 years ago with the introduction of the first cash dispensers, ATM has gradually become the
electronics face of banking for most customers (Hason, 1987).
With computerization of ATMs, this has led to sprouting of ATM through the walls of banking
halls that is inside or outside banks or at different locations like shopping malls, petrol stations or
areas where there are huge transactions. (sally et al 1993 and mountinho et al, 1989).


2.2.3 Operation of ATMs

The ATM is a computerized telecommunication device that provides services to customers of
financial transactions in a public place without the need for bank teller.
It has a cash dispenser which has several cassettes that hold different denominations. The
cassettes are designed to fit the exact denominations of the different bank notes.
The ATM gets programmed to release out of the cassettes the required amount on the keyboard
which forms part of the body of the machine (Lubega September 1999).
To use the Automated Teller Machine the customer inserts into the ATM a special plastic mark
card with magnetic strip or plastic smart card with a clip that contains unique card number and
security information such as an expiration data. The strip also contains an identification code that
is transmitted to the banks central computer by modern to prevent unauthorized transactions, a
personal identification number (PIN) must also be entered by the customer using a keyboard.
Once access is permitted, An ATM offers several retail banking services to customers such as
cash withdrawals, deposits, school fees transfer, balance enquiry, ordering a statement


2.3 Advantages of ATMs to customers

In the present situation, in order to remain competitive, it is important for banks to provide
diversified and efficient range of services to banks customers. With this consideration the
introduction of ATMs have played a role in providing customer service.




                                                  6
2.3.1 Convenience

The use of ATMs has made it easier for the customers to be able to withdraw cash at any time
and location. Goode, (1995) adds that customer needs for by the establishment of ATMs. The
Banister study cited this as being one of a few inducements that swayed British University
students when choosing their Bank. This is because of the fact that they can be used 24 hour a
day, 7 days a week.
Rugimbana et al, (1994), adds that the overriding perceived benefit of ATMs for customers is the
attribute of convenience followed by the perceived benefits of reliability and suitability which in
effects also imply a measure of convenience.


2.3.2 Accessibility

ATMs are another way banks are making their services more accessible to their customers.ATM
system enables you to use bank services in and around the country.


2.3.3 Quick and Timely

ATMs save time, one does not come to the bank and wait in a queue or fill in some paper first
every time one wants to withdraw cash.
According to Ramsay, Managerial auditing journal, (1999) ATMs are easy to use, in that the
machine guides one through each step of the way.          All what one has to do is to follow
instructions appearing on the screen


2.3.4 Accuracy

Thornton et al, (2001) argues that no body likes to deal with an organization, which cannot keep
an accurate track for what is going particularly where money is concerned Lewis,(1988) agrees
that ATMs have a well deserved reputation in this aspect of their operation.




                                                7
2.3.5 Security of Customer’s Money

There is no need to carry large sums of money with you access to your ATM card; you have
access to your money whenever you need it.
You can keep your funds at a secure place in the bank and receive an interest, meanwhile having
easy access to them.


2.4 Challenges of ATM Operation

With an innovation of commercial banks introducing ATMs to avoid mistakes associated with
manual systems, this has affected the relationship between financial institutions (Banks) and
their customers.
Increased costs have been incurred by management through allowing their customers to have
access to accounts via networks built by others, for example sophisticated ATMs that can scan
cheques and allow face to face discussions will also incure extra costs for the additional services
offered by the commercial banks.
ATMs have had several problems associated with their operations. These include, some people
do not know how to use them thus leading to their breakdown and people end up losing their
money. (Fawcett1992). Mal functioning of machines, some of the ATMs are inconveniencing
areas with no privacy.


2.5 Customer Service Delivery Elements

Customer service is what drives customer satisfaction and the use of knowledge to inspire people
to enjoy delivering excellent service .Banks work with managers to engage them in developing a
service vision and creating the process improvements and behavioral change necessary for
delivering that vision.
The various ways banks can engage in customer service delivery include the following; engaging
staff, continuous improvements, personal commitment, measuring results and transferring skills.
With knowing what the customers perceptions about service delivery, the bank can carryout its
services effectively to them.
The Bank Marketing Association carried out a research and found the elements of good customer
service to be the following (Mayall, 1993).


