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   Eucalyptus Open-Source Cloud
Computing Infrastructure - An Overview

                          Eucalyptus Systems, Inc.

                                      August 2009

     130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000   F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                         An Overview

                                                                     environment. Eucalyptus is compatible with
                                                                     and packaged for multiple distributions of
                                                                     Linux including Ubuntu, RHEL,
E U C A LY P T U S - E l a s t i c U t i l i t y                     OpenSuse, Debian, Fedora, and CentOS
Computing Architecture Linking Your                                  and will work with a variety of hypervisors
Programs To Useful Systems - is an open                              and virtualization technologies.
source software infrastructure for
implementing on-premise clouds on                                    At Eucalyptus Systems, we develop
existing Enterprise IT and service                                   enterprise-grade technology solutions
provider infrastructure. This whitepaper                             that build upon the open-source
explains Eucalyptus from a technical as                              Eucalyptus software core. Eucalyptus
well as a business point of view and as                              technology is quickly becoming the
such is intended to provide both an                                  standard for on-premise cloud
overview of the Eucalyptus architecture                              computing, delivering the cost
and the business value that Eucalyptus                               efficiencies and scalability of clouds with
delivers.                                                            the security and control that comes with
                                                                     an organization’s own IT infrastructure.
Eucalyptus enables hybrid cloud and                                  Enterprise Eucalyptus can provide
private cloud deployments for enterprise                             capabilities such as end-user
data centers and requires no special                                 customization, self-service provisioning,
purpose hardware or reconfiguration.                                  legacy application support, customized
Leveraging Linux and web service                                     “service level agreements” (SLAs), cloud
technologies that commonly exist in                                  monitoring, metering, and support for
today's IT infrastructure, Eucalyptus                                auto-scaling, as a highly available cloud
allows customers quickly and easily to                               platform.
create computing clouds “on premise”
that are tailored to their specific
application needs. At the same time,                                 Technology
Eucalyptus supports the popular AWS                                  Eucalyptus was designed from the
cloud interface allowing these on-premise                            ground up to be easy to install and as
clouds to interact with public clouds                                non-intrusive as possible. The software
using a common programming interface.                                framework is a highly modular
Along with managing virtual machines,                                cooperative set of web services that
the technology supports secure                                       interoperate using standard
virtualization of the network as well as the                         communication protocols. Through this
storage infrastructure within the cloud                              framework it implements virtualized

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              130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
    Systems                                                                                                        An Overview

    machine and storage resources that are                              compatible with Amazon’s AWS (both
    interconnected by an isolated layer-2                               SOAP and REST interfaces are
    network. From a client application and/or                           supported) although other interfaces are
    user perspective, the cloud API is                                  available as customizations.

Figure 1. Conceptual Representation of the Eucalyptus Cloud. CLC is the Cloud Controller which virtualizes the
underlying resources (servers, storage, and network). The Cluster Controllers (CCs) form the front-end for each
cluster defined in the cloud. NCs are the machines on which virtual machine instances run. The Storage Controller
(SC) provides block storage service (similar to Amazon EBS) while the Walrus storage system spans the entire
cloud and is similar to the Amazon S3 in functionality. A Management Platform provides a one-stop console for the
cloud administrator to configure and manage the cloud. The Management Platform also exports various interfaces
for the administrator, project manager, developer, and other users, with customizable levels of access and
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                 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                        An Overview

Eucalyptus Components
Each Eucalyptus service component
                                                                                         N ASA builds a
exposes a well-defined language-                                                          private cloud
agnostic API in the form of a WSDL                                                       computing platform.
document containing both the operations
that the service can perform and the
                                                                      The NASA NEBULA cloud is
input/output data structures. Inter-service
authentication is handled via standard                                built with Eucalyptus at the
WS-Security mechanisms. There are five                                 core. Powered by Eucalyptus
high-level components, each with its own                              for its virtual machine
Web-service interface, that comprise a
                                                                      management, NEBULA cloud
Eucalyptus installation (Figure 1). A brief
description of the components within the                              functions in Software-as-a-
Eucalyptus system follows.                                            Service, Platform-as-a-Service, and
                                                                      Infrastructure-as-a -Service
Cloud Controller (CLC) is the entry-point                             capacities. (
into the cloud for administrators,                                    services)
developers, project managers, and end-
users. The CLC is responsible for
                                                                    connectivity to both the nodes running
querying the node managers for
                                                                    NCs and to the machine running the
information about resources, making high
                                                                    CLC. CCs gather information about a set
level scheduling decisions, and
                                                                    of VMs and schedules VM execution on
implementing them by making requests
                                                                    specific NCs. The CC also manages the
to cluster controllers. The CLC, as shown
                                                                    virtual instance network and participates
in Figure 1, is also the interface to the
                                                                    in the enforcement of SLAs as directed
management platform. In essence, the
                                                                    by the CLC. All nodes served by a single
CLC is responsible for exposing and
                                                                    CC must be in the same broadcast
managing the underlying virtualized
                                                                    domain (Ethernet).
resources (servers, network, and storage)
via a well-defined industry standard API
                                                                    Node Controller (NC) is executed on
(Amazon EC2) and a Web-based user
                                                                    every node that is designated for hosting
                                                                    VM instances. NCs control the execution,
                                                                    inspection, and termination of VM
Cluster Controller (CC) generally                                   instances on the host where it runs,
executes on a cluster front-end machine,                            fetches and cleans up local copies of
or any machine that has network
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             130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                        An Overview

