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Colonial America
Different Philosophies
The New World

  -- The discovery of the “new world” was an important
  development for Europe
  -- Resources fit for a King



   Resources:

   gold, silver, timbers, resins, forest products, furs,
   fish – the resources of national power.
             The Empires Compete


Extraction versus Colonization

  -- There were two strategies for dealing with the new world
  -- one is extraction: You go there to take and extract
  precious commodities back to the King.
  -- another is colonization: you go there for your people live
  and expand your territory. You settle the place.
     • expand your tax revenue (get a kickback)
     • expand your trade base
     • expand your culture, your people – like planting seeds.
     • It’s like you and the colony are in partnership together
             The Empires Compete


Who to send over?

  -- Your best people? Dissenters and criminals? Army and
  corporate people only?

How to Govern?

  -- Top down? Mother country controlling everything?
Spain
Spain

  -- Primarily pursues an extraction philosophy
  (although, about 250,00 Spaniards will emigrate to “new
  Spain” and Peru).
      Spain


25% Kick Back:

When Cortez and the
others would go on their
missions, stealing plunder,
etc., they would kick back
1/5th of what they would
find to the throne in Spain
(required kick back).
       Plunder Galore


Gold, Gold and More Gold:

Between 1500 and 1650,
more than 200 tons of gold
and 16,000 tons of silver were
extracted from mines in
America worth approximately
1.25 billion.

It provided about 3 to 5 times
the entire stock of gold and
silver in all of Europe's hands.
  Managerial Strategy:


Direct Governance:

The Crown asserted control
over these operations, and
to establish governments
that were mere districts
(subunits) of the Spanish
King. The King governed
from the top downward.
France
French

 -- are considered Spain’s principal rivals by 1615
 -- thought to have the greatest soldiery in the world.
 -- late getting into the new world
 -- they will eventually arrive in what is now Canada and
 New Orleans
 -- Is almost exclusively extraction
 -- don’t trust sending over their religious dissenters. Would
 rather keep an eye on them ‘
Where are the French People?

The French did not allow their protestants to emigrate because
they didn’t trust them. They felt that if too many went over there,
they couldn’t control them. Louie the 14th’s escapades (wars) in
Europe drained the French population that might have settled and
also drained the treasury. The company of the Indies was only able
to recruit 5400 Europeans to settle Louisiana by 1730. The French
crown also decided to use Louisiana as a dumping ground for
convicts. By 1660, there was only 3,000 French citizens in new
France. By 1700, with the help of some French government
subsidies, that population increased to 15,000. By 1750, the
population of new France from one end of the St Lawrence to the
other was only 52,000.
French

  Early Settlements


 Failures

 In the 1500s, the French had two settlement attempts
 -- one in Florida, one in South Carolina, both of which
 ended in failure. One of them was destroyed by the
 Spanish, who did not welcome interlopers in north
 America.
       French

          Later Settlements

Canada and Louisiana

It was not until after 1600 that French exploration in north America
caught its second wind. They established a successful settlement
overlooking the St Lawrence river in Quebec in 1608. From then on,
the French had a stable beachhead in north America. By the 1680s
the French try to go westward toward the Mississippi and then down
the river. In 1682, they go down the Mississippi all the way to gulf of
Mexico, claiming the mouth of the Mississippi for France as
“Louisiana” in honor of the French king Louie the 14th. Other French
traders followed, creating fur trading posts along the Mississippi river
and in Biloxi and Mobile.
                                             Later
                                          Settlements




                           Disputed



Louisiana for King Louie

                                  Spain
                                                         Later
                                                      Settlements




                                               Fur Trade

                                         Fur Trade:
                           Disputed
                                        The luxury commodity that
                                        the French found was not
                                        gold or silver, but fur. (fox,
Louisiana for King Louie                lynx, otter, beaver). it was
                                        an extremely expensive
                                  Spain
                                        luxury commodity in the
                                        clothing industry in Europe.
English
             The Empires Compete


England
 -- Will do things very differently
     • send dissenters and paupers over here
     •send laborers who can’t find work in the countryside or
     in the cities (population boom)
     • England’s problem: too much labor, not enough land.
     (Oppose of America’s eventual problem)
     • The goal is to colonize the land for England – to
     establish English colonies
     (Joint-Stock companies)
Time
               Timeline




          of the Spanish Armada Beheading of Charles
The DefeatSettling America   The         The First Revolution
                                      The GloriousModern Country?