                                                8
   (i)      Courteous treatment
   Customers expect the bank to treat them with respect and be friendly when providing them
   with services.
   Mayall et al, (1993) argues that very few banks give the required treatment to and attention to
   customers compared to other service provider firms. This is crucial since it creates a good
   impression on the customer about the bank.


   (ii)     Understandable Communications
   This should involve both spoken and written communications with the bank. Customers
   should be able to communicate in a clear manner and using concise language that reflects the
   customers not the banks perspective. Here customer’s complaints need to be understood and
   appropriate solution should be provided by the banks.


   (iii)    Reliable Service
    Customers want the bank to be ready and willing to take care of their needs. With this, they
   expect accurate resolution of any errors that might occur. This adds more confidence to the
   customers and will be assured to have their needs appropriately attended to. ATMs have been
   able to perform this effectively since they are programmed to do so.



2.6 Effects of ATMs on Customer Service Delivery


2.6.1 Security of ATMs transactions

With this, there have been a number of incidences of fraud where criminals have used fake
machines or have attached fake keypads to existing machines. These also have them been used to
record customers PIN and account data in order to have an unauthorized access to customer’s
accounts.

A bank is always reliable for a customer’s money stolen from ATM. Customers complaints have
been raised to the banks and been difficult to recover money lost in this way. In other cases bank


                                                9
fraud occurs at ATMs where by the bank accidentally stocks the ATMs with bills in wrong
denominations thus giving the customers more money than the actual amount to be dispensed.
Customers who use such ATMs un knowingly are probably never tried but those who withdraw a
second time are usually prostituted.



2.6.2 Failure of ATMs.

Automated Teller Machines may stop working when there is failure of the telecommunication
links to the organizations main computer. When ATMs fail to serve customers, there are
inconveniences caused which are associated with wastage of financial resources such as transport
costs incurred by the customer and also the valuable time lost. According to Phil.F. (1999), the
common reason for the failure of ATMs is that when they run out money. Here the bank loads
money into the ATM depending on the anticipated demand. Banks therefore should consider the
held in notes in ATM cannot earn interest.


2.6.3. Conclusion

From the above, it can be deducted that ATMs have an effect on customer service delivery due to
flexibility in operations of ATMs. This has enabled services to be rendered conveniently to
customers 24 hours a day.




                                              10
                                      CHAPTER THREE




3.0 METHODOLOGY


3.1 Introduction

This section presents the methodology used in data collection and analysis .It describes the
research design, study population, sampling procedure, data sources, sample size, data collection
instruments, data processing and analysis.


3.2 Research Design

The study was based on descriptive and analytical research design where both qualitative and
quantitative data techniques were used for collection of data in order to draw evaluations and
conclusions. The researcher used a cross sectional research approach.


3.3 Area of Study

Area of study was Stanbic bank Uganda Limited Makerere branch Kampala.


3.4 Study Population

The study population was Stanbic Bank’s staff and their customers using ATM services at
Makerere branch Kampala.


3.5 Sample Size and Selection Method


3.5.1 Sampling Procedure

The researcher used purposive sampling method to select the appropriate representatives of both
the bank staff and bank customers of Stanbic bank.




                                               11
3.5.2 Sample Size

The sample of 45 respondents was considered in the study, 5 middle level managers, 10 low
level managers and 30 were bank customers that use ATMs of Stanbic Bank.



Table 1: Showing categorization of respondents
Category                         Expected        number        of Actual number of respondents
                                 respondents


Middle level managers            5                                 5
Low level managers               10                                10
Customers                        30                                30


Total                            45                                45
Source: Primary data



3.5.3 Sources of Data

Both primary and secondary data was used to gather research information.


3.5.4 Primary data

This was original information that was collected using personal interviews, providing
respondents with questionnaires for filling as a source of primary data.



3.5.5 Secondary data

This refers to data obtained from reading other people’s information. The data already exists and
was extracted from Bank of Uganda, Uganda Banker journals, Magazines, News papers and
publications by the bank, Text books which are in relation to the study objectives.