instance images (the kernel, the root file
system, and the ramdisk image), and
queries and controls the system software                                                Ubuntu Enterpr ise
on its node (host OS and the hypervisor)                                                Cloud is powered by
in response to queries and control
requests from the cluster controller. The
Node controller is also responsible for the
management of the virtual network                                     Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud
endpoint.                                                             (UEC) brings Amazon EC2-like
                                                                      infrastructure capabilities inside
Storage Controller (SC) implements
                                                                      the firew al l . The Ubuntu
block-accessed network storage (e.g.
                                                                      Enterprise Cloud is powered by
Amazon Elastic Block Storage -- EBS)
and is capable of interfacing with various                            Eucalyptus. This solution is
storage systems (NFS, iSCSI, etc.). An                                designed to simplify the process
elastic block store is a Linux block device                           of building and managing an
that can be attached to a virtual machine
                                                                      internal cloud for businesses of
but sends disk traffic across the locally
attached network to a remote storage                                  any size, thereby enabling
location. An EBS volume cannot be                                     companies to create their own
shared across instances but does allow a                              self-service infrastructure. The
snap-shot to be created and stored in a
                                                                      next LTS release, Karmic Koala,
central storage system such as Walrus,
the Eucalyptus storage service.                                       is actually named after Eucalyptus.
                                                                      ( h t t p : / / w w w. u b u n t u . c o m /
Walrus (put/get storage) allows users to                              products/whatisubuntu/
store persistent data, organized as                                   serveredition/cloud/UEC)
eventually-consistent buckets and
objects. It allows users to create, delete,
list buckets, put, get, delete objects, and                         storing and accessing both the virtual
set access control policies. Walrus is                              machine images and user data.
interface compatible with Amazon’s S3,
and supports the Amazon Machine                                     Management Platform provides an
Image (AMI) image-management                                        interface to various Eucalyptus services
interface, thus providing a mechanism for                           and modules. These features can include
                                                                    VM management, storage management,

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             130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                         An Overview

user/group management, accounting,
monitoring, SLA definition and                                                                    Lilly builds a
enforcement, cloud-bursting, provisioning,                                                       private cloud
                                                                                                 with Eucalyptus.

Eucalyptus Configuration                                                Pharma giant Lilly, has deployed
With these components, Eucalyptus can                                  Eucalyptus to leverage their
be configured to support a wide variety of
                                                                       existing hardware resources to
infrastructure features and topologies.
                                                                       build an on-premise cloud that
For example, four different networking
modes are supported, each                                              is interface compatible with
corresponding to a different level of                                  Amazon AWS.
security and infrastructure intrusiveness
allowing system administrators to “tune”
each cloud configuration to meet local                                ✓ The modular design of Eucalyptus
                                                                     enables a variety of user interfaces,
policy and management needs. It is also
                                                                     bringing the benefits of virtualization
possible to deploy Eucalyptus to include
                                                                     technology to a broad range of users
different hypervisors and virtualization
                                                                     (admins, developers, managers, hosting
technologies within a unified cloud
                                                                     customers) and provides a platform for
exporting a single API. Thus, a
                                                                     service providers to devise profitable
Eucalyptus cloud can act as a platform
                                                                     consumption-based pricing models.
for unifying a variety of technologies
(each at a potentially different point in its                        ✓ VM and Cloud snapshot features
data center lifecycle) within a single                               provide an exhaustive set of opportunities
cloud.                                                               to improve cluster reliability, template
                                                                     manipulation, and automation. This
                                                                     makes the cloud easy to use, reduces
Benefits                                                              learning time for the average user, and
                                                                     reduces the turn around time for projects.
✓ Eucalyptus enables virtualization of
servers, network, and storage in a secure                            ✓ Leverages existing virtualization
manner, thereby reducing the cost,                                   technology, supports Linux-based
increasing the ease of maintenance, and                              operating systems, and supports multiple
providing user self-service.                                         hypervisors.