   1588            1600
                                         1649           1688        1722
                                          and the
                                CromwellParliament installs
                                Protectorate; Outbreak
                                          William and Mary as
                                of Religious Radicalism
                                          King and Queen;
                                          Constitutional Monarchy
                                          Established

   2/11/2013              Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007               25
Virginia
Virginia

Corporate venture

• Virginia Company obtains a charter [corporation]
• 1608 – Jamestown (King James)
• half of the 114-person colony died
• no profits were ever paid to the shareholders
• charter revoked in 1624
Virginia

 Who governs her?

-- King sends over a Royal Governor to govern the colony
-- no salary is given
    (There is no way the Crown would spend precious
    treasure on this pipe dream. England will always run her
    colonies like a good capitalist)
-- The colonists have to raise money to pay the Governor’s
salary
-- An assembly of the Burgess is called
Virginia
                         Several Important Comments –
 Who governs her?
                        1. The Legality of the Assembly?
-- King sends over a Royal Governor to govern the colony
-- no salary is given    2. Natural Law
    (There is no way the Crown would spend precious
                          3. Neglect of Colonial Behavior
    treasure on this pipe dream. England will always run her
                              (not
    colonies like a good capitalist)wanting to govern the
                              details of behavior)
-- The colonists have to raise money to pay the Governor’s
salary                    4. House of Burgess sits with its
                              Royal Governor in the manner
-- An assembly of the Burgess is called
                              that Parliament does the King.
Virginia

 Facts

-- Eventually, becomes a dumping ground for criminals,
debtors, unwanted, unemployed.
-- Along the way, it discovers Tobacco. This is an
extremely important cash crop.
-- named after Queen Elizabeth, who was known as the
“virgin queen.”
Maryland
Maryland
  -- Lord Baltimore converts to Catholicism
 -- Is given a charter for Catholics in the new world
 -- Colony is originally named “St. Mary’s”
 -- Later becomes “Mary Land” (1634).
 -- Proprietary colony
                   The difference between proprietary and
                   “normal” colonies –

Maryland           1. Lords of the land (grantees) have
                      ultimate governing rights. Old school
  -- Lord Baltimore converts to Catholicism
                      feudalism.
 -- Is given a charter for Catholics in the new world
                    2. Corporate charters theoretically had
                         named “St. control.
 -- Colony is originallyless ultimateMary’s” The sovereign
                        (King, Parliament)
 -- Later becomes “Mary Land” (1634). remained the
                        ultimate governor
 -- Proprietary colony
                    3. A proprietary colony is, in effect, like
                        the King giving a piece of his land to
                        someone. The other way, you are
                        setting up an organization to run it for
                        you.
                   The difference between proprietary and
                   “normal” colonies –

Maryland           1. Lords of the land (grantees) have
                      ultimate governing rights. Old school
  -- Lord Baltimore converts to Catholicism
                      feudalism.
 -- Is given a charter for Catholics in the new world
                    2. Corporate charters theoretically had
                    Old Versus New Money
                         named “St. control.
 -- Colony is originallyless ultimateMary’s” The sovereign
 -- Later becomes 1. (King, Parliament) remained the
                         Corporate charters
                     “Mary Land” (1634). and joint-stock
                        ultimate governor the capitalists trying
                         companies were
 -- Proprietary colony to exploit the new world
                    3. A proprietary colony is, in effect, like
                    2. the King giving a piece of his land to
                         Proprietary colonies were the high
                         nobility’s The other way,
                        someone.way of doing it you are
                        setting up an organization to run it for
                    3. you.
                         Hence, the old versus new money.
Carolinas
Carolinas

 Political Experimentation

 -- interesting mixture between those wanting to make a
 profit from the territory & political radicals wanting to
 experiment
 -- they put together a corporate group called the “Carolina
 Proprietors” (the “Lord Proprietors”)
 -- They get a Charter from King Charles in 1663.
    (hence the name, “Charlestown”)
Carolinas

 Political Experimentation

 -- John Locke is asked to draft a constitution for the
 Carolinas
 -- He wants to do something radical:
    • create a society without a monarch
 … here is what he came up with
                        Elite Body

    Strange
     entity
                        Palatine
   (Cabinet?)            Court                                 “The People”


     Grand            Supreme Court                            Assembly
     Council          AND Congress
                      Passes Laws AND
                                                            Popularly Elected
                      Interprets them
 Small in number
                      Composed of the 8
Propose Legislation   proprietors
                      Corporate Board                        Question:
                      of Directors?
                                                          What Power do you
                                                       think the Assembly had?