                                                12
3.6 Data Collection Methods and Tools:


3.6.1 Questionnaires

The distribution of self administered questionnaires was presented to management staff and
customers of Stanbic bank ATM banking department. Questionnaires were designed differently
but intended to collect same data.
Staff members and selected customers respondents were given questionnaires at their work
places while other questionnaires were given to Bank customers for instant filling and after
collect them.


3.6.2 Procedure

The researcher began his study by getting an introduction letter and properly identified himself to
the respondents, the researcher informed the respondents about the topic and the objectives of the
study, the type of questions to be asked and the possible consequences that the research has on
the respondents, especially on the importance of its findings Stanbic Bank. The researcher left
the questionnaires with respondents and answered them in seven days of research period which
were collected back for analysis. All information and their identity were treated with utmost
confidentiality, information was only used for the purpose of the research and it was not made
available to other people for any purpose.



3.6.3 Observation

Observation is a systematic and selective way of listening and watching with an aim of studying
an activity taking place. This method was mainly focused at the way customers were using the
machines. Those clients who forgot their PIN codes and call for help when stranded were also
observed.




                                                13
3.7 Data management


3.7.1 Data processing

Data obtained from various methods was used to ensure that data collected and processed was
complete and accurate. Data was further edited to ensure consistence of responses and thereafter
data was coded.


3.7.2 Data analysis

Data analysis was done through transforming information got to a more representative manner.
Data was fed into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS), Frequency
tables, Charts to facilitate the analysis.


3.8 Limitations and Anticipated Solutions of the Study

   i.   The researcher was faced with financial constraints during data collection; Typing and
        Printing .However, the researcher solicited funds from parents, brothers, sisters in
        advance and minimized the costs as lowest as possible.

 ii.    The time flame to finish the research was little. This limited the researcher to one branch
        of Stanbic bank that is Makerere branch. The researcher in order to accomplish in time
        used even weekend days to carry out the study.

 iii.   The researcher was faced with a challenge of slow responses and no responses from some
        Staff members of Stanbic Bank who were not willing to give confidential information,
        which was sufficient to the researcher. However, the researcher convinced them that
        research was intended to help them improve on their problems.

 iv.    The study was limited in the scope where by it only covered one branch of Stanbic bank.
        The study would other wise cover the whole banking industry in Uganda. However the
        researcher tried to operate with in the provided time and guidelines in relation to the
        study.




                                                14
                                        CHAPTER FOUR



4.0 PRESENTATION, INTERPRETAION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS


4.1 Introduction

This chapter involves the presentation and interpretation of findings in relation to the study
objectives and can be evidenced below.


4.2. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents.

Findings on demographic characteristics of respondents were considered and can be evidenced
below


4.2.1 Age range of Respondents

In order to establish the category of people who use more frequently, respondents were asked to
state their age. Results are shown in table 2.

Table 2: Age distribution of respondents.
Age                      Frequency                Valid percent        Cumulative percent

<25 years                8                        18                   18
25-35 years              25                       56                   74
35-45 years              7                        16                   90
>45 years                5                        10                   100
Total                    45                       100
Source: primary data
Result from table 2 indicate that the youth are the people/category of the population that/who
mostly use ATMs in Stanbic bank Makerere. This is shown by high percentage of 55% in
contrast of other age groups. From the table, this implies that the youth majorly use ATMs
because of the feeling they have towards technological advancement. This is because the youth
always want to try out new and innovative services.



                                                 15
4.2.2 Gender of Respondents

In order to establish the most employed persons in Stanbic bank, respondents were asked to state
their gender. Results are shown in table 3

Table 3: Gender of Respondents.
Response                 Frequency               Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Male                     28                      62                      62
Female                   17                      38                      100
Total                    45                      100
Source: primary data


Results from table 3 indicate that majority of the persons employed in Stanbic bank are male
indicated by 62% in comparison with 38% females. This is because men always want to work for
longer hours than women.


4.2.3 Marital Status

In order to establish the loyalty of the employees, they were asked to state their marital status;
results are shown in table 4

Table 4: Marital Status of Respondents.
Response                 Frequency               Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Single                   14                      31                      31
Married                  23                      51                      82
Divorced                 3                       7                       89
Widowed                  1                       2                       91
Others                   4                       9                       100
Total                    45                      100
Source: primary data
Results from the table indicate that majority of the employees, customers are loyal. This is
depicted by a high percentage of married persons respondents which stands at 51%.