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              130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                        An Overview

✓ Ease of cluster/availability-zone                                   streamlining IT management, enabling
management provides the administrator/                                self-service provisioning, implementing
user with a host of opportunities to form                             SLAs, setting up an on-premise cloud
logical groups of servers, storage, and                               leveraging your existing virtualization
networks on a per-project/per-user/per-                               software, planning for a hybrid cloud in
customer basis.                                                       conjunction with Amazon EC2,
                                                                      converting your software infrastructure
✓ The core Eucalyptus framework will
                                                                      to a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
continue to remain open-source. This
                                                                      based model, or simply experimenting
provides the users access to the source
                                                                      with an open-source cloud platform
code as well as an opportunity to
                                                                      that transforms your IT infrastructure
leverage the contributions from a world-
                                                                      into an EC2-like on-premise cloud. Any
wide community of developers.
                                                                      project in your organization, which
✓ The ongoing effort to develop public-                               intends to optimize IT resources and
cloud compatible interfaces is a unique                               deliver improved IT services can use
advantage for users who intend to cloud-                              Eucalyptus.
burst to other public-clouds (also known
                                                                    2. Select an application you want to run
as hybrid clouds -- a private on-premise
                                                                      on your on-premise cloud - Simply
cloud, in this case, a Eucalyptus cloud,
                                                                      choose your favorite application that
working seamlessly with a public cloud).
                                                                      you want to run on a cloud platform.
✓ A vibrant ecosystem built around the                                Web services, database-centric
Amazon AWS can be leveraged. For                                      applications, business intelligence
example, RightScale, CohesiveFT, Zmanda,                              software, productivity tools, data
rPath are just a few of the partners that                             mining applications, media processing,
deliver solutions for Amazon AWS that in                              rendering, numerical analysis, or other
turn work seamlessly with Eucalyptus.                                 mission-critical applications can be
                                                                      deployed on a Eucalyptus cloud.

                                                                    3. Set up a Eucalyptus test-bed to deploy
What To Do Next?                                                      your on-premise cloud - Pick a handful
                                                                      of machines (at least two), choose your
Here is a simple three step process to
                                                                      Linux distribution, download the open-
deploy an on-premise cloud free of cost.
                                                                      source Eucalyptus software and follow
1. Identify a project in your organization                            the simple installation guide on our
  which involves virtualization - data                                website to get your on-premise cloud
  center virtualization, server consolidation,                        up and running. You will instantly see

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             130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W
Systems                                                                                                        An Overview

  how your organization can benefit from                             enterprise deployments. For more
  an EC2-compatible on-premise cloud.                               information about Eucalyptus, please visit
  If you require assistance with the                      
  installation, configuration, optimization,
  or customization of the Eucalyptus
  cloud, experts at Eucalyptus Systems
  are available. Please feel free to
  contact us to help you set up your
  proof of concept.

Focusing on the cost advantage for IT
infrastructure and data center management,
Eucalyptus provides a unique framework
with a variety of interfaces to manage the
resources. The hardware, network, and
storage can easily be consolidated under
the Eucalyptus cloud, hiding the
heterogeneity in hardware, software
stack, policies, and configurations.                                        Contact Us:
Eucalyptus Systems develops enterprise-                                    Phone: 805-845-8000
grade technology solutions built on the
open source Eucalyptus software for                                        Email:
private and hybrid cloud computing.
Originally developed as part of an
academic research project, Eucalyptus
technology is quickly becoming the
standard for on-premise cloud computing,
delivering the cost efficiencies and
scalability of cloud architecture with the                          Eucalyptus and Eucalyptus Systems are
security and control of deploying on an                             pending trademarks in the U.S. All other
organization’s own IT infrastructure.                               trademarks are property of their respective
Eucalyptus Systems’ mission is to                                   owners. Other product or company names
support the open source Eucalyptus                                  mentioned may be trademarks or trade names
platform and to deliver private and hybrid                          of their respective companies.
cloud computing solutions for large-scale

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             130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117   T 805-845-8000    F 805-968-1400   W