 2/11/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                             38
                        Elite Body

    Strange
     entity
                        Palatine
   (Cabinet?)            Court                           “The People”


     Grand            Supreme Court                       Assembly
     Council          AND Congress
                      Passes Laws AND
                                                       Popularly Elected
                      Interprets them
 Small in number                                       Veto Power!
                      Composed of the 8
Propose Legislation   proprietors
                      Corporate Board
                      of Directors?




 2/11/2013               Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                       39
Carolinas

 “The rest of the story”

 -- Proprietors were eventually overthrown
 -- The charter was returned to the King
 -- The Carolinas were divided into north and south and re-
 chartered
 -- Carolina eventually discovered that its climate was good
 for the growing of rice and indigo – single cash crops that
 required immense labor (slavery).
Georgia & New England
Georgia

Social Experimentation

-- founded as a “poor colony” in 1732 by James Oglethorpe
-- he wanted to create a colony only for the “deserving poor”
    • cure them of their flaws
    • banned slavery and liquor

     Government:

          • no legislature!
          • Oglethorpe and his people rant the colony as
          “Trustees”
Georgia

Additional Facts

-- 1752: experiment failed; charter surrendered to the
Crown.
-- Georgia was named after King George II.
New England

 Puritan settlements

 -- 1620: puritans in England create a corporation
 -- obtain a corporate charter from the King for
 Massachusetts Bay
 -- Arrive in 1630 in what is Boston Harbor today.
 -- 11 ships containing 700 employees (“church”)

 Government:

 -- Company president is the Governor
 -- The Board of Directors is the “General Court”
                       Supreme Court & Legislature
New England

The First “Bona Fide” Settlements

 -- The South was settled for profit/politics
 -- The North was settled for Religion

    Settlement composition:
     • Typical ship to Virginia: 114 crew; 72 single men, avg.
     age 20 (labor)
     • Typical ship to Boston: 126 crew; 13 complete
     households; avg. age head of household: 36
     • Virginia was not yet a community; Massachusetts was
     already a neighborhood
New England

 Additional facts

 -- By 1660, New England consisted of 6 colonies:
 Massachusetts's Bay, New Hampshire, New Haven,
 Plymouth, Connecticut and Rhode Island
 New York &
Pennsylvania
New York

  Dutch Settlement

 -- originally settled by the Dutch (The State = New
 Netherlands; City = New Amsterdam)
 -- taken over by England in 1664 by the King’s Brother,
 James, the Duke of York. Renamed New York.
Pennsylvania

   Proprietary Colony

 -- William Penn, 1681 charter
 -- “Absolute ruler as Feudal Lord”
 -- Colony was named after Penn’s father

     Government :
   -- Allowed for an advisory Parliament
   -- Slowly became more dominant as time went on
Pennsylvania

   Society:

 -- Originally intended as a puritan haven;
 -- Became, instead, a culturally diverse area
 -- Population: 1690 = 8,800; 1720 = 37,000
Government in the
    Colonies
Government

-- Virtually all had developed a similar kinds of government
                The Structure of Colonial Governance


                                               Congress or Parliament

 Royal Governor
     England!                      General
                                    Court                       Assembly
Appointed by Crown;
Governor had Veto

                                Supreme Court;                “the people”
                                Upper House
       Executive                                              (property
        Council                                               qualifications)
                                                              (Males)
                      Cabinet
                                                              (Free)

   2/11/2013                    Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                     53
Governance from England


            THE KING                         THE PARLIAMENT




     King’s Veto            Privy Council




                       Colonial Local Government



2/11/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007         54
Mercantilism & Benign
      Neglect
Mercantilism

commercial trading network

-- You could only do commerce inside the empire. That’s
the reason these colonies are set up. An economic network
-- England has a vast merchant marine/superiority on the
high seas. (Her ships trade in goods all over the globe)
(a central repository for trade and distribution through
Europe)
                     Countries can only do business inside the empire