                                               16
4.2.4 Level of Education

In order to establish the level of expertise and competencies of the employees of Stanbic bank,
respondents were asked to state their level of education. Results are indicated in table 5

Table 5: Level of Education.
Response                 Frequency                 Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Certificate              3                         7                       7
Diploma                  12                        27                      34
Degree                   25                        55                      89
Masters                  5                         11                      100
Total                    45                        100
Source: primary data
Results from table 5 indicated the level of competencies and skills possessed by employees of
Stanbic bank are high as shown by 55%. The least percentage of 7 can be attributed to the
support staff who were hired to arrange payment slips, cheques and to back office work.




4.2.5 Duration of Service to the Entity

In order to establish the level of knowledge of internal processes and operations, respondents
were asked to state their duration of service to the entity.

Table 6: Showing the Duration of Service to the Entity.
Response                 Frequency                 Valid percent           Cumulative percent
0-2 years                13                        29                      29
2-4 years                20                        44                      73
4-6 years                10                        22                      95
Over 6 years             2                         5                       100
Total                    45                        100
Source: primary data




                                                  17
Results from table 6 indicated that most employees are acquainted with knowledge of internal
processes and operations as shown by 44% of the employees who have worked with the bank
between 2 to 4 years. A moderate number has also served for a considerable time between 4 – 6
years. This can probably be attributed to the good working conditions and remuneration.

Duration of service by employees impacts highly on customer satisfaction since it takes little
time for customers to served as employees are fast and efficient due to performance of the same
task for along period of time.




4.3 Advantages of ATMs


4.3.1 Increase in the Number of Customers

In order to establish the number of customers joining the bank due to introduction of ATMs,
respondents were asked whether there was an increase in customer. Results are shown in table 7.

Table 7: Showing whether there is Increase in the Number of Customers as a result of
ATMs.
Response                 Frequency             Valid percent            Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree           23                    51                       51
Agree                    14                    31                       82
Not sure                 3                     7                        89
Disagree                 1                     2                        91
Strongly disagree        4                     9                        100
Total                    45                    100
Source: primary data


Results from table 7 indicate that there was an increase in number of customers due to
introduction of ATMs in Stanbic bank as shown by 51%. The number of respondents in
disagreement could probably represent that proportion of the population that feel secure with




                                              18
completing transactions over the counter for fear of forgetting the password and logs of their
cards.


4.3.2 Interaction with Customers

In order to establish the level of communication between customers and staff of the bank,
respondents were asked to indicate whether there was continued interaction between the two
categories of people about the use of ATMs. Results are shown in table 8.

Table 8: Showing Interaction with Customers.
Response                 Frequency               Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree           0                       0                       0
Agree                    2                       4                       4
Not sure                 5                       11                      15
Disagree                 32                      71                      86
Strongly disagree        6                       14                      100
Total                    45                      100
Source: primary data


Results from table 8 indicate absence of continued interaction between customers and employees
as shown by 71% of the respondents who were in disagreement. However, there seems to be
interaction but it is not continuous as shown by a small percentage (4%) of the respondents who
agreed that there was interaction between customers and staff.


4.3.3 Increase in the Bank’s Deposit

In order to establish whether the increase in bank deposits, respondents were asked to state their
opinion. Results are indicated in table 9.




                                               19
Table 9: Showing Increase in the Bank’s Deposit due to ATM use.
Response               Frequency         Valid percent         Cumulative
                                                               percent
Strongly Agree         10                22                    22
Agree                  26                58                    80
Not sure               3                 7                     87
Disagree               1                 2                     89
Strongly disagree      5                 11                    100
Total                  45                100
Source: primary data


Results from table 9 indicate that the increase in customer deposits were due to availability of
ATMs as shown by 58% of the respondents who agreed. This state of events could be attributed
to the convenience and unlimited accessibility that ATMs provide to customers. This is in
agreement with Rugimba Goode (1995) who argues ATMs make it easy for customers to
withdraw and deposit cash at an time and location.




