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Anti-Spam activities in Japan

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					                                  Apr. 10, 2007


   Japan’s
   Countermeasures
   against Spam
Hiroyo HIRAMATSU, Deputy Director,
Telecommunications Consumer Policy Division,
Telecommunications Bureau,
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications,
Japan
              Present condition of spam in Japan (1)
 1. Media
 2004                     Sent “to mobiles”                             Sent “to PCs”
                                66%                                         34%


          Sent “to
          mobiles”
                                                  Sent “to PCs”
 2006
           13%                                        87%



 2. Content of spam                                                            Adult sites Others
Japan                   Advertisements for matchmaking (dating) sites
 2006
                                                                                        2    6
Jan-Jun
                                            92%                                         %    %


Abroad         Health             Adult sites      Commercial       Finance         Others
 2006                                               products
Jan-Jun         26%                 22%                19%            15%           18%

           Source: Survey by NIPPON INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION, 2004 –2006
                                                                                            1
                   Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (Trends for January 06-June 06)
           Present condition of spam in Japan (2)
1. Sent “to PCs”
2005
                  Sent “from Japan”                       Sent “from abroad”
July-
 Dec                    45.6%                                    54.4%


2006 Sent “from
July- Japan”
                                           Sent “from abroad”
 Dec   8.6%                                       91.4%


                                                                       Sent “from abroad”
2. Sent “to Mobiles”                                                                 1.8%

2005                                  Sent “from Japan”
July-                                       98.2%
 Dec


2006                            Sent “from Japan”                              Sent “from
July-                                 90.2%                                     abroad”
 Dec                                                                             9.8%

              Source: Survey by NIPPON INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION, 2005 –2006
                                                                                        2
          What is “Mobile spam” in Japan?

            SMS (in mobile carrier network)




                             Internet



 Sender                                                      Receiver

“Mobile spam” includes not only SMS, but also e-mails sent to mobiles by
means of the Internet.

                                                                      3
 Five points of MIC’s anti-spam strategy

1. Legal enforcement by Government (updated)

2. Self-regulation by the private sector


3. Developing technologies (updated)

4. Enhancing awareness


5. Seeking international cooperation


                                               4
          Proportion of spam with forged sender identity

The result of a spam survey (4,117 pieces of e-mail analyzed) at the monitor terminals of
the NIPPON INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION from November to
December in 2005 showed that at least 96% of the e-mails sent had a forged sender identity.


  Impossible to
recognize forged
 sender identity
     4% ※




                                                                       Sender
                                                                       identity
                                                                        forged
                                                                         96%


                                                ※ This category may contain spam with a forged sender
                                                 identity using a malicious transmission technique.   5
          2005 Revision of the Anti-spam Law

Introducing direct penalties for malicious spammers
 Direct penalties for malicious spammers who disguise their information such as e-
mail addresses are introduced where we had only a two-step punishment: the first is
an administrative order by the Minister and the second is the imposition of a fine.
Expanding the areas covered by the Anti-spam Law
  Adding to private-use addresses, e-mails sent to business-use addresses are
included.
Widening the scope of prohibited areas to fictitious addresses
 Adding to apparent advertisement e-mails sent to fictitious addresses, blank e-
mails and e-mails apparently from friends that are sent for advertisement are also
banned.
Widening the scope of legitimate refusal of service by ISPs
 The number of cases where ISPs could refuse mail services was limited, but it is
widened where there are legitimate reasons such as causing a log jam of other e-
mails due to the extraordinary large amount of e-mails sent.
                                                                                     6
           2005 Revision of the Anti-spam Law

Direct penalties for malicious spammers based on the Anti-
spam Law

  We have 3 cases to which the direct penalties have been applied.
The details of these cases are summarized below.

    On 25 May, 2006, Chiba Prefectural Police Department arrested a man in Tokyo (age 29)
    who had sent bulk advertising and promotional e-mails under a forged sender heading, and
    Chiba District Court sentenced him to an eight-month prison term. This is the first case to
    which the direct penalty was applied.
    On 3 August, 2006, Osaka Prefectural Police Department arrested a man in Osaka (age
    37) and two of his subordinates, who had sent bulk advertising and promotional e-mails
    under a forged sender heading to mobiles, and sent the case to the public prosecutor.
    On 16 January, 2007, Chiba Prefectural Police Department arrested a man in Tokyo (age
    47) and three of his subordinates, who had sent bulk advertising and promotional e-mails
    under a forged sender heading directed to the PCs of a public-interest corporation, and
    sent the case to the public prosecutor.



                                                                                               7
                         Self-regulation by Private Sector
1. Promotion of Self-regulation by Mobile Carriers
    MIC started to explore the countermeasures against spam together with mobile carriers
 in Nov. 2003, and requested them to adopt uniform countermeasures.
 (1) Suspension of service to spammers
             Mobile carriers      Number of lines suspended
             NTT DoCoMo           4,836 as of 31 December, 2006
             KDDI (au)            42,000 as of 31 August, 2006
             SoftBank Mobile       20,950 as of 4 October, 2006

  (2) Ceiling on the number of e-mails that can be sent from mobiles
             Mobile carriers       Number of e-mails that can be sent from mobiles
             NTT DoCoMo            Less than 1,000 e-mails per line per day
             KDDI (au)             Less than 1,000 e-mails per line per day
             SoftBank Mobile       Less than 1,000 e-mails per line per day

  (3) Ceiling on the number of SMS messages (SMs) that can be sent from mobiles
             Mobile carriers       Number of e-mails that can be sent from mobiles
             NTT DoCoMo           Less than 200 SMs per line per day
             KDDI (au)            Less than 3,000 or 6,000 SMs (depending on subscribers) per line per month
             SoftBank Mobile      Less than 500 SMs per line per day                                   8
                   Self-regulation by Private Sector
2. Exchange of Information on Spammers
     In order to stop spammers’ making contracts from one mobile carrier to another, it is
  important to exchange spammers’ information among mobile carriers to identify spammers
  quickly and utilize the information to screen new subscribers.
     MIC enacted this exchange scheme in Oct. 2005 and it has been launched among
  mobile carriers since Mar. 2006.