Note: Some of these possessions arrive later in the 1800s
2/11/2013                      Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007          57
Mercantilism

What England wants from America

-- But Britain needs two things:
    • more cash crops coming through her ports.
    • more agricultural produce (land is sparse)
-- America is to supply the agricultural goods that England
needs and to make her ports have more products
Mercantilism

 Setting up the Mercantile Regime

• Shipping Acts (1600s) & Navigation Acts – (1700s).
– must use British ships when you send commerce on the
high seas
-- Also, a list of cash crops that had to be sold through
London.
   • E.g., tobacco couldn’t be sold to Spanish areas in
   Mexico or West Indies (Cuba).
Mercantilism

Setting up the Mercantile Regime

   -- no banks (new institutions)
   -- no arms industry.
   -- no manufacturing
Otherwise, England left us alone

   Benign neglect

   George III will try to change this
Benign Neglect

 -- Freedom, religious diversity, social & political
 experimentation
 -- “Christian Sparta”
 -- still thought of themselves as Englishmen
Successful Societies
Population Growth

 -- Exponential growth; most of it is internal reproduction
     • 4 million by 1776
        (500,000 African American slaves)

     compare:

     • French had 52,000 in all of New France by 1750
Population Growth


    Massachusetts study:
     • Women who married in the late 1700s (1780, 1789)
     in rural mass usually married at age 23 or 24 and could
     expect 7 or 8 live births.

    Broader Emigration

 -- In the later 1700s, English stop emigrating as much
     • Germans & Scots Irish
Economy

 Agrarian Society

-- 95 % agrarian
-- “Subsistence Plus”
-- Not a liquid economy
-- Does not have the new financial institutions
   • America is about a century behind England (and was
   being designed for that purpose)
Economy

Regional Differences
                            • Port towns (sea
       New England          merchants)
                            • Much less slavery
                            (house slavery)
  Rural middle
     north
                     • Diversified crops & grain
                     farming
                     • (different labor needs –
Upper South          very little slavery)

Deep South           • Single-crop plantation
                     model (tobacco);
                     • Slavery

                     • Single-crop plantation
                     model (rice, cotton later);
                     • Slavery
Economy

 Income distribution

-- more flat than in England
-- but there is an elite rich that exists
    • “Gentrified Americans.” These people would be gentry
    in status in England
    (e.g., plantation owners in Virginia -- Jefferson,
    Washington, etc)
-- As a general rule, our gentry were less rich than their
gentry, on average
A Frenchman’s Perspective During the Revolutionary War

What passed for gallantry in one country was commonly known as
adultery in the other. The American coffee was undrinkable and the
food uneatable. And the people were overly familiar [cousins mating?].
The appetite of the American was matched only by his ignorance
concerning the meal before him. Their questions were direct, the
children spoiled, the women graceless and unshapely, yet
uncommonly clean. American women were aged by 20 and decrepit
by 35, whereas a French woman, every one knew, was 29 until she
was 60. It was difficult to distinguish the rich from the poor, and as to
the very poor, there were none. America was a cultural waste land
devoid of conversation.

-- Source: Stacy Schiff
      The Colonies Become a Success


Culture

  -- Mention reading and book sales
  -- Mention Philadelphia and Boston
  -- (population, libraries, colleges, etc)
Government in the
    Colonies
Government


-- Although there were various experiments in government
when the colonies first began, over time, a standard form of
government emerged
                The Structure of Colonial Governance


                                               Congress or Parliament

 Royal Governor
     England!                      General
                                    Court                       Assembly
Appointed by Crown;
Governor had Veto

                                Supreme Court;                “the people”
                                Upper House
       Executive                                              (property
        Council                                               qualifications)
                                                              (Males)
                      Cabinet
                                                              (Free)

   2/11/2013                    Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007                     73
Governance from England


            THE KING                         THE PARLIAMENT




     King’s Veto            Privy Council




                       Colonial Local Government



2/11/2013                 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007         74
Governance from England


               THE KING                         THE PARLIAMENT




     King’s Veto               Privy Council




            Question:
                          Colonial Local Government
  Why does the
executive have two
     vetoes?
2/11/2013                    Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007         75
Why two vetoes?
                  0
                  0
                  0

				
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