4.3.4 Increase of the Bank’s Profit due to the Introduction of ATMs.

In order to establish the impact of ATMs on Stanbic Bank, profits, respondents were asked
whether the increase in the bank’s profits was a result of introduction of ATMs. Results are
shown in table 10.




                                               20
Table 10: Showing whether ATMs have led to Increase of the bank’s profit
Response                 Frequency                Valid percent            Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree           12                       27                       27
Agree                    18                       40                       67
Not sure                 5                        11                       78
Disagree                 4                        8                        86
Strongly disagree        6                        14                       100
Total                    45                       100
Source: primary data


Results from table 10 indicate that the increase in bank’s profit over the years has been a result of
introduction of ATMs in Stanbic bank as shown majority (40%) who were in agreement with the
question and 27% who were in strong agreement with the statement.

The results in table 10 could be attributed to the results in table 9 as an increase in bank deposits
in most cases leads to increased profitability as the bank has available resources to turn into
profits.




4.3.5 ATMs and Costs to Customers

In order to establish the cost effectiveness of ATMs, respondents were asked to state whether
ATMs had increased their bank charges and overall costs on their accounts. Results are shown in
table 11.




                                                 21
Table 11: Showing ATMs and their perceived costs to customers.
Response                Frequency               Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Very costly             2                       4                       4
Costly                  5                       11                      15
Cheap                   23                      51                      66
Cost saving             11                      25                      91
Others                  4                       9                       100
Total                   45                      100
Source: primary data



Results from table 11 show that ATMs have lowered the costs of customers on their bank
accounts as majority (51%) view. Its use as being cheap. This can be attributed to strategies
devised by various bank to retain and attract customers through reduced charges on the use of
ATMs.


4.3.6 ATMs and the Reduction of Customer Complaints

In order to establish reduction in customer complaints, respondents were asked whether there had
been a reduction in customer complaints due to introduction of ATMs. Results are shown in table
12.




Table 12: Showing ATMs and the Reduction of Customer Complaints.
Response                Frequency               Valid percent           Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree          2                       4                       4
Agree                   9                       20                      24
Not sure                3                       7                       31
Disagree                27                      60                      91
Strongly disagree       4                       9                       100
Total                   45                      100
Source: primary data


                                              22
Results from table 12 indicate that there has not been reduction in customer complaints as
majority (60%) disagreed that introduction of ATMs had not reduced customer complaints. This
means that introduction of ATMs has not at all reduced customer complaints but rather created
even more complex complaints from the customers.


4.3.7 ATMs and Congestion of Banking Halls

In order to establish the level of crowding in banking halls, respondents were asked whether
introduction of ATMs had helped reduce on the congestion in banking halls of Stanbic bank.
Results are shown in table 13.

Table 13: Showing ATMs and Congestion of Banking Halls.
Response                Frequency               Valid percent          Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree          31                      69                     69
Agree                   9                       20                     89
Not sure                3                       7                      96
Disagree                2                       4                      100
Strongly disagree       0                       0                      100
Total                   45                      100
Source: primary data


Results from table 13 show that ATMs have considerably helped in congesting the banking halls
in Stanbic bank as shown by the majority (69%) who strongly agreed. This is because ATMs are
fast as they are programmed to release out of the cassettes the required amount on the key board
which forms part of the body of the machine (Lubega, 1999). This makes transactions fast and
sound than individuals at the counter whose performance is always affected by many factors.


4.3.8 Accessibility of ATMs to Customers

In order to establish the convenience of use of ATMs, respondents were asked to state whether it
was easy to access ATMs any where. Results are shown in table 14.




                                              23
Table 14: Showing whether ATMs have been accessed by most Bank’s Customers.


Response                Frequency                Valid percent          Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree          23                       51                     51
Agree                   14                       31                     82
Not sure                3                        7                      89
Disagree                4                        9                      98
Strongly disagree       1                        2                      100
Total                   45                       100
Results from table 14 indicate that customers can easily access their accounts through the use of
ATMs. This greatly impact on customer satisfaction hence more customers to the bank.