                                          NTT DoCoMo


                              Exchange spammers’
                                  information
               KDDI           (address, name, etc.)                  SoftBank Mobile




                                           Willcom (PHS)                                9
                         Self-regulation by Private Sector
3. Spam-Blocking Support Project
     MIC launched the Spam-Blocking Project together with METI in Feb. 2005.
     In this project, MIC confirms the illegality of spam and provides information on illegal spam
 to ISPs. The ISPs can then easily shut out spammers via suspension based on their contracts.

 NIPPON                                                    spam
 INFORMATION                                                                spammer
 COMMUNICATIONS
 ASSOCIATION
                                                                      6. Suspension

                                          ISPs

      Monitors                     5. Provide                                         MIC
                                   information
 1. Analyzes headers               on illegal                                          3. Confirm
 of spam received by               spam                                                illegality
 monitor terminals
 and detects ISPs that                    4. Response
 spammers used.

                                            2. Report                                        10
                  Self-regulation by Private Sector
Trend in the amount of spam sent “from mobiles”
  Remarkably decreased due to the cooperation of mobile carriers and Government.
800




600




400




200




  0
  2003              2004                                           2005              2006               2007




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                      Source: Survey by NIPPON INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION 11
                                             (Sample–based survey using monitoring terminals)
                                                                           Development of Technologies for Anti-spam
Effective Technologies for Anti-spam
                                                                          Sender Authentication Technology
                                                                          Port 25 Blocking

                                                             (%)
Decline in received spam from ISP A compared to other ISPs




                                                             50

                                                             45

                                                             40

                                                             35

                                                             30

                                                             25

                                                             20
                                                                                                 Decreased
                                                                                                 sharply !
                                                             15

                                                                                                                                                                                                       ISP A
                                                             10

                                                                                                                                                                                                       ISP B
                                                              5

                                                              0                                                                                                                                        ISP C
                                                                    21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
                                                                  (September)                    ▲                                            (October)      ▲                                         ISP D
                                                                                                                                                         Almost zero                          (Date)
                                                                         Introduction of Outbound Port 25 Blocking by ISP A

                                                                                                        Source: Survey by NIPPON INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION in 2005 12
                                                                                                                 (Sample-based survey using spam provided to the association by receivers)
Legal Matters concerning Anti-spam Technologies - Conclusion
  Sender Authentication Technologies and Outbound Port 25 Blocking are regarded as
  effective countermeasures against spam.

  Conversely, undertaking these technologies violates the Telecommunications Business
  Law, especially secrecy of communications and prohibition of unfair discrimination in
  providing telecommunications services.

  However, considered as actions committed in the pursuit of lawful business, undertaking
  these technologies is legally acceptable.

  Therefore, these technologies are recommended and their promotion is advisable.




MIC’s Actions
           Clarification of the legality of these technologies
                   http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/eng/Resources/laws/forisp.html

           Promotion of these technologies
                                                                                       13
       JEAG(※) Recommendations                    23 February, 2006


1. Outbound Port 25 Blocking
      JEAG recommends that ISPs introduce Outbound Port 25 Blocking
   by end-March 2007.

2. Authentication Technology
       JEAG recommends that ISPs introduce sender authentication
    technology at the sender side, specifically declaration of their
   authentication information on the domain name server.

3. Mobile
      JEAG recommends that mobile operators and ISPs introduce some
  effective anti-spam measures such as mobile filtering service,
  suspension of usage for spammers, and a limit placed on the number
  of e-mails that can be sent in a certain period.


                                       ※ Japan Email Anti-Abuse Group   14
                        Enhancing Awareness
     Enhancing Understandable, Multi-sided and Effective “Awareness” is
 truly important in the prevention of spam.


1. Enhancing Awareness of Anti-spam Law
     MIC has announced the details of the Anti-spam Law by means of website, etc. in order
  for advertising agencies, etc. to adopt legal ways of advertising, namely, not-spam style.

2. Promoting awareness among Internet users to prevent spam
    MIC has announced the best practice of preventing spam for Internet users by means of
  website, pamphlet, etc.
    In addition, Nippon Information Communications Association provides consumers with
  consultation services by phone on spam.

3. Enhancing Multi-sided Awareness
    MIC has promoted a cooperative approach by consumers groups and ISPs by holding
  conferences.

                                                                                        15
           Seeking International Cooperation
    International cooperation is necessary to combat spam, a borderless
 problem.

(1) Multilateral
     “Seoul-Melbourne Multilateral MOU” (April 2005~)
    (first step to international cooperation on spam)
     LAP (London Action Plan) (November 2004~)
     ITU (WSIS, workshops, etc.), APEC, OECD

(2) Bilateral
     MIC holds several bilateral meetings with U.S., UK, EU, France,
   Germany, Italy, Canada, Australia, etc.
     MIC signed Joint Statements with France (May 2006), UK
   (September 2006), and Canada (October 2006).
                                                                       16

				
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