Classification of Living Things by hQLvqM2D


									Classification of Living Things
             Ch. 18
         Mrs. Griffin
Before we begin……
   What is the scientific name for the
    human species?
     • Homo sapiens

   What do you think the common
    names for Felis catus and Canis
     • Cat, dog

   In each case, what does the first of
    the two names refer to?
     • The genus

   What do the two names together
    refer to?
     • The species

   Which group is more inclusive?
     • Genus.
Before we begin…           To study the diversity of life,
                            biologists use a classification
Vocabulary to know:         system to name organisms and
taxonomy, binomial          group them in logical order.
nomenclature, genus,
taxon, family, order,
                           The science of classifying
class, phylum,
kingdom, cladogram,         organisms and assigning each
the three domains and       organism a universally
six kingdoms.               excepted name is known as

                           One tool used to identify
                            unfamiliar organisms is a
                            dichotomous key….
Early classification systems
   “Oak with deeply divided leaves that have no hairs on their
    undersides and no teeth around their edges.”
     • Explained in great detail, very long.

   Carolus Linnaeus- Swedish botanist developed two-word
    naming system (binomial nomenclature).

   Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification included
    seven levels. From largest to smallest- kingdom, phylum,
    class, order, family, genus and species.
Binomial Nomenclature
   Developed by Linnaeus

   Two-name system. The scientific name is always
    written in italics, the first word is capitalized, and
    the second word is lowercased.

   First name (genus); second name (species)
Linnaeus’s system of classification

   Includes 7 levels:
    •   Kingdom          • Family
    •   Phylum           • Genus
    •   Class            • Species
    •   Order
Linnaeus’s system of classification, Figure
  Does the coral
snake belong in the
Phylum Chordata and
the Kingdom Animalia?
    •   Yes

 Does the Albert
Squirrel belong in the
Family Ursidae?
    •   No

   Remember- broad to specific (starting from the
    top down to the bottom).
Classification using cladograms

                          Points where

   Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage
   but not in its older members are called derived
   characteristics. These characteristics can be used to
   construct a cladogram.
Kingdoms and Domains
Let’s Review
   What is classification?

   Why is classifying living things important?

   What is taxonomy?

   Describe binomial nomenclature and how are scientific
    names written?

   Linnaeus’s hierarchical system of classification included
    seven levels, what are they?

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