ATMs do allow customer to make cash withdraws and check their account balances at any time
without the need for a human teller (Barron, 1967)


4.3.9 Introduction of ATMs and Frequency of Transactions.

In order to establish the number of transactions carried out using ATMs respondents were asked
their frequency of use of ATMs. Results are indicated in table 15.




Table 15: Showing whether ATMs have got some effect on Frequency of Transactions
Response                Frequency                Valid percent          Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree          9                        20                     20
Agree                   28                       62                     82
Not sure                3                        7                      89
Disagree                1                        2                      91
Strongly disagree       4                        9                      100
Total                   45                       100
Source: primary data




                                               24
Results from table 15 show that the frequency of transactions when using ATMs is high as
shown by 62% and 20% who agreed and strongly agreed respectively. Such a trend can be
attributed to the ease of accessibility of ATM points by customers.


4.3.10 Security at ATM Points

In order to establish the safety of customers at ATM points, respondents were asked whether
ATMs were secure points to make transactions from. Results are indicated in table 16.

Table 16: Showing whether security is provided at ATM points.
Response                Frequency                Valid percent          Cumulative percent
Yes                     41                       91                     91
No                      4                        9                      100
Total                   45                       100
Source: primary data



Results from table 16 indicate that ATM points are secure plans to transact from as shown by the
majority of respondents who answered yes.

Security of customer’s deposits and customers themselves are paramount for good service
delivery and customer satisfaction. Thus, security is needed to safe guard customers and their
money after every transaction at any ATM point.




4.3.11 How often do you get Complaints from Customers.

In order to establish the frequency of filing of complaints respondents were asked how often they
get complaints from customers. Results are shown in table 17.




                                               25
Table 17: How often do you get complaints from customers.
Response                 Frequency               Valid percent            Cumulative percent
Every day                27                      60                       60
Every week               5                       11                       71
Once a month             9                       20                       91
Others                   4                       9                        100
Total                    45                      100
Source: primary data


Results from table 17, indicate that the frequency of filing of complaints is high as 60% of the
customers file their complaints every day.

Majority of the complaints are filed on daily basis. This may indicate a lapse in ATM systems
which may at times be a result of network failure or operation failure.

The inconveniences that come along with this trend of events impacts negatively of customer
satisfaction.


4.3.12 Response to Customer Complaints.

The researcher was interested in finding out how often the bank responds to the various customer
complains. This would help in explaining efficiency in the banking system;

Table 18 : Showing whether Stanbic bank responds to complaints 24 hour .
Response                 Frequency              Valid percent             Cumulative percent
Strongly Agree           0                      0                         0
Agree                    1                      2                         2
Not sure                 2                      5                         7
Disagree                 41                     91                        98
Strongly disagree        1                      2                         100
Total                    45                     100
Source: primary data



                                                26
Results from the table 18, indicates that response to customer complaints is slow as shown by the
majority (91%) who disagreed with the statement. This implies that there could be a probability
of loss of customers by the bank.


4.4. The Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and Quality of Service Delivery

Table 19: Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and quality of service delivery
                                                  ATM                Service Delivery


ATM                     Pearson Correlation      1.000              .302**
                        Sig. (2tailed)
                             N                                      .000


                                                 45                 45
Service Delivery        Pearson Correlation      .302**             1.000
                        Sig. (2tailed)
                             N                   .000
                                                 45                 45
**Correlation significance is at 0.01 levels (2tailed)


From the table above, it can be observed that there is a positive correlation between the ATMs
and service delivery with correlation coefficient, r = 0.302 and p = 0.01. Since r > 0.3, this means
the relationship is moderate. Meaning that, quality of service delivery is significantly affected by
introduction of Automated Teller Machines (ATM).




                                                 27
                                       CHAPTER FIVE




5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION


5.1 Summary of the Findings




5.1.1 Finding on Automated Teller Machines (ATMS)

Findings revealed that Automated Teller Machines have not enhanced interaction with customers
of the bank, Automated Teller Machines of Stanbic bank has not at all reduced customer
complaint but rather created even more complex complaints from customers, Automated Teller
Machines of the bank sometimes break down and do not work 24 hours effectively. Customers
are not trained on how to use ATM cards.



5.1.2 Findings on the Quality of Service Delivery

Findings revealed that ATMS are accessible by the majority of the customers of the bank, the
frequency of transactions by customers have increased by ATMs, introduction of ATMs reduced
congestion in the banking hall, Stanbic bank provides security to its customers.




5.1.3 Findings on Relationship between Automated Teller Machines and Quality of Service
Delivery

Findings showed that there is a moderate positive relationship between Automated Teller
Machines and service delivery with correlation coefficient, r = 0.302 and p = 0.01. This implies
quality of service delivery is significantly affected by introduction of Automated Teller
Machines (ATM)


                                                28
5.2 Conclusion


5.2.1 Conclusion on Automated Teller Machines

Automated Teller Machines have not reduced customer complaint, Automated Teller Machines
have not enhanced interaction with customers of the Automated Teller Machines do not work 24
hours effectively and sometimes these ATMs breaks down.




5.2.2 Conclusion on Quality of Service Delivery

Stanbic bank provides security to its customers, ATMs are accessible by the majority of the
customers of the bank, introduction of ATMs have reduced congestion in the banking hall and
the frequency of transactions increased due to introduction of Automated Teller Machines by the
bank.




5.2.3 Conclusion on Relationship between Automated Teller Machine and Quality of
Service delivery

There is a positive relationship between Automated Teller Machines and service delivery at
Pearson correlation coefficient 0.302.


5.3 Recommendations


5.3.1 Recommendations on Automated Teller Machines

Management of Stanbic Bank needs to ensure that Automated Teller Machines are convenient
and work upon customer complaints. This can be ensured by training customers on how to use
ATMs.

Management of Stanbic bank has to make sure that old Automated Teller Machines are replaced
with new ones so that they do not get problems of break downs.


                                              29
5.3.2 Recommendations on Quality of Service Delivery

Management of Stanbic bank needs to provide training services on how to use ATMs to its
clients to improve on public image, reduce on long queues especially when students are paying
tuition.


5.3.3 Recommendation on the Relationship between Automated Teller Machines and
quality of Service Delivery

More efforts need to be channeled on Automated Teller Machine system for effective quality
service delivery.


5.4 Areas for Further Research

Further research need to be carried out on the effect of outsourcing on the quality of service
delivery in commercial banks.




                                             30
REFERENCES

Barron, S.J. (2000). Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, The Computer Language Co. Inc.


Chartered Institute of Bankers Journal, (1993). Management of Information Technology


Deharue, (1964). The First electronic ATM by Enfield London


Fawcett,P.G. F. Management of Information Technology Bankers Work Book Series Chartered
Institute of Bankers (CIB)


Hanson, D.G. (1987). Service Banking; The all–purpose bank, 3rd Edition, Bankers Book Ltd.


Mayall, C. Sally. (1993). Customer Service, Marketing the Competitive environment, Pitman
Publishing.


Goode, M. (1995). The Effects of free Banking on Overall satisfaction: The use of ATM


Kolker, P. Gary A. (1993). Marketing: An Introduction, 3rd Edition Prentice – Hall International
Inc.


Lubega, J. (2001).Ugandan Bankers Journal of Uganda Institute of Bankers Vol. 3 No.3
September 2001.
The Uganda banker,june .(2003).Volume II No.1




                                              31
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STAFF MEMBERS OF STANBIC BANK

Dear Respondents,
I am a student of Makerere University and I am conducting a research as a requirement for the
award of Bachelor of Commerce, I kindly request you to spare just a few minutes of your
precious time to answer these questions below.


The data is to be confidentially held and strictly for academic purposes.
Thank you very much for your time and cooperation.


SECTION A: RESPONDENTS DATA
(Tick in the appropriate box provided or fill in the gap)
1. How old are you?
Under 25                25 – 35                35 – 45                 Above 45




2. Gender
Male                                           Female




3. Marital status
Single              Married           Divorced              Windowed        Others (specify)




4. Highest level of education
Certificate         Diploma           Degree                PhD             Others (specify)


5. Which department do you work in?
………………………………………………………………………………………………




                                                 32
6. For how long have you been working with the entity?
0 – 2 years           2 – 4 years               4 – 6 years            Over 6 years




SECTION B: ADVANTAGES OF ATMS
1. The number of customers has increased since the introduction of ATMs.
Strongly agree       agree           Not sure         Disagree    Strongly disagree




2. Do you get time to interact with customers who use ATMs?
Strongly agree      Agree        Not sure          Disagree      Strongly disagree




3 The bank’s deposits have increased due to the use of ATM Services
Strongly agree       Agree       Not sure          Disagree      Strongly disagree




4 The bank’s profits have increased since the introduction of ATM services.
Strongly agree       Agree       Not sure          Disagree      Strongly disagree




5. How do you perceive ATMs in terms of cost to customers?
Very costly       Costly             Cheap               Cost saving       Others




6. The introduction of ATMs has reduced on customer complaints.
Strongly agree       Agree          Not sure       Disagree      Strongly disagree




                                                 33
7. The introduction of ATMs reduced on customer congestion in Stanbic bank.
Strongly agree         Agree           Not sure             Disagree         Strongly disagree




8 Most of the Bank customers have been able to access the ATM Services.
Strongly agree         Agree           Not sure         Disagree        Strongly disagree




9. The frequency of your bank services has been increased by the ATMs.
Strongly agree         Agree           Not sure        Disagree        Strongly disagree




10 Do you provide any security at the ATMs for customers?
Yes                                               No




11 How often do you receive complaints from your customers?
Every day               Every week                Once a month             Others (specify)




12. Stanbic bank responds to complaints from customers in 24 hours.
Strongly agree         Agree           Not sure             Disagree       Strongly disagree


13 (a) Are there other factors that affect your services?
Yes                                               No


(b) If yes, please list some of those factors
………………………………………………………………………………………………………


                               GOD BLESS You.



                                                   34
APPENDIX 2: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CUSTOMERS

Dear Respondents,
I am a student of Makerere University and I am conducting a research as a requirement for the
award of Bachelor of Commerce, I kindly request you to spare just a few minutes of your
precious time to answer these questions below.
Thank you very much for your time and cooperation.
1. ATM system has added value to service delivery compared to system that existed before.
Strongly agree      Agree        Not sure           Disagree          Strongly disagree




2. ATMs handle withdrawal transactions efficiently.
Strongly agree      Agree           Not sure            Disagree          Strong disagree




3. ATMs serve 24 hours a day.
Strongly agree      Agree               Not sure           Disagree         Strong disagree




4. How long does it take you to have your transaction completed by the ATM?
Less than 1minute       2 – 4 minutes      4 – 6 minutes        More than 5 minutes           Not sure



5. How often do you transact with ATMs?
Daily                   Weekly                      Monthly                     Yearly




6 ATMs are difficult to use.
Strongly agree         Agree            Not sure               Disagree       Strongly disagree




                                                   35
7. The present location of the ATMs is convenient for your transactions.
 Strongly agree        Agree        Not sure        Disagree        Strongly disagree




8. What benefits if any, have you gained for the use of ATMs rather than over the counter
facilities?……………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. How would you rate the over all performance by the ATMs?
Very good          Good               Fair               Poor              Very poor




10. What do you recommend to be done in order to improve the performance of ATMs?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
11 Above all did you appreciate the introduction of ATMs?
Very much         Much               Very little        Little             Not at all




                                               36
APPENDIX 3: TIME SCHEDULE

NO   ACTIVITY                                       PERIOD
1.   Proposal writing and presentation              March 2011
2.   Data collection from the field                 April 2011
3.   - Data processing                              May 2011
     - Data analysis and interpretation
     - Printing draft copy
4.   - Printing final copy and presentation.        June 2011
     - Submission of final report




                                               37
APENDIX 4: BUDGET



ITEM                   QUANTITY            RATE (Ugshs)     AMOUNT (Ugshs)
Flash disks            2                   40,000           80,000
Ream of papers         2                   10,000           20,000
Stapling       machine 1                   25,000           25,000
and staples
A set, Ruler                                                10,000
Typing                 1 copy @ 21 pages   1,000 per page   21,000
Printing services      1 copy @ 21         500 per page     10,500
Photocopying                                                15,000
Transport costs                                             60,000
Total                                                       241,500




                                            38

